WorldWideScience

Sample records for social exchange theoretic

  1. Activity systems modeling as a theoretical lens for social exchange studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The social exchange perspective seeks to acknowledge, understand and predict the dynamics of social interactions. Empirical research involving social exchange constructs have grown to be highly technical including confirmatory factor analysis to assess construct distinctiveness and structural equation modeling to assess construct causality. Each study seemingly strives to assess how underlying social exchange theoretic constructs interrelate. Yet despite this methodological depth and resultant explanatory and predictive power, a significant number of studies report findings that, once synthesized, suggest an underlying persistent threat of conceptual or construct validity brought about by a search for epistemological parsimony. Further, it is argued that a methodological approach that embraces inherent complexity such as activity systems modeling facilitates the search for simplified models while not ignoring contextual factors.

  2. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  3. Beyond Social Exchange Theory: A Theoretical Shift for Mentoring Relationships in the Federal Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Chad Majiros

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the principles of social exchange theory associated with the application of mentoring for knowledge transfer in the federal workplace. Specifically, federal workplace is intended to mean any U.S. government agency defined by bureaucratic processes in its operations. Max Weber’s (1930) comparison of a bureaucracy to an iron cage is both classical and paramount to this discussion. Within the iron cage, Weber posed the further the organization perfects its operation, the more...

  4. Beyond Social Exchange Theory: A Theoretical Shift for Mentoring Relationships in the Federal Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Majiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principles of social exchange theory associated with the application of mentoring for knowledge transfer in the federal workplace. Specifically, federal workplace is intended to mean any U.S. government agency defined by bureaucratic processes in its operations. Max Weber’s (1930 comparison of a bureaucracy to an iron cage is both classical and paramount to this discussion. Within the iron cage, Weber posed the further the organization perfects its operation, the more dehumanized the interaction between players (Farganis, 2011. Most important, due to the hierarchical structure and emphasis on career progression associated with the bureaucracy, mentoring relationships are often forged in a knowledge economy. Over time, mastery of skill is supported by a grasp of institutional history and organizational knowledge. Contemporary social work is aptly suited for investigating the barriers to, behavioral elements of, and best practices for fostering effective mentoring relationships in facilitating knowledge transfer between federal employees.

  5. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  6. Conflict and Fairness in Social Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Collett, Jessica L.; Schaefer, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Inherent to all social exchange relations are elements of both cooperation and competition. We develop and test a theoretical model which proposes that the relative salience of the competitive, conflictual elements of exchange mediate and explain the negative effects of negotiated exchange, as compared with reciprocal exchange, on actors'…

  7. SOCIAL SUPPORT AND STRESS - THE ROLE OF SOCIAL-COMPARISON AND SOCIAL-EXCHANGE PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUUNK, BP; HOORENS, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    This paper first presents four different conceptualizations of social support: social integration, satisfying relationships, perceived helpfulness and enacted support. Then, classic and contemporary social comparison theory and social exchange theory are analysed as they are two theoretical

  8. Beyond safety outcomes: An investigation of the impact of safety climate on job satisfaction, employee engagement and turnover using social exchange theory as the theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; McFadden, Anna C; Murphy, Lauren A; Robertson, Michelle M; Cheung, Janelle H; Zohar, Dov

    2016-07-01

    Safety climate, a measure of the degree to which safety is perceived by employees to be a priority in their company, is often implicated as a key factor in the promotion of injury-reducing behavior and safe work environments. Using social exchange theory as a theoretical basis, this study hypothesized that safety climate would be related to employees' job satisfaction, engagement, and turnover rate, highlighting the beneficial effects of safety climate beyond typical safety outcomes. Survey data were collected from 6207 truck drivers from two U.S. trucking companies. The objective turnover rate was collected one year after the survey data collection. Results showed that employees' safety climate perceptions were linked to employees' level of job satisfaction, engagement, and objective turnover rate, thus supporting the application of social exchange theory. Job satisfaction was also a significant mediator between safety climate and the two human resource outcomes (i.e., employee engagement and turnover rate). This study is among the first to assess the impact of safety climate beyond safety outcomes among lone workers (using truck drivers as an exemplar). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Building on focusing and

  10. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and

  11. Social dilemmas as exchange dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a new paradigm to study social dilemmas, called exchange dilemmas. Exchange dilemmas arise from externalities of exchanges with third parties, and many real-life social dilemmas are more accurately modeled as exchange dilemmas rather than prisoner's dilemmas. Bulding on focusing and framing research we predict that defection is omnipresent in exchange dilemmas, which is corroborated in to very different experiments. Our results suggest that the fundamental problem of cooperation in...

  12. Social Assistance: Theoretical Underpinnings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    their own pivotal roles in making for mature and great societies have been ... Need of course comes in its physical and psycho-social gaps with the .... imposed the burden of inequality on an otherwise just man. .... are physically able to work.

  13. Social energy exchange theory for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmontier, Bobbie; Waite, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD), a significant health problem affecting about 19.4% of postpartum women worldwide, may result in long-term cognitive and behavior problems in children, spousal depression, widespread family dysfunction, and chronic and increasingly severe maternal depression. Although current theoretical frameworks provide a rich context for studying PPD,none provides a framework that specifically addresses the dynamic relationship of the inner personal experience with the social and cultural context of PPD. The authors propose the social energy exchange theory for postpartum depression to understand how PPD impedes this dynamic relationship and suggest it as a theoretical framework for the study of interventions that would target intra- and interpersonal disturbance within the social and cultural context.

  14. Psychological contract breach and work performance: Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Chiaburu, D.S.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange

  15. Thermodynamic analysis on theoretical models of cycle combined heat exchange process: The reversible heat exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chenghu; Li, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Concept of reversible heat exchange process as the theoretical model of the cycle combined heat exchanger could be useful to determine thermodynamics characteristics and the limitation values in the isolated heat exchange system. In this study, the classification of the reversible heat exchange processes is presented, and with the numerical method, medium temperature variation tendency and the useful work production and usage in the whole process are investigated by the construction and solution of the mathematical descriptions. Various values of medium inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio are considered to analyze the effects of process parameters on the outlet temperature lift/drop. The maximum process work transferred from the Carnot cycle region to the reverse cycle region is also researched. Moreover, influence of the separating point between different sub-processes on temperature variation profile and the process work production are analyzed. In addition, the heat-exchange-enhancement-factor is defined to study the enhancement effect of the application of the idealized process in the isolated heat exchange system, and the variation degree of this factor with process parameters change is obtained. The research results of this paper can be a theoretical guidance to construct the cycle combined heat exchange process in the practical system. - Highlights: • A theoretical model of Cycle combined heat exchange process is proposed. • The classification of reversible heat exchange process are presented. • Effects of Inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio on process are analyzed. • Process work transmission through the whole process is studied. • Heat-exchange-enhancement-factor can be a criteria to express the application effect of the idealized process.

  16. Why the long hours? Job demands and social exchange dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emilie; Haines, Victor Y; Pelletier, David; Rousseau, Vincent; Marchand, Alain

    2016-11-22

    This study investigates the determinants of long working hours from the perspectives of the demand-control model [Karasek, 1979] and social exchange theory [Blau, 1964; Goulder, 1960]. These two theoretical perspectives are tested to understand why individuals work longer (or shorter) hours. The hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 1,604 employed Canadians. In line with Karasek's model, the results support that high job demands are positively associated with longer work hours. The social exchange perspective would predict a positive association between skill discretion and work hours. This hypothesis was supported for individuals with a higher education degree. Finally, the results support a positive association between active jobs and longer work hours. Our research suggests that job demands and social exchange dynamics need to be considered together in the explanation of longer (or shorter) work hours.

  17. Psychological contract breach and work performance:Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier?

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Chiaburu, Dan S.; Jansen, Paul G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how social exchanges modify the relationship between psychological contract breach and work performance. It aims to present two concurrent hypotheses, based on theoretical interaction effects of social exchanges (conceptualized as social exchange relationships, POS, and trust). Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from a sample of 266 employees in a service sector company in the USA. Regression analysis was used to explore the moder...

  18. Corporate social responsibility audit: Theoretical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Artem Koldovskyi

    2015-01-01

    This paper puts a conceptual framework to outline research for corporate social responsibility (CSR) audit based on the analysis of current CRS literature and audit models as implementation of CSR. It is intended to make clear the phenomena about the relationship between audit, implementation of business ethics principles and corporate governance. However, most studies do not take into account modify CSR audit. This paper reports part of a research we carried out on the theoretical interpreta...

  19. Symmetry in social exchange and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    Symmetry is a relevant concept in sociological theories of exchange. It is rooted in the evolutionary old norm of social reciprocity and is particularly important in social contracts. Symmetry breaking through violation of the norm of reciprocity generates strain in micro-social systems and, above all, in victims of non-symmetric exchange. In this contribution, adverse healthconsequences of symmetry breaking in contractual social exchange are analysed, with a main focus on the employment contract. Scientific evidence is derived from prospective epidemiological studies testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work. Overall, a twofold elevated risk of incident disease is observed in employed men and women who are exposed to non-symmetric exchange. Health risks include coronary heart disease, depression and alcohol dependence, among others. Preliminary results suggest similar effects on health produced by symmetry breaking in other types of social relationships (e.g. partnership, parental roles). These findings underline the importance of symmetry in contractual social exchange for health and well-being.

  20. Corporate social responsibility audit: Theoretical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Koldovskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts a conceptual framework to outline research for corporate social responsibility (CSR audit based on the analysis of current CRS literature and audit models as implementation of CSR. It is intended to make clear the phenomena about the relationship between audit, implementation of business ethics principles and corporate governance. However, most studies do not take into account modify CSR audit. This paper reports part of a research we carried out on the theoretical interpretation of the corporate social responsibility audit. This paper examines the corporate social responsibility audit as a composition of four categories - management system audits, on-site audits, verbal probability expressions (VPE audits and technology audits. The paper concludes suggests to systematize multiple audits so that they can be conduct in three types of audits - environmental management audits covering in-house companies, environmental technology audits of products, and environmental audits of sites, including non-manufacturing sites and non-consolidated subsidiaries.

  1. Theoretical Foundations of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article’s objective is to reveal theoretical foundations of corporate social responsibility. It is argued that the financial crisis and its implications for the global economy have demonstrated once and again that stability of the global market is conditional on the responsible behavior, models of balanced business operation, active management, impact of business (companies on the social life, and regulatory framework. The global corporate social responsibility depends on problems associated with change in the global climate and deepened social inequality. The demand for social policy is tremendous at global and sectoral level. Business needs to be engaged in social issues because a new global social contract between business, government and society is required to ensure long-term stabilization and reproduction of wealth. It has become even more obvious at corporate level. It is shown that the notion of “social” has many meanings, but in the legal context it means the need to account, apart from the literary meaning of this norm, for the social context in which this norm operates. The notion “social” is synonymous to society, referring to not only business operation target but also to the responsibility of a businessman. It is demonstrated that the corporate social responsibility will work effectively and help achieve the organizations’ objectives if it has the parameters of an open system interacting with the environment. At the same time, it should be remembered that in keeping with the system characteristic of modern management theories addressing a company as a homogenous and target-oriented system all the internal processes occurring in one component of this system will have effects for its other components.

  2. Social enterprise: theoretical basis and perespectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Narlev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s the issues of social enterprises have gained particular popularity, practical and applied, as well as scientific significance. For a short period of time - almost half a century - social enterprises have become an integral part of education and academic research; they have turned into factors affecting noticeably the social and economic policy. The formation and development of social enterprises are the consequence of the profound social, demographic, cultural, global and public changes - the result of capitalism and its cornerstone, the enterprise. This contemporary and innovative theory is a natural extension of the strategies for change in societies and the world - both globally, and in response to the non-profit, public and business sectors - in an attempt to solve the topical and important issues of the time. In view of the circumstances given above, the present study aims to study and analyse - in the theoretical plan basis aspects of social enterprises, and on that to draw and systematize their perspectives for development.

  3. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical

  5. Speeding decisions. Social security's information exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kitt; Hastings, Bob

    2011-05-01

    The Social Security Administration has plenty of reasons to streamline its records request process-more than 15 million reasons each year, in fact. That's why it has been pioneering information exchange projects with the private sector, including use of the Nationwide Health Information Network.

  6. Power decreases trust in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilke, Oliver; Reimann, Martin; Cook, Karen S

    2015-10-20

    How does lacking vs. possessing power in a social exchange affect people's trust in their exchange partner? An answer to this question has broad implications for a number of exchange settings in which dependence plays an important role. Here, we report on a series of experiments in which we manipulated participants' power position in terms of structural dependence and observed their trust perceptions and behaviors. Over a variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that more powerful actors place less trust in others than less powerful actors do. Our results contradict predictions by rational actor models, which assume that low-power individuals are able to anticipate that a more powerful exchange partner will place little value on the relationship with them, thus tends to behave opportunistically, and consequently cannot be trusted. Conversely, our results support predictions by motivated cognition theory, which posits that low-power individuals want their exchange partner to be trustworthy and then act according to that desire. Mediation analyses show that, consistent with the motivated cognition account, having low power increases individuals' hope and, in turn, their perceptions of their exchange partners' benevolence, which ultimately leads them to trust.

  7. [Comparison of the effects of exchange forms on social solidarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Misato; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Although social solidarity is an essential component that helps maintaining social order, what produces solidarity and how does it work have not been fully investigated. We conducted an experiment to examine whether experiencing different forms of social exchange produces different levels of solidarity. We compared four forms of social exchange: reciprocal exchange (exchange resources without negotiation), negotiated exchange (with negotiation), pure-generalized exchange (giver can choose who to give) and chain-generalized exchange (giver cannot choose who to give). Two dimensions classify these exchanges: the number of players (two vs. more than two), and involvement of negotiation. Reciprocal and negotiated exchanges occur within dyads, while pure- and chain-generalized exchanges involve three or more players. Only the negotiated exchange involves negotiation process; the other exchanges are purely unilateral giving. Participants played a one-shot social dilemma game (SDG) before and after social exchange session. The more the players cooperated in SDG, the stronger the social solidarity. Results show that the cooperation rate in SDG increased more in the reciprocal, pure- and chain-generalized exchange conditions than that in the negotiated exchange condition, suggesting that social solidarity is facilitated by experiencing social exchange which does not involve negotiation.

  8. Evolutionary Perspectives on the Development of Social Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheese, Brad E.; Graziano, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that apparent incompatibilities between social exchange and developmental perspectives can be resolved by using evolutionary theories to extend the logic of social exchange. Discusses the implications of an expanded evolutionary perspective on social exchange and development, proposing that developmental context and genetic relatedness may…

  9. Exchange coupling interactions in a Fe6 complex: A theoretical study using density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchy, Thomas; Ruiz, Eliseo; Alvarez, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical methods based on density functional theory have been employed to analyze the exchange interactions in an Fe 6 complex. The calculated exchange coupling constants are consistent with an S=5 ground state and agree well with those reported previously for other Fe III polynuclear complexes. Ferromagnetic interactions may appear through exchange pathways formed by two bridging hydroxo or oxo ligands

  10. Social Network Analysis of the Farabi Exchange Program: Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Exchange programs offer communication channels created through student and instructor exchanges; a flow of information takes place through these channels. The Farabi Exchange Program (FEP) is a student and instructor exchange program between institutions of higher education. Through the use of social network analysis and…

  11. Hospital safety climate and safety behavior: A social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancarani, Alessandro; Di Mauro, Carmela; Giammanco, Maria D

    Safety climate is considered beneficial to the improvement of hospital safety outcomes. Nevertheless, the relations between two of its key constituents, namely those stemming from leader-subordinate relations and coworker support for safety, are still to be fully ascertained. This article uses the theoretical lens of Social Exchange Theory to study the joint impact of leader-member exchange in the safety sphere and coworker support for safety on safety-related behavior at the hospital ward level. Social exchange constructs are further related to the existence of a shame-/blame-free environment, seen as a potential antecedent of safety behavior. A cross-sectional study including 166 inpatients in hospital wards belonging to 10 public hospitals in Italy was undertaken to test the hypotheses developed. Hypothesized relations have been analyzed through a fully mediated multilevel structural equation model. This methodology allows studying behavior at the individual level, while keeping into account the heterogeneity among hospital specialties. Results suggest that the linkage between leader support for safety and individual safety behavior is mediated by coworker support on safety issues and by the creation of a shame-free environment. These findings call for the creation of a safety climate in which managerial efforts should be directed not only to the provision of new safety resources and the enforcement of safety rules but also to the encouragement of teamwork and freedom to report errors as ways to foster the capacity of the staff to communicate, share, and learn from each other.

  12. HRM Implementation by Multiple HRM Actors : A Social Exchange Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Nehles, Anna Christina; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we understand HRM implementation as a social process that depends on the social exchange relationships between line managers and both HR professionals and employees. As such, we offer a fresh approach to understanding HRM implementation by concentrating on the social exchange among

  13. Social Capital as Exchange: Its Contribution to Morale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Chan, Raymond Kwok-hong

    2010-01-01

    A way to clarify the measurement of social capital is the differentiation of its bases on opportunity and exchange. Social capital based on opportunity incorporates organizational participation, network strength, trust, helping and continuing relationships, whereas social capital based on exchange consists of the investment and reciprocation of…

  14. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Nina R.

    2012-01-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…

  15. Attractiveness and Cooperation in Social Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that physically more attractive men are less likely to cooperate in social exchange than less attractive men, while physical attractiveness has no effect on women's tendency toward cooperation, with four different experimental games (Prisoner's Dilemma with 99 players, Allocator Choice with 77 players, Faith with 16 players, and Trust with 21 players. Pictures of the game players were taken after they participated in one of the four games, and those pictures were presented to another set of participants (85 raters in Study 1 and 2, 36 raters in Study 3 for attractiveness ratings. Both male and female raters who were unaware of the photographed game players' actual behavior in the game judged the faces of male defectors (who defected in one of the four games to be more attractive than those of male cooperators, but they did not give differential attractiveness ratings to female defectors and female cooperators.

  16. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social eventsunder the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structuralapproach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  17. The structure of social exchange in self-help support groups: development of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L

    2014-03-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics.

  18. Theoretical Issues in Clinical Social Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elizabeth; Wodarski, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews relevant issues in clinical social group practice including group versus individual treatment, group work advantages, approach rationale, group conditions for change, worker role in group, group composition, group practice technique and method, time as group work dimension, pretherapy training, group therapy precautions, and group work…

  19. Theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Vesna M.; Bučalina, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical aspect of the development of 'corporate social responsibility' concept from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, with the focus on the following periods: up to 1950, between 1950 an 1970, from 1970 to 1990 and from 1990 to now. We employed historical approach. We had an insight into the results of theoretical research on 'corporate social responsibility' concept, which were mostly presented in scientific papers in the English language. The ab...

  20. Social power in exchange theories: Homans's and Blau's considerations of the relationship between the power and the exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Mentus, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Since social exchange is one of the key concepts in the social life, the exchange theory can be one of the most important within sociology. Also, another crucial concept to the social reality and social sciences is social power. The theory of social exchange has provided a significant contribution to the study of power, however, this contribution of theorists who belong to exchange paradigm is completely neglected within scientific literature. Therefore, the subject of this paper is social po...

  1. An Activity Theoretical Approach to Social Interaction during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how one study abroad student oriented to social interaction during a semester in Spain. Using an activity theoretical approach, the findings indicate that the student not only viewed social interaction with his Spanish host family and an expert-Spanish-speaking age peer as an opportunity for second language (L2) learning,…

  2. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies. Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed. Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences. Article Type: conceptual paper.

  3. Theoretical Insights for Developing the Concept of Social Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Social technologies continue to grow in popularity in society. Even though the term “social technology” is most commonly used to refer to new social media such as Twitter and Facebook, a redefinition of this concept based on the original definition is needed. Nowadays the concept of “social technology” has several aspects, which destabilize the dominant image of technology. It emphasizes the social sciences and the humanities as shapers of society, reconsiders the strength of “soft technologies.” The aim of this paper is to provide rich insight into the concept of social technologies’ and to develop the meaning of social technologies in information and knowledge society by analysing new needs and application forms of social technologies.Findings—the research contributed to the understanding of the concept of social technologies. Based on the analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature, a theoretical framework for defining social technologies was developed.Research limitations/implications—the research is limited in a few aspects. For a deeper understanding of social technologies and for developing technological perspectives in social sciences a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. In order to generalise the research findings, further research should include different dimensions from the perspective of other sciences.

  4. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Du, Liang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Radiation Medicine and Protection (SRMP), School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Suzhou 215000 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: zhyitan@126.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • This is the first theoretical investigation about T–H exchange in vacuum oil. • T–H isotope exchange is accomplished through two different change mechanisms. • Isotope exchange is selective, molecules with −OH and −COOH exchange more easily. • The methyl and methylene radicals in waste oil were observed by {sup 1}HNMR. - Abstract: The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium–hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T–H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation–dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation–dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T–H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with −OH and −COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T–H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T{sub 2} or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products.

  5. The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn

    2007-09-01

    This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2007 APA.

  6. Performance and turnover intentions: a social exchange perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Boon, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - Prior research has yielded mixed results regarding the relationship between performance and turnover intentions. Drawing from social exchange theory, the purpose of this paper is to propose that the performance-turnover intentions association may be contingent upon individuals' exchange

  7. Social Representation of Intercultural Exchange in an International University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an interpretive investigation into the social representation of intercultural exchange at one of the newly established international universities in Japan. The author conducted quasi-structured interviews with 5 staff members and 22 students to gain insight into their perceptions of intercultural exchange and interactions. The…

  8. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Hoppitt, William J E; Morgan, Thomas J H; Webster, Mike M; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-02-01

    Research into social learning (learning from others) has expanded significantly in recent years, not least because of productive interactions between theoretical and empirical approaches. This has been coupled with a new emphasis on learning strategies, which places social learning within a cognitive decision-making framework. Understanding when, how and why individuals learn from others is a significant challenge, but one that is critical to numerous fields in multiple academic disciplines, including the study of social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using register data to deduce patterns of social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Fredrik

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a novel method for deducting propensities for social exchange between individuals based on the choices they make, and based on factors such as country of origin, sex, school grades and socioeconomic background. The objective here is to disentangle the effect of social ties from the other factors, in order to find patterns of social exchange. This is done through a control-treatment design on analysing available data, where the 'treatment' is similarity of choices between socially connected individuals, and the control is similarity of choices between non-connected individuals. Structural dependencies are controlled for and effects from different classes are pooled through a mix of methods from network and meta-analysis. The method is demonstrated and tested on Swedish register data on students at upper secondary school. The results show that having similar grades is a predictor of social exchange. Also, previous results from Norwegian data are replicated, showing that students cluster based on country of origin.

  10. A social exchange-based model of the antecedents of workplace exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin L; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D; Zagenczyk, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies of coworker dyads to test a theoretical model exploring why and under what circumstances employees are the targets of workplace exclusion. Adopting a victim precipitation perspective, we integrate belongingness and social exchange theories to propose that employees who display workplace incivility are distrusted and therefore are targets of workplace exclusion. Highlighting the importance of the context of the perpetrator-target relationship, we also find support for the postulation that this mediated relationship is strengthened when the target employee is perceived to be a weak exchange partner and is attenuated when he or she is viewed as a valuable exchange partner. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Social Identity and Social Exchange: Identification, Support, and Withdrawal from the Job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective on the psychological relationship between the individual and the organization, we propose that evaluations of the support received from the organization and its representatives, and

  12. Social identity and social exchange: Identification, support, and withdrawal from the job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); R. van Dick (Rolf); S. Tavares (Susanna)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective, we propose that evaluations of support received from the organization and its representatives and organizational identification interact to predict withdrawal from the job. The relationship of

  13. Emotional Intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Deidre L; Brackett, Marc A; Shamosh, Noah A; Kiehl, Kent A; Salovey, Peter; Gray, Jeremy R

    2007-04-15

    When assessed with performance measures, Emotional Intelligence (EI) correlates positively with the quality of social relationships. However, the bases of such correlations are not understood in terms of cognitive and neural information processing mechanisms. We investigated whether a performance measure of EI is related to reasoning about social situations (specifically social exchange reasoning) using versions of the Wason Card Selection Task. In an fMRI study (N=16), higher EI predicted hemodynamic responses during social reasoning in the left frontal polar and left anterior temporal brain regions, even when controlling for responses on a very closely matched task (precautionary reasoning). In a larger behavioral study (N=48), higher EI predicted faster social exchange reasoning, after controlling for precautionary reasoning. The results are the first to directly suggest that EI is mediated in part by mechanisms supporting social reasoning and validate a new approach to investigating EI in terms of more basic information processing mechanisms.

  14. Social support and employee well-being: the conditioning effect of perceived patterns of supportive exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A; Bacharach, Samuel B

    2011-03-01

    Seeking to explain divergent empirical findings regarding the direct effect of social support on well-being, the authors posit that the pattern of supportive exchange (i.e., reciprocal, under-, or over-reciprocating) determines the impact of receiving support on well-being. Findings generated on the basis of longitudinal data collected from a sample of older blue-collar workers support the authors' predictions, indicating that receiving emotional support is associated with enhanced well-being when the pattern of supportive exchange is perceived by an individual as being reciprocal (support received equals support given), with this association being weaker when the exchange of support is perceived as being under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received). Moreover, receiving support was found to adversely affect well-being when the pattern of exchange was perceived as being over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Theoretical Support of Heat Exchanger Experiments of the EU-CONGA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Lopez Jimenez, J.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Palomo, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this report the work carried out within the Work Package 5 of the CONGA project under the auspices of the European Union has been presented. Primarily focused on studying from a theoretical perspective the degradation of heat exchangers to be used in next generation of European reactor containments under accident conditions, and particularly the effect of aerosols, the objective has been met quite satisfactorily and the results can be summed up in three specific items: - A mathematical model of a mechanistic nature that has been encapsulated into a FORTRAN code (HTCFOUL) capable of simulating condensation heat transfer to a horizontal finned tube internally cooled. - A theoretical correlation depending upon non-dimensional variables and numbers which embodies most of the HTCFOUL physics and gives results not beyond 20% of actual HTCFOUL estimates. - A reasonable interpretation of the major measurements and observations obtained in the heat exchanger experiments performed within the Work Package 2 of the CONGA project. (Author) 55 refs

  16. Exploring neoliberal social-reproduction: a working theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a working theoretical framework to explain and explore processes of neoliberal social reproduction. I focus on the interplay between neoliberal political-economic discourses and practices, contemporary Western media-culture, and individual agency. I make the case that research concerned with the hegemony of neoliberalism and its effects on culture and subjectivity needs to take an interdisciplinary approach that rejects the longstanding structure and agency dichotomy. To...

  17. Weak interactions and exchange currents in light nuclei. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, P.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meson exchange currents in the nuclear weak interaction is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hypothesis of current algebra and partial conservation of axial current are used, through Adler-Dothan theorem, to derive the one pion exchange correction to the impulse approximation. Calculations are performed for partial transitions in the 1p-shell nuclei and in 16 O. The corrections are generally small except for the (0 + →0 - ) transition in 16 O where the large correction to the time component of the axial current can show up, due to selection rules. The measurement of the muon capture rate for this transition is described and an interpretation in term of exchange currents is proposed [fr

  18. Theoretical evaluation on the impact of heat exchanger in Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ke; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established based on thermodynamic theory. • Four Cases about pressure loss and effectiveness of heat exchanger are investigated. • The impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive. • The impact of heat exchanger effectiveness in charge process on system is stronger. • Pressure loss in heat exchanger affects the change trends of system efficiency. - Abstract: Advanced Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (AA-CAES) is a large-scale energy storage system based on gas turbine technology and thermal energy storage (TES). Electrical energy can be converted into internal energy of air and heat energy in TES during the charge process, while reverse energy conversion proceeds during discharge process. The performance of AA-CAES system requires further improvement in order to increase efficiency. In this paper, a multi-stage AA-CAES system model is established, and the influence of effectiveness and pressure loss in heat exchanger on energy conversion and utilization efficiency of AA-CAES system is analyzed theoretically based on the theory of thermodynamics. Four Cases about effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are investigated and compared with each other. It is found that effectiveness and pressure loss of heat exchanger are directly related to energy conversion and utilization in AA-CAES system. System efficiency changes with the variation of heat exchanger effectiveness and the impact of pressure loss on conversion of heat energy in TES is more sensitive than that of internal energy of air. Pressure loss can cause the complexity of system efficiency change. With appropriate selection of the values of heat exchanger effectiveness for both charge and discharge processes, an AA-CAES system with a higher efficiency could be expected

  19. Theoretical Guidelines for the Utilization of Instructional Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker YAKIN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available interaction and communication technologies. Indeed, there has been an emerging movement in the interaction and communication technologies. More specifically, the growth of Web 2.0 technologies has acted as a catalyst for change in the disciplines of education. The social networking websites have gained popularity in recent years; therefore, many research studies have been conducted to explain how the use of social networking websites for instructional purposes. For the best practices, it is essential to understand theories associated with social networking studies because related theories for any subject may provide insights and guideline for professionals and researchers. This theoretical paper was designed to offer a road map through the literature in relation to the utilization of social networking websites by presenting main understandings of theories associated with social networking. The Uses and Gratification Theory, social network theory, connectives, and constructivism were selected to serve as a basis for designing social networking studies regarding instructional purposes. Moreover, common attributes of the theories and specific application areas were also discussed. This paper contributes to this emerging movement by explaining the role of these theories for researchers and practitioners to find ways to beneficially integrate them into their future research endeavors

  20. The Socialization of Newcomers into Organizations: Integrating Learning and Social Exchange Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Russell F.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional views of socialization focus primarily on the passive learning by the newcomer of the expectations of the organization. Theorizing and research on cognitive learning and social exchange indicate that the socialization process is vastly more complex. This paper views socialization through the lenses of cognitive learning and social…

  1. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  2. Gender and Social Exchange: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    2002-01-01

    Uses a developmental perspective on social interaction to trace gender differences in adulthood to relationship patterns that emerge in childhood. Summarizes results of: (1) experimental studies and naturalistic studies of workplace interaction in mixed-sex task-oriented groups; (2) same-sex interaction; (3) adult friendship; and (4) heterosexual…

  3. Theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and exchange interactions in Cu(II)Pc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, A. J.; Harrison, N. M.; Wang, Hai; Wu, Zhenlin; Gardener, Jules; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a copper(II)phthalocyanine (Cu(II)Pc) crystal as a one-dimensional molecular chain using hybrid exchange density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the intermolecular exchange interactions are also calculated in a molecular dimer using Green's function perturbation theory (GFPT) to illustrate the underlying physics. We find that the exchange interactions depend strongly on the stacking angle, but weakly on the sliding angle (defined in the text). The hybrid DFT calculations also provide an insight into the electronic structure of the Cu(II)Pc molecular chain and demonstrate that on-site electron correlations have a significant effect on the nature of the ground state, the band gap and magnetic excitations. The exchange interactions predicted by our DFT calculations and GFPT calculations agree qualitatively with the recent experimental results on newly found η-Cu(II)Pc and the previous results for the α- and β-phases. This work provides a reliable theoretical basis for the further application of Cu(II)Pc to molecular spintronics and organic-based quantum information processing.

  4. Explaining employment relationships with social exchange and job embeddedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Peter W; Tsui, Anne S; Wu, Joshua B; Lee, Thomas W; Zhang, Ann Yan; Fu, Ping Ping; Li, Lan

    2009-03-01

    The research reported in this article clarifies how employee-organization relationships (EORs) work. Specifically, the authors tested whether social exchange and job embeddedness mediate how mutual-investment (whereby employers offer high inducements to employees for their high contributions) and over-investment (high inducements without corresponding high expected contributions) EOR approaches, which are based on Tsui, Pearce, Porter, and Tripoli's (1997) framework, affect quit propensity and organizational commitment. Two studies evaluated these intervening mechanisms. Study 1 surveyed 953 Chinese managers attending part-time master of business administration (MBA) programs in China, whereas Study 2 collected cross-sectional and longitudinal data from 526 Chinese middle managers in 41 firms. Standard and multilevel causal modeling techniques affirmed that social exchange and job embeddedness translate EOR influence. A second multilevel test using lagged outcome measures further established that job embeddedness mediates long-term EOR effects over 18 months. These findings corroborate prevailing views that social exchange explains how mutual- and over-investment EORs motivate greater workforce commitment and loyalty. This study enriches EOR perspectives by identifying job embeddedness as another mediator that is more enduring than social exchange. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Social Exchange in Dutch Schools for Vocational Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maren; Karsten, Sjoerd; Oort, Frans J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the role of trust as a mediator in social exchange between teachers and their school, particularly between perceived procedural justice and perceived organizational support, on the one hand, and teachers' affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour, on the other hand. A model was developed…

  6. Communication and Social Exchange Processes in Community Theater Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…

  7. Reconsidering the roles of gratitude and indebtedness in social exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, C.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2018-01-01

    Receiving favors is often a mixed blessing and commonly triggers two emotions: the positive emotion gratitude and negative emotion indebtedness. In three studies we examined the hypothesis that gratitude and indebtedness have distinct functions in social exchange. Contrary to current views, we

  8. Positive Social Support, Negative Social Exchanges, and Suicidal Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…

  9. Hemodynamic signals of mixed messages during a social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Nancy L; Green, Steven; Morris, James P; Kragel, Philip; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Bulik, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S

    2011-06-22

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize hemodynamic activation patterns recruited when the participants viewed mixed social communicative messages during a common interpersonal exchange. Mixed messages were defined as conflicting sequences of biological motion and facial affect signals that are unexpected within a particular social context (e.g. observing the reception of a gift). Across four social vignettes, valenced facial expressions were crossed with rejecting and accepting gestures in a virtual avatar responding to presentation of a gift from the participant. The results indicate that conflicting facial affect and gesture activated superior temporal sulcus, a region implicated in expectancy violations, as well as inferior frontal gyrus and putamen. Scenarios conveying rejection differentially activated the insula and putamen, regions implicated in embodied cognition, and motivated learning, as well as frontoparietal cortex. Characterizing how meaning is inferred from integration of conflicting nonverbal communicative cues is essential to understand nuances and complexities of human exchange.

  10. Remembering past exchanges: Apes fail to use social cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lewis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates can remember events from their distant past. Furthermore, they can distinguish between very similar events by the process of binding. So far, research into long-term memory and binding has focused on the binding of contextual information, such as spatial surroundings. As such, we aimed to investigate if apes can bind and retrieve other types of information, specifically, social information. We presented great apes with three different object types; they learnt to exchange (via reinforcement one of the object types with one experimenter and another type with a second, different, experimenter. The remaining object type was not reinforced by either of the experimenters. After a delay of two or ten weeks, we assessed the apes’ memory of which object type was exchanged with which experimenter. Additionally, we introduced a new experimenter to see if the apes could infer by exclusion that the remaining object type should be exchanged with the new experimenter. The apes successfully remembered which object types were exchanged, but failed to distinguish which object type was exchanged with whom. This failure to bind an object type to a specific person may have resulted from the apes learning to use a rule based on recency, as opposed to learning a conditional rule involving social information. However, results from a second experiment suggested they fail to incorporate social information even when no other information could guide successful performance. Our findings are consistent with research showing long-term memory in primates, but suggest that social information may not be bound in memory as readily as spatial or contextual information.

  11. Study of hydrogen mobility by hydrogen-deuterium exchange. II. Theoretical kinetic study in alkyl and amino-alkyl pyrimidines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompon, Alain

    1975-01-01

    Alkyl groups bound to the pyrimidine ring can be deuterium substituted on the carbon adjacent to the ring, in acidic D 2 O; kinetic equations corresponding to various exchange mechanism hypothesis are established. It is shown that theoretical and experimental results can be compared in order to precise the mechanism and to measure the characteristic parameters of the exchange reaction [fr

  12. Ideology and community social psychology: theoretical considerations and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Marisela

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.

  13. Theoretical study of ferromagnetic resonance in exchange - coupled magnetic / nonmagnetic / magnetic multilayer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdogan, K.; Oezdemir, M.; Yalcin, O.; Aktas, B.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion relation on ferromagnetic films was calculation by using torque equation of motion with a damping term. The total energy including zeeman, demagnetizing and anisotropy energy terms was used to get ferromagnetic resonance frequency for both uniform and higher order spin wave modes. In antiferromagnetic films, the torque equation of motion for each sub-lattice were written to derive an expression for the dispersion relation. The magnetic trilayer system under investigation consist of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a nonmagnetic layer. The dispersion relation of magnetic/nonmagnetic/magnetic three layers is calculated by using Landau-Lifshitz dynamic equation of motion for the magnetization with interlayer exchange energy. As for the exchange-coupled resonance of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), the theoretical study has been calculated for both symmetrical and asymmetrical structures. In this systems, the exchange-coupling parameter A 12 between neighboring layers was used to get resonance fields as a function of the angle between the magnetization vectors of each magnetic layers

  14. Explaining Large-N Cooperation: Generalized Social Trust and the Social Exchange Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new argument that links generalized social trust and collective action in situations with a large number of actors, who do not have specific information on each other. Generalized social trust enhances large-N cooperation through the social exchange heuristic, which...... stimulate conditional cooperation in social dilemmas. Using data from a survey in four countries and recycling behavior as an indicator of collective action, this explanation is tested with individual level data. While the relationship between generalized social trust and large-N collective action is often...... hypothesized, there is scant micro level evidence as it has mainly been tested at the macro level. The results show that people holding generalized social trust cooperate more readily in large-N dilemmas, and that they most likely do so because of the social exchange heuristic....

  15. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  16. Social preferences influence the short-term exchange of social grooming among male bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbeck, Martin; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2015-03-01

    The emotional mediation hypothesis proposes a mediating role of social bonds in the exchange of services. This model predicts that the form of short-term exchange of services depends on the relationship between the individuals involved. Here, we test this prediction in the exchange of grooming among males in a wild bonobo community for which close relatedness could be excluded. As bonobo males hardly engage in food sharing or agonistic support, grooming is mainly exchanged for grooming. While overall grooming, both given and received, correlates across dyads and within sessions, the form of grooming exchange within a given session differs according to dyadic association preferences. Individuals with a higher tendency to associate, ergo more familiar individuals, exhibit larger time differences and reduced reciprocation in consecutive grooming bouts than less familiar individuals. These results support the idea that emotional components are involved in the exchange of services between unrelated individuals.

  17. Reconsidering the roles of gratitude and indebtedness in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cong; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-06-01

    Receiving favors is often a mixed blessing and commonly triggers two emotions: the positive emotion gratitude and negative emotion indebtedness. In three studies, we examined the hypothesis that gratitude and indebtedness have distinct functions in social exchange. Contrary to current views, we believe that the function of gratitude does not primarily reside in facilitating social exchange. Instead, we propose that indebtedness motivates people to repay favours received, and thus accounts for most of the prosocial effects commonly attributed to gratitude. On the other hand consistent with current views, we believe that gratitude signals the potential for developing a relationship and fosters proximity seeking. Supporting these assumptions, in Study 1 we found that gratitude and indebtedness were associated with aspects of the favour that reflect the concern for relationship and the level of inequity. Studies 2 and 3 provided causal support for these relations, and revealed the unique associations between gratitude and the motivation of proximity seeking, and between indebtedness and the motivation to reciprocate. We argue that this functional distinction has escaped research attention as gratitude and indebtedness are naturally correlated because they stem from the same eliciting event. To appreciate this functional distinction, both emotions should be studied simultaneously in the context of social exchange.

  18. Knowledge sharing in virtual communities: A social exchange theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The author tried to identify the knowledge sharing behaviors on the internet, using structural equation modeling methods, proposing a model based on social exchange theory in which share willingness, trust, reciprocity, altruism tended to have impact on people’s knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: We presented an empirical research which integrated social exchange theory and structural equation modeling methods to analyze several important factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. Findings: We analyzed the knowledge sharing behaviors in virtual communities. We found that members’ altruism can not predict knowledge sharing behaviors. We also found that members’ sharing willingness is the most important factor on virtual community knowledge sharing behaviors compared with trust, reciprocity and altruism. Originality/value: From the perspective of social exchange theory, we did empirical test and verified the proposed research model by using structural equation modeling methods. Our finding can help recognize people’s incentive about knowledge sharing.

  19. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  20. Theoretical Insights into Preconception Social Conditions and Perinatal Health: The Role of Place and Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Recent efforts to explain the stark social and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes that have persisted for decades in the U.S. have looked beyond prenatal factors, to explore preconception social conditions that may influence perinatal health via dysregulation of physiologic processes. The extant evidence supporting this link however remains limited, both due to a lack of data and theory. To address the latter, this manuscript generates a structured set of theoretical insights that further develop the link between two preconception social conditions - place and social relationships - and perinatal health. The insights propose the following. necessarily encompasses all social contexts to which females are exposed from infancy through young adulthood; encompasses a variety of related exposures that, when possible, should be jointly considered; and may compound the effect of poverty-in childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood-on perinatal health. Social relationships: span relationships from early life through adulthood, and extend to intergenerational associations; often involve (or induce) major changes in the lives of individuals and should be examined with an emphasis on the developmental stage in which the change occurred; and necessarily encompass a lack of social integration, or, social isolation. We also identify potential biological and social-structural mechanisms linking these preconception social conditions to perinatal health, and conclude by identifying promising directions for future research.

  1. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  2. SOCIAL MEDIA – A THEORETICAL CORRELATION WITH SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Rita O'Brien

    2017-01-01

    The present paper envisages to understand the concept of social media in sociological context. It introduces the meaning and types of social media as well as brings about some clarity with regard to the grey area of whether somethings could be categorized as social media or not. Although social media is a relatively new concept, with its presence being felt in every sphere of our lives, its inter-relation with society can somehow be traced through the theories and writings of social psycholo...

  3. SOCIAL MEDIA – A THEORETICAL CORRELATION WITH SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Rita O'Brien

    2016-01-01

    The present paper envisages to understand the concept of social media in sociological context. It introduces the meaning and types of social media as well as brings about some clarity with regard to the grey area of whether some things could be categorized as social media or not. Although social media is a relatively new concept, with its presence being felt in every sphere of our lives, its inter-relation with society can somehow be traced through the theories and writings of social psychol...

  4. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF NEW POWER CYCLES AND ADVANCED FALLING FILM HEAT EXCHANGERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsalan Razani; Kwang J. Kim

    2001-01-01

    The final report for the DOE/UNM grant number DE-FG26-98FT40148 discusses the accomplishments of both the theoretical analysis of advanced power cycles and experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers. This final report also includes the progress report for the third year (period of October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). Four new cycles were studied and two cycles were analyzed in detail based on the second law of thermodynamics. The first cycle uses a triple combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas), an intermediate cycle (Rankine/steam), and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia). This cycle can produce high efficiency and reduces the irreversibility of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSC) of conventional combined power cycles. The effect of important system parameters on the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle under reasonable practical constraints was evaluated. The second cycle is a combined cycle, which consists of a topping cycle (Brayton/gas) and a bottoming cycle (Rankine/ammonia) with integrated compressor inlet air cooling. This innovative cycle can produce high power and efficiency. This cycle is also analyzed and optimized based on the second the second law to obtain the irreversibility distribution of all components in the cycle. The results of the studies have been published in peer reviewed journals and ASME conference proceeding. Experimental investigation of advanced falling film heat exchangers was conducted to find effective additives for steam condensation. Four additives have been selected and tested in a horizontal tube steam condensation facility. It has been observed that heat transfer additives have been shown to be an effective way to increase the efficiency of conventional tube bundle condenser heat exchangers. This increased condensation rate is due to the creation of a disturbance in the liquid condensate surround the film. The heat transfer through such a film has

  6. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-05-11

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  7. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Sorour, Sameh; Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  8. Influence of social and work exchange relationships on organizational citizenship behavior, The

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Pablo; S. Lawrence, Barbara; M. Bentler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies explain situational antecedents of OCB using social exchange theory. However, the effects of factors such as perceptions of job characteristics on OCB seem to require a different explanatory mechanism. We propose that these effects can be explained through a new exchange relationship that we call work exchange. We develop a theory for the situational antecedents of OCB that includes economic, work, and social exchange relationships. The theory is tested using structural equat...

  9. Social security in developing countries : some theoretical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social security and criticizes the ILO definition of the concept as too limited to analyse non-Western social security systems. It develops an alternative definition which includes, firstly, the protection by society of individuals or social groups against a fall

  10. Social work and power : theoretical background for research

    OpenAIRE

    Švedaitė-Sakalauskė, Birutė; Buzaitytė-Kašalynienė, Jolita

    2014-01-01

    Power and social work are concurrent, because every help (every relation) are always related with power and dependency. A research of phenomenon of power in social work almost hasn’t existed in Lithuania till now. The research could be unfolded on three levels: micro – the level of social work intervention, mezzo – the level of organization of social work, and macro – the level of power of social work profession in the society. The paper aims to discuss fundamental concepts and several theore...

  11. Theoretical and hypothetical framework for research on political socialization process in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to sum up theoretical and hypothetical framework for empirical research of political socialization process in the family in Serbian society nowadays. The investigation focuses on two theoretical concepts, political socialization and generation as a sociological paradigm. Two methodological approaches are applied. First is interactive model of political socialization, based on analysis of relations between individual who is socialized, agents of political socialization, dominant political system and peripheral social sub-systems. The second one tests interactive relation of generation, lifecycle and effects of epoch. It is suitable for definition of certain historical periods with active role of political.

  12. Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R

    2013-06-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones.

  13. Explaining Large-N Cooperation: Generalized Social Trust and the Social Exchange Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    This paper argues that generalized social trust enhances collective action in situations with a large number of actors, who do not have specific information on each other. This effect comes about through the social exchange heuristic, which stimulate conditional cooperation in social dilemmas....... This paper tests this explanation in an individual level test. While the relationship between generalized social trust and large-N collective action is often hypothesized, there is scant micro level evidence as it has mainly been tested at the macro level. Using recycling behavior as an indicator...... of collective action, the paper shows that people holding generalized social trust cooperate more readily in large-N dilemmas. These results are based on a unique survey of respondents in four countries....

  14. Social self-esteem: theoretical and methodological approaches to research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usova E.N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of the analysis of the phenomenon of the social well-being of patients with chronic diseases from the standpoint of the sociology of medicine is proved. Modern approaches to the study of social well-being within the framework of sociological and psychological approaches are singled out. The importance of studying the levels of social well-being (institutional and individual is presented to explain the individual's chosen strategies of behavior in the disease situation. The vectors of operationalization of the category of social well-being within the sociology of medicine are indicated.

  15. Corporate Social Responsability: Selected Theoretical and Empirical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowska Janina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of Corporate social responsibility (CSR is still stirring debate over how it should be interpreted, what models of CSR dominate in business practice, and consequences of enterprises’ engagement into socially responsible actions. While business practice demonstrates that companies voluntarily include social and environmental issues into their activities and into their relations with stakeholders, it is hard to determine what intentions motivate them to do so. This paper analyses selected aspects of discussions focused on the notion of CSR and identifies controversies over the standardisation of ethical and social business activities.

  16. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong eCao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc. may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships, monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people’s appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals’ perception of others’ as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflict noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase. As compensation one partner give money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner and the other bear the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner. Results showed that the individuals’ preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing harm affected their relationship (exchange versus communal with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in

  17. Can money heal all wounds? Social exchange norm modulates the preference for monetary versus social compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yulong; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Compensation is a kind of pro-social behavior that can restore a social relationship jeopardized by interpersonal transgression. The effectiveness of a certain compensation strategy (e.g., repaying money, sharing loss, etc.) may vary as a function of the social norm/relationship. Previous studies have shown that two types of norms (or relationships), monetary/exchange and social/communal, differentially characterize people's appraisal of and response to social exchanges. In this study, we investigated how individual differences in preference for these norms affect individuals' perception of others' as well as the selection of their own reciprocal behaviors. In a two-phase experiment with interpersonal transgression, we asked the participant to perform a dot-estimation task with two partners who occasionally and unintentionally inflicted noise stimulation upon the participant (first phase). As compensation one partner gave money to the participant 80% of the time (the monetary partner) and the other bore the noise for the participant 80% of the time (the social partner). Results showed that the individuals' preference for compensation (repaying money versus bearing noise) affected their relationship (exchange versus communal) with the partners adopting different compensation strategies: participants tended to form communal relationships and felt closer to the partner whose compensation strategy matched their own preference. The participants could be differentiated into a social group, who tended to form communal relationship with the social partner, and a monetary group, who tended to form communal relationship with the monetary partner. In the second phase of the experiment, when the participants became transgressors and were asked to compensate for their transgression with money, the social group offered more compensation to the social partners than to the monetary partners, while the monetary group compensated less than the social group in general and showed no

  18. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Theoretical Foundations for Enhancing Social Connectedness in Online Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Bishop, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Group social structure provides a comfortable and predictable context for interaction in learning environments. Students in face-to-face learning environments process social information about others in order to assess traits, predict behaviors, and determine qualifications for assuming particular responsibilities within a group. In online learning…

  20. Theoretical study of inspiratory flow waveforms during mechanical ventilation on pulmonary blood flow and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, S C; Bidani, A; Ghorbel, F; Zwischenberger, J B; Clark, J W

    1999-08-01

    A lumped two-compartment mathematical model of respiratory mechanics incorporating gas exchange and pulmonary circulation is utilized to analyze the effects of square, descending and ascending inspiratory flow waveforms during mechanical ventilation. The effects on alveolar volume variation, alveolar pressure, airway pressure, gas exchange rate, and expired gas species concentration are evaluated. Advantages in ventilation employing a certain inspiratory flow profile are offset by corresponding reduction in perfusion rates, leading to marginal effects on net gas exchange rates. The descending profile provides better CO2 exchange, whereas the ascending profile is more advantageous for O2 exchange. Regional disparities in airway/lung properties create maldistribution of ventilation and a concomitant inequality in regional alveolar gas composition and gas exchange rates. When minute ventilation is maintained constant, for identical time constant disparities, inequalities in compliance yield pronounced effects on net gas exchange rates at low frequencies, whereas the adverse effects of inequalities in resistance are more pronounced at higher frequencies. Reduction in expiratory air flow (via increased airway resistance) reduces the magnitude of upstroke slope of capnogram and oxigram time courses without significantly affecting end-tidal expired gas compositions, whereas alterations in mechanical factors that result in increased gas exchanges rates yield increases in CO2 and decreases in O2 end-tidal composition values. The model provides a template for assessing the dynamics of cardiopulmonary interactions during mechanical ventilation by combining concurrent descriptions of ventilation, capillary perfusion, and gas exchange. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. (Re)integrating Simmel in Contemporary Social Exchange: The Effect of Nonpartisans on Relational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of neutral third parties in both formal and informal exchange processes, social exchange theory has yet to consider the effect of nonpartisans on important cognitive and affective outcomes of exchange. This research integrates Simmel's conceptualization of small groups and nonpartisans with contemporary theory and…

  2. Beyond the Four Ps: A Theoretical Explication and Research Agenda for Social Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sego, Trina

    Advocates of social marketing in the 1970s rarely went beyond discussion of the marketing 4Ps (product, place, promotion, and price) and their application to case studies. After two decades of research on social marketing, some misunderstanding of the approach persists, and a substantial theoretical base for social marketing has not been…

  3. Z-boson-exchange contributions to the luminosity measurements at LEP and c.m.s.-energy-dependent theoretical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, W.; Martinez, M.; Pietrzyk, B.

    1995-02-01

    The precision of the calculation of Z-boson-exchange contributions to the luminosity measurements at LEP is studied for both the first and second generation of LEP luminosity detectors. It is shown that the theoretical errors associated with these contributions are sufficiently small so that the high-precision measurements at LEP, based on the second generation of luminosity detectors, are not limited. The same is true for the c.m.s.-energy-dependent theoretical errors of the Z line-shape formulae. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 7 tabs

  4. Theoretical Underpinnings of the Other Social Effects Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunning, C. M; Durden, Susan

    2007-01-01

    ...) account, well-being is a multi-faceted concept grounded in human needs that include distributive justice, social connectedness, equality, and health and safety considerations, in addition to economic well-being factors...

  5. Adaptive supervision: a theoretical model for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latting, J E

    1986-01-01

    Two models of leadership styles are prominent in the management field: Blake and Mouton's managerial Grid and Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model. Much of the research on supervisory styles in social work has been based on the former. A recent public debate between the two sets of theorists suggests that both have strengths and limitations. Accordingly, an adaptive model of social work supervision that combines elements of both theories is proposed.

  6. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A CROSS-FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuğrul OĞULATA

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cross-flow plate type heat exchanger has been investigated because of its effective use in waste heat recovery systems. For this purpose, a heat regain system has been investigated and manufactured in laboratory conditions. Manufactured heat exchanger has been tested with an applicable experimental set up and temperatures, velocity of the air and the pressure losses occuring in the system have been measured and the efficiency of the system has been determined. The irreversibility of heat exchanger has been taken into consideration while the design of heat exchanger is being performed. So minimum entropy generation number has been analysied with respect to second law of thermodynamics in cross-flow heat exchanger. The minimum entropy generation number depends on parameters called optimum flow path length, dimensionless mass velocity and dimensionless heat transfer area. Variations of entropy generation number with these parameters have been analysied and introduced their graphics with their comments.

  7. Longitudinal Research in Social Science: Some Theoretical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Burch

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Every advance carries with it potential problems, and longitudinal analysis is no exception. This paper focuses on the problems related to the massive amounts of data generated by longitudinal surveys. It is argued that a proliferation of data may be to the good but it will not necessarily lead to better scientific knowledge. Most demographers think the logical positivist way that theory arises out of empirical generalisations, but massive empirical investigations have only led to disappointing theoretical outcomes in demography. This paper discusses one way out of this impasse - to adopt a different view of theory, a model-based view of science. Theoretical models based on empirical generalisation should become the main representational device in science.

  8. Positive and Negative Social Exchanges Experienced by Fathers and Mothers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Emily J.; Dubois, Lindsay; Hartley, Sigan L.

    2018-01-01

    When faced with child-related challenges associated with autism spectrum disorder, positive and negative social exchanges may be critical to parents' psychological well-being. This study examined the types and sources of positive and negative social exchanges reported by mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder and their…

  9. Daily Social Exchanges and Affect in Middle and Later Adulthood: The Impact of Loneliness and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alissa; Bergeman, C. S.; Scott, Stacey B.

    2012-01-01

    Although daily social exchanges are important for well-being, it is unclear how different types of exchanges affect daily well-being, as well as which factors influence the way in which individuals react to their daily social encounters. The present study included a sample of 705 adults aged 31 to 91, and using Multilevel Modeling analyses…

  10. Training Is an Investment with Return in Temporary Workers: A Social Exchange Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Sobral, Filipa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a social exchange relationship between temporary workers and organizations is possible. The authors aim to consider whether, when training is perceived by an employee as an organizational practice that promotes his or her employability, this entails a social exchange relationship.…

  11. 38 CFR 3.201 - Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.201 Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of evidence; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs. 3.201 Section 3.201 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans...

  12. A Social-Cognitive Theoretical Framework for Examining Music Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine a diverse range of research literature to provide a social-cognitive theoretical framework as a foundation for definition of identity construction in the music teacher education program. The review of literature may reveal a theoretical framework based around tenets of commonly studied constructs in the…

  13. Theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a Cu(II)Pc one-dimensional chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, A. J.; Harrison, N. M.

    2011-07-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a copper(II)phthalocyanine [Cu(II)Pc] crystal as a one-dimensional molecular chain using hybrid exchange density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the intermolecular exchange interactions are also calculated in a molecular dimer using Green’s function perturbation theory (GFPT) to illustrate the underlying physics. We find that the exchange interactions depend strongly on the stacking angle, but weakly on the sliding angle (defined in the text). The hybrid DFT calculations also provide an insight into the electronic structure of the Cu(II)Pc molecular chain and demonstrate that on-site electron correlations have a significant effect on the nature of the ground state, the band gap, and magnetic excitations. The exchange interactions predicted by our DFT calculations and GFPT calculations agree qualitatively with the recent experimental results on newly found η-Cu(II)Pc and the previous results for the α and β phases. This work provides a reliable theoretical basis for the further application of Cu(II)Pc to molecular spintronics and organic-based quantum information processing.

  14. Do blind people see race? Social, legal, and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasogie, Osagie K

    2010-01-01

    Although the meaning, significance, and definition of race have been debated for centuries, one thread of thought unifies almost all of the many diverging perspectives: a largely unquestioned belief that race is self-evident and visually obvious, defined largely by skin color, facial features, and other visual cues. This suggests that “seeing race” is an experience largely unmediated by broader social forces; we simply know it when we see it. It also suggests that those who cannot see are likely to have a diminished understanding of race. But is this empirically accurate?I examine these questions by interviewing people who have been totally blind since birth about race and compare their responses to sighted individuals. I not only find that blind people have as significant an understanding of race as anyone else and that they understand race visually, but that this visual understanding of race stems from interpersonal and institutional socializations that profoundly shape their racial perceptions. These findings highlight how race and racial thinking are encoded into individuals through iterative social practices that train people to think a certain way about the world around them. In short, these practices are so strong that even blind people, in a conceptual sense, “see” race. Rather than being self-evident, these interviews draw attention to how race becomes visually salient through constitutive social practices that give rise to visual understandings of racial difference for blind and sighted people alike. This article concludes with a discussion of these findings' significance for understanding the role of race in law and society.

  15. Homotopy Types and Social Theory: Theoretical Foundations of Strategic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    extended through strategy, industry and/or good fortune. Its preservation is typically a salient priority, even for actors without a strong strategic...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 axiomatic methods, multiscale social interaction, cross-scale consequences REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...law, no person shall be subject to any oenalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB

  16. FEMINIST SOCIAL WORK: FROM A THEORETICAL REVIEW TO A PRACTICAL REDEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández-Montaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical review is structured around two main parts: In one hand, an approach to the key concepts for Feminist Social Work, such as gender, sexism, violence based on gender and patriarchy, and in the other hand, an approach about the role of social workers against gender inequality, both practically and theoretical, allowing the author to analyzes the need for redefinition in this profession as essential for social transformation that advocates to social justice for women and men. Social Work is often limited to a corseted intervention in a patriarchal social system whose values apprehended continue inequality between women and men. This is why explore situations of inequality, analyze sexism and their origin, questioning the social structures that support them, it should be a part of the practical field of this profession.

  17. Where do intra-organizational advice relations come from? The role of informal status and social capital in social exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Wittek, Rafael

    Social status and social capital frameworks are used to derive competing hypotheses about the emergence and structure of advice relations in organizations. Although both approaches build on a social exchange framework, they differ in their behavioral micro-foundations. From a status perspective,

  18. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  19. Job insecurity and discretionary behaviors: Social exchange perspective versus group value model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Beatrice; De Witte, Hans; Reisel, William D

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between job insecurity and discretionary behaviors, that is, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), with the purpose to extend knowledge on the theoretical explanations for these outcomes. Considering the employment relationship with the organization, two different perspectives are suggested and compared in a multiple mediator model, in order to understand the reasons for discretionary behaviors. We draw upon social exchange theory as the basis of psychological contract perceptions and we rely on the group value model to explain organizational justice evaluations. A total of 570 blue-collar workers in Italy participated in our survey. The results show that job insecurity is indirectly related to OCB and CWB through psychological contract breach and organizational injustice. Both mediational mechanisms have equivalent strength in explaining the relationships, namely, they are complementary processes in accounting for both behaviors. These findings suggest that employees' behaviors in job insecure contexts are driven not only by concerns related to the exchange of resources with the organization, but also by evaluations about their value as important members of the group. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy of exchanged-biased quantum tunnelling single-molecule magnet Ni3Mn2 complexes using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2012-03-07

    The magnetic properties of a new family of single-molecule magnet Ni(3)Mn(2) complexes were studied using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). The first part of this study is devoted to analysing the exchange coupling constants, focusing on the intramolecular as well as the intermolecular interactions. The calculated intramolecular J values were in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which show that all the couplings are ferromagnetic, leading to an S = 7 ground state. The intermolecular interactions were investigated because the two complexes studied do not show tunnelling at zero magnetic field. Usually, this exchange-biased quantum tunnelling is attributed to the presence of intermolecular interactions calculated with the help of theoretical methods. The results indicate the presence of weak intermolecular antiferromagnetic couplings that cannot explain the ferromagnetic value found experimentally for one of the systems. In the second part, the goal is to analyse magnetic anisotropy through the calculation of the zero-field splitting parameters (D and E), using DFT methods including the spin-orbit effect.

  1. Aberrant reward center response to partner reputation during a social exchange game in generalized social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripada, Chandra; Angstadt, Michael; Liberzon, Israel; McCabe, Kevin; Phan, K Luan

    2013-04-01

    Generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is characterized by excessive fear of public scrutiny and reticence in social engagement. Previous studies have probed the neural basis of GSAD often using static, noninteractive stimuli (e.g., face photographs) and have identified dysfunction in fear circuitry. We sought to investigate brain-based dysfunction in GSAD during more real-world, dynamic social interactions, focusing on the role of reward-related regions that are implicated in social decision-making. Thirty-six healthy individuals (healthy control [HC]) and 36 individuals with GSAD underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning while participating in a behavioral economic game ("Trust Game") involving iterative exchanges with fictive partners who acquire differential reputations for reciprocity. We investigated brain responses to reciprocation of trust in one's social partner, and how these brain responses are modulated by partner reputation for repayment. In both HC and GSAD, receipt of reciprocity robustly engaged ventral striatum, a region implicated in reward. In HC, striatal responses to reciprocity were specific to partners who have consistently returned the investment ("cooperative partners"), and were absent for partners who lack a cooperative reputation. In GSAD, modulation of striatal responses by partner reputation was absent. Social anxiety severity predicted diminished responses to cooperative partners. These results suggest abnormalities in GSAD in reward-related striatal mechanisms that may be important for the initiation, valuation, and maintenance of cooperative social relationships. Moreover, this study demonstrates that dynamic, interactive task paradigms derived from economics can help illuminate novel mechanisms of pathology in psychiatric illnesses in which social dysfunction is a cardinal feature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Testing the Efficacy of Theoretically Derived Improvements in the Treatment of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Gaston, Jonathan E.; Abbott, Maree J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent theoretical models of social phobia suggest that targeting several specific cognitive factors in treatment should enhance treatment efficacy over that of more traditional skills-based treatment programs. In the current study, 195 people with social phobia were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: standard cognitive restructuring plus in…

  3. How can social networks ever become complex? Modelling the emergence of complex networks from local social exchanges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujol, Josep M.; Flache, Andreas; Delgado, Jordi; Sangüesa, Ramon; Sanguessa, R.

    2005-01-01

    Small-world and power-law network structures have been prominently proposed as models of large networks. However, the assumptions of these models usually-lack sociological grounding. We present a computational model grounded in social exchange theory. Agents search attractive exchange partners in a

  4. Justice at the millennium, a decade later: a meta-analytic test of social exchange and affect-based perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquitt, Jason A; Scott, Brent A; Rodell, Jessica B; Long, David M; Zapata, Cindy P; Conlon, Donald E; Wesson, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Although a flurry of meta-analyses summarized the justice literature at the turn of the millennium, interest in the topic has surged in the decade since. In particular, the past decade has witnessed the rise of social exchange theory as the dominant lens for examining reactions to justice, and the emergence of affect as a complementary lens for understanding such reactions. The purpose of this meta-analytic review was to test direct, mediating, and moderating hypotheses that were inspired by those 2 perspectives, to gauge their adequacy as theoretical guides for justice research. Drawing on a review of 493 independent samples, our findings revealed a number of insights that were not included in prior meta-analyses. With respect to social exchange theory, our results revealed that the significant relationships between justice and both task performance and citizenship behavior were mediated by indicators of social exchange quality (trust, organizational commitment, perceived organizational support, and leader-member exchange), though such mediation was not apparent for counterproductive behavior. The strength of those relationships did not vary according to whether the focus of the justice matched the target of the performance behavior, contrary to popular assumptions in the literature, or according to whether justice was referenced to a specific event or a more general entity. With respect to affect, our results showed that justice-performance relationships were mediated by positive and negative affect, with the relevant affect dimension varying across justice and performance variables. Our discussion of these findings focuses on the merit in integrating the social exchange and affect lenses in future research.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigation of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with cross flow heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H.M.S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was investigated theoretically and experimentally under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The author's earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes flat plate solar water heaters was modified to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. For verifying the modified simulation program, a wickless heat pipes flat plate solar collector with a cross flow heat exchanger was designed, constructed, and tested at different meteorological conditions and operating parameters. These parameters include different cooling water mass flow rates and different inlet cooling water temperatures. The comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones showed considerable agreement. Under different climatic conditions, the experimental and theoretical results showed that the optimal mass flow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass flow rate for testing conventional flat plate solar collectors. Also, the experimental and theoretical results indicated that the number of wickless heat pipes has a significant effect on the collector efficiency

  6. Cultural variation in communal versus exchange norms: Implications for social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joan G; Akiyama, Hiroko; Kapadia, Shagufa

    2017-07-01

    Whereas an interdependent cultural view of self has been linked to communal norms and to socially supportive behavior, its relationship to social support has been called into question in research suggesting that discomfort in social support is associated with an interdependent cultural view of self (e.g., Taylor et al., 2004). These contrasting claims were addressed in 2 studies conducted among Japanese, Indian, and American adults. Assessing everyday social support, Study 1 showed that Japanese and Americans rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians among friends, whereas American rely on exchange norms more frequently than Indians and Japanese among siblings. Assessing responses to vignettes, Study 2 demonstrated that Japanese and Americans rely more frequently on exchange norms than Indians, with greatest relational concerns and most negative outlooks on social support observed among Japanese, less among Americans, and least among Indians. Results further indicated that relational concerns mediated the link between exchange norms and negative social support outlooks. Supporting past claims that relational concerns explain cultural variation in discomfort in social support (e.g., Kim, Sherman, & Taylor, 2008), the findings underscore the need to take into account as well the role of exchange norms in explaining such discomfort. The findings also highlight the existence of culturally variable approaches to exchange and call into question claims that discomfort in social support can be explained in terms of the global concept of an interdependent cultural view of self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Theoretical and methodological foundations of the social accounting in the agricultural cooperative companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamira Mirabal González

    2013-12-01

    • To value the paper of the Social Accounting in the agricultural cooperative companies.  The main results of the investigation are centered in: analysis of the peculiarities of the cooperativism in the context current Latin American and Caribbean, and in Cuba; valuation of the theoretical conceptions on Accounting, Countable Systems and Social Accounting, valuation of the paper of the Social Accounting in the agricultural cooperative companies.

  8. Advanced Reactors-Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Coupling: Theoretical Modeling and Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utgikar, Vivek [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Christensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-29

    The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate the models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.

  9. Social Exchange and Sexual Behavior in Young Women's Premarital Relationships in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Nancy; Goldberg, Rachel E.; Mberu, Blessing U.; Zulu, Eliya M.

    2011-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of money and gifts for sexual activities within nonmarital relationships, has been widely considered a contributing factor to the disproportionate prevalence of HIV/AIDS among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applied social exchange theory to premarital relationships in order to investigate the…

  10. Effects of Culture and Age on the Perceived Exchange of Social Support Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondras, Dean D.; Pouliot, Gregory S.; Malcore, Sylvia A.; Iwahashi, Shigetoshi

    2008-01-01

    This research explores the perceived exchange of social support resources of young, midlife, and older adults in the United States and Japan, and how perceptions of exchange may moderate attributions of control, difficulty, and success in attaining important life-goals. A survey was administered to participants in the United States and Japan who…

  11. Social Presence for Different Tasks and Perceived Learning in Online Hospitality Culture Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-jung; Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized online discussion and project construction tasks to determine the extent of social presence and collaborative learning for hospitality culture exchange. The online culture exchange lasted for 6 weeks from September to November 2011. Forty-four English majors from a hospitality college in Taiwan and an institute of education in…

  12. The Social Act of Exchange in Power Relations: The study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Corruption, Nichekeleko, Power relations, Social act of Exchange, Practice. ..... also sampled 18 policemen and Anti-corruption commission officers who ... based upon their availability and knowledge of the activities of Nichekeleko.

  13. Systematization of Instruments of Social and Economic Responsibility of Enterprises: Theoretical Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dielini Maryna M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is systematization of instruments for implementation of social and economic responsibility of enterprises in Ukraine and theoretical consideration of the presented instruments. The article studies basic views on instruments of social responsibility of business. It is determined which of them are more traditional, and which ones are the latest, that is up to date. Thus, the traditional ones include: philanthropy, charity, sponsorship, volunteering, patronship, monetary grants, equivalent financing. Based on the understanding of the nature of social and economic responsibility of business proposed by the author, to its instruments there can be attributed all traditional instruments, except for volunteering that does not imply obtaining funds for its activities and has only a social effect. There studied modern instruments of business social responsibility, such as social investments, socially responsible investments, social marketing, charity marketing, social programs, social entrepreneurship, social reporting and social expertise, fundraising, socially responsible approaches to doing business and supply chain management. All of them can be regarded as instruments of social and economic responsibility of business.

  14. Theoretical investigation of exchange and recombination reactions in O(3P)+NO(2Π) collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Zhu, H.; Schinke, R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed dynamical study of the kinetics of O( 3 P)+NO( 2 Π) collisions including O atom exchange reactions and the recombination of NO 2 . The classical trajectory calculations are performed on the lowest 2 A ' and 2 A '' potential energy surfaces, which were calculated by ab initio methods. The calculated room temperature exchange reaction rate coefficient, k ex , is in very good agreement with the measured one. The high-pressure recombination rate coefficient, which is given by the formation rate coefficient and to a good approximation equals 2k ex , overestimates the experimental data by merely 20%. The pressure dependence of the recombination rate, k r , is described within the strong-collision model by assigning a stabilization probability to each individual trajectory. The measured falloff curve is well reproduced over five orders of magnitude by a single parameter, i.e., the strong-collision stabilization frequency. The calculations also yield the correct temperature dependence, k r ∝T -1.5 , of the low-pressure recombination rate coefficient. The dependence of the rate coefficients on the oxygen isotopes are investigated by incorporating the difference of the zero-point energies between the reactant and product NO radicals, Δ ZPE , into the potential energy surface. Similar isotope effects as for ozone are predicted for both the exchange reaction and the recombination. Finally, we estimate that the chaperon mechanism is not important for the recombination of NO 2 , which is in accord with the overall T -1.4 dependence of the measured recombination rate even in the low temperature range

  15. Marañón and historical social psychology: some theoretical questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro González, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available If one takes a multidisciplinary, integrative perspective on historical social psychology, one sees that it is a vital thread not only in the theoretical weave of social psychology as such, but in any social science which studies the social being. The multidisciplinary character of historical social psychology is friendly to authors and ideas from other domains of knowledge. Marañón's insights suggest interesting ways of answering the main questions that arise in historical social psychology. The application of his method, as I shall try to show, can orient to us towards a social psychology concerned not only with the here and now of its object of study, but also with the way in which it has evolved through history.

  16. Contribution to the theoretical study of metallic systems containing rare earths: hyperfine interactions and exchange coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troper, A.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical study involving rare earth impurities, which were embedded in transition metals (s-p or noble), from the point of view of the hyperfine interactions is presented. A model was created to describe a d-resonance (Anderson-Moriya) acting on a s-p conduction band which was strongly perturbed by a slater-koster potential, used to describe the rare earths which were diluted in matrices of transition elements. (author)

  17. Development of a theoretical model for measuring the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: rmutarelli@gmail.com, E-mail: aclima@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)

  18. Development of a theoretical model for measuring the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)

  19. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are ...

  20. Social conflict in the execution stage of power generation projects: theoretical elements for a social viability proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mesén Montenegro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The social effects of power generation projects will be analyzed in this paper, based on the paradigms that conceived such projects and using the theoretical approaches that generate the constructive practices that cover the social world of the communities in the areas of influence and the different persons involved (participants, beneficiaries, affected parties and opponents and the origin of the different social and environmental conflicts. The article also focuses on how, within this juncture, the project is an external agent that enters the social fabric of one or more communities, generating a series of subjective and objective breakdowns, in a symbolic world of meanings, customs, traditions and forms of psychological and social relationships with the natural and human environment, which are part of the variables that favor social change.

  1. Are anxious workers less productive workers? It depends on the quality of social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Trougakos, John P; Cheng, Bonnie Hayden

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we draw from Conservation of Resources Theory to advance and test a framework which predicts that emotional exhaustion plays an explanatory role underlying the relation between workplace anxiety and job performance. Further, we draw from social exchange theories to predict that leader-member exchange and coworker exchange will mitigate the harmful effects of anxiety on job performance. Findings across a 3-wave study of police officers supported our model. Emotional exhaustion mediated the link between workplace anxiety and job performance, over and above the effect of cognitive interference. Further, coworker exchange mitigated the positive relation between anxiety and emotional exhaustion, while leader-member exchange mitigated the negative relation between emotional exhaustion and job performance. This study elucidates the effects of workplace anxiety on resource depletion via emotional exhaustion and highlights the value of drawing on social resources to offset the potentially harmful effects of workplace anxiety on job performance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the local condensation heat transfer in a plate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabenstein, V; Kabelac, S

    2012-01-01

    Plate heat exchanger (PHE) are today widely used in industrial heat transfer applications due to their good thermal performance, modest space requirement, easy accessibility to all areas and their lower capital and operating costs as compared to shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Although authoritative models for the design of PHE used as condensers are missing, the number of applications where a PHE is operating as a condenser increases. On the way to a reliable model based on physical approaches for the prediction of heat transfer and pressure drop during the condensation process inside a PHE, the flow and heat interactions as well as their dependence on the geometrical parameters of the corrugated plates and the operating conditions must be studied in detail. In this work the stepwise procedure for the fundamental construction of such a model is described. An experimental setup was built to analyze the characteristics of the two-phase-flow in PHE. A single gap, consisting of two transparent corrugated plates, was tested with a two-phase flow of air/water and also with boiling refrigerant R365mfc. Flow pattern maps were constructed for plates with corrugation angles of 27 and 63 degrees relative to the direction of flow. Investigations of the local heat transfer coefficients and the pressure drop were done with the same plates. The measurement of the local heat transfer coefficients was carried out by the use of the 'Temperature Oscillation InfraRed Thermography' (TOIRT) method. Based on these results three main flow patterns are defined: film flow, bubbly flow and slug flow. For each of the three flow patterns an own model for the heat transfer and pressure drop mechanism are developed and the heat transfer coefficient and the friction factor is calculated with different equations depending on the actual steam quality, mass flow and geometrical parameters by means of a flow pattern map. The theory of the flow pattern based prediction models is proved with own

  3. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  4. Marrying Up by Marrying Down: Status Exchange between Social Origin and Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Christine R; Zeng, Zhen; Xie, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Intermarriage plays a key role in stratification systems. Spousal resemblance reinforces social boundaries within and across generations, and the rules of intermarriage govern the ways that social mobility may occur. We examine intermarriage across social origin and education boundaries in the United States using data from the 1968-2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our evidence points to a pattern of status exchange-that is, persons with high education from modest backgrounds tend to marry those with lower education from more privileged backgrounds. Our study contributes to an active methodological debate by pinpointing the conditions under which the results pivot from evidence against exchange to evidence for exchange and advances theory by showing that the rules of exchange are more consistent with the notion of diminishing marginal utility than the more general theory of compensating differentials.

  5. Theoretical study on platinum-catalyzed isotope exchange reaction mechanism of hydrogen and liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Sheng; Wang Heyi; Luo Shunzhong

    2009-04-01

    Based on electron and vibration approximate means and the density function theory B3LYP, the ΔG degree and equilibrium pressures of adsorption and dissociation reactions of H 2 and water vapor on Pt surface have been calculated. The adsorption, dissociation and coadsorption actions of H 2 and water were analyzed. According to the ΔG degree, hydrogen molecule combines with metal atoms in single atom, and water vapor molecule has no tendency to dissociate on Pt surface. The dissociation of hydrogen molecule would hold back the direct adsorption of water vapor molecules on Pt surface. The structures of Pt-H (OH 2 ) n + (n=1, 2, 3) hydroniums were optimized. According to the mulliken overlap populations, Pt-H (OH 2 ) + is not stable or produced. Hydrogen isotope exchange occurs between hydration layer and D atoms which adsorb on Pt surface via intermediates (H 2 O) n D + (ads) (n≥2). (authors)

  6. Theoretical study of charge exchange, ionization and electron loss processes, relevant to controlled thermonuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.

    1981-03-01

    The following processes have been studied: a) Single and double charge exchange in low, medium and high energy collisions of atoms with multiply charged ions; b) Excitation and ionization processes in low, medium and high energy collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms; c) Ion-ion recombination and ion-pair formation collision processes between hydrogen and alkali atoms (ions); d) Resonant and Auger processes in slow collisions of atomic particles with solid surfaces (including surfaces covered by a sub-monoatomic layer). Processes a) and b) are important for the ''impurity problem'' of magnetically confined tokamak plasmas, whereas processes c) and d) for the production and transport of intense neutral beams for plasma heating

  7. Prospects for direct social perception: A multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Wiltshire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others’ mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience.

  8. Prospects for direct social perception: a multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Travis J.; Lobato, Emilio J. C.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others’ mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25709572

  9. Prospects for direct social perception: a multi-theoretical integration to further the science of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Travis J; Lobato, Emilio J C; McConnell, Daniel S; Fiore, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that differing approaches to the science of social cognition mirror the arguments between radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognition. We contrast the use in social cognition of theoretical inference and mental simulation mechanisms with approaches emphasizing a direct perception of others' mental states. We build from a recent integrative framework unifying these divergent perspectives through the use of dual-process theory and supporting social neuroscience research. Our elaboration considers two complementary notions of direct perception: one primarily stemming from ecological psychology and the other from enactive cognition theory. We use this as the foundation from which to offer an account of the informational basis for social information and assert a set of research propositions to further the science of social cognition. In doing so, we point out how perception of the minds of others can be supported in some cases by lawful information, supporting direct perception of social affordances and perhaps, mental states, and in other cases by cues that support indirect perceptual inference. Our goal is to extend accounts of social cognition by integrating advances across disciplines to provide a multi-level and multi-theoretic description that can advance this field and offer a means through which to reconcile radical embodied and traditional approaches to cognitive neuroscience.

  10. "Actually, I Wanted to Learn": Study-Related Knowledge Exchange on Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodzicki, Katrin; Schwammlein, Eva; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Social media open up multiple options to add a new dimension to learning and knowledge processes. Particularly, social networking sites allow students to connect formal and informal learning settings. Students can find like-minded people and organize informal knowledge exchange for educational purposes. However, little is known about in which way…

  11. Toward a Reconception of Absence in the School Workplace: Teacher Absenteeism as Invention and Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; And Others

    Findings of a study that formulated and tested new ways of thinking about teacher absence are presented in this paper, which is based on the premise that teacher absenteeism is a social invention that must be studied within the context of the work site and understood as a function of the social exchange that occurs therein. Prior research has used…

  12. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  13. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; González-Segura, Lara; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Howard, Patricia L.; Molina, José Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors

  14. Effects of culture and age on the perceived exchange of social support resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonDras, Dean D; Pouliot, Gregory S; Malcore, Sylvia A; Iwahashi, Shigetoshi

    2008-01-01

    This research explores the perceived exchange of social support resources of young, midlife, and older adults in the United States and Japan, and how perceptions of exchange may moderate attributions of control, difficulty, and success in attaining important life-goals. A survey was administered to participants in the United States and Japan who ranged in age from 17 to 70 years. Results suggested culture and age to influence the designation of important life-goals, and to interactively moderate the perceived exchange of social support resources in the interpersonal contexts of family and business associates and co-workers. Furthermore, relationships between the perceived exchange of social support and perceptions of control and success in achieving life-goals indicated different intracultural effects. Overall, these findings suggest nuances in the perceived exchange of social support and social cognitions that reflect the cultural orientations of young, midlife and older adults in the United States and Japan. A culturally grounded model of social support is proposed and discussed.

  15. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  16. What's Holding Back Social Entrepreneurship? Removing the Impediments to Theoretical Advancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Susan; D'Intino, Robert S.; Walske, Jennifer; Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Newbert, Scott L.; Robinson, Jeffrey A.; Senjem, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes four contributions that were presented in a professional development workshop at the 2013 Academy of Management conference. The goal of the workshop was to discuss impediments to the theoretical advancement of social entrepreneurship. This paper's first two contributors

  17. On a source of social capital : Gift exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; van der Eijk, R.; Jolink, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of social capital helps to explain relations within and between companies but has not crystallized yet. As such, the nature, development, and effects of such relations remain elusive. How is social capital created, how is it put to use, and how is it maintained? Can it decline, and if

  18. Leadership and Social Exchange. Professional Paper 17-72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, T. O.

    This paper presents a definition of leadership in relation to power and authority and in terms of the impact of various types of influence attempts in formal organizations. The actions and reactions of superordinates and subordinates occur in terms of cultural values, group norms, and social responses derived from the social learning processes.…

  19. Making work safer: testing a model of social exchange and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Della, Lindsay J; Vandenberg, Robert J; Wilson, Mark G

    2010-04-01

    This study tests a conceptual model that focuses on social exchange in the context of safety management. The model hypothesizes that supportive safety policies and programs should impact both safety climate and organizational commitment. Further, perceived organizational support is predicted to partially mediate both of these relationships. Study outcomes included traditional outcomes for both organizational commitment (e.g., withdrawal behaviors) as well as safety climate (e.g., self-reported work accidents). Questionnaire responses were obtained from 1,723 employees of a large national retailer. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, all of the model's hypothesized relationships were statistically significant and in the expected directions. The results are discussed in terms of social exchange in organizations and research on safety climate. Maximizing safety is a social-technical enterprise. Expectations related to social exchange and reciprocity figure prominently in creating a positive climate for safety within the organization. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical charge-exchange total cross sections for B+3 + He and C+4 + He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipsey, E.J.; Browne, J.C.; Olson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Charge-exchange total cross sections for the B +3 + He and C +4 + He systems have been calculated in the velocity range v = (1--10) x 10 7 cm/sec. Ab initio potential-energy curves and coupling-matrix elements were computed and employed in the impact-parameter classical-coupled equations that describe the collision to obtain the cross sections. For the B +3 + He system, our calculations are in excellent agreement with experimental results with the finding that the single-electron-transfer cross section rises rapidly to a maximum of 1.45 x 10 -15 cm 2 at v = 5.5 x 10 7 cm/sec. For the C +4 + He system, however, we find that the double-electron-transfer process is more important than the single-electron-transfer process. For example, at v = 5 x 10 7 cm/sec, the double-electron-transfer cross section is found to be 0.6 x 10 -16 cm 2 vs 5.5 x 10 -17 for the single-electron transfer. This is in disagreement with an experiment of Crandall which gave the single-charge-transfer process as dominant. However, the more recent experiment reported by Crandall, Olson, Browne, and Shipsey verifies the double charge transfer as the dominant process for low energies

  1. Colloquium paper: adaptive specializations, social exchange, and the evolution of human intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmides, Leda; Barrett, H Clark; Tooby, John

    2010-05-11

    Blank-slate theories of human intelligence propose that reasoning is carried out by general-purpose operations applied uniformly across contents. An evolutionary approach implies a radically different model of human intelligence. The task demands of different adaptive problems select for functionally specialized problem-solving strategies, unleashing massive increases in problem-solving power for ancestrally recurrent adaptive problems. Because exchange can evolve only if cooperators can detect cheaters, we hypothesized that the human mind would be equipped with a neurocognitive system specialized for reasoning about social exchange. Whereas humans perform poorly when asked to detect violations of most conditional rules, we predicted and found a dramatic spike in performance when the rule specifies an exchange and violations correspond to cheating. According to critics, people's uncanny accuracy at detecting violations of social exchange rules does not reflect a cheater detection mechanism, but extends instead to all rules regulating when actions are permitted (deontic conditionals). Here we report experimental tests that falsify these theories by demonstrating that deontic rules as a class do not elicit the search for violations. We show that the cheater detection system functions with pinpoint accuracy, searching for violations of social exchange rules only when these are likely to reveal the presence of someone who intends to cheat. It does not search for violations of social exchange rules when these are accidental, when they do not benefit the violator, or when the situation would make cheating difficult.

  2. Jealousy and Trust: Unexplored Dimensions of Social Exchange Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.; Osmond, Marie Withers

    Little effort has been made to systematically assess the determinants and consequences of marital jealousy which affect marital, familial and extra-familial expectations, interactions and behavior. A preliminary attempt to rectify this omission provides a conceptual/theoretical perspective on jealousy dynamics in marriage. Marital jealousy, a…

  3. Affording to exchange: social capital and online information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Young, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    The potential harm and benefit associated with sharing personal information online is a topic of debate and discussion. Using survey methods (n=872), we explore whether attainment of social capital online relates to greater comfort with sharing personal information. We found that perceptions of bridging and bonding social capital earned from using Facebook are significant predictors of overall comfort levels with sharing personal information. This research raises timely questions about how the perceived benefits of social networking sites influence how personal information is shared online.

  4. Method for modeling social care processes for national information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Aki; Mykkänen, Juha; Laaksonen, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Finnish social services include 21 service commissions of social welfare including Adoption counselling, Income support, Child welfare, Services for immigrants and Substance abuse care. This paper describes the method used for process modeling in the National project for IT in Social Services in Finland (Tikesos). The process modeling in the project aimed to support common national target state processes from the perspective of national electronic archive, increased interoperability between systems and electronic client documents. The process steps and other aspects of the method are presented. The method was developed, used and refined during the three years of process modeling in the national project.

  5. Social Networks and Exchange Norms across the Adult Life-Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of three theoretical perspectives to specific relationships differing in self-perceived closeness in three groups of adults: first-year (n=37) and fourth-year (n=42) undergraduates and 42 retired teachers. Older adults had more expectations for long-term reciprocity. In most relationships, exchange was based on need…

  6. More than a face: A unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eGilboa-Schechtman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems, based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety.

  7. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129

  8. Computational substrates of norms and their violations during social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ting; Lohrenz, Terry; Montague, P Read

    2013-01-16

    Social norms in humans constrain individual behaviors to establish shared expectations within a social group. Previous work has probed social norm violations and the feelings that such violations engender; however, a computational rendering of the underlying neural and emotional responses has been lacking. We probed norm violations using a two-party, repeated fairness game (ultimatum game) where proposers offer a split of a monetary resource to a responder who either accepts or rejects the offer. Using a norm-training paradigm where subject groups are preadapted to either high or low offers, we demonstrate that unpredictable shifts in expected offers creates a difference in rejection rates exhibited by the two responder groups for otherwise identical offers. We constructed an ideal observer model that identified neural correlates of norm prediction errors in the ventral striatum and anterior insula, regions that also showed strong responses to variance-prediction errors generated by the same model. Subjective feelings about offers correlated with these norm prediction errors, and the two signals displayed overlapping, but not identical, neural correlates in striatum, insula, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that responses in anterior insula can encode information about social norm violations that correlate with changes in overt behavior (changes in rejection rates). Together, these results demonstrate that the brain regions involved in reward prediction and risk prediction are also recruited in signaling social norm violations.

  9. Eclecticism as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the value of "eclecticism" as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences. On the basis of the analysis of the historical background of the concept, it is first suggested that eclecticism-based theoretical scholarship in social sciences could benefit from the more systematic research method that has been developed for synthesizing theoretical works under the name metatheorizing. Second, it is suggested that the mixed methods community could base its research approach on philosophical eclecticism instead of pragmatism because the basic idea of eclecticism is much more in sync with the nature of the combined research tradition. Finally, the Kuhnian frame is used to support the argument for interdisciplinary research and, hence, eclecticism in social sciences (rather than making an argument against multiple paradigms). More particularly, it is suggested that integrating the different (inter)disciplinary traditions and schools into one is not necessarily desirable at all in social sciences because of the complexity and openness of the research field. If it is nevertheless attempted, experience in economics suggests that paradigmatic unification comes at a high price.

  10. Psychopaths are impaired in social exchange and precautionary reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kiehl, Kent A

    2010-10-01

    Psychopaths show a profound lack of morality and behavioral controls in the presence of intact general intellectual functioning. Two hallmarks of psychopathy are the persistent violation of social contracts (i.e., cheating) and chronic, impulsive risky behavior. These behaviors present a puzzle: Can psychopaths understand and reason about what counts as cheating or risky behavior in a particular situation? We tested incarcerated psychopaths' and incarcerated nonpsychopaths' reasoning about social contract rules, precautionary rules, and descriptive rules using the Wason selection task. Results were consistent with our hypotheses: Psychopaths (compared with matched nonpsychopaths) showed significant impairment on social contract rules and precautionary rules, but not on descriptive rules. These results cannot be accounted for by differences in intelligence, motivation, or general antisocial tendency. These findings suggest that examination of evolutionarily identified reasoning processes can be a fruitful research approach for identifying which specific mechanisms are impaired in psychopathy.

  11. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1999-06-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/ dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H ++H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pad

  12. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1999-01-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H + +H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pade

  13. Why Seemingly Trivial Events Sometimes Evoke Strong Emotional Reactions: The Role of Social Exchange Rule Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Diebels, Kate J; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Fernandez, Xuan Duong

    2015-01-01

    People sometimes display strong emotional reactions to events that appear disproportionate to the tangible magnitude of the event. Although previous work has addressed the role that perceived disrespect and unfairness have on such reactions, this study examined the role of perceived social exchange rule violations more broadly. Participants (N = 179) rated the effects of another person's behavior on important personal outcomes, the degree to which the other person had violated fundamental rules of social exchange, and their reactions to the event. Results showed that perceptions of social exchange rule violations accounted for more variance in participants' reactions than the tangible consequences of the event. The findings support the hypothesis that responses that appear disproportionate to the seriousness of the eliciting event are often fueled by perceived rule violations that may not be obvious to others.

  14. Social Representations of the Development of Intelligence, Parental Values and Parenting Styles: A Theoretical Model for Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Isabel; Valentim, Joaquim Pires; Carugati, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of social representations theory, a substantial body of literature has advocated and shown that, as interpretative systems and forms of knowledge concurring in the construction of a social reality, social representations are guides for action, influencing behaviours and social relations. Based on this assumption,…

  15. The effect of partner-directed emotion in social exchange decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimontaite, Iveta; Nicolle, Antoinette; Schindler, Igor; Goel, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of studies examining economic decision-making as a purely rational phenomenon, common sense suggests that emotions affect our decision-making particularly in a social context. To explore the influence of emotions on economic decision-making, we manipulated opponent-directed emotions prior to engaging participants in two social exchange decision-making games (the Trust Game and the Prisoner's Dilemma). Participants played both games with three different (fictional) partners and their tendency to defect was measured. Prior to playing each game, participants exchanged handwritten "essays" with their partners, and subsequently exchanged evaluations of each essay. The essays and evaluations, read by the participant, were designed to induce either anger, sympathy, or a neutral emotional response toward the confederate with whom they would then play the social exchange games. Galvanic skin conductance level (SCL) showed enhanced physiological arousal during anger induction compared to both the neutral and sympathy conditions. In both social exchange games, participants were most likely to defect against their partner after anger induction and least likely to defect after sympathy induction, with the neutral condition eliciting intermediate defection rates. This pattern was found to be strongest in participants exhibiting low cognitive control (as measured by a Go/no-Go task). The findings indicate that emotions felt toward another individual alter how one chooses to interact with them, and that this influence depends both on the specific emotion induced and the cognitive control of the individual.

  16. The effect of partner-directed emotion in social exchange decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta eEimontaite

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of studies examining economic decision-making as a purely rational phenomenon, common sense suggests that emotions affect our decision-making particularly in a social context. To address the influence of emotions on economic decision-making, we manipulated opponent-directed emotions prior to engaging participants in two social exchange decision-making games (the Trust Game and the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Participants played both games with three different (fictional partners and their tendency to defect was measured. Prior to playing each game, participants exchanged handwritten essays with their partners, and subsequently exchanged evaluations of each essay. The essays and evaluations, read by the participant, were designed to induce either anger, sympathy or a neutral emotional response towards the confederate with whom they would then play the social exchange games. Galvanic skin conductance level showed enhanced physiological arousal during anger induction compared to both neutral and sympathy conditions. In both social exchange games, participants were most likely to defect against their partner after anger induction and least likely to defect after sympathy induction, with the neutral condition eliciting intermediate defection rates. This pattern was found to be strongest in participants exhibiting low cognitive control (as measured by a Go/no-Go task. The findings indicate that emotions felt towards another individual alter how one chooses to interact with them, and that this influence depends both on the specific emotion induced and the cognitive control of the individual.

  17. The effect of partner-directed emotion in social exchange decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimontaite, Iveta; Nicolle, Antoinette; Schindler, Igor; Goel, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of studies examining economic decision-making as a purely rational phenomenon, common sense suggests that emotions affect our decision-making particularly in a social context. To explore the influence of emotions on economic decision-making, we manipulated opponent-directed emotions prior to engaging participants in two social exchange decision-making games (the Trust Game and the Prisoner's Dilemma). Participants played both games with three different (fictional) partners and their tendency to defect was measured. Prior to playing each game, participants exchanged handwritten “essays” with their partners, and subsequently exchanged evaluations of each essay. The essays and evaluations, read by the participant, were designed to induce either anger, sympathy, or a neutral emotional response toward the confederate with whom they would then play the social exchange games. Galvanic skin conductance level (SCL) showed enhanced physiological arousal during anger induction compared to both the neutral and sympathy conditions. In both social exchange games, participants were most likely to defect against their partner after anger induction and least likely to defect after sympathy induction, with the neutral condition eliciting intermediate defection rates. This pattern was found to be strongest in participants exhibiting low cognitive control (as measured by a Go/no-Go task). The findings indicate that emotions felt toward another individual alter how one chooses to interact with them, and that this influence depends both on the specific emotion induced and the cognitive control of the individual. PMID:23898313

  18. An Empirical Study on the Organizational Trust, Employee-Organization Relationship and Innovative Behavior from the Integrated Perspective of Social Exchange and Organizational Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chuan Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining social exchange and inducement-contribution theory as our overarching theoretical framework, we examine innovative climate as a boundary condition and organizational trust as a mediating mechanism to explain when and how the employee-organization relationship (EOR is associated with workplace innovative behavior. We conducted a field study using multi-source data to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that creativity positively predicted innovative behavior through organizational trust, and an innovative climate moderated the indirect effect of EOR on innovative behavior via organizational trust. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Social value orientation: theoretical and measurement issues in the study of social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan O; Ackermann, Kurt A

    2014-02-01

    What motivates people when they make decisions and how those motivations are potentially entangled with concerns for others are central topics for the social, cognitive, and behavioral sciences. According to the postulate of narrow self-interest, decision makers have the goal of maximizing personal payoffs and are wholly indifferent to the consequences for others. The postulate of narrow self-interest-which has been influential in economics, psychology, and sociology-is precise and powerful but is often simply wrong. Its inadequacy is well known and efforts have been made to develop reliable and valid measurement methods to quantify the more nuanced social preferences that people really have. In this paper, we report on the emergence and development of the predominant conceptualization of social preferences in psychology: social value orientation (SVO). Second, we discuss the relationship between measurement and theory development of the SVO construct. We then provide an overview of the literature regarding measurement methods that have been used to assess individual variations in social preferences. We conclude with a comparative evaluation of the various measures and provide suggestions regarding the measures' constructive use in building psychologically realistic theories of people's social preferences.

  20. Theoretical approaches of online social network interventions and implications for behavioral change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Can social microblogging be used to forecast intraday exchange rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Papaioannnou; Lucia Russo; George Papaioannou; Constantinos Siettos

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) is widely accepted to hold true under certain assumptions. One of its implications is that the prediction of stock prices at least in the short run cannot outperform the random walk model. Yet, recently many studies stressing the psychological and social dimension of financial behavior have challenged the validity of the EMH. Towards this aim, over the last few years, internet-based communication platforms and search engines have been used to extract earl...

  2. Cheaters Are Looked at Longer and Remembered Better than Cooperators in Social Exchange Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chiappe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available What information is most salient during social exchange? Our studies assess the relative importance of cheaters and cooperators and whether their importance is affected by amount of resources involved in the exchange. In Experiment 1, participants categorized individuals as cheaters, cooperators, or neither, and rated how important they are to remember using a 7-point scale. In Experiment 2, participants categorized individuals, and then looked at their photos. This was followed by tests of face recognition, and memory for social contract status. Experiment 1 found cheaters were rated more important to remember than cooperators and more so when a greater amount of resources was involved. Experiment 2 found cheaters were looked at longer and people had better memory for their faces and were more likely to remember their social contract status. This suggests the mind evolved to remember information most pertinent in social contract situations.

  3. The Role of Modular Robotics in Mediating Nonverbal Social Exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, P; Giusti, L; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of modular robotics to encourage and facilitate nonverbal communication during therapeutic intervention in dementia care. A set of new socially interactive modular robotic devices called rolling pins (RPs) has been designed and developed to assist the therapist...... is that they are able to communicate with each other or with other devices equipped with the same radio communication technology. The RPs are usually used in pairs, as the local feedback of an RP can be set depending not only on its own speed and orientation but also on the speed and the orientation of the peer RP...

  4. Caregiver Burden, Care Recipient Depressive Symptomology, and Social Exchange: Does Race Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejem, Deborah; Bauldry, Shawn; Bakitas, Marie; Drentea, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Informal caregivers play a vital role in supporting seriously ill patients. However, informal caregiving is burdensome and can lead to negative health outcomes for the caregiver and the care recipient. The study's aim was to evaluate relationships among caregiver burden, care recipient depressive symptomology, and race. Guided by the social exchange perspective, we examined cross-sectional dyadic data from the National Long-Term Care Survey (N = 1279). Using ordinal logistic regression, we found that higher caregiver-reported objective burden was associated with higher care recipient depressive symptoms ( P exchange of the social good "helpful company" with a caregiver. These findings illustrate the importance of supporting reciprocal exchange as a promising component of maintaining balanced caregiver-care recipient relationships among black older adults and their informal caregivers.

  5. Problems of Equity in the Reconstituted Family: A Social Exchange Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Margaret; Nelson, Gordon K.

    1982-01-01

    Applies social exchange principles to the difficulties of setting up a stepfamily. Discusses obstacles to role adjustment and maintenance of equity among members. Concludes that if the reconstituting family can establish a basis of trust, the stepfamily can merge as a developmental unit toward expansion and commitment. (Author)

  6. Exploring the Importance of Mentoring for New Scholars: A Social Exchange Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrin, Joseph C.; Odom, Marcus D.; Pearson, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the importance of mentor/mentee relationships on faculty development by measuring how social exchange between new faculty members (mentees) in information systems and their former dissertation chairs (mentors) relate to how quickly the new faculty members completed their doctoral program and the number of peer…

  7. Social Exchange Theory as an Explanation of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour among Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut Andreas; Turmo, Are

    2011-01-01

    Primary processes in schools are hard to pin down despite attempts to measure central aspects of processes and outputs. For this very reason, it is important that teachers are motivated to go above and beyond their formal job responsibilities, a phenomenon called organizational citizenship behaviour. Social exchange theory is a theoretical…

  8. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  9. Comedy as a discursive exchange for social change: a study of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comedy is any form of social exchange that elicits laughter as responses. Characteristically, it generates simultaneously both pleasure and power. In other words, comedy as a form of funniness involves breaking of rules and making the rules so that correct behaviour is implicitly instated (Purdie, 2003). It is on this basis that ...

  10. A Theoretical Framework on Using Social Stories with the Creative Arts for Individuals on the Autistic Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bawazir; P. Jones

    2017-01-01

    Social Stories are widely used to teach social and communication skills or concepts to individuals on the autistic spectrum. This paper presents a theoretical framework for using Social Stories in conjunction with the creative arts. The paper argues that Bandura's social learning theory can be used to explain the mechanisms behind Social Stories and the way they influence changes in response, while Gardner's multiple intelligences theory can be used simultaneously to demonstrate the role of t...

  11. Bending gender, ending gender: theoretical foundations for social work practice with the transgender community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Barb J

    2007-07-01

    Gender is a ubiquitous social construct that wields power over every individual in our society. The traditional dichotomous gender paradigm is oppressive, especially for transgendered people whose sense of themselves as gendered people is incongruent with the gender they were assigned at birth. Transgendered individuals are targeted for mistreatment when others attempt to enforce conventional gender boundaries. This article discusses gender-based oppression and the resulting psychosocial difficulties experienced by many transgendered individuals. The discussion advances a critical analysis of the dominant gender paradigm using two alternative theoretical perspectives on gender--queer theory and social constructionism. The article argues that the transgender community is an at-risk population and that empowering practice with this population calls on social workers to target society's traditional gender dichotomy for change. An overview of practice implications and research needs is provided.

  12. Adulthood Social Class and Union Interest: A First Test of a Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Steven

    2016-10-02

    A serial mediation model of union interest was tested. Based on theoretical notes provided by Mellor and Golay (in press), adulthood social class was positioned as a predictor of willingness to join a labor union, with success/failure attributions at work and willingness to share work goals positioned as intervening variables. Data from U.S. nonunion employees (N = 560) suggested full mediation after effects were adjusted for childhood social class. In sequence, adulthood social class predicted success/failure attributions at work, success/failure attributions at work predicted willingness to share work goals, and willingness to share work goals predicted willingness to join. Implications for socioeconomic status (SES) research and union expansion are discussed.

  13. Kind of approximate theoretical calculating formula of heat-exchange area for the vertical U-bend tube natural-circuit steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingkun; Wang Fei; Huang Wei; Zhang Wenqi; Zhao Shan; Lu Lianghong

    2001-01-01

    A kind of approximate theoretical calculating formula of the vertical U-bend tube natural-circuit steam generator is deduced by using an approximate method, the results of this formula is compared with the heat exchanging areas of the real vertical U-bend tube natural-circuit steam generators, the absolute errors of them are below 8%

  14. Social stigmatization as a generator of discriminatory treatment in policing: Theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We can easily come to the conclusion that the general settings of the theory of social interactionism, and especially the process of social labeling and stigmatization, as a concretization of those theories, can serve as a basis for explaining certain aspects of discriminatory activities in policing. And this problem is a key subject of this work, which we tried to explain in the light of three different but inter-related labeling theory. In this way, we also wanted to find their practical application in a particular social phenomenon or as it is popularly said 'to put theory into operation'. In fact, the key purpose of this paper is to show how the interaction of social subjects, which takes place at a general level, particularly categorization, classification, social stigma and stereotypes that result from these interactions, significantly shape the way the police behave. Moreover, if we take into consideration that police officers have a significant level of power to label others from the position of professional authority this theoretical concept becomes more important. To what extent (of course, empirically speaking this social process affects in such a way and creates such consequences, it should be established by a scientific investigation of individual cases. It is certain, however, that our life often assures us of this outcome, confirming that it is not a coincidence, but the unwritten rules. And such examples should serve us as a starting point for scientific research of this phenomenon.

  15. Investigation of the Impact of Extracting and Exchanging Health Information by Using Internet and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolis, John; Zimeras, Stelios; Chardalias, Kostas; Roupa, Zoe; Fildisis, George; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Social networks (1) have been embedded in our daily life for a long time. They constitute a powerful tool used nowadays for both searching and exchanging information on different issues by using Internet searching engines (Google, Bing, etc.) and Social Networks (Facebook, Twitter etc.). In this paper, are presented the results of a research based on the frequency and the type of the usage of the Internet and the Social Networks by the general public and the health professionals. The objectives of the research were focused on the investigation of the frequency of seeking and meticulously searching for health information in the social media by both individuals and health practitioners. The exchanging of information is a procedure that involves the issues of reliability and quality of information. In this research, by using advanced statistical techniques an effort is made to investigate the participant's profile in using social networks for searching and exchanging information on health issues. Based on the answers 93 % of the people, use the Internet to find information on health-subjects. Considering principal component analysis, the most important health subjects were nutrition (0.719 %), respiratory issues (0.79 %), cardiological issues (0.777%), psychological issues (0.667%) and total (73.8%). The research results, based on different statistical techniques revealed that the 61.2% of the males and 56.4% of the females intended to use the social networks for searching medical information. Based on the principal components analysis, the most important sources that the participants mentioned, were the use of the Internet and social networks for exchanging information on health issues. These sources proved to be of paramount importance to the participants of the study. The same holds for nursing, medical and administrative staff in hospitals.

  16. Beyond social exchange: Collectivism’s moderating role in the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Knippenberg, D.; van Prooijen, J.W.; Sleebos, E.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived organizational support plays an important role in the social exchange relationship between the employee and the organization. We propose that individual differences in collectivism affect the extent to which employee–organization relationships are based on social exchange, and that

  17. [Social determinants of odontalgia in epidemiological studies: theoretical review and proposed conceptual model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Peres, Karen Glazer; Nedel, Fúlvio Borges

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological literature has been limited by the absence of a theoretical framework reflecting the complexity of causal mechanisms for the occurrence of health phenomena / disease conditions. In the field of oral epidemiology, such lack of theory also prevails, since dental caries the leading topic in oral research has been often studied through a biological and reductionist viewpoint. One of the most important consequences of dental caries is dental pain (odontalgia), which has received little attention in studies with sophisticated theoretical models and powerful designs to establish causal relationships. The purpose of this study is to review the scientific literature on the determinants of odontalgia and to discuss theories proposed for the explanation of the phenomenon. Conceptual models and emerging theories on the social determinants of oral health are revised, in an attempt to build up links with the bio-psychosocial pain model, proposing a more elaborate causal model for odontalgia. The framework suggests causal pathways between social structure and oral health through material, psychosocial and behavioral pathways. Aspects of the social structure are highlighted in order to relate them to odontalgia, stressing their importance in discussions of causal relationships in oral health research.

  18. Information-Theoretic Approaches for Evaluating Complex Adaptive Social Simulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose information-theoretic approaches for comparing and evaluating complex agent-based models. In information theoretic terms, entropy and mutual information are two measures of system complexity. We used entropy as a measure of the regularity of the number of agents in a social class; and mutual information as a measure of information shared by two social classes. Using our approaches, we compared two analogous agent-based (AB) models developed for regional-scale social-simulation system. The first AB model, called ABM-1, is a complex AB built with 10,000 agents on a desktop environment and used aggregate data; the second AB model, ABM-2, was built with 31 million agents on a highperformance computing framework located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and fine-resolution data from the LandScan Global Population Database. The initializations were slightly different, with ABM-1 using samples from a probability distribution and ABM-2 using polling data from Gallop for a deterministic initialization. The geographical and temporal domain was present-day Afghanistan, and the end result was the number of agents with one of three behavioral modes (proinsurgent, neutral, and pro-government) corresponding to the population mindshare. The theories embedded in each model were identical, and the test simulations focused on a test of three leadership theories - legitimacy, coercion, and representative, and two social mobilization theories - social influence and repression. The theories are tied together using the Cobb-Douglas utility function. Based on our results, the hypothesis that performance measures can be developed to compare and contrast AB models appears to be supported. Furthermore, we observed significant bias in the two models. Even so, further tests and investigations are required not only with a wider class of theories and AB models, but also with additional observed or simulated data and more comprehensive performance measures.

  19. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  20. Fair opportunities, social productivity and wellbeing in disability: Towards a theoretical foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Fekete, Christine

    2016-06-13

    Theory-based approaches provide explanations of the impact of components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) classification on outcomes such as health and wellbeing. Here, one such approach is proposed, focusing on social participation and its association with wellbeing. In addition to elaborating a theoretical approach, a narrative review of research on labour market participation of persons with severe disability, spinal cord injury, is conducted to illustrate the utility of the proposed approach. Availability and good quality of productive activities, in particular paid work, are expected to improve wellbeing by strengthening favourable experiences of personal control and social recognition. As these opportunities are restricted among persons with disabilities, conditions that enable full social participation need to be strengthened. Research identified several such conditions at the individual (e.g. coping, social support, educational skills) and the contextual socio-political level (e.g. quality of care, medical and vocational rehabilitation), although their potential of improving wellbeing has not yet been sufficiently explored. In conclusion, supplementing the established ICF classification by theory-based approaches may advance explanations of adverse effects of reduced functioning and wellbeing in disability. This new knowledge can guide the development of interventions to improve participation in general and social productivity in particular.

  1. Introduction to Visual Communication in the Age of Social Media: Conceptual, Theoretical and Methodological Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Russmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This thematic issue of Media and Communication focuses attention on the shift towards visual images on social media as well as the transformation of visual communication which has occurred within the online ecology of social media platforms. The sharing of images is becoming an integral part of the social media experience today, and given that social media platforms are the prime locus for sociability—at least among young people in the West—this shift towards visuals arguably transforms how we relate to each other and the world around us, as well as how we perceive and construct our sense of self. For researchers, this raises conceptual, theoretical and methodological challenges. This thematic issue presents six articles as well as a book review on visual communication in social media focusing on developing a conceptual apparatus and precise definitions of objects and practices of study as well as contributions that address and discuss the methodological challenges as well as their potential solutions. The idea was to synergize research from a wide variety of communication-related disciplines on this rather new topic.

  2. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SOCIAL CONNECTIONS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Alexandrovna Zverkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The urgency is due to the virtualization of communication in modern society, especially among young people, affecting social relations and social support services. Stressed the need for a more in-depth study of network virtualization of social relations of society, due to the ambiguous consequences of this phenomenon among the youth.Purpose. Analyze classic and contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of social ties and social support in terms of technological progress.Results. The article presents a sociological analysis of theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of problems of interaction and social support among youth through strong and weak social ties in cyberspace and in the real world.Practical implications. The analysis gives the opportunity for a wide range of examining social relations in various fields of sociology, such as sociology of youth, sociology of communications.

  3. Bi-directional Exchange: the Cornerstone of Globally Focused Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gary; Ali, Samira; Ringell, Kassia; McKay, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Social work holds a unique place relative to other professions in that it prioritizes the elimination of human suffering as its primary goal. The roots of the profession are firmly planted in Western theories, historically and culturally specific perspectives, and knowledge. History has repeatedly demonstrated an association between the arrival of Westerners and the subsequent control of natural resources. Some argue that the development of global social work practice has serious pitfalls, including diverting needed resources away from local contexts and inadvertently spreading western world-views, paradigms and practices. However, the social work profession is uniquely positioned to offer expertise and collaborate with those experiencing the serious consequences of social inequity and the dearth of economic and social resources locally and across the globe. Grounded in anti-oppressive theory, guided by the difficult, yet acute awareness of western privilege and racism, and drawing from social/collective action and collaborative paradigms, a bi-directional exchange and action are detailed as the foundations for globally focused social work. The skills and knowledge base for global social work are essential as populations locally and worldwide are impacted by a global economic system that innately increases serious social inequity. Comprehensive training and preparation for globally focused social work, critical to successful engagement in global practice are outlined.

  4. A theoretical model of the influence of spray on the exchange of momentum, with storm and hurricane winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Soustova, Irina

    2013-04-01

    flow during the life cycle from taking them off the water to fall into the water. Contribution of droplets to the momentum balance of air flow is determined by the total momentum balance of sea sprays. The calculations in the model showed that the momentum exchange with the spray can lead to either a weak (less than 10%) increase of the aerodynamic surface drag or to a weak reduction (within Koga's model [2]). Recommendations for the experiment on investigation of the "life cycle" of spray in the air flow are suggested. This work was supported by RFBR (project 11-05-12047-ofi-m, 13-05-00865-a, 12-05-33070 mol-a-ved, 12-05-31435 mol-a, 12-05-01064_A). References 1. Troitskaya, Y. I., D. A. Sergeev, A. A. Kandaurov, G. A. Baidakov, M. A. Vdovin, and V. I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions J.Geophys. Res., 117, C00J21, doi:10.1029/2011JC007778. 2. Koga M. Direct production of droplets from breaking wind-waves - its observation by a multi-colored overlapping exposure photographing technique // Tellus. 1981. V.33. Issue 6. P. 552-563. 3. Spiel D.E. On the birth of jet drops from bubbles bursting on water surfaces // J. Geophys. Res. 1995. V.100. P. 4995-5006. 4. Andreas E. L., 1998: A new sea spray generation function for wind speeds up to 32 m s21. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 2175-2184.

  5. Pain judgements of patients' relatives: examining the use of social contract theory as theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappesser, Judith; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2008-08-01

    Observer underestimation of others' pain was studied using a concept from evolutionary psychology: a cheater detection mechanism from social contract theory, applied to relatives and friends of chronic pain patients. 127 participants estimated characters' pain intensity and fairness of behaviour after reading four vignettes describing characters suffering from pain. Four cues were systematically varied: the character continuing or stopping liked tasks; continuing or stopping disliked tasks; availability of medical evidence; and pain intensity as rated by characters. Results revealed that pain intensity and the two behavioural variables had an effect on pain estimates: high pain self-reports and stopping all tasks led to high pain estimates; pain was estimated to be lowest when characters stopped disliked but continued with liked tasks. This combination was also rated least fair. Results support the use of social contract theory as a theoretical framework to explore pain judgements.

  6. Theory of mind broad and narrow: reasoning about social exchange engages ToM areas, precautionary reasoning does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Guerin, Scott A; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Miller, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen (1995) proposed that the theory of mind (ToM) inference system evolved to promote strategic social interaction. Social exchange--a form of co-operation for mutual benefit--involves strategic social interaction and requires ToM inferences about the contents of other individuals' mental states, especially their desires, goals, and intentions. There are behavioral and neuropsychological dissociations between reasoning about social exchange and reasoning about equivalent problems tapping other, more general content domains. It has therefore been proposed that social exchange behavior is regulated by social contract algorithms: a domain-specific inference system that is functionally specialized for reasoning about social exchange. We report an fMRI study using the Wason selection task that provides further support for this hypothesis. Precautionary rules share so many properties with social exchange rules--they are conditional, deontic, and involve subjective utilities--that most reasoning theories claim they are processed by the same neurocomputational machinery. Nevertheless, neuroimaging shows that reasoning about social exchange activates brain areas not activated by reasoning about precautionary rules, and vice versa. As predicted, neural correlates of ToM (anterior and posterior temporal cortex) were activated when subjects interpreted social exchange rules, but not precautionary rules (where ToM inferences are unnecessary). We argue that the interaction between ToM and social contract algorithms can be reciprocal: social contract algorithms requires ToM inferences, but their functional logic also allows ToM inferences to be made. By considering interactions between ToM in the narrower sense (belief-desire reasoning) and all the social inference systems that create the logic of human social interaction--ones that enable as well as use inferences about the content of mental states--a broader conception of ToM may emerge: a computational model embodying

  7. The social processes of production and validation of knowledge in particle physics: Preliminary theoretical and methodological observations

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the complementarities and differences between Bourdieu's Field Theory and Social Network Analysis from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. The argument is applied to a case study about the social production and validation of knowledge in particle physics in Italy. The methodological choices that have lead the research project are presented and justified, and provide a good example about the strengths and the weaknesses of the two theoretical perspectives com...

  8. High versus Low Theoretical Fidelity Pedometer Intervention Using Social-Cognitive Theory on Steps and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D.; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. Method: Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the…

  9. Rationality and self-interest as economic-exchange strategy in borderline personality disorder: Game theory, social preferences, and interpersonal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Haang; Schwieren, Christiane; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-12-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe and persistent impairments in interpersonal functioning. Given the complexity of social interactions, studying the interactive behavior of BPD patients is challenging. One way to implement both tight experimental control and realistic, externally valid settings is to use game-theoretical experiments. This review discusses findings from economic exchange studies in BPD against the background of game-theoretical literature. BPD patients do not seem to derive utility from mutual cooperation with others and appear not to "forgive" a partner's unfairness. By pursuing a strategy of negative reciprocity, BPD patients seem to act mostly "rationally" and in their own self-interest. Their "grim trigger strategy" resembles the theoretical ideal of the rational and self-interested agent homo economicus. Finally, we summarize how research findings from economics and clinical psychiatry may be mutually enriching and propose new research ideas in this fascinating field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social Media and Population Health Virtual Exchange for Senior Nursing Students: An International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Paula M; Brixey, Juliana J; Honey, Michelle L L; Todhunter, Fern

    2016-01-01

    The authors have all engaged in using social media with students as a means for collaboration across national and international boundaries for various educational purposes. Following the explosion of big data in health the authors are now moving this concept forward within undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curricula for the development of population health virtual exchanges. Nursing has a global presence and yet it appears as though students have little knowledge of the health and social care needs and provision outside their local environment. This development will allow for explorative exchange amongst students in three countries, enhancing their understanding of their own and the selected international population health needs and solutions through asking and responding to questions amongst the learning community involved. The connection of the students will be recorded for their use in reflection; of particular interest will be the use of information included by the students to answer questions about their locality.

  11. [Non-reciprocal social exchange is a health risk: a medical sociological research model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    2002-02-01

    Contrary to a reductionist disease concept prevailing in molecular medicine, a systemic disease concept is emphasised in this sociopsychosomatic approach towards analysing disease as a result of disturbed social exchange among people. More precisely, violations of the norms of social reciprocity in core social roles in adult life, in particular in the work role, are assumed to trigger stressful experience with adverse long-term consequences for health. The model of effort-reward imbalance at work provides an illustrative case of nonreciprocal social exchange. It defines distinct conditions in which an imbalance between high efforts spent and low rewards received in turn is maintained by the workers. In this model social rewards are analysed in terms of money, esteem and promotion prospect including job security. The contribution summarises results from 6 international prospective and cross-sectional epidemiological investigations testing the model of effort-reward imbalance at work with regard to different health indicators (especially coronary heart disease, hypertension, depression, alcohol dependence). In all instances an elevated risk of illness is observed among those who experience non-reciprocal social exchange in terms of effort-reward imbalance at work, compared to people who are free from this type of stressful experience. Results are derived from logistic regression analysis adjusting for the effects of potential confounders. In view of this evidence the medical sociological approach outlined here may be helpful in contrasting a reductionist concept of disease with a systemic concept centred around the sociopsychosomatic aspects of human health and disease. Copyright 2002 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  12. The Empirical Measurement of a Theoretical Concept: Tracing Social Exclusion among Racial Minority and Migrant Groups in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luann Good Gingrich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an in-depth description and case application of a conceptual model of social exclusion: aiming to advance existing knowledge on how to conceive of and identify this complex idea, evaluate the methodologies used to measure it, and reconsider what is understood about its social realities toward a meaningful and measurable conception of social inclusion. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s conceptual tools of social fields and systems of capital, our research posits and applies a theoretical framework that permits the measurement of social exclusion as dynamic, social, relational, and material. We begin with a brief review of existing social exclusion research literature, and specifically examine the difficulties and benefits inherent in quantitatively operationalizing a necessarily multifarious theoretical concept. We then introduce our conceptual model of social exclusion and inclusion, which is built on measurable constructs. Using our ongoing program of research as a case study, we briefly present our approach to the quantitative operationalization of social exclusion using secondary data analysis in the Canadian context. Through the development of an Economic Exclusion Index, we demonstrate how our statistical and theoretical analyses evidence intersecting processes of social exclusion which produce consequential gaps and uneven trajectories for migrant individuals and groups compared with Canadian-born, and racial minority groups versus white individuals. To conclude, we consider some methodological implications to advance the empirical measurement of social inclusion.

  13. Supply risk management from a transaction cost and social exchange theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Petra; Schiele, Holger; Song, Michael; Krabbendam, Johannes Jacobus

    2012-01-01

    Supply risk management gained prominence over the last decade, both in the academic discourse and in practical application. This research examines the influence of Transaction Cost characteristics -behavioral uncertainty, environmental uncertainty and asset specificity on supply risk management performance. We also identify two antecedents of the transaction cost constructs based on social exchange theory: dependency and preferred customer status. We used survey data to discover a positive in...

  14. [Social exchange and inference: an experimental study with the Wason selection task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, N

    2001-04-01

    Social contract theory (Cosmides, 1989) posits that the human mind was equipped with inference faculty specialized for cheater detection. Cosmides (1989) conducted a series of experiments employing the Wason selection task to demonstrate that her social contract theory could account for the content effects reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility that the results were due to experimental artifacts. In the current experiment, the subject was given two versions of the Wason task that contained no social exchange context, but included an instruction implying him/her to look for something, together with the cassava root and the abstract versions used by Cosmides (1989). Results showed that the two versions with no social exchange context produced the same response pattern observed in the original study. It may be concluded that the subject's perception of the rule as a social contract was not necessary to obtain the original results, and that an instruction implying that he/she should look for something was sufficient.

  15. XML-based formulation of field theoretical models. A proposal for a future standard and data base for model storage, exchange and cross-checking of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demichev, A.; Kryukov, A.; Rodionov, A.

    2002-01-01

    We propose an XML-based standard for formulation of field theoretical models. The goal of creation of such a standard is to provide a way for an unambiguous exchange and cross-checking of results of computer calculations in high energy physics. At the moment, the suggested standard implies that models under consideration are of the SM or MSSM type (i.e., they are just SM or MSSM, their submodels, smooth modifications or straightforward generalizations). (author)

  16. THE MEMORY AND THE SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY AS THEORETICAL RESOURCES FOR THE (REBUILDING OF THE FEMALE MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereida Maria Santos Mafra de

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposal presented here designs to accomplish a discussion concerning the doctorate thesis’s production, entitled “Memory and women’s Social Geography in Rio de Contas – Bahia: the female participation on the building process of a society”. The reflections will be constituted by taking into consideration the theoretical conceptions about: the Memory as a mean for the studied women’s memory rebuilding, taking as a basis the testimonies and the documentary proof; the Social Geography, in which will be done a analysis of this Human Geography branch on a geographic perspective of the space, as a analysis’s category of the Geographic Science, which will identify on the public and private spaces, the established relationships among men and women. The accomplished analysis will be extremely important to the appropriation concerning the historical and the social contexts that originated the knowledge about the women and the (rebuilding of the tinker, communist, praying, educator and midwife women who remained, for many centuries, invisible to the official history.

  17. Social exchange as a framework for client-nurse interaction during public health nursing maternal-child home visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to develop a nursing-focused use of social exchange theory within the context of maternal-child home visiting. The nature of social exchange theory, its application to client-nurse interaction, and its fit with an existing data set from a field research investigation were examined. Resources exchanged between the nurse and clients were categorized and compared across the patterns of home visiting, nursing strategies based on exchange notions were identified, and variations in exchange were linked with client outcomes. The nurse provided resources within the categories of information, status, service, and goods. Clients provided time, access to the home, space within the home to conduct the visit, opportunities to observe maternal-child interaction, access to the infant, and information. The ease and breadth of resource exchange varied across the patterns of home visiting. The social exchange perspective was useful in categorizing resources, specifying and uncovering new resource categories, understanding nursing strategies to initiate and maintain the client-nurse relationship, and linking client-nurse interactive phenomena with client outcomes. Social exchange theory is potentially useful for understanding client-nurse interaction in the context of maternal-child home visits.

  18. Influences of Scholarship Aid on the Social Exchange Cycle: A Qualitative Exploration of Scholarship Recipients and Direct Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Jeannie

    2010-01-01

    Social exchange theory asserts that individuals who receive a gift will be pressed by an internal sense of obligation to give back in turn (Mauss, 2002). While there is a great deal of literature devoted to giving, there is little literature about the receiving end of the exchange cycle. Deeply impacted by the effects of direct reciprocity are…

  19. Social-communicative effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism, concurrently taking into account standardized psychometric data, standardized functional assessment of adaptive behaviour, and information on social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Eighteen preschool children (mean age = 38.78 months) were assigned to two intervention approaches, i.e. PECS and Conventional Language Therapy (CLT). Both PECS (Phases I-IV) and CLT were delivered three times per week, in 30-min sessions, for 6 months. Outcome measures were the following: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores for Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction; Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Results demonstrated that the two groups did not differ at Time 1 (pre-treatment assessment), whereas at Time 2 (post-test) the PECS group showed a significant improvement with respect to the CLT group on the VABS social domain score and on almost all the social-communicative abilities coded in the unstructured setting (i.e. joint attention, request, initiation, cooperative play, but not eye contact). These findings showed that PECS intervention (Phases I-IV) can improve social-communicative skills in children with autism. This improvement is especially evident in standardized measures of adaptive behaviour and measures derived from the observation of children in an unstructured setting. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  20. The importance of social exchange to nurses and nurse assistants: impact on retention factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; De Pourcq, Kaat; Paeshuyse, Michel; Gemmel, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the norm of reciprocity by examining relationships between perceived organisational support (POS), the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) and psychological contract breach (PCB) and important nurse retention factors identified in the literature. A major cause of turnover among nurses is related to unsatisfying workplaces. Previous research, mainly outside the nursing setting, found that social exchange affects employees' work-related attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 217 nurses and nursing assistants to test and refine a model linking POS, LMX, PCB with job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Hierarchical multiple linear regression revealed that POS, PCB and LMX explained significant variance in all three retention factors: job satisfaction (adjusted R² = 0.502), trust (adjusted R² = 0.462) and turnover intentions (adjusted R² = 0.196). POS and PCB predicted most strongly job satisfaction (P < 0.001) and trust (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). LMX predicted most strongly intention to leave (P < 0.01). In our study, POS, the quality of LMX and PCB were strongly related to job satisfaction, trust and turnover intentions. Nursing managers and leaders should recognize the importance of social exchange within their organisation to build trust, satisfy and retain scarce nurses and nursing assistants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Ventilation Heat Recovery from Wood-Burning Domestic Flues. A Theoretical Analysis Based on a Triple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Druette

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work focuses on the heat transfer that occurs between flue gases, the ventilation air and the combustion air within a triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at its outer surface. The main objective is to predict outlet temperature for the specific geometry of the heat exchanger studied here. Thus, the governing differential equations are derived for a counter-co-current flow arrangement of the three fluids. Then analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature distribution are obtained as well as the amount of heat transferred to the outside. An expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also proposed. Based on these results, calculations are performed on a case study to predict the fluid temperature distribution along the heat exchanger. Finally, a parametric study is carried out on this case study to assess the influence of the relevant parameters on the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. In addition, computation of heat losses to the outside justifies whether insulation is needed.

  2. [Phenomenological anthropological social psychiatry--paving the way for a theoretical reanimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Samuel

    2012-11-01

    This article tries to link the present lack of theoretical discussion within German Social Psychiatry with a loss of phenomenological and anthropological thought. The so-called Phenomenological Psychiatry used to play a very important role in German psychiatry during the 50 ies until the 70 ies and had strong influences on the first reformers of German psychiatry, such as Walter Ritter von Baeyer, Heinz Häfner, Caspar Kulenkampff, Karl Peter Kisker and Erich Wulff. Their reforms were not only founded by a social criticism put forth by theories such as marxism (Basaglia, Wulff) or structuralism (Foucault) but also by a concrete notion of what it is like to suffer from mental illness and what kind of needs are linked to such suffering. This very notion was given by the phenomenological approach. Finally the article tries to give reasons for today's reciprocal loss of connection of the phenomenological and the socio-psychiatric school. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. DECREASING SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT. THEORETICAL INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and social empowerment in Romania are unconcievable in the absence of a modern education system, which needs both economic and financial investments and social, political, cultural measures to increase the inclusion of young people in school system. In this particular context, given that Romania faces a high degree rate of school dropout, and moreover there are few chances that Romania reach its goals, we try in this paper to look inside the real situation. Indeed, school dropout present serious negative consequences both on individual level and for the whole society. Recognising this fact, next step is to investigate and reveal the determining factors for this situation, and we are particularly interested in the economic and systemic factors. Consequently, we present in this paper first a brief literature review on the fenomenon of school dropping out, including reviewing main studies related to factors, effects, causes etc. In the second part, starting from several statistical data provided by INS, EUROSTAT and UNICEF studies, we propose some theoretical models and policy reccomendations in order to decrease the school dropout rate and especially the early school dropout rate.

  4. The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Trees; de Ruyter, Doret J

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Research into radicalization does not pay much attention to education. This is remarkable and possibly misses an important influence on the process of radicalization. Therefore this article sets out to explore the relation between education on the one hand and the onset or prevention of radicalization on the other hand. METHOD: This article is a theoretical literature review. It has analyzed empirical studies-mainly from European countries-about the educational aims, content and style of Muslim parents and parents with (extreme) right-wing sympathies. RESULTS: Research examining similarity in right-wing sympathies between parents and children yields mixed results, but studies among adolescents point to a significant concordance. Research also showed that authoritarian parenting may play a significant role. Similar research among Muslim families was not found. While raising children with distrust and an authoritarian style are prevalent, the impact on adolescents has not been investigated. The empirical literature we reviewed does not give sufficient evidence to conclude that democratic ideal in and an authoritative style of education are conducive to the development of a democratic attitude. CONCLUSION: There is a knowledge gap with regard to the influence of education on the onset or the prevention of radicalization. Schools and families are underappreciated sources of informal social control and social capital and therefore the gap should be closed. If there is a better understanding of the effect of education, policy as well as interventions can be developed to assist parents and teachers in preventing radicalization.

  5. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  6. Acts of Reciprocity: Analyzing Social Exchange in a University Theater for Social Change Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloeren, Nicole Birgit

    2010-01-01

    In this study I sought to understand the complexities of the processes of reciprocity within a theater for social change service-learning project. My sample included three university students, one university faculty member, four high school students, one high school principal, and one high school teacher. As a participant- observer, I conducted an…

  7. Theoretical study of annealed proton-exchanged Nd $LiNbO_{3}$ channel waveguide lasers with variational method

    CERN Document Server

    De Long Zhang; Yuan Guo Xie; Guilan, Ding; Yuming, Cui; Cai He Chen

    2001-01-01

    The controllable fabrication parameters, including anneal time, initial exchange time, channel width, dependences of TM/sub 00/ mode size, corresponding effective refractive index, effective pump area, and coupling efficiency between pump and laser modes in z-cut annealed proton-exchanged (APE) Nd:LiNbO/sub 3/ channel waveguide lasers were studied by using variational method. The effect of channel width on the surface index increment and the waveguide depth was taken into account. The features of mode size and effective refractive index were summarized, discussed, and compared with previously published experimental results. The effective pump area, which is directly proportional to threshold pump power, increases strongly, slightly, and very slightly with the increase of anneal time, channel width, and initial exchange time, respectively. However, the coupling efficiency, which is directly proportional to slope efficiency, remains constant (around 0.82) no matter what changes made to these parameters. The var...

  8. Exchange Rate as a Determinant of Foreign Direct Investment: Does it Really Matter? Theoretical Aspects, Literature Review and Applied Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Ruiz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-examines the role of exchange rates as determinant of FDI. It extends the analysis to include the issue of how exchange rates determine the decision of invest in one country depending on whether the firm is deciding to invest on the country to service the local market or to invest on the country in order to re-export. This paper offers a broad literature review of the state of the empirical research in order to draw conclusions of the real importance of the exchange rate as a determinant of FDI. Details of FDI current behavior in Latin American are described and I propose a model of FDI to be applied for these countries. Data sources are given.

  9. Identity Orientation, Social Exchange, and Information Technology Use in Interorganizational Collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Lyytinen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information technologies (IT) are creating unprecedented opportunities for interorganizational collaboration, particularly in large-scale distributed projects. The use of advanced IT in such projects can foster new forms of social exchange among organizations and change the way...... identity orientations. To address this gap, we conduct multiple case studies that describe the changing use of two-dimensional computer-aided design technology and new three-dimensional modeling technologies by a leading metal fabrication company in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry...

  10. Theoretical investigation on the mechanism and dynamics of oxo exchange of neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xia; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Dongqi

    2015-03-21

    Four types of reaction mechanisms for the oxo ligand exchange of monomeric and dimeric neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in aqueous solution were explored computationally using density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio classical molecular dynamics. The obtained results were compared with previous studies on the oxo exchange of uranyl hydroxide, as well as with experiments. It is found that the stable T-shaped [NpO3(OH)3](3-) intermediate is a key species for oxo exchange in the proton transfer in mononuclear Path I and binuclear Path IV, similar to the case of uranyl(VI) hydroxide. Path I is thought to be the preferred oxo exchange mechanism for neptunyl(VI) hydroxide in our calculations, due to the lower activation energy (22.7 and 13.1 kcal mol(-1) for ΔG(‡) and ΔH(‡), respectively) of the overall reaction. Path II via a cis-neptunyl structure assisted by a water molecule might be a competitive channel against Path I with a mononuclear mechanism, owing to a rapid dynamical process occurring in Path II. In Path IV with the binuclear mechanism, oxo exchange is accomplished via the interaction between [NpO2(OH)4](2-) and T-shaped [NpO3(OH)3](3-) with a low activation energy for the rate-determining step, however, the overall energy required to fulfill the reaction is slightly higher than that in mononuclear Path I, suggesting a possible binuclear process in the higher energy region. The chemical bonding evolution along the reaction pathways was discussed by using topological methodologies of the electron localization function (ELF).

  11. Self-centered social exchange: differential use of costs versus benefits in prosocial reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Epley, Nicholas

    2009-11-01

    Maintaining equitable social relations often requires reciprocating "in kind" for others' prosocial favors. Such in-kind reciprocity requires assessing the value of a prosocial action, an assessment that can lead to egocentric biases in perceived value between favor givers versus favor receivers. In any prosocial exchange, 1 person (the giver) incurs a cost to provide a benefit for another person (the receiver). Six experiments suggest that givers may attend more to the costs they incur in performing a prosocial act than do receivers, who tend to focus relatively more on the benefits they receive. Givers may therefore expect to be reciprocated on the basis of the costs they incur, whereas receivers actually reciprocate primarily on the basis of the benefit they receive. This research identifies 1 challenge to maintaining a sense of equity in social relations and predicts when people are likely to feel fairly versus unfairly valued in their relationships.

  12. Social Networks and Externalities from Gift Exchange: Evidence from A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Lin, Wanchuan; Meng, Juanjuan

    2013-11-01

    This paper asks whether gift exchange generates externalities for people outside of the bilateral relationship between the gift giver and recipient, and whether the nature of this relationship is affected by social networks. We examine this question in the context of a field experiment in urban Chinese hospital outpatient clinics. We first show that when patients give a small gift, doctors reciprocate with better service and a fewer unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics. We then show that gift giving creates externalities for third parties. If two patients, A and B are perceived as unrelated, B receives worse care when A gives a gift. However, if A identifies B as a friend, then both A and B benefit from A's gift giving. Hence, we show that gift giving can create positive or negative externalities, depending on the giver's social distance to the third party.

  13. Social Networks and Externalities from Gift Exchange: Evidence from A Field Experiment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Lin, Wanchuan; Meng, Juanjuan

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks whether gift exchange generates externalities for people outside of the bilateral relationship between the gift giver and recipient, and whether the nature of this relationship is affected by social networks. We examine this question in the context of a field experiment in urban Chinese hospital outpatient clinics. We first show that when patients give a small gift, doctors reciprocate with better service and a fewer unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics. We then show that gift giving creates externalities for third parties. If two patients, A and B are perceived as unrelated, B receives worse care when A gives a gift. However, if A identifies B as a friend, then both A and B benefit from A’s gift giving. Hence, we show that gift giving can create positive or negative externalities, depending on the giver’s social distance to the third party. PMID:26949272

  14. Where Do I Stand? Examining the Effects of Leader-Member Exchange Social Comparison on Employee Work Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R.; Liden, Robert C.; Anand, Smriti; Erdogan, Berrin; Ghosh, Samiran

    2010-01-01

    Taking an approach integrating principles of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation with social comparison theory, we contend that subjective ratings by individuals of their LMX compared to the LMXs of coworkers (labeled LMX social comparison, or LMXSC) explain unique and meaningful variance in outcomes beyond LMX and the actual standing of…

  15. A Model to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Collaborative Online Learning Teams – Self-Disclosure and Social Exchange Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chieh Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative online learning teams (COLTs are teams that are comprised of groups of online students. Accompanying the popularity of online learning, both on campuses and as professional development within many industries, learning in groups has been attracting much attention. However, there is little research constructing intact frameworks to evaluate the effectiveness of COLTs. This study built a framework by incorporating six constructs: self-disclosure, social exchange, trust, cohesion, performance and satisfaction, and validated it by analyzing data from a five-week experiment. The results showed that social exchange had a significant impact on trust, but self-disclosure did not. Trust was significantly related to cohesion and cohesion was significantly related to performance and satisfaction. This study suggests that instructors should incorporate the number of students’ posts into parts of evaluation to facilitate self-disclosure, and to stop “social loafing” behaviors while encouraging social exchange activities.

  16. Virtual Reality Rehabilitation from Social Cognitive and Motor Learning Theoretical Perspectives in Stroke Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Imam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT and Motor Learning (MLT theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading. Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P<0.05. Ten VR interventions followed the principle of performance accomplishment. All the eleven VR interventions directed subject’s attention externally, whereas nine provided training in an unpredictable and variable fashion. Conclusions. The results of this review suggest that VR applications used for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population predominantly mediate learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  17. Virtual reality rehabilitation from social cognitive and motor learning theoretical perspectives in stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Jarus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR) interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT) and Motor Learning (MLT) theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion) and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading). Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  18. Cell rejuvenation and social behaviors promoted by LPS exchange in myxobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, Christopher; Pathak, Darshankumar T; Cao, Pengbo; Zuckerman, David M; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Wall, Daniel

    2015-06-02

    Bacterial cells in their native environments must cope with factors that compromise the integrity of the cell. The mechanisms of coping with damage in a social or multicellular context are poorly understood. Here we investigated how a model social bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, approaches this problem. We focused on the social behavior of outer membrane exchange (OME), in which cells transiently fuse and exchange their outer membrane (OM) contents. This behavior requires TraA, a homophilic cell surface receptor that identifies kin based on similarities in a polymorphic region, and the TraB cohort protein. As observed by electron microscopy, TraAB overexpression catalyzed a prefusion OM junction between cells. We then showed that damage sustained by the OM of one population was repaired by OME with a healthy population. Specifically, LPS mutants that were defective in motility and sporulation were rescued by OME with healthy donors. In addition, a mutant with a conditional lethal mutation in lpxC, an essential gene required for lipid A biosynthesis, was rescued by Tra-dependent interactions with a healthy population. Furthermore, lpxC cells with damaged OMs, which were more susceptible to antibiotics, had resistance conferred to them by OME with healthy donors. We also show that OME has beneficial fitness consequences to all cells. Here, in merged populations of damaged and healthy cells, OME catalyzed a dilution of OM damage, increasing developmental sporulation outcomes of the combined population by allowing it to reach a threshold density. We propose that OME is a mechanism that myxobacteria use to overcome cell damage and to transition to a multicellular organism.

  19. Pediatric psychotropic medication initiation and adherence: a literature review based on social exchange theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; McCarthy, Erin M; Tyson, Veda

    2010-08-01

    Psychotropic medication initiation and adherence is an identified problem. This literature review explores factors that determine families' decisions to initiate, sustain, or discontinue use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents. Social exchange theory is used as a framework to explore decisions to initiate and adhere to psychotropic medications. Contributing factors related to psychotropic medication initiation, adherence, and discontinuation are explored. Themes in the literature encompassing costs and benefits of psychotropic medication adherence include family experiences with adverse effects, previous psychotropic medication experience, medication psychoeducation, stigma, societal views about psychotropic medication, particular diagnosis, the effect of comorbid diagnosis on adherence, attitudes and beliefs about medication by both children and parents, and relationships with the provider. The impact of family demographics including parent gender, age of the child, ethnicity, and parent educational level on psychotropic medication adherence is evaluated. International and U.S. studies from Medline, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature and PsychInfo evaluating medication initiation and adherence in the pediatric psychiatric population and social exchange theory was incorporated from relevant textbook resources. Rewards experienced from medication treatment include improvement in symptoms, school performance and family relationships, and reduced level of parenting stress. Identified costs include impact of adverse side effects, social stigma, lack of response, fears of addiction, and changing the child's personality. Acceptance of the diagnosis influences adherence while medication education has varying effects. Families' attitudes, beliefs and perceptions about psychiatric illness and treatment play a large role in medication treatment decisions. A trusting provider relationship has a positive effect on adherence

  20. High Versus Low Theoretical Fidelity Pedometer Intervention Using Social-Cognitive Theory on Steps and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedeke, Thomas D; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to compare a low versus high theoretical fidelity pedometer intervention applying social-cognitive theory on step counts and self-efficacy. Fifty-six public university employees participated in a 10-week randomized controlled trial with 2 conditions that varied in theoretical fidelity. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition wore a pedometer and participated in a weekly group walk followed by a meeting to discuss cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy. Participants in the low theoretical fidelity condition met for a group walk and also used a pedometer as a motivational tool and to monitor steps. Step counts were assessed throughout the 10-week intervention and after a no-treatment follow-up (20 weeks and 30 weeks). Self-efficacy was measured preintervention and postintervention. Participants in the high theoretical fidelity condition increased daily steps by 2,283 from preintervention to postintervention, whereas participants in the low fidelity condition demonstrated minimal change during the same time period (p = .002). Individuals attending at least 80% of the sessions in the high theoretical fidelity condition showed an increase of 3,217 daily steps (d = 1.03), whereas low attenders increased by 925 (d = 0.40). Attendance had minimal impact in the low theoretical fidelity condition. Follow-up data revealed that step counts were at least somewhat maintained. For self-efficacy, participants in the high, compared with those in the low, theoretical fidelity condition showed greater improvements. Findings highlight the importance of basing activity promotion efforts on theory. The high theoretical fidelity intervention that included cognitive-behavioral strategies targeting self-efficacy was more effective than the low theoretical fidelity intervention, especially for those with high attendance.

  1. Thermodynamics of reversible gas adsorption on alkali-metal exchanged zeolites - the interplay of infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otero Areán, C.; Nachtigallová, Dana; Nachtigall, Petr; Garrone, E.; Rodríguez Delgado, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2007), s. 1421-1437 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/06/0324 Grant - others:UIB(ES) MAT2006-05350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adsorption * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.343, year: 2007

  2. Restorative Encounters in Terrorist Victimization in Spain: Theoretical Reflections and Practical Insights from Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Jose Olalde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available After the ceasefire announcement by the terrorist organization ETA in 2011, new horizons and scenarios of peace have opened in the Basque Country, a land that has been badly hurt by violence over several decades.Restorative justice, a new paradigm for an old kind of justice, the reparation of the harm caused to victims and their consequent importance in the judicial process, has been knocking at our door for a long time. Since the beginning of this decade, following European trends, our country has begun to implement restorative justice at different levels.This article wants to bring the reader closer to understanding of the possibilities which restorative justice offers to the victims of terrorism. We describe the central elements of the restorative encounters held between ex-members of ETA and direct or indirect victims. Furthermore, we support our restorative intervention with theoretical arguments and practical examples from social work. Tras el anuncio del cese de la actividad armada por parte de la organización armada ETA, en 2011, nuevos escenarios y horizontes de pacificación se abren en la historia para esta tierra, castigada por la violencia durante decenas de años.La Justicia restaurativa, un nuevo paradigma para una vieja reivindicación, la reparación de la víctima y su protagonismo en la resolución y abordaje de las consecuencias de los conflictos penales, lleva años asomando a nuestro contexto. Tras la incorporación de España a principios de esta década a las corrientes europeas, se constata la validación de la práctica restaurativa.Este artículo quiere acercar a la persona lectora la comprensión de las posibilidades de justicia restaurativa en victimización terrorista. Describimos los elementos centrales de los encuentros restaurativos celebrados entre ex miembros de ETA y víctimas directas e indirectas. Y nos apoyamos en elementos teóricos y prácticos del trabajo social para nuestra intervención restaurativa.

  3. Experiences of women with breast cancer: exchanging social support over the CHESS computer network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B R; McTavish, F; Hawkins, R; Gustafson, D H; Pingree, S

    2000-01-01

    Using an existential-phenomenological approach, this paper describes how women with breast cancer experience the giving and receiving of social support in a computer-mediated context. Women viewed their experiences with the computer-mediated support group as an additional and unique source of support in facing their illness. Anonymity within the support group fostered equalized participation and allowed women to communicate in ways that would have been more difficult in a face-to-face context. The asynchronous communication was a frustration to some participants, but some indicated that the format allowed for more thoughtful interaction. Motivations for seeking social support appeared to be a dynamic process, with a consistent progression from a position of receiving support to that of giving support. The primary benefits women received from participation in the group were communicating with other people who shared similar problems and helping others, which allowed them to change their focus from a preoccupation with their own sickness to thinking of others. Consistent with past research is the finding that women in this study expressed that social support is a multidimensional phenomenon and that their computer-mediated support group provided abundant emotional support, encouragement, and informational support. Excerpts from the phenomenological interviews are used to review and highlight key theoretical concepts from the research literatures on computer-mediated communication, social support, and the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer.

  4. Standardization of Brief Inventory of Social Support Exchange Network (BISSEN) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Miyuki; Tachikawa, Hirokazu; Fukuoka, Yoshiharu; Lebowitz, Adam; Shiratori, Yuki; Doi, Nagafumi; Matsui, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the Brief Inventory of Social Support Exchange Network (BISSEN) as a standardized brief inventory measuring various aspects of social support. We confirmed the reliability and validity for function and direction of support and standardized the BISSEN. For Sample 1, a stratified random sampling method was used to select 5200 residents in Japan. We conducted mail surveys and responses were retrieved from 2274 participants (collection rate 43.7%). Participants completed a questionnaire packet that included BISSEN, suicidal ideation, depression, support seeking, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Sample 2 surveys for test-retest reliability were conducted on 23 residents at approximately two-week intervals. Participants were asked about gender, age, and BISSEN. First, we assessed the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct, convergent, and concurrent validity. McDonald's omega (.73-.92) and test-retest correlations (.78-.85) demonstrated adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Depression, support seeking, and MSPSS were significantly correlated with all scores of BISSEN. The non-suicidal ideation group had significantly more support compared to the suicidal ideation group. Therefore, function and direction of support in BISSEN had sufficient reliability and validity. Next, we standardized BISSEN using Z-scores and percentile rank with respect to each 12 norm groups by age and gender. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An examination of network position and childhood relational aggression: integrating resource control and social exchange theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Cappella, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Applying resource control theory and social exchange theory, we examined the social network conditions under which elementary age children were likely to engage in relational aggression. Data on classroom peer networks and peer-nominated behaviors were collected on 671 second- through fourth-grade children in 34 urban, low-income classrooms. Nested regression models with robust cluster standard errors demonstrated that the association between children's number of relationships and their levels of relational aggression was moderated by the number of relationships that their affiliates had. Children with more peer relationships (i.e., higher network centrality) exhibited higher levels of relational aggression, but only when these relationships were with peers who had fewer connections themselves (i.e., poorly connected peers). This finding remained significant even when controlling for common predictors of relational aggression including gender, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, victimization, social preference, and perceived popularity. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for advancing the literature on childhood relational aggression and their practical applications for identifying children at risk for these behaviors. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Responsible Practices are Culturally Embedded: Theoretical Considerations on Industry-Specific Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Beschorner, Thomas; Hajduk, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we develop our argument in three steps: Firstly, we elaborate on some theoretical perspectives for industry-specific CSR by referring to cultural business ethics, a theoretical approach which is located between purely business perspectives and purely normative perspectives on CSR. Secondly, we briefly introduce the papers of this special issue, which covers a wide range of theoretical approaches and empirical studies in the field of industry-specific CSR. Thirdly, we draw atten...

  7. Constructivism as a Theoretical Foundation for the Use of Technology in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Hicks, David

    2003-01-01

    The National Council for the Social Studies has explicitly advocated technology integration into the social studies classroom to transform the teaching and learning of key social studies content and skills. While the call for technology integration into the social studies classroom is clear, the application of technology within the realm of social…

  8. [Problems encountered by hospital pharmacists with information systems: Analysis of exchanges within social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Mille, F; Fombeur, P; Machon, J; Zawadzki, E; Bobay-Madic, A

    2018-05-21

    The development of information systems in French hospitals is mandatory. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of exchanges carried out within social networks, dealing with problems encountered with hospital pharmacies information systems. Messages exchanged via the mailing list of the Association pour le Digital et l'Information en Pharmacie and abstracts of communications presented at hospital pharmacists trade union congresses were analyzed. Those referring to information systems used in hospital pharmacies were selected. From March 2015 to June 2016, 122 e-mails sent by 80 pharmacists concerned information systems. From 2002 to 2016, 45 abstracts dealt with this topic. Problems most often addressed in these 167 documents were "parameterization and/or functionalities" (n=116), interfaces and complexity of the hospital information systems (n=52), relationship with health information technologies vendors and poor reactivity (n=32), additional workload (n=32), ergonomics (n=30), insufficient user training (n=22). These problems are interdependent, lead to errors and in order to mitigate their consequences, they compel pharmacy professionals to divert a significant amount of working hours to the detriment of pharmaceutical care and dispensing and preparing drugs. Hospital pharmacists are faced with many problems of insecurity and inefficiency generated by information systems. Researches are warranted to determine their cost, specify their deleterious effects on care and identify the safest information systems. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Women’s Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreager, Derek A.; Felson, Richard B.; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education – divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women’s education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women’s proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women’s resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education – divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones. PMID:24357879

  10. Scoliosis and the Social Media: Facebook as a Means of Information Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jonathan P; Tarazi, Nadim; Byrne, Damien P; Baker, Joseph F; McCabe, John P

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decade, the emergence of social networking websites such as Facebook have revolutionized information dissemination and broadened opportunities to engage in discussions. In particular, having been widely adopted in the younger generation, the use of this medium has become more prevalent in health disorders such as scoliosis in the adolescent population. However, the quality of information on Facebook is unregulated and variable, which may mislead patients in their decision making. To document the various types of information available and assess the quality of information on Facebook discussion boards using recognized scoring systems. To evaluate the quality of information on the social network. A search for the keyword "scoliosis" on Facebook was performed and the first 100 pages generated were reviewed. SCSS and DISCERN score. Content analysis was performed on discussion boards and personal blogs. Two independent examiners evaluated each site according to scoliosis-specific content score (SCSS) and the DISCERN criteria, both previously used instruments to judge the quality of information on the Internet pertaining to scoliosis. The SCSS range from 0 to 32 (higher score better) and the DISCERN 16 to 80 (higher score better). Of the 100 sites reviewed, 33 were discussion boards and personal blogs. Of these, the overall average SCSS was 5.7 (SD 5.8, range 0-20) and the DISCERN was 22.5 (SD 7.6, range 16-45), indicating that using general scoring systems the quality of information provided was overall poor. Using recognized scoring systems to analyze Facebook pages used as discussion forums or blogs, we showed that the quality in general was poor. For modern practices to adapt to an era of information exchange via the social network, the orthopedic community should develop ways to incorporate the social media in future patient education. Copyright © 2016 Scoliosis Research Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Main Trends of Socialization of Youth in Contemporary Russia: Theoretical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khusyainov Т.М.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is the examination of special aspects of youth socialization. This article is based on results of research of «Faculty habitus» and socialization of students in a classical university (a case study of the faculty of social sciences of Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod).; official statistics; materials published in contemporary scientific literature. The author considers the main youth socialization trends, which depends on IT and mass media influenc...

  12. A theoretical dialogue on monitoring and valuation approaches, social capital, and the sociology of economics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weaver, Paul; Kemp, René

    2014-01-01

    Different forms of monitoring/measuring of social innovation are needed to respond to the evaluation concerns and questions of different stakeholders and the evaluation needs that arise at different stages in the process of social innovation. The established social innovation measurement paradigm,

  13. A Methodological Demonstration of Set-theoretical Approach to Social Media Maturity Models Using Necessary Condition Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...

  14. Theoretical reflections on the paradigmatic construction of Information Science: considerations about the (s paradigm (s cognitive (s and social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Luiz Carvalho Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It presents a research about the theoretical and epistemological processes that influence the formation of the cognitive paradigm of Information Science (IS, noting the emergence of social paradigm within the domain analysis and hermeneutics of information. For this, we adopted the reflections of classical and contemporary authors, like Thomas Kuhn, Boaventura Santos, Capurro, Hjørland and Albrechtsen. We conclude that the perception paradigm in IS is a consolidated issue, however the social paradigm is still under construction, which will allow the creation of perceptions, interpretations and contributions in order to fill gaps left by other paradigms.

  15. Theoretical calculation of reorganization energy for electron self-exchange reaction by constrained density functional theory and constrained equilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai-Sheng; Ming, Mei-Jun; Ma, Jian-Yi; Li, Xiang-Yuan

    2013-08-22

    Within the framework of constrained density functional theory (CDFT), the diabatic or charge localized states of electron transfer (ET) have been constructed. Based on the diabatic states, inner reorganization energy λin has been directly calculated. For solvent reorganization energy λs, a novel and reasonable nonequilibrium solvation model is established by introducing a constrained equilibrium manipulation, and a new expression of λs has been formulated. It is found that λs is actually the cost of maintaining the residual polarization, which equilibrates with the extra electric field. On the basis of diabatic states constructed by CDFT, a numerical algorithm using the new formulations with the dielectric polarizable continuum model (D-PCM) has been implemented. As typical test cases, self-exchange ET reactions between tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and their corresponding ionic radicals in acetonitrile are investigated. The calculated reorganization energies λ are 7293 cm(-1) for TCNE/TCNE(-) and 5939 cm(-1) for TTF/TTF(+) reactions, agreeing well with available experimental results of 7250 cm(-1) and 5810 cm(-1), respectively.

  16. Causal Effects of Language on the Exchange of Social Support in an Online Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Sarah A; Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-01

    The provision of social support is a common function of many online communities, but a full understanding of the causal effect of emotion language on the provision of support requires experimental study. The frequency of positive- and negative-emotion words in simulated posts requesting emotional support was manipulated and presented to a sample of college students (N = 442) who were randomly assigned to read one of four simulated posts. Participants completed measures of the original poster's (OP's) distress, and they provided a response to the simulated post. These responses were subjected to a computerized text analysis, and their overall effectiveness was rated by two independent judges. Fewer positive-emotion and more negative-emotion words in the simulated post led to perceptions that the OP was distressed and unable to cope. Participant-generated responses to the post were highest in positive-emotion words when the simulated post was high in positive-emotion words, but low in negative-emotion words. Finally, simulated posts that were low in positive-emotion words received responses that were judged to be more effective than did simulated posts that were high in positive-emotion words. These findings have implications for understanding the role of emotion language on the exchange of online social support.

  17. Molecular recognition in myxobacterial outer membrane exchange: functional, social and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Through cooperative interactions, bacteria can build multicellular communities. To ensure that productive interactions occur, bacteria must recognize their neighbours and respond accordingly. Molecular recognition between cells is thus a fundamental behaviour, and in bacteria important discoveries have been made. This MicroReview focuses on a recently described recognition system in myxobacteria that is governed by a polymorphic cell surface receptor called TraA. TraA regulates outer membrane exchange (OME), whereby myxobacterial cells transiently fuse their OMs to efficiently transfer proteins and lipids between cells. Unlike other transport systems, OME is rather indiscriminate in what OM goods are transferred. In contrast, the recognition of partnering cells is discriminatory and only occurs between cells that bear identical or closely related TraA proteins. Therefore TraA functions in kin recognition and, in turn, OME helps regulate social interactions between myxobacteria. Here, I discuss and speculate on the social and evolutionary implications of OME and suggest it helps to guide their transition from free-living cells into coherent and functional populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Toward a Multiple Perspective in Family Theory and Practice: The Case of Social Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; LeCroy, Craig W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the complementarity of three often-used theories in family research: social exchange theory, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory. Provides a case example in which a multiple perspective is applied to a problem of marital discord. Discusses implications for the clinician. (Author/WAS)

  19. The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, Mauricio; Whitehead, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Culture is increasingly being understood as a driver of mammalian phenotypes. Defined as group-specific behaviour transmitted by social learning, culture is shaped by social structure. However, culture can itself affect social structure if individuals preferentially interact with others whose behaviour is similar, or cultural symbols are used to mark groups. Using network formalism, this interplay can be depicted by the coevolution of nodes and edges together with the coevolution of network t...

  20. The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Mauricio; Whitehead, Hal

    2013-05-19

    Culture is increasingly being understood as a driver of mammalian phenotypes. Defined as group-specific behaviour transmitted by social learning, culture is shaped by social structure. However, culture can itself affect social structure if individuals preferentially interact with others whose behaviour is similar, or cultural symbols are used to mark groups. Using network formalism, this interplay can be depicted by the coevolution of nodes and edges together with the coevolution of network topology and transmission patterns. We review attempts to model the links between the spread, persistence and diversity of culture and the network topology of non-human societies. We illustrate these processes using cetaceans. The spread of socially learned begging behaviour within a population of bottlenose dolphins followed the topology of the social network, as did the evolution of the song of the humpback whale between breeding areas. In three bottlenose dolphin populations, individuals preferentially associated with animals using the same socially learned foraging behaviour. Homogeneous behaviour within the tight, nearly permanent social structures of the large matrilineal whales seems to result from transmission bias, with cultural symbols marking social structures. We recommend the integration of studies of culture and society in species for which social learning is an important determinant of behaviour.

  1. Determinants of Social Networking Software Acceptance: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ahmed Tajudeen; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; AbduRahman, Nik Suryani Nik; Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

    2013-01-01

    Understanding reasons why students use social media has become a major preoccupation of researchers in recent time due to the rate of its adoption among the present generation of students. Some of the few study on social media phenomenon employed a single theory as a framework in order to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of it…

  2. A Theoretical Framework and Model towards Media-Rich Social Presence Design Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Susan; McCaleb, Karen; Fernandez, Mary; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    Educators are seeing rapid developments in online instruction with regard to not only available technologies, but also in design and teaching practices. Developing and maintaining social presence in an online environment is paramount to the success of a learning environment. This article touches upon some historical perspectives of social presence…

  3. Life without Work: Understanding Social Class Changes and Unemployment through Theoretical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…

  4. The Relationship between Social Capital and Corporal Punishment in Schools. A Theoretical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the use of corporal punishment in the public schools and the amount of social capital (i.e., residents degree of involvement in community matters) in a state. Existing state-level data regarding social capital and incidents of corporal punishment were utilized. Results show a statistically significant…

  5. Moving Bodies beyond the Social/Biological Divide: Toward Theoretical and Transdisciplinary Adventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Holly

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I call for "new forms of thinking and new ways of theorizing" the complex relations between the biological and social in sport and physical culture. I illustrate the inseparability of our biological and social bodies in sport and physical culture via the case of exercise and female reproductive hormones. Inspired by…

  6. Application of the Social Marketing Model to Unemployment Counseling: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Paul; Sommerville, Susannah; Guenole, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    A. R. Andreasen's (1995) social marketing model (SMM) is applied to structure feedback counseling for individuals who are unemployed. The authors discuss techniques used in commercial marketing and how they are equally applicable to solving societal problems; SMM and its application to social interventions; and structured feedback that moves a…

  7. The Role of social media discourses on stakeholder crises awareness and perception – A meta-theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    , such perspective is best suited to explain the relationships between publics and organizations in the online environment. According to this perspective, organizations are not the hub of stakeholder communications and interactions, but rather they are simply spikes in a more complex network. Public......This paper provides a meta-theoretical framework to examine social media communications and crisis communication in these social media through the lens of communicative constitution of reality. Our claim is that discourse and online conversations are significant in shaping publics’ opinions...... in social media, both in general and specifically in discussions about crisis situations. Therefore, studying language and discourse becomes paramount to understand how conversations structure relationships and public opinions. We approach this task through a network-based perspective because, we argue...

  8. Convergence on Self - Generated vs. Crowdsourced Ideas in Crisis Response: Comparing Social Exchange Processes and Satisfaction with Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeber, Isabella; Merz, Alexander B.; Maier, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    engage in social exchange processes to converge on a few promising ideas. Traditionally, teams work on self-generated ideas. However, in a crowdsourcing scenario, such as public participation in crisis response, teams may have to process crowd-generated ideas. To better understand this new practice......Social media allow crowds to generate many ideas to swiftly respond to events like crises, public policy discourse, or online town hall meetings. This allows organizations and governments to harness the innovative power of the crowd. As part of this setting, teams that process crowd ideas must......, it is important to investigate how converging on crowdsourced ideas affects the social exchange processes of teams and resulting outcomes. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which small teams working in a crisis response setting converged on self-generated or crowdsourced ideas in an emergency response...

  9. Theoretical Analysis of The Use of Social Media in The Enterprise Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Donculaitė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the results of analysis of scientific literature on the social media concept and social media classification and provide insights on how the use of the social media can be expanded in business to get the maximum benefits and minimize potential risks. The structure of the article fits for purpose – presents the analysis of the scientific literature, synthesis, comparison, systematization of information and its graphical visualization. The performed analysis allowed to determine possibilities for application of the social media in the enterprise activities and to identify gained benefits. Social media allows enterprises to communicate more flexible and faster both in the outside and inside environment, facilitates customer accessibility, provides opportunity to quickly respond to customer feedback or inform existing and potential customers about new ideas and proposals.

  10. Idiosyncratic deals and employee outcomes: the mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement and the moderating role of individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lee, Cynthia; Hui, Chun; Kwan, Ho Kwong; Wu, Long-Zeng

    2013-09-01

    The majority of studies on idiosyncratic employment arrangements ("i-deals") are based on social exchange theory. The authors suggest that self-enhancement theory, in addition to social exchange, can be used to explain the effects of i-deals. Using a multisource sample including 230 employees and 102 supervisors from 2 Chinese companies, the authors adopt a 3-wave lagged design to examine the mediating roles of social exchange and self-enhancement and the moderating role of individualism in the relationships between i-deals and employee outcomes, as indicated by proactive behaviors and affective commitment. The results of bootstrapping analyses confirm the mediating effects of social exchange and self-enhancement. In addition, employees with high levels of individualism are more receptive to self-enhancement effects; in contrast, employees with low levels of individualism are more receptive to social exchange effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Theory of Social Space by P. Bourdieu as a Theoretical Background for Studying Discourse Practices in the Legal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Krapivkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at expanding the theoretical basis of discourse analysis by involving the theory of fields by P. Bourdieu who says that there is a social genesis of perception and thinking patterns and actions (habitus, on the one hand, and social structures and fields, on the other one. The speaking subject is influenced by objective relations of forces typical for a certain field – a social area with specific social relations, means and purposes. All agents of the legal field are able to use polysemy of legal formulas, tend to use the elasticity of the law, existing ambiguity and gaps in their own interests. Using expert knowledge as a manipulative resource, agents of the legal field enforce their own views on lay people. Social differences between agents of the legal field (legal experts and their clients (lay people are due to their struggle for monopoly which means increase in distance between formally specified legal rules and na−ve intuitive concepts of legal phenomena. Individuals who are prone to behavior complying with a certain matrix of social actions are a typical feature of legal discourse practices. When interacting with lay people, experts, whose actions comply with specific institutional status, control their discursive behavior.

  12. Appraising the Qualities of Social Work Students' Theoretical Knowledge: A Qualitative Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Marijke; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Kwakman, Kitty

    2012-01-01

    Higher professional education aims to prepare students for entering practice with an adequate theoretical body of knowledge. In constructivist programmes, authentic learning contexts and self-directed learning are assumed to support knowledge learning and the transition from education to practice. Through an in-depth exploration, this case study…

  13. Investigar en los márgenes de las ciencias sociales Researching in the Theoretical Limits of the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Torres Carrillo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una nueva perspectiva para comprender el reciente proceso de reestructuración del campo de los estudios sociales, en particular la emergencia de prácticas investigativas por fuera y en los bordes de las disciplinas sociales. En América Latina, propuestas como la investigación acción participativa y la sistematización de experiencias ponen en evidencia que desde otros lugares sociales diferentes del mundo académico, como los movimientos sociales, se producen prácticas investigativas. Dichas modalidades de producción de conocimiento no solo subvierten los presupuestos epistemológicos de la ciencia clásica, sino que, dado su carácter liminal, abren la posibilidad para avanzar hacia lo inédito, hacia la construcción instituyente de realidades.This article deals with a new perspective to understand the recent process for restructuring the research field in the social studies. As one example, the emergent research practices like outside and inside of borders in social disciplines. In Latin America; proposals as the Action - Research and its experiences of systematization, are known for represent other realities and for show them into the academic world. Another example can be described in the formation and consolidation of new social movements that take place based on the research practice. These modalities of production of knowledge not only subvert the epistemological presuppositions of the classic science, but also, give their liminal character. They open the possibility to advance toward the construction of new realities.

  14. Theoretical background of healthcare management in the conditions of social and economic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuldyakov V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop fundamental basis of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability. Public health state (1998-2008, selected region was characterized by cardiovascular health parameters (Code IX, ICD-10. Systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Dynamic characteristics of major cardiovascular diseases in social and economic instability considered as a cause of a population system destabilization were reconstructed. Conclusion. Fundamentals of science based healthcare management in social and economic instability include long- and short-term prognosis of public health characteristics as the result of multifactor external influences on cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

  15. Decreased functional connectivity in schizophrenia: The relationship between social functioning, social cognition and graph theoretical network measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, Burak; Serin, Emin; İbadi, Yelda; Taş, Cumhur

    2017-12-30

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which abnormalities in brain connectivity and social functioning play a central role. The aim of this study is to explore small-world network properties, and understand their relationship with social functioning and social cognition in the context of schizophrenia, by testing functional connectivity differences in network properties and its relation to clinical behavioral measures. Resting-state fMRI time series data were acquired from 23 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 23 healthy volunteers. The results revealed that patients with schizophrenia show significantly decreased connectivity between a range of brain regions, particularly involving connections among the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral putamen and left amygdala. Furthermore, topological properties of functional brain networks in patients with schizophrenia were characterized by reduced path length compared to healthy controls; however, no significant difference was found for clustering coefficient, local efficiency or global efficiency. Additionally, we found that nodal efficiency of the amygdala and the putamen were significantly correlated with the independence-performance subscale of social functioning scale (SFC), and Reading the Mind in the Eyes test; however, the correlations do not survive correction for multiple comparison. The current results help to clarify the relationship between social functioning deficits and topological brain measures in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tandem anchoring: informational and politeness effects of range offers in social exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel R; Mason, Malia F

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether and why range offers (e.g., "I want $7,200 to $7,600 for my car") matter in negotiations. A selective-attention account predicts that motivated and skeptical offer-recipients focus overwhelmingly on the attractive endpoint (i.e., a buyer would hear, in effect, "I want $7,200"). In contrast, we propose a tandem anchoring account, arguing that offer-recipients are often influenced by both endpoints as they judge the offer-maker's reservation price (i.e., bottom line) as well as how polite they believe an extreme (nonaccommodating) counteroffer would be. In 5 studies, featuring scripted negotiation scenarios and live dyadic negotiations, we find that certain range offers yield improved settlement terms for offer-makers without relational costs, whereas others may yield relationship benefits without deal costs. We clarify the types of range offers that evoke these benefits and identify boundaries to their impact, including range width and extremity. In addition, our studies reveal evidence consistent with 2 proposed mechanisms, one involving an informational effect (both endpoints of range offers can be taken as signals of an offer-maker's reservation price) and another involving a politeness effect (range offers can make extreme counteroffers seem less polite). Our results have implications for models of negotiation behavior and outcomes and, more broadly, for the nature of social exchange. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Resolving the Theoretical Ambiguities of Social Exclusion with reference to Polarisation and Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses several ambiguities in the social exclusion literature that fuel the common criticism that the concept is redundant with respect to already existing poverty approaches, particularly more multidimensional and processual approaches such as relative or capability

  18. Goffman's Dramaturgical Sociology: Developing a Meaningful Theoretical Context and Exercise Involving "Embarrassment and Social Organization."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Depicts a useful participatory exercise in teaching Erving Goffman's dramaturgical sociology by drawing upon his essay about embarrassment and social organization. Argues the need to devise new ways to involve students in sociological theorists' insights. (Author/KDR)

  19. Perceived reciprocity in social exchange and health functioning in early old age: prospective findings from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Ribet, Celine; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-05-01

    To assess prospectively the effects of perceived non-reciprocity of exchange in three different types of social engagement on health functioning in early old age. In the frame of the prospective French GAZEL cohort study, data on reciprocity in three types of role-related social engagement (principal regular activity in everyday life, marital role relationship, trusting relationships in civic life) were collected from 8679 men and 2742 women (mean age: 60.4 years) in 2005. Two years later, health functioning was assessed using the SF-36 mental and physical component scores, as well as self-perceived health. Multivariate regressions were calculated, controlling for important confounders including baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of perceived non-reciprocity in all three types of social exchange on mental and physical health functioning were observed. After adjustment for relevant confounders including baseline self-perceived, health effects were attenuated, but largely remained significant. Findings underline the importance of the quality of social exchange (reciprocity vs. non-reciprocity) for health functioning in early old age.

  20. Social representations: a theoretical approach in health - doi:10.5020/18061230.2011.p80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiane Santos Bittencourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the theory of social representations, placing its epistemology and knowing the basic concepts of its approach as a structural unit of knowledge for health studies. Justification: The use of this theory comes from the need to understand social events under the lens of the meanings constructed by the community. Data Synthesis: This was a descriptive study of literature review, which used as a source of data collection the classical authors of social representations supported by articles from electronic search at Virtual Health Library (VHL. The definition and discussion of collected data enabled to introduce two themes, versed on the history and epistemology of representations and on the structural approach of representations in health studies. Conclusion: This review allowed highlight the importance of locating the objects of study with regard to contextual issues of individual and collective histories, valuing the plurality of relations, to come closer to reality that is represented by the subjects.

  1. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  2. Foreign Scholars' Theoretical Approaches to Using Social Networks as Educational Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyura, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Modern trends in development of information and communication technologies change many aspects in the process of education: from the role of participants to the forms and methods of knowledge delivery. ICTs make it possible to develop students' creative potential. The emergence of online social groups was an important event in the sphere of…

  3. Cultural, Human, and Social Capital as Determinants of Corporal Punishment: Toward an Integrated Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Tung, Yuk-Ying; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2000-01-01

    This article constructs a model to predict the likelihood of parental use of corporal punishment on children in two-parent families. Reports that corporal punishment is primarily determined by cultural, human, and social capital that are available to, or already acquired by parents. Discusses an integrated, resource-based theory for predicting use…

  4. Political socialization of the contemporary Russian intelligentsia: the experience of theoretical-methodological conceptualization

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    Vartumian Arushan Arushanovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a typology of the concepts of political socialization of the Russian intelligentsia in the context of formation of modern political culture. The author substantiates the decisive role of the microenvironment in the relationship “person – politically organized society”; is actualized the thesis about the stable and homogeneous nature of the political system is actualized.

  5. Unraveling the diverse nature of service quality in a sharing economy:A social exchange theory perspective of Airbnb accommodation

    OpenAIRE

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Stylos, Nikolaos; Rahimi, Roya; Vedanthachari, Lakshmi Narasimhan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose - This study investigates customers’ perceptions of the service quality facets of Airbnb accommodation using social exchange theory as a suitable conceptual framework to explain aspects of interactivity between guests and hosts.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - A self-administered questionnaire consisting of 25 accommodation- specific service quality attributes, structured according to Akbaba’s (2006) measurement scale and based on the service quality hierarchical conceptualizatio...

  6. Academic and Social Experiences of Exchange Students from Japan Attending an American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the views of exchange students from Japan about their sojourn experiences at an American university. The participants were eight exchange students from Japan (four males and four females). This descriptive-qualitative study was conceptualized within sojourner theory (Siu, 1952). The data…

  7. Reaching the limits of reciprocity in favor exchange: The effects of generous, stingy, and matched favor giving on social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Kan; Xu, Erica; Huang, Xu; Liu, Wu; Tang, Yipeng

    2018-06-01

    Group members gain social status via giving favors to others, but why and when they do so remain unclear in the literature. Building on social exchange theory and social status literature, we identify three types of favor giving among group members (generous, stingy, and matched) and propose that an affective mechanism (i.e., gratitude) and a cognitive mechanism (i.e., perceived competence) underlie the relationship between favor giving and status attainment. Specifically, generous/stingy favor giving has a linear relationship with status attainment through both gratitude and perceived competence, whereas matched favor giving has a curvilinear relationship with status attainment only through perceived competence. An experimental study and a field study lend support to our propositions. Our study complements the literature by offering a complete picture of how three types of favor giving among group members shape their social status in different ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Game-Theoretic Social-Aware Resource Allocation for Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Network

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    Lei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-Device communication underlaying cellular network can increase the spectrum efficiency due to direct proximity communication and frequency reuse. However, such performance improvement is influenced by the power interference caused by spectrum sharing and social characteristics in each social community jointly. In this investigation, we present a dynamic game theory with complete information based D2D resource allocation scheme for D2D communication underlaying cellular network. In this resource allocation method, we quantify both the rate influence from the power interference caused by the D2D transmitter to cellular users and rate enhancement brought by the social relationships between mobile users. Then, the utility function maximization game is formulated to optimize the overall transmission rate performance of the network, which synthetically measures the final influence from both power interference and sociality enhancement. Simultaneously, we discuss the Nash Equilibrium of the proposed utility function maximization game from a theoretical point of view and further put forward a utility priority searching algorithm based resource allocation scheme. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme attains better performance compared with the other two advanced proposals.

  9. Social capital and transaction cost on co-creating IT value towards inter-organizational EMR exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin Hsin; Hung, Chung-Jye; Huang, Ching Ying; Wong, Kit Hong; Tsai, Yi Ju

    2017-01-01

    This study adopts social capital theory and transaction cost theory to explore the feasibility of an inter-organizational cross-hospital electronic medical records (EMR) exchange system, and the factors that affect its adoption. The concept of value co-creation is also used to assess such a system, and its influence on the performance of participating medical institutes. This research collected 330 valid paper-based questionnaires from the medical staff of various institutes. The results showed that social interaction ties and shared vision positively affected medical institutes' willingness to adopt the EMR exchange system, while asset specificity and uncertainty increased the related transaction costs. With a greater willingness to invest in relation-specific assets and to meet the related transaction costs, this behavior lead to an increase in medical IT value, as well as better results for the related medical institutes, medical staff, and patients. Therefore, this study suggests that such institutes encourage their medical staff to participate in seminars or reunions in order to develop their professional and social networks, and set up clear schedules and desire for expected effects when introducing the cross-hospital EMR exchange system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. BEHAVIOURAL, EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN SIBLINGS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ruiz Aparicio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have unique characteristics and very little is known about how these characteristics may influence the family and the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of their siblings. The purpose of the current study is to focus on the siblings and to review the literature related to the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of siblings of individuals with ASD. We have identified and analysed 24 articles to find the relevant results that may help us to understand the needs of these siblings. The findings suggest mixed results but they also bring to light a number of risk factors that could have an impact on the entire family and particularly on the siblings of children with ASD.

  11. Difficulties in Defining Social-Emotional Intelligence, Competences and Skills - a Theoretical Analysis and Structural Suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moana Monnier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Demands related to the frequency of and time required for interactional tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person’s ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotional intelligence. In connection to discussions about curriculum standards in Germany, these are viewed as important attributes that should be taught, supported and if possible assessed in educational pathways toward an occupation (KMK, 2007. However, in looking for a generally approved and widely used definition, many problems arise on the inter-conceptual and intra-conceptual level, triggering implementation difficulties in educational curricula. This article highlights these difficulties by selecting five well-established key theories and comparing their communalities and differences. Analyzing definitions of intelligence, competences and skills, taking an action regulation perspective and highlighting the interdependence of social and emotional aspects, a structural system to facilitate the transfer into the educational context is proposed.

  12. Coupling Social Solidarity and Social Harmony in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Ma, Stephen Kan

    2011-01-01

    The various forms of social solidarity are empirically uncharted, especially in relation to social harmony. With respect to resource exchange theory, inclusive solidarity or intergroup acceptance is more conducive to social harmony than mechanical, organic, distributive, and dialogic forms of solidarity. The theoretical prediction holds in the…

  13. Modelling Titanic and Clash of Clans Games: Theoretical Definition and Application in Current Social Systems

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    Jan Mertl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article develops research into Titanic games and the associated concepts anchored in game theory. It defines the conditions under which a Titanic game transitions into a Clash of Clans game and discusses the degree of punishment and its consequences for the nature of the game and the positions of the individual players. The game is analysed in significant detail, clearly showing what happens when diff erent strategies are chosen. At the same time, the article also looks at the context of social policy and social systems, where the application of the analysed games is very beneficial, and points to the example of the situation in the Czech health insurance system between 2000 and 2010. The identification of the proposed concepts and their possible existence in socio-economic reality enables us to substantially better see what games are being played or can be played, and as such to gain an understanding of what is happening. The article shows the diff erences between Titanic and Clash of Clans games and their possible application in current social systems.

  14. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE CONCEPT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL IN SUPPORTING ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Monica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Any activity requires the presence of labor resources. If centuries ago the concept was that their presence was enough, now it takes a lot more. Moreover, since Aristotle the issue was taking into consideration all aspects of the community life that can lead to a "better life". In the current conditions we may consider resources in the broader context of the human factor and of the relations established within a society. Thus social capital was conceptualized. As opportunities of economic growth - based purely on the quantitative aspects of the determinants – were limited, the need occurred to reconsider the qualitative and structural components. Social capital considers a number of the integrative components of social life. These refer to the relations established at family level up to the level of societal institutions. It is necessary that these relationships be well established, and for the proper performance it is necessary that aspects of education and health should be properly valued and assessed. This helps setting up strong institutions. Developed countries have the ability to create a proper environment for the manifestations of social capital; in these countries one can observe the growing importance of formal and more impersonal relations. But this just reinforces the occurrence and development of economic activities based on efficiency criteria leading to the countries’ economic development. The interpretations of economic development issues have undergone changes in recent decades. If previously it was considered that the essential difference between rich and poor countries is reflected in the amount of physical capital per person, later on the concept of capital has been expanded to include as well human capital, the lack of which was considered a serious obstacle to development, particularly in the case of poor countries. And given the fact that the transactions within an economic system take place in an

  15. Social network-related risk factors for bloodborne virus infections among injection drug users receiving syringes through secondary exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-François; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Secondary syringe exchange (SSE) refers to the exchange of sterile syringes between injection drug users (IDUs). To date there has been limited examination of SSE in relation to the social networks of IDUs. This study aimed to identify characteristics of drug injecting networks associated with the receipt of syringes through SSE. Active IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programs in Montreal, Canada, between April 2004 and January 2005. Information on each participant and on their drug-injecting networks was elicited using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Subjects' network characteristics were examined in relation to SSE using regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 218 participants, 126 were SSE recipients with 186 IDUs in their injecting networks. The 92 non-recipients reported 188 network IDUs. Networks of SSE recipients and non-recipients were similar with regard to network size and demographics of network members. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age and gender, SSE recipients were more likely than non-recipients to self-report being HIV-positive (OR=3.56 [1.54-8.23]); require or provide help with injecting (OR=3.74 [2.01-6.95]); have a social network member who is a sexual partner (OR=1.90 [1.11-3.24]), who currently attends a syringe exchange or methadone program (OR=2.33 [1.16-4.70]), injects daily (OR=1.77 [1.11-2.84]), and shares syringes with the subject (OR=2.24 [1.13-4.46]). SSE is associated with several injection-related risk factors that could be used to help focus public health interventions for risk reduction. Since SSE offers an opportunity for the dissemination of important prevention messages, SSE-based networks should be used to improve public health interventions. This approach can optimize the benefits of SSE while minimizing the potential risks associated with the practice of secondary exchange.

  16. Theoretical and historical bases of formation of social and economic nature of consumer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алла Іванівна Мілька

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of cooperation and cooperative approaches to address these concepts and the importance of social and economic component at different stages of development of the cooperative movement and the theory of cooperation are described in the article. Opinions of the scientists about the non-profit nature of the cooperative are considered and researched. Based on the study the main conceptual provisions of cooperation are highlighted and proposed the author's definition of consumer cooperatives is proposed on the basis of the research 

  17. A Collaborative Approach to Defining the Usefulness of Impact: Lessons from a Knowledge Exchange Project Involving Academics and Social Work Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Heather; Gallagher, Michael; Smith, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project involving academics and practitioners in six local authority social work departments. It contributes to recent debates about the coproduction of knowledge, presenting findings in three key areas: the importance of relationships for knowledge exchange; "what works" for practitioners…

  18. THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE-ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIP ON INDIVIDUALS’ BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES OF TASK-RELATED PERFORMANCE, CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE AND INTENTION TO TURNOVER: AN EVALUATION WITH SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil BAL TAŞTAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available THE IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE-ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIP ON INDIVIDUALS’ BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES OF TASK-RELATED PERFORMANCE, CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE AND INTENTION TO TURNOVER: AN EVALUATION WITH SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY

  19. A Theoretical Construct of Serious Play and the Design of a Tangible Social Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Pamela L.

    To construct is to creatively invent one's world by engaging in creative decision-making, problem solving, and negotiation. The metaphor of construction is used to demonstrate how a simple artifact - a building blockw can be used to facilitate the exploration of personal narratives. This chapter presents an argument for the development of tangible social interfaces and interaction design practices that are informed by the premises of twentieth century philosophical and cultural theories. Specifically, this chapter explores the historical notion of the role of play in constructing a civic society. The constructed narratives' electronic construction kit is introduced as an example of research and development of a critical creative technology built on a wireless ad hoc 802.15.4 network platform. The game is designed to support collaborative play and learning.

  20. A Game Theoretic Approach for Modeling Privacy Settings of an Online Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Users of online social networks often adjust their privacy settings to control how much information on their profiles is accessible to other users of the networks. While a variety of factors have been shown to affect the privacy strategies of these users, very little work has been done in analyzing how these factors influence each other and collectively contribute towards the users’ privacy strategies. In this paper, we analyze the influence of attribute importance, benefit, risk and network topology on the users’ attribute disclosure behavior by introducing a weighted evolutionary game model. Results show that: irrespective of risk, users aremore likely to reveal theirmost important attributes than their least important attributes; when the users’ range of influence is increased, the risk factor plays a smaller role in attribute disclosure; the network topology exhibits a considerable effect on the privacy in an environment with risk.

  1. Understanding the impact of political violence in childhood: a theoretical review using a social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Orla T

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.

  2. Social determinants of health inequalities: towards a theoretical perspective using systems science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Saroj

    2015-08-25

    A systems approach offers a novel conceptualization to natural and social systems. In recent years, this has led to perceiving population health outcomes as an emergent property of a dynamic and open, complex adaptive system. The current paper explores these themes further and applies the principles of systems approach and complexity science (i.e. systems science) to conceptualize social determinants of health inequalities. The conceptualization can be done in two steps: viewing health inequalities from a systems approach and extending it to include complexity science. Systems approach views health inequalities as patterns within the larger rubric of other facets of the human condition, such as educational outcomes and economic development. This anlysis requires more sophisticated models such as systems dynamic models. An extension of the approach is to view systems as complex adaptive systems, i.e. systems that are 'open' and adapt to the environment. They consist of dynamic adapting subsystems that exhibit non-linear interactions, while being 'open' to a similarly dynamic environment of interconnected systems. They exhibit emergent properties that cannot be estimated with precision by using the known interactions among its components (such as economic development, political freedom, health system, culture etc.). Different combinations of the same bundle of factors or determinants give rise to similar patterns or outcomes (i.e. property of convergence), and minor variations in the initial condition could give rise to widely divergent outcomes. Novel approaches using computer simulation models (e.g. agent-based models) would shed light on possible mechanisms as to how factors or determinants interact and lead to emergent patterns of health inequalities of populations.

  3. Theoretical and methodological bases of studying the symbolization of social and political reality in transit societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Slavina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to form a methodological foundation to explore the process of symbolic constructioning of reality in the political systems in a state of democratic transition. From the author’s point of view, such transit systems differ with the phenomenal features of transitional type of sign-symbolic context. There are the most significant of them: the confrontation of symbols of old and new, and the formation of public anxiety due to violation of the established values (significant symbols. The result of these processes is the emergence of the conditions for increasing capacity of perception of new symbols (re-symbolization, transmigration of symbolic forms, the appearance of spontaneous symbolic interactions in the community in the form of political protests, rallies, and panic. In this regard, it is necessary to understand the possibilities of the productive management of the collective consciousness in transit period to achieve mental solidarity of concrete society with democratic values. To perform this task, author develops the appropriate tools, which are based on the phenomenological theory, the Schutz’s theory of the constitution of the multiple realities, the philosophy of symbolic forms of E. Cassirer, the theory of social construction of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, as well as Lotman’s semiotic concept. It is concluded that in the collision of alternative symbolic projects of social order it is advisable to resort to controlled symbolization (the production of special symbolic codes of political legitimation. At the same time it is important to understand the mechanisms of auto- symbolization of the society (changing of mass consciousness by virtue of the progressive development of the political culture of people. Careless use of these technologies in the countries with non-consolidated democracy may become a factor of destabilization and formation of the conditions for authoritarian rollback.

  4. Synchronization as a biological, psychological and social mechanism to create common time: A theoretical frame and a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Wang, Lingyan; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Yang, Taoxi; Avram, Mihai; Blautzik, Janusch; Paolini, Marco; Silveira, Sarita; Vedder, Aline; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Zhou, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Synchronizing neural processes, mental activities, and social interactions is considered to be fundamental for the creation of temporal order on the personal and interpersonal level. Several different types of synchronization are distinguished, and for each of them examples are given: self-organized synchronizations on the neural level giving rise to pre-semantically defined time windows of some tens of milliseconds and of approximately 3 s; time windows that are created by synchronizing different neural representations, as for instance in aesthetic appreciations or moral judgments; and synchronization of biological rhythms with geophysical cycles, like the circadian clock with the 24-hr rhythm of day and night. For the latter type of synchronization, an experiment is described that shows the importance of social interactions for sharing or avoiding common time. In a group study with four subjects being completely isolated together for 3 weeks from the external world, social interactions resulted both in intra- and interindividual circadian synchronization and desynchronization. A unique phenomenon in circadian regulation is described, the "beat phenomenon," which has been made visible by the interaction of two circadian rhythms with different frequencies in one body. The separation of the two physiological rhythms was the consequence of social interactions, that is, by the desire of a subject to share and to escape common time during different phases of the long-term experiment. The theoretical arguments on synchronization are summarized with the general statement: "Nothing in cognitive science makes sense except in the light of time windows." The hypothesis is forwarded that time windows that express discrete timing mechanisms in behavioral control and on the level of conscious experiences are the necessary bases to create cognitive order, and it is suggested that time windows are implemented by neural oscillations in different frequency domains. © 2015 The

  5. Investigating DMOs through the Lens of Social Network Analysis: Theoretical Gaps, Methodological Challenges and Practitioner Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean HRISTOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature on networks in tourism management research has traditionally acknowledged destinations as the primary unit of analysis. This paper takes an alternative perspective and positions Destination Management Organisations (DMOs at the forefront of today’s tourism management research agenda. Whilst providing a relatively structured approach to generating enquiry, network research vis-à-vis Social Network Analysis (SNA in DMOs is often surrounded by serious impediments. Embedded in the network literature, this conceptual article aims to provide a practitioner perspective on addressing the obstacles to undertaking network studies in DMO organisations. A simple, three-step methodological framework for investigating DMOs as interorganisational networks of member organisations is proposed in response to complexities in network research. The rationale behind introducing such framework lies in the opportunity to trigger discussions and encourage further academic contributions embedded in both theory and practice. Academic and practitioner contributions are likely to yield insights into the importance of network methodologies applied to DMO organisations.

  6. Service-learning for students of spanish: promoting civic engagement and social justice through an exchange tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Burgo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Service-learning courses are designed to promote civic engagement and social justice, and to connect the classroom with the community in an environment of cooperation and mutual interest. In this article, a service-learning course of Spanish at the university level is supported as a reciprocal language exchange between the campus and the community. According to this course proposal, students attend a Latino community site once a week, where their members are tutored in English and American culture, while students are tutored in Spanish and Spanish-speaking culture. This way, service-learning is connected to the Spanish classroom through “Reflection” sessions led by mentors visiting the class periodically. This course was designed so that students would be able to improve their conversation skills in this exchange tutoring service while they are involved with the community by seeing their members as equal peers.

  7. Realities and Realizations: Reflections on a Social Work Exchange Program between the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jennifer; Haney, Jolynn L.; Houser, Linda; Cao, Jun; Mi, Xi

    2016-01-01

    China has a long and complex history of political, economic, and educational shifts that have resulted in and from changing cultural values. Over time, the significance and format of social work education in China has changed, as has the need for professionally educated social workers that can support the ever-evolving social needs of China. To…

  8. Where do I stand? Examining the effects of leader-member exchange social comparison on employee work behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Liden, Robert C; Anand, Smriti; Erdogan, Berrin; Ghosh, Samiran

    2010-09-01

    Taking an approach integrating principles of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation with social comparison theory, we contend that subjective ratings by individuals of their LMX compared to the LMXs of coworkers (labeled LMX social comparison, or LMXSC) explain unique and meaningful variance in outcomes beyond LMX and the actual standing of those individuals in the LMX distribution, referred to as relative LMX, or RLMX. Our findings demonstrate that employees' perceptions of LMXSC are positively related beyond the effects of LMX and RLMX to job performance and citizenship behaviors. Further, we argue that LMXSC mediates the RLMX→outcomes relationships. Analyses showed that, in a sample of 254 employees nested in 50 work groups, a significant part of the effects of RLMX on job performance and citizenship behaviors was mediated through LMXSC after controlling for LMX. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  9. “When I speak English, I feel international”. Exchange students’ construction of social identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    “When I speak English, I feel international”. Exchange students’ construction of social identity in Denmark. Students from various countries participate in the English courses for Ph.D. and Master students at Aalborg University, Denmark. Here they try to achieve a fluency in English that permits...... them to participate in classes and to pass their exams in English, write their thesis in English, etc. The students have different nationalities and identities. While learning English, they try to adapt to Denmark and the Danish culture and language. English plays the role as the lingua franca per se...... in the globalized world and in Denmark aswell. Studies show that language influence a person’s social identity. In this paper I will present the case of a group of foreign students and the construction of identity while participating in English courses. Particularly interesting is the ‘international identity...

  10. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of Social Capital and Knowledge Exchange for Virtual Members of IT Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton Feliu, Genevieve

    2018-01-01

    Social capital theory conceptualized social capital as key to connecting team members into the flow of valued resources and activities, with knowledge deemed one of the most valuable of these resources. Yet, the literature found teams struggle to effectively share knowledge. This quantitative survey-based study assessed the interrelationship…

  11. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.

    2007-01-01

    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  12. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P. Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent’s preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner’s appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner’s model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference. PMID:26053429

  13. Monte Carlo Planning Method Estimates Planning Horizons during Interactive Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hula, Andreas; Montague, P Read; Dayan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Reciprocating interactions represent a central feature of all human exchanges. They have been the target of various recent experiments, with healthy participants and psychiatric populations engaging as dyads in multi-round exchanges such as a repeated trust task. Behaviour in such exchanges involves complexities related to each agent's preference for equity with their partner, beliefs about the partner's appetite for equity, beliefs about the partner's model of their partner, and so on. Agents may also plan different numbers of steps into the future. Providing a computationally precise account of the behaviour is an essential step towards understanding what underlies choices. A natural framework for this is that of an interactive partially observable Markov decision process (IPOMDP). However, the various complexities make IPOMDPs inordinately computationally challenging. Here, we show how to approximate the solution for the multi-round trust task using a variant of the Monte-Carlo tree search algorithm. We demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and effective, and therefore can be used to invert observations of behavioural choices. We use generated behaviour to elucidate the richness and sophistication of interactive inference.

  14. Transformation of Adolescent Peer Relations in the Social Media Context: Part 1-A Theoretical Framework and Application to Dyadic Peer Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2018-04-07

    Investigators have long recognized that adolescents' peer experiences provide a crucial context for the acquisition of developmental competencies, as well as potential risks for a range of adjustment difficulties. However, recent years have seen an exponential increase in adolescents' adoption of social media tools, fundamentally reshaping the landscape of adolescent peer interactions. Although research has begun to examine social media use among adolescents, researchers have lacked a unifying framework for understanding the impact of social media on adolescents' peer experiences. This paper represents Part 1 of a two-part theoretical review, in which we offer a transformation framework to integrate interdisciplinary social media scholarship and guide future work on social media use and peer relations from a theory-driven perspective. We draw on prior conceptualizations of social media as a distinct interpersonal context and apply this understanding to adolescents' peer experiences, outlining features of social media with particular relevance to adolescent peer relations. We argue that social media transforms adolescent peer relationships in five key ways: by changing the frequency or immediacy of experiences, amplifying experiences and demands, altering the qualitative nature of interactions, facilitating new opportunities for compensatory behaviors, and creating entirely novel behaviors. We offer an illustration of the transformation framework applied to adolescents' dyadic friendship processes (i.e., experiences typically occurring between two individuals), reviewing existing evidence and offering theoretical implications. Overall, the transformation framework represents a departure from the prevailing approaches of prior peer relations work and a new model for understanding peer relations in the social media context.

  15. Teacher burnout : a flickering flame : an empirical study among teachers from a social exchange perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, J.E. van

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, burnout has been studied among Dutch teachers using the theoretical frame of equity theory. Burnout is a metaphor that describes a particular syndrome which is typically found in human service professions, such as teaching, and is assumed to be linked to the emotional strain of

  16. Theoretical interpretation of the nuclear magnetic properties of solid 3He in the context of a four-spin exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, Michel.

    1980-06-01

    The model presented in this thesis, with only two adjustable parameters, is alone able to account quantitatively for all the results described in chapter I and interpreted in chapter II. The development of this model was based originally on two essential ideas: - the simple model given in introduction suggests that in a hard-sphere quantum solid, three- and four-particle exchanges may be as important and even more favourable than two-atom exchanges. - By accounting for four-spin exchange terms in the Hamiltonian of the system, fourth power terms of the order parameter (polarisation) liable to give first-order transitions are introduced into the equation of free energy in a molecular field. On the basis of these two ideas the thesis is arranged in two parts: 1) Part one (ch. III to VIII) analyses the consequences, from the viewpoint of magnetic and thermodynamic properties, of a phenomenological Hamiltonian including four-spin exchanges. 2) The aim of part two is to estimate from microscopic equations the hierarchy amongst 2, 3 and 4-particle exchanges. A new approach, due to J.M. Delrieu, is proposed for a realistic wave function approximation accounting for the geometric correlations between hard cores. Reasons are given to justify the existence of a strong four-particle exchange in body-centred cubic 3 He. In a compact hexagonal lattice on the other hand the three-particle exchange is shown to be predominant. However three-particle exchanges promote ferromagnetism, so an ordered ferromagnetic phase is foreseen for compact hexagonal 3 He. A crucial test for our model would be to measure the sign of the Curie-Weiss constant in c.h. 3 He [fr

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Social Exchange and the Development of Solidarity: "Testing the Waters" versus "Taking a Leap of Faith"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko; Sheldon, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    In their concerted efforts to unpack the microprocesses that transform repeated exchanges into an exchange relation, exchange theorists have paid little attention to how actors perceive changes and dynamics in exchanges over time. We help fill this gap by studying how temporal patterns of exchange affect the development of cohesion. Some exchange…

  18. Data Exchange Inventory System (DEXI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Enterprise tool used to identify data exchanges occurring between SSA and our trading partners. DEXI contains information on both incoming and outgoing exchanges and...

  19. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  20. Economia Informal em Rede: trocas económicas e complexidade social Informal economy network: economic exchanges and social complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Grassi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Partindo das realidades empíricas de Cabo Verde e diásporas, este texto explora, até certo ponto, as limitações heurísticas de certas noções sugeridas pela mainstream do modelo neoliberal da economia sobre o «informal» em África. O texto debruça-se sobre diferentes dimensões, espaços e protagonistas de práticas de economia informal em rede. As repercussões identitárias das dinâmicas destas redes entre os cabo-verdianos, apreendidas através da observação de certas formas de sociabilidade dos actores sociais considerados, são igualmente exploradas.Based on the empirical realities of Cape Verde and some of its Diasporas, this article explores, to a certain extent, the heuristic limitations of certain notions suggested by the mainstream of the neoliberal economy model concerning the so called «informal economy» in Africa. The text deals with different dimensions, spaces and protagonists of practices of the informal economic networks. The identitarian repercussions of the dynamics of these networks among Capeverdians, apprehended through the observation of certain forms of socialibility of these social actors are also explored.

  1. Theoretical study of the Cs isotope exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Hashimoto, Masashi; Yokoyama, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the exchange reaction of Cs isotope by CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs', the structure and chemical properties of Cs 2 I intermediate and potential energy surface of the entrance reaction are calculated using M06/def2-TZVPPD density functional calculation. The calculation shows that the reaction to the intermediate has no barrier and the two Cs-I bonds of Cs 2 I are chemically equivalent. These results suggest that the rate of the Cs exchange reaction of CsI + Cs' → Cs + ICs' is as high as the collision rate. (author)

  2. Interaction patterns of nurturant support exchanged in online health social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine Y; Yang, Christopher C

    2012-05-03

    Expressing emotion in online support communities is an important aspect of enabling e-patients to connect with each other and expand their social resources. Indirectly it increases the amount of support for coping with health issues. Exploring the supportive interaction patterns in online health social networking would help us better understand how technology features impacts user behavior in this context. To build on previous research that identified different types of social support in online support communities by delving into patterns of supportive behavior across multiple computer-mediated communication formats. Each format combines different architectural elements, affecting the resulting social spaces. Our research question compared communication across different formats of text-based computer-mediated communication provided on the MedHelp.org health social networking environment. We identified messages with nurturant support (emotional, esteem, and network) across three different computer-mediated communication formats (forums, journals, and notes) of an online support community for alcoholism using content analysis. Our sample consisted of 493 forum messages, 423 journal messages, and 1180 notes. Nurturant support types occurred frequently among messages offering support (forum comments: 276/412 messages, 67.0%; journal posts: 65/88 messages, 74%; journal comments: 275/335 messages, 82.1%; and notes: 1002/1180 messages, 84.92%), but less often among messages requesting support. Of all the nurturing supports, emotional (ie, encouragement) appeared most frequently, with network and esteem support appearing in patterns of varying combinations. Members of the Alcoholism Community appeared to adapt some traditional face-to-face forms of support to their needs in becoming sober, such as provision of encouragement, understanding, and empathy to one another. The computer-mediated communication format may have the greatest influence on the supportive interactions

  3. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes.

  4. The Economic and Social Value of an Image Exchange Network: A Case for the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ray Cody; Pearson, Kathryn L; Avrin, David E; Leung, Jessica W T

    2017-01-01

    As the health care environment continually changes, radiologists look to the ACR's Imaging 3.0 ® initiative to guide the search for value. By leveraging new technology, a cloud-based image exchange network could provide secure universal access to prior images, which were previously siloed, to facilitate accurate interpretation, improved outcomes, and reduced costs. The breast imaging department represents a viable starting point given the robust data supporting the benefit of access to prior imaging studies, existing infrastructure for image sharing, and the current workflow reliance on prior images. This concept is scalable not only to the remainder of the radiology department but also to the broader medical record. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Callous-unemotional traits modulate the neural response associated with punishing another individual during social exchange: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Brislin, Sarah J; Meffert, Harma; Sinclair, Stephen; Blair, R James R

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined whether Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, a core component of psychopathy, modulate neural responses of participants engaged in a social exchange game. In this task, participants were offered an allocation of money and then given the chance to punish the offerer. Twenty youth participated and responses to both offers and the participant's punishment (or not) of these offers were examined. Increasingly unfair offers were associated with increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity but this responsiveness was not modulated by CU traits. Increasing punishment of unfair offers was associated with increased dACC and anterior insula activity and this activity was modulated by CU traits. Higher CU trait participants showed a weaker association between activity and punishment level. These data suggest that CU traits are associated with appropriate expectations of other individual's normative behavior but weaker representations of such information when guiding behavior of the self.

  6. Social Health Inequalities and eHealth: A Literature Review With Qualitative Synthesis of Theoretical and Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Karine; Hamel, Christine; Giroux, Dominique

    2017-04-27

    eHealth is developing rapidly and brings with it a promise to reduce social health inequalities (SHIs). Yet, it appears that it also has the potential to increase them. The general objective of this review was to set out how to ensure that eHealth contributes to reducing SHIs rather than exacerbating them. This review has three objectives: (1) identifying characteristics of people at risk of experiencing social inequality in health; (2) determining the possibilities of developing eHealth tools that avoid increasing SHI; and (3) modeling the process of using an eHealth tool by people vulnerable to SHI. Following the EPPI approach (Evidence for Policy and Practice of Information of the Institute of Education at the University of London), two databases were searched for the terms SHIs and eHealth and their derivatives in titles and abstracts. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed articles were included and evaluated. The software NVivo (QSR International) was employed to extract the data and allow for a metasynthesis of the data. Of the 73 articles retained, 10 were theoretical, 7 were from reviews, and 56 were based on empirical studies. Of the latter, 40 used a quantitative approach, 8 used a qualitative approach, 4 used mixed methods approach, and only 4 were based on participatory research-action approach. The digital divide in eHealth is a serious barrier and contributes greatly to SHI. Ethnicity and low income are the most commonly used characteristics to identify people at risk of SHI. The most promising actions for reducing SHI via eHealth are to aim for universal access to the tool of eHealth, become aware of users' literacy level, create eHealth tools that respect the cultural attributes of future users, and encourage the participation of people at risk of SHI. eHealth has the potential to widen the gulf between those at risk of SHI and the rest of the population. The widespread expansion of eHealth technologies calls for rigorous consideration of

  7. The Influence of Proactive Socialization Behaviors and Team Socialization on Individual Performance in the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…

  8. Theoretical Treatment of Degenerate Electron Exchange and Dimerization in Spin Dynamics of Radical Ion Pairs as Observed by Magnetic Field Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, K.L.; Stass, D.V.; Kalneus, E.V.; Kaptein, R.; Lukzen, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have compared manifestations of degenerate electron exchange (DEE) and dimerization reactions in MARY (magnetically affected reaction yield) spectroscopy and time-resolved magnetic field effects (TR-MFE) of radical ion pairs (RIPs). It is shown that dimerization results in phase and

  9. Integrating Informational, Social, and Behavioral Exchanges Between Humans, Urban Centers, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    behaviors were solely enacted within the physical bounds of an urban center- mall , outdoor shopping plaza, or downtown, to name a few. The Internet has...Homans, G. 1974. Social Behavior , revised ed. New York: Harcourt-Brace. Langford, Gary O. 2012. Engineering Systems Integration: Theory , Metrics, and...merging of city theory ( plans , goals, aggregate functions) with physical design (Levy 2013). City planning takes into consideration the needs, benefits

  10. Interpersonal trust and mutually beneficial exchanges: Measuring social capital for comparative analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, Petr; Vitásková, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2006), s. 493-516 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MPS(CZ) 1J/005/04-DP2; GA ČR(CZ) GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : social capital * trust * komparative analyse Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  11. Type 2 Diabetes Education and Support in a Virtual Environment: A Secondary Analysis of Synchronously Exchanged Social Interaction and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Allison A; Anderson, Ruth A; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Fisher, Edwin B; Pan, Wei; Johnson, Constance M

    2018-02-21

    Virtual environments (VEs) facilitate interaction and support among individuals with chronic illness, yet the characteristics of these VE interactions remain unknown. The objective of this study was to describe social interaction and support among individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who interacted in a VE. Data included VE-mediated synchronous conversations and text-chat and asynchronous emails and discussion board posts from a study that facilitated interaction among individuals with T2D and diabetes educators (N=24) in 2 types of sessions: education and support. VE interactions consisted of communication techniques (how individuals interact in the VE), expressions of self-management (T2D-related topics), depth (personalization of topics), and breadth (number of topics discussed). Individuals exchanged support more often in the education (723/1170, 61.79%) than in the support (406/1170, 34.70%) sessions or outside session time (41/1170, 3.50%). Of all support exchanges, 535/1170 (45.73%) were informational, 377/1170 (32.22%) were emotional, 217/1170 (18.55%) were appraisal, and 41/1170 (3.50%) were instrumental. When comparing session types, education sessions predominately provided informational support (357/723, 49.4%), and the support sessions predominately provided emotional (159/406, 39.2%) and informational (159/406, 39.2%) support. VE-mediated interactions resemble those in face-to-face environments, as individuals in VEs engage in bidirectional exchanges with others to obtain self-management education and support. Similar to face-to-face environments, individuals in the VE revealed personal information, sought information, and exchanged support during the moderated education sessions and unstructured support sessions. With this versatility, VEs are able to contribute substantially to support for those with diabetes and, very likely, other chronic diseases. ©Allison A Lewinski, Ruth A Anderson, Allison A Vorderstrasse, Edwin B Fisher, Wei Pan, Constance

  12. Social Responsibility of Partners of Labour Relations as a Factor of Rational Use of Labour Potential: Theoretical and Methodological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Serikova Olga M.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers social responsibility of the employer and employee as a component of the socially responsible business. It identifies that social responsibility should be directed at such components as introduction of social programmes and improvement of labour conditions; establishment of the social dialogue; business self-perfection that is realised in responsibility for results of labour; increase of responsibility when performing work; use of ethic principles of relations with colle...

  13. The social embeddedness of media use - Action theoretical contributions to the study of TV use in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerik, H.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars in the field of communication research have extensively studied television viewing in general and watching television news in particular. The book looks at the subject from an integrative theoretical perspective. Based on Schutzean sociology and action theoretical approaches to media use,

  14. Do regions matter in ALICE?. Social relationships and data exchanges in the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, E. D.; Viry, G.; Carminati, F.; Galli-Carminati, G.

    2012-02-01

    This study aims at investigating the impact of regional affiliations of centres on the organisation of collaborations within the Distributed Computing ALICE infrastructure, based on social networks methods. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all centre managers about support, email interactions and wished collaborations in the infrastructure. Several additional measures, stemming from technical observations were collected, such as bandwidth, data transfers and Internet Round Trip Time (RTT) were also included. Information for 50 centres were considered (about 70% response rate). Empirical analysis shows that despite the centralisation on CERN, the network is highly organised by regions. The results are discussed in the light of policy and efficiency issues.

  15. Do regions of ALICE matter? Social relationships and data exchanges in the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, E D; Viry, G; Carminati, F; Grigoras, C; Carminati, G Galli

    2012-01-01

    Following a previous publication, this study aims at investigating the impact of regional affiliations of centres on the organisation of collaboration within the Distributed Computing ALICE infrastructure, based on social networks methods. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all centre managers about support, email interactions and wished collaborations in the infrastructure. Several additional measures, stemming from technical observations were produced, such as bandwidth, data transfers and Internet Round Trip Time (RTT) were also included. Information for 50 centres were considered (60% response rate). Empirical analysis shows that despite the centralisation on CERN, the network is highly organised by regions. The results are discussed in the light of policy and efficiency issues.

  16. Academic, Personal, Social and Vocational Needs of International and Exchange Students at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel A Villafañe-Santiago; Carol Y Irizarry-Robles; Robinson A Vázquez-Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of a sample of the international and exchange students staying at the North Tower Residence of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Social and demographic data, as well as the academic, vocational, and social/personal needs were explored with the purpose of gathering relevant information and submitting recommendations to universities serving this student population. Findings revealed particular needs in the academic, voc...

  17. Agricultural science in the wild: a social network analysis of farmer knowledge exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brennon A; Blair, Hugh T; Gray, David I; Kemp, Peter D; Kenyon, Paul R; Morris, Steve T; Sewell, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant implications for theorizing

  18. Agricultural science in the wild: a social network analysis of farmer knowledge exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennon A Wood

    Full Text Available Responding to demands for transformed farming practices requires new forms of knowledge. Given their scale and complexity, agricultural problems can no longer be solved by linear transfers in which technology developed by specialists passes to farmers by way of extension intermediaries. Recent research on alternative approaches has focused on the innovation systems formed by interactions between heterogeneous actors. Rather than linear transfer, systems theory highlights network facilitation as a specialized function. This paper contributes to our understanding of such facilitation by investigating the networks in which farmers discuss science. We report findings based on the study of a pastoral farming experiment collaboratively undertaken by a group of 17 farmers and five scientists. Analysis of prior contact and alter sharing between the group's members indicates strongly tied and decentralized networks. Farmer knowledge exchanges about the experiment have been investigated using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods. Network surveys identified who the farmers contacted for knowledge before the study began and who they had talked to about the experiment by 18 months later. Open-ended interviews collected farmer statements about their most valuable contacts and these statements have been thematically analysed. The network analysis shows that farmers talked about the experiment with 192 people, most of whom were fellow farmers. Farmers with densely tied and occupationally homogeneous contacts grew their networks more than did farmers with contacts that are loosely tied and diverse. Thematic analysis reveals three general principles: farmers value knowledge delivered by persons rather than roles, privilege farming experience, and develop knowledge with empiricist rather than rationalist techniques. Taken together, these findings suggest that farmers deliberate about science in intensive and durable networks that have significant

  19. Theoretical reflections on the structural polymorphism of the oxygen-evolving complex in the S2 state and the correlations to substrate water exchange and water oxidation mechanism in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Li, Hui; He, Lan-Lan; Zhao, Dong-Xia; Gong, Li-Dong; Yang, Zhong-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The structural polymorphism of the oxygen-evolving complex is of great significance to photosynthetic water oxidation. Employing density functional theory calculations, we have made further advisement on the interconversion mechanism of O5 transfer in the S 2 state, mainly focusing on the potentiality of multi-state reactivity and spin transitions. Then, O5 protonation is proven impossible in S 2 for irreversibility of the interconversion, which serves as an auxiliary judgment for the protonation state of O5 in S 1 . Besides, the structural polymorphism could also be archived by alternative mechanisms involving Mn3 ligand exchange, one of which with Mn3(III) makes sense to substrate water exchange in S 2 , although being irresponsible for the derivations of the observed EPR signals. During the water exchange, high-spin states would prevail to facilitate electron transfer between the ferromagnetically coupled Mn centers. In addition, water exchange in S 1 could account for the closed-cubane structure as the initial form entering S 2 at cryogenic temperatures. With regard to water oxidation, the structural flexibility and variability in both S 2 and S 3 guarantee smooth W2-O5 coupling in S 4 , according to the substrate assignments from water exchange kinetics. Within this theoretical framework, the new XFEL findings on S 1 -S 3 can be readily rationalized. Finally, an alternative mechanistic scenario for OO bond formation with ·OH radical near O4 is presented, followed by water binding to the pivot Mn4(III) from O4 side during S 4 -S 0 . This may diversify the substrate sources combined with the Ca channel in water delivery for the forthcoming S-cycle. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Universities, SMEs and Social Capital: Can You Get Too Much of a Good Thing? An Illustrative Analysis of One University's Knowledge Exchange Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a university knowledge exchange programme for small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owner-managers. Specifically, it considers why a programme designed to achieve growth in a group of SMEs through the creation of a network high in social capital may have become a constraint on the programme's effectiveness over a period of…

  1. Do regions of ALICE matter? Social relationships and data exchanges in the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, E. D.; Carminati, F.; Grigoras, C.; Viry, G.; Galli Carminati, G.

    2012-06-01

    Following a previous publication [1], this study aims at investigating the impact of regional affiliations of centres on the organisation of collaboration within the Distributed Computing ALICE infrastructure, based on social networks methods. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all centre managers about support, email interactions and wished collaborations in the infrastructure. Several additional measures, stemming from technical observations were produced, such as bandwidth, data transfers and Internet Round Trip Time (RTT) were also included. Information for 50 centres were considered (60% response rate). Empirical analysis shows that despite the centralisation on CERN, the network is highly organised by regions. The results are discussed in the light of policy and efficiency issues.

  2. Social History as Socio-Analysis. Building a Theoretical Viewpoint to Study the Relationship Between the Public Sphere, Women and the Popular Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gómez Navas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17227/01234870.41folios169.185 This article shows the construction of a theoretical viewpoint in the development of research that focuses on the relationship between three categories: the public sphere, women and popular sectors. To do this, it first presents an overview of the trends found in studies focused on similar relationships. Thereafter, a theoretical view is proposed based on the main routes and epistemological and methodological assumptions of social history enlightened by the tenets of socio-analytic proposal from French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. Thus, the main epistemological implications of Bourdieu’s perspective in light of a theoretical reflection interested in the way in which a public urban world is set in the time is presented. The urban public world is questioned particularly based on the positions held by women in the working class.

  3. Social Responsibility of Partners of Labour Relations as a Factor of Rational Use of Labour Potential: Theoretical and Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikova Olga M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers social responsibility of the employer and employee as a component of the socially responsible business. It identifies that social responsibility should be directed at such components as introduction of social programmes and improvement of labour conditions; establishment of the social dialogue; business self-perfection that is realised in responsibility for results of labour; increase of responsibility when performing work; use of ethic principles of relations with colleagues in the company policy; facilitation to realisation of ecological programmes, open presentation of information about activity of the organisation, influencing the society, economy and environment. Increase of social responsibility would facilitate increase of the level of use of the labour potential. Special attention is paid to ecological responsibility of business as a component of social responsibility, which becomes topical today under conditions of growth of the number of ecological problems.

  4. A new top boundary condition for modeling surface diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer: theoretical analysis and application to soil evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Tang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new top boundary condition (TBC for representing the air–soil diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer. This new TBC (1 accounts for the multi-phase flow of a generic tracer; (2 accounts for effects of soil temperature, pH, solubility, sorption, and desorption processes; (3 enables a smooth transition between wet and dry soil conditions; (4 is compatible with the conductance formulation for modeling air–water volatile tracer exchange; and (5 is applicable to site, regional, and global land models.

    Based on the new TBC, we developed new formulations for bare-soil resistance and corresponding soil evaporation efficiency. The new soil resistance is predicted as the reciprocal of the harmonic sum of two resistances: (1 gaseous and aqueous molecular diffusion and (2 liquid mass flow resulting from the hydraulic pressure gradient between the soil surface and center of the topsoil control volume. We compared the predicted soil evaporation efficiency with those from several field and laboratory soil evaporation measurements and found good agreement with the typically observed two-stage soil evaporation curves. Comparison with the soil evaporation efficiency equation of Lee and Pielke (1992; hereafter LP92 indicates that their equation can overestimate soil evaporation when the atmospheric resistance is low and underestimate soil evaporation when the soil is dry. Using a synthetic inversion experiment, we demonstrated that using inverted soil resistance data from field measurements to derive empirical soil resistance formulations resulted in large uncertainty because (1 the inverted soil resistance data are always severely impacted by measurement error and (2 the derived empirical equation is very sensitive to the number of data points and the assumed functional form of the resistance.

    We expect the application of our new TBC in land models will provide a consistent representation for the diffusive tracer

  5. Cortisol increases in response to brief social exchanges with opposite sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Collins, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    Researchers recently demonstrated that cortisol increases in response to mating-relevant social interactions. An important next step is investigating factors that explain individual differences in cortisol reactivity within these contexts. The current study examined demographic, situational, and individual difference predictors of cortisol reactivity following brief, non-face-to-face interactions with potential dating partners. College students made a video introducing themselves to another participant. During another appointment, they watched a short video of an opposite-sex confederate introducing himself/herself, and believed the other person was watching their video. Participants were told they would get to know the confederate more during a web-chat, which never took place. Participants received either rejection, acceptance, or no feedback from the confederate. Cortisol levels increased over baseline in all feedback conditions. Cortisol increases were particularly strong for participants who perceived the confederate as a more desirable dating partner, participants who were independently rated as a less desirable partner, and men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental and theoretical determination of adsorption heats of CO2 over alkali metal exchanged ferrierites with different Si/Al ratio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Arnošt; Pulido, A.; Gil, B.; Nachtigall, P.; Bludský, Ota; Rubeš, M.; Čejka, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 24 (2010), s. 6413-6422 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0143; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/08/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adsorption * CO2 * FTIR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  7. Factors Related to Initiating Interpersonal Contacts on Internet Dating Sites: A View From the Social Exchange Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka Shtatfeld

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence dating-site users to initiate contact with potential romantic partners. The study was carried out by observing online behaviors and analyzing the profiles and authentic messages of these users (N = 106 over seven months. Contacts made by and with the research participants were analyzed in terms of the relationships between initiators‘ and receivers‘ demographic variables (marital status, age, level of education, income, writing skills, and stated physical appearance. In addition, the relationship between contacting partners and site accessibility was examined. The findings revealed that dating-site users initiated contact primarily with those having a similar marital status or slightly better characteristics (income, education, writing skills. In regard to writing skills, it was found that skilled writers attracted more contacts than did less skilled writers. However, the factor that was found to be most significantly related to initiating contact was the length of time that elapsed from last connection to the site, which implies the perceived accessibility of potential romantic partners. The findings were explained in terms of the Social Exchange Theory: people are attracted to those who grant them rewards.

  8. Designing awareness systems for social connectedness – A field study approach into theoretical foundations, design principles and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    2012-01-01

    Being in touch, and being aware of the people in one’s social network strongly contributes to one’s sense of social well-being. As communication technology has become more ubiquitous, it is possible to always be in touch with friends and relatives in the periphery of one’s attention, e.g. through

  9. Can Religious Expression and Sexual Orientation Affirmation Coexist in Social Work? A Critique of Hodge's Theoretical, Theological, and Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessel, Adrienne; Bolen, Rebecca; Shepardson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Social work strives to be inclusive of all cultural groups and religious identities. However, a tension exists in the profession between freedom of religious expression and full acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. David Hodge and others claim social work is oppressive to evangelical Christians. This article critiques primarily Hodge's…

  10. Why resilience is unappealing to social science: Theoretical and empirical investigations of the scientific use of resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Jerneck, Anne; Thoren, Henrik; Persson, Johannes; O’Byrne, David

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is often promoted as a boundary concept to integrate the social and natural dimensions of sustainability. However, it is a troubled dialogue from which social scientists may feel detached. To explain this, we first scrutinize the meanings, attributes, and uses of resilience in ecology and elsewhere to construct a typology of definitions. Second, we analyze core concepts and principles in resilience theory that cause disciplinary tensions between the social and natural sciences (system ontology, system boundary, equilibria and thresholds, feedback mechanisms, self-organization, and function). Third, we provide empirical evidence of the asymmetry in the use of resilience theory in ecology and environmental sciences compared to five relevant social science disciplines. Fourth, we contrast the unification ambition in resilience theory with methodological pluralism. Throughout, we develop the argument that incommensurability and unification constrain the interdisciplinary dialogue, whereas pluralism drawing on core social scientific concepts would better facilitate integrated sustainability research. PMID:26601176

  11. Theoretical study of the magnetic exchange interaction in catena-μ-Tris[oxalato(2-)-O1,O2;O3,O4]-dicopper complex with interlocked helical chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negodaev, Igor; Queralt, Nuria; Caballol, Rosa; Graaf, Coen de

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: From electronic structure calculations on fragments to the magnetic susceptibility after resolving the magnetic topology. Research highlights: → Estimates of magnetic couplings in an extended structure with Cu bridged by oxalato. → Determination of the magnetic structure based on the calculated magnetic couplings. → Calculation of the magnetic susceptibility curve from the local magnetic couplings. - Abstract: The coupling of the spin moments has been studied in an oxalato-based 3D extended structure with Cu(II) ions as magnetic sites. The ab initio calculations reveal that two of the three different magnetic interaction paths are characterized by a strong coupling, while the third one presents weaker interaction. Based on these calculated values, the magnetic topology of the material is determined as an alternating chain with weak interchain coupling. A theoretical estimate of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is derived from the diagonalization of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian for a multi-center magnetic model with boundary conditions. The theoretical procedure can serve as guide in an experimental determination of the magnetic coupling parameters in 3D extended structure with oxalato-bridges as found in the hexagonal layers of the bifunctional materials.

  12. Explaining the Variable Effects of Social Support on Work-Based Stressor-Strain Relations: The Role of Perceived Pattern of Support Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Seeking to explain mixed empirical findings regarding the buffering effect of social support on work-based stress-strain relations, we posit that whether an increase in the level of support received buffers or exacerbates the harmful effects of workload on employee health and well-being is contingent upon the general pattern characterizing an employee supportive exchanges across his/her close relationships. Specifically, we propose that the buffering effect of receiving social support depends on whether the employee perceives his/her social exchanges as reciprocal (support given equals support received), under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received), or over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Based on longitudinal data collected from a random sample of blue-collar workers, our findings support our predictions, indicating that the buffering effect of social support on the relationship between work hours (on the one hand) and employee health and well-being (on the other) varies as a function of the pattern of exchange relations between an employee and his/her close support providers. PMID:21152110

  13. Explaining the Variable Effects of Social Support on Work-Based Stressor-Strain Relations: The Role of Perceived Pattern of Support Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Seeking to explain mixed empirical findings regarding the buffering effect of social support on work-based stress-strain relations, we posit that whether an increase in the level of support received buffers or exacerbates the harmful effects of workload on employee health and well-being is contingent upon the general pattern characterizing an employee supportive exchanges across his/her close relationships. Specifically, we propose that the buffering effect of receiving social support depends on whether the employee perceives his/her social exchanges as reciprocal (support given equals support received), under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received), or over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Based on longitudinal data collected from a random sample of blue-collar workers, our findings support our predictions, indicating that the buffering effect of social support on the relationship between work hours (on the one hand) and employee health and well-being (on the other) varies as a function of the pattern of exchange relations between an employee and his/her close support providers.

  14. The Theoretical Foundations of Formation of the System of Regulating the Social-Labor Relations on the Principles of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina Olena O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the fundamental economic theories of regulating the social-labor relations, in particular, Marxism, post-capitalism, social action – considering responsibility in the inter-subjective relations, as well as in the assessment of adequacy of implementation of the above indicated theories into economic activities. On the basis of an analysis, it has been found that Marxism considers responsibility as freedom for the economic entities and in the aspect of regulation of social-labor relations allows conflict, which is the engine of the human progress. The post-capitalism represents the conception, which provides for adaptation of public relations towards the technological changes, arbitrary behavior of business entities and formation of organizations of the new formation, aimed at cooperation. The social action theory allows to take into account the objective circumstances impacting the parties of the social-labor relations, and to settle conflicts through the provision of individual responsibility of each party for the situation present. In the light of the foregoing, we believe that regulation of the social-labor relations should be based on use of these theories. Prospects for further research in this direction will be considering the evolution of contemporary theories of responsibility as well as formation of a conceptual schema to ensure the responsible behavior of subjects in the social-labor relations.

  15. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  16. Individual, interpersonal, and social-structural correlates of involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Rangel, Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Nguyen, Lucie; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-08-15

    To investigate individual, interpersonal, and social-structural factors associated with involuntary sex exchange among female sex workers (FSWs) along the Mexico-U.S. border. In 2010 to 2011, 214 FSWs from Tijuana (n = 106) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 108) aged ≥ 18 years who reported lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine, having a stable partner, and having sold/traded sex in the past month completed quantitative surveys and HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of involuntary sex exchange among FSWs. Of 214 FSWs, 31 (14.5%) reported involuntary sex exchange These women were younger at sex industry entry [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.84/1-year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72 to 0.97] and were significantly more likely to service clients whom they perceived to be HIV/sexually transmitted infection-infected (AOR: 12.41, 95% CI: 3.15 to 48.91). In addition, they were more likely to have clients who used drugs (AOR: 7.88, 95% CI: 1.52 to 41.00), report poor working conditions (AOR: 3.27, 95% CI: 1.03 to 10.31), and report a history of rape (AOR: 4.46, 95% CI: 1.43 to 13.91). Involuntary sex exchange is disproportionate among FSWs who begin to exchange sex at a younger age, and these women experience elevated risk of violence and HIV/STIs related to their clients' behaviors and their working conditions. These data suggest the critical need for evidence-based approaches to preventing sexual exploitation of women and girls and to reducing harm among current sex workers. Multilevel interventions for all females who exchange sex and their clients that target interpersonal and social-structural risks (eg, measures to improve safety and reduce exploitation within the workplace) are needed.

  17. Male Partners' Investment and Alternatives as Correlates of Women's Coerced First Sexual Intercourse in Chinese Dating Relationships: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Social exchange theory has great potential to help our understanding of dating partners' sexual interaction. Yet, to our knowledge, there is still no empirical study applying this theory to explain sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relationship between male partners' social exchange variables (investment and alternatives) and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships, within both gender samples (not dyadic data). A total of 927 valid questionnaires were collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China of college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in the male sample, male partners' investment significantly and positively correlated with emotional manipulation coercive tactics, and their alternatives significantly and positively predicted defection threats as coercive tactics. In the female sample, there were no such observations. The research hypotheses of this study have been partially supported, and its implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Using social exchange theory to understand non-terminal palliative care referral practices for Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizer, Lindsay P; Gay, Jennifer L; Perkins, Molly M; Wilson, Mark G; Emerson, Kerstin G; Glass, Anne P; Miyasaki, Janis M

    2017-10-01

    A palliative approach is recommended in the care of Parkinson's disease patients; however, many patients only receive this care in the form of hospice at the end of life. Physician attitudes about palliative care have been shown to influence referrals for patients with chronic disease, and negative physician perceptions may affect early palliative referrals for Parkinson's disease patients. To use Social Exchange Theory to examine the association between neurologist-perceived costs and benefits of palliative care referral for Parkinson's disease patients and their reported referral practices. A cross-sectional survey study of neurologists. A total of 62 neurologists recruited from the National Parkinson Foundation, the Medical Association of Georgia, and the American Academy of Neurology's clinician database. Participants reported significantly stronger endorsement of the rewards ( M = 3.34, SD = 0.37) of palliative care referrals than the costs ( M = 2.13, SD = 0.30; t(61) = -16.10, p < 0.0001). A Poisson regression found that perceived costs, perceived rewards, physician type, and the number of complementary clinicians in practice were significant predictors of palliative care referral. Physicians may be more likely to refer patients to non-terminal palliative care if (1) they work in interdisciplinary settings and/or (2) previous personal or patient experience with palliative care was positive. They may be less likely to refer if (1) they fear a loss of autonomy in patient care, (2) they are unaware of available programs, and/or (3) they believe they address palliative needs. Initiatives to educate neurologists on the benefits and availability of non-terminal palliative services could improve patient access to this care.

  19. Differential risk theory as a subset of social exchange theory: implications for making gay marriage culturally normative and for understanding stigma against homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2004-02-01

    Differential risk theory, a subset of social exchange and equity theories, is proposed as an explanation for stigma towards homosexuals and as a basis for normative preferences for heterosexual marriage. Numerous gender differences involved in long-term relationships require members of such close relationships to assume greater interpersonal and social risks and thus costs, compared to same-gender relationships. Without compensating rewards or reduced costs, heterosexual relationships would be unfairly disadvantaged. Resistance to making gay marriage normative and/or equivalent legally to heterosexual marriage may be traced, rather than to homophobia, to societal attempts to maintain equity between classes of relationships characterized by inherent differential risks.

  20. Proposal of a social alliance success model from a relationship marketing perspective: A meta-analytical study of the theoretical foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Barroso-Méndez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships between businesses and non-governmental organizations (NGOs have become widely adopted mechanisms for collaboration in addressing complex social issues, the aim being to take advantage of the two types of organizational rationale to generate mutual value. Many such alliances have proved to be unsuccessful, however. To assist managers improve the likelihood of success of their collaborative relationships, the authors propose a success model of business-NGO partnering processes based on Relationship Marketing Theory. They also analyse the theoretical bases of the model's hypotheses through a meta-analytical study of the existing literature.

  1. Role of Magnetic Exchange Interactions in the Magnetization Relaxation of {3d-4f} Single-Molecule Magnets: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Beg, Mohammad Faizan; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-01-11

    Combined density functional and ab initio calculations are performed on two isomorphous tetranuclear {Ni3 (III) Ln(III) } star-type complexes [Ln=Gd (1), Dy (2)] to shed light on the mechanism of magnetic exchange in 1 and the origin of the slow magnetization relaxation in complex 2. DFT calculations correctly reproduce the sign and magnitude of the J values compared to the experiments for complex 1. Acute ∢Ni-O-Gd bond angles present in 1 instigate a significant interaction between the 4fxyz orbital of the Gd(III) ion and 3d${{_{x{^{2}}- y{^{2}}}}}$ orbital of the Ni(II) ions, leading to rare and strong antiferromagnetic Ni⋅⋅⋅Gd interactions. Calculations reveal the presence of a strong next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni antiferromagnetic interaction in complex 1 leading to spin frustration behavior. CASSCF+RASSI-SO calculations performed on complex 2 suggest that the octahedral environment around the Dy(III) ion is neither strong enough to stabilize the mJ |±15/2〉 as the ground state nor able to achieve a large ground-state-first-excited-state gap. The ground-state Kramers doublet for the Dy(III) ion is found to be the mJ |±13/2〉 state with a significant transverse anisotropy, leading to very strong quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Using the POLY_ANISO program, we have extracted the JNiDy interaction as -1.45 cm(-1) . The strong Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and next-nearest-neighbour Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions are found to quench the QTM to a certain extent, resulting in zero-field SMM behavior for complex 2. The absence of any ac signals at zero field for the structurally similar [Dy(AlMe4 )3 ] highlights the importance of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and the Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in the magnetization relaxation of complex 2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the roles of both the Ni⋅⋅⋅Dy and Ni⋅⋅⋅Ni interactions in magnetization relaxation of a {3d-4f} molecular magnet have been established. © 2016

  2. Redefinindo a base teórica para o estudo dos partidos social-democratas = Refining the theoretical basis for the study of social democratic parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, Guilherme Simões

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A ciência política geralmente interpreta a social-democracia como moderação, adesão ao capitalismo e diferenças apenas residuais em relação ao liberalismo de mercado. Este artigo advoga por outra definição, baseada nas ideias de Kautsky e Bernstein, com dois elementos-chave: a importância central da democracia representativa e parlamentar e o reconhecimento de que há limites para avançar na transformação social. O reformismo gradual que daí decorre é o meio pelo qual os partidos social-democratas buscam melhorar a vida de trabalhadores e excluídos. É discutida a dinâmica interna dos partidos social-democratas, cuja tensão entre o pragmatismo “bernsteiniano” e o purismo “kautskiano” evita que a social-democracia vá para um dos extremos e se descaracterize. Debate-se o significado da moderação da social-democracia, a qual deve avançar no limite das possibilidades e lutar para modificar tais limites. Ao pesquisador cabe avaliar esses avanços relativamente aos limites e as ações realizadas para reduzir tais restrições

  3. Child ADHD Severity and Positive and Negative Parenting as Predictors of Child Social Functioning: Evaluation of Three Theoretical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Nina M.; McBurnett, Keith; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established links between child social functioning and both parenting and child ADHD severity; however, research examining the way that these variables work together is lacking. The current article aims to test three possible models (main effects, mediation, and moderation) by which ADHD severity and positive and…

  4. Difficulties in Defining Social-Emotional Intelligence, Competences and Skills--A Theoretical Analysis and Structural Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Moana

    2015-01-01

    Demands related to the frequency of and time required for interactional tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person's ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotional intelligence. In connection to discussions about curriculum…

  5. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-01-01

    the effectiveness of online social networking within health promotion interventions. Most of the trials investigated the value of a “social networking condition” in general and did not identify specific features that might play a role in effectiveness. Issues about the usability and level of uptake of interventions were more common among pilot studies, while observational studies showed positive evidence about the role of social support. A total of 20 papers showed the use of theory in the design of interventions, but authors evaluated effectiveness in only 10 papers. Conclusions More research is needed in this area to understand the actual effect of social network technologies on health promotion. More RCTs of greater length need to be conducted taking into account contextual factors such as patient characteristics and types of a social network technology. Also, more evidence is needed regarding the actual usability of online social networking and how different interface design elements may help or hinder behavior change and engagement. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate further the effect of theory on the effectiveness of this type of technology for health promotion. Research is needed linking theoretical grounding with observation and analysis of health promotion in online networks. PMID:26068087

  6. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-06-11

    networking within health promotion interventions. Most of the trials investigated the value of a "social networking condition" in general and did not identify specific features that might play a role in effectiveness. Issues about the usability and level of uptake of interventions were more common among pilot studies, while observational studies showed positive evidence about the role of social support. A total of 20 papers showed the use of theory in the design of interventions, but authors evaluated effectiveness in only 10 papers. More research is needed in this area to understand the actual effect of social network technologies on health promotion. More RCTs of greater length need to be conducted taking into account contextual factors such as patient characteristics and types of a social network technology. Also, more evidence is needed regarding the actual usability of online social networking and how different interface design elements may help or hinder behavior change and engagement. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate further the effect of theory on the effectiveness of this type of technology for health promotion. Research is needed linking theoretical grounding with observation and analysis of health promotion in online networks.

  7. Theoretical and Practical Study of the Concept of Social and Emotional Health by Michael J. Furlong Applied to the Selection of Teenagers and Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofejeva Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of scientific research, it has been concluded that the methodology ‘Social Emotional Health Survey - Secondary’ (SEHS-S with meta-construct of covitality is a universal tool in order to define the social and emotional health of teenagers and young people; it has also been found that the meta-construct of covitality is essentially related to other psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence, vitality, social competence and mental health. In the research that was conducted in Riga Teacher Training and Educational Management Academy (Timofejeva, 2015, the method of M.J. Furlong has been adapted to the Russian language, Latvian language interpretation of the notion of covitality has been proposed offering terms ‘Sociāli emocionālās veselības faktors’ or SEV (social and emotional health factor or ‘sinerģiskā vitalitāte’ (‘synergic vitality’. Furthermore, a theoretically constructive model of the author has been created. Within this model, a new correlation has been hypothetically predicted between meta-construct of covitality (SEV-factor and other scientifically acknowledged psycho-social constructs and notions: psycho-social prerequisites of the SEV factor and psychological options that depend on the level of the SEV factor. During the research, a selection of several teenagers and young people - students of comprehensive schools of Riga - with Russian as their native language was made (n=184. It was found that the applied methodology is valid for the selection of Russian-speaking teenagers/youth of Latvia and that it can be recommended to the psychologists of schools as a new psychometric tool for their professionally practical duties. The data obtained within the research is planned to be used for comparisons with a similar research conducted in Lithuania (Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, led by doc. A. Petrulytė.

  8. The Significance of Harm Reduction as a Social and Health Care Intervention for Injecting Drug Users: An Exploratory Study of a Needle Exchange Program in Fresno, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kris; Harris, Debra; Zweifler, John A; Lasher, Marc; Mortimer, Roger B; Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant social and health concern in the United States. Preventing more people from contracting HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis C (HCV), requires a complex understanding of the interconnection between the biomedical and social dimensions of infectious disease. Opiate addiction in the US has skyrocketed in recent years. Preventing more cases of HIV/AIDS and HCV will require dealing with the social determinants of health. Needle exchange programs (NEPs) are based on a harm reduction approach that seeks to minimize the risk of infection and damage to the user and community. This article presents an exploratory small-scale quantitative study of the injection drug using habits of a group of injection drug users (IDUs) at a needle exchange program in Fresno, California. Respondents reported significant decreases in high risk IDU behaviors, including sharing of needles and to a lesser extent re-using of needles. They also reported frequent use of clean paraphernalia. Greater collaboration between social and health outreach professionals at NEPs could provide important frontline assistance to people excluded from mainstream office-based services and enhance efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS or HCV infection.

  9. Envisioning a social-health information exchange as a platform to support a patient-centered medical neighborhood: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Chan, Connie V; Makam, Anil; Stieglitz, Heather; Amarasingham, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Social determinants directly contribute to poorer health, and coordination between healthcare and community-based resources is pivotal to addressing these needs. However, our healthcare system remains poorly equipped to address social determinants of health. The potential of health information technology to bridge this gap across the delivery of healthcare and social services remains unrealized. We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 50 healthcare and social service providers to determine the feasibility of a social-health information exchange (S-HIE) in an urban safety-net setting in Dallas County, Texas. After completion of interviews, we conducted a town hall meeting to identify desired functionalities for a S-HIE. We conducted thematic analysis of interview responses using the constant comparative method to explore perceptions about current communication and coordination across sectors, and barriers and enablers to S-HIE implementation. We sought participant confirmation of findings and conducted a forced-rank vote during the town hall to prioritize potential S-HIE functionalities. We found that healthcare and social service providers perceived a need for improved information sharing, communication, and care coordination across sectors and were enthusiastic about the potential of a S-HIE, but shared many technical, legal, and ethical concerns around cross-sector information sharing. Desired technical S-HIE functionalities encompassed fairly simple transactional operations such as the ability to view basic demographic information, visit and referral data, and medical history from both healthcare and social service settings. A S-HIE is an innovative and feasible approach to enabling better linkages between healthcare and social service providers. However, to develop S-HIEs in communities across the country, policy interventions are needed to standardize regulatory requirements, to foster increased IT capability and uptake among social service agencies

  10. Comparative efficacy of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) versus a speech-generating device: effects on social-communicative skills and speech development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Miriam C; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.

  11. Data Exchange Inventory (DEXI) System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEXI is an intranet application used by SSA users to track all incoming and outgoing data exchanges between SSA and our data exchange partners. Information such as...

  12. Adaptive capacity and social-environmental change: theoretical and operational modeling of smallholder coffee systems response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A; Monterde Diaz, Rafael; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  13. Adaptive Capacity and Social-Environmental Change: Theoretical and Operational Modeling of Smallholder Coffee Systems Response in Mesoamerican Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Hallie; Bojórquez-Tapia, Luis A.; Diaz, Rafael Monterde; Castellanos, Edwin; Haggar, Jeremy

    2011-03-01

    Communities who rely directly on the natural environment for their survival typically have developed risk management strategies to enable them to avoid dangerous thresholds of change to their livelihoods. Development policy appropriate for natural resource-based communities requires an understanding of the primary drivers of social-ecological change, the ways in which affected households autonomously respond to such drivers, and the appropriate avenues for intervention to reduce vulnerability. Coffee has been, and still remains, one of the most important commodities of the Mesoamerican region, and hundreds of thousands of smallholder households in the region are dependent in some way on the coffee industry for their livelihood stability. We used the Analytical Network Process to synthesize expert knowledge on the primary drivers of livelihood change in the region as well as the most common household strategies and associated capacities necessary for effective response. The assessment identified both gradual systemic processes as well as specific environmental and market shocks as significant drivers of livelihood change across the region. Agronomic adjustments and new forms of social organization were among the more significant responses of farmers to these changes. The assessment indicates that public interventions in support of adaptation should focus on enhancing farmers' access to market and technical information and finance, as well as on increasing the viability of farmers' organizations and cooperatives.

  14. Social Capital and Turnover. Towards a Theoretically Informed Model for Social Capital in Turnover Research: Applications to the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Porter L. & Steers R. (1973). Organizational, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism ...in Modern Sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24, pp. 1-24. Price, J. (1977). A Theory of Turnover. In Labour turnover and retention (Chapter 3...for measurement. Research Paper, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Public Economics: June 2005. Sabatini, F. Social capital, labour

  15. The emergence of Islam through the theoretical prism of Max Weber: The role of spatial context, social actors and social strata in the process of defining and expansion of the Islamic religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber's theoretical legacy contains only fragments of thinking about Islam, primarily in the texts and monographs that as the main object of study did not have this religion. This fact is a big problem to contemporary researchers who want to reconstruct Weber's perception of Islam and positioning it in its theoretical and methodological coordinates. However, this barrier gives rise to modern researchers to engage in the challenge of reconstruction of the mentioned segment Weber's thoughts. This paper is an attempt of such a reconstruction. The paper analyzes the emergence of Islam, ie. spatial and social context of the founding of the Islamic religious dogma. The author starts from the hypothesis that in Weber's theoretical and analytical equation the importance of urban areas for the development and spread of Islam is absent. Also, in the paper author points to another error that Weber makes. Weber classified Islam in the category of warrior religion, and ignored the role of trade and commercial bed in the formulation of Islamic dogma and the (economic practices. In order to more adequately respond to the request 'placement' of Islam in the theoretical coordinates of Weber's sociology (of religion, author of the paper emphasizes the universality of the rationalization process, proving that Islam is one of the better examples of substantive rationality in the religious domain (because Islamic dogma implies a holistic approach to the believer and the high level of submission to the sacred text in all areas of its life.

  16. The Role of Sister Cities' Staff Exchanges in Developing "Learning Cities": Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-06-24

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building "learning cities" through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  17. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henry Buckley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  18. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. PMID:26114245

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance line shifts and line shape changes due to heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions of nitroxide free radicals in liquids 8. Further experimental and theoretical efforts to separate the effects of the two interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peric, Mirna; Bales, Barney L; Peric, Miroslav

    2012-03-22

    The work in part 6 of this series (J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 4930), addressing the task of separating the effects of Heisenberg spin exchange (HSE) and dipole-dipole interactions (DD) on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitroxide spin probes in solution, is extended experimentally and theoretically. Comprehensive measurements of perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDT) in squalane, a viscous alkane, paying special attention to lower temperatures and lower concentrations, were carried out in an attempt to focus on DD, the lesser understood of the two interactions. Theoretically, the analysis has been extended to include the recent comprehensive treatment by Salikhov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2010, 38, 237). In dilute solutions, both interactions (1) introduce a dispersion component, (2) broaden the lines, and (3) shift the lines. DD introduces a dispersion component proportional to the concentration and of opposite sign to that of HSE. Equations relating the EPR spectral parameters to the rate constants due to HSE and DD have been derived. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of theoretical spectra to a simple analytical function and the proposed equations, the contributions of the two interactions to items 1-3 may be quantified and compared with the same parameters obtained by fitting experimental spectra. This comparison supports the theory in its broad predictions; however, at low temperatures, the DD contribution to the experimental dispersion amplitude does not increase linearly with concentration. We are unable to deduce whether this discrepancy is due to inadequate analysis of the experimental data or an incomplete theory. A new key aspect of the more comprehensive theory is that there is enough information in the experimental spectra to find items 1-3 due to both interactions; however, in principle, appeal must be made to a model of molecular diffusion to separate the two. The permanent diffusion model is used to

  20. The Psychological Contract of Science Students: Social Exchange with Universities and University Staff from the Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Paddy; Prince, Nike

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research has been undertaken involving the student experience and depicting undergraduate students as consumers of education. This construction of the relationship between students and universities is based primarily on notions of economic exchange. In this paper, using the construct of the psychological contract, we show that social…

  1. Exploring the Affordances of WeChat for Facilitating Teaching, Social and Cognitive Presence in Semi-Synchronous Language Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Fang, Wei-Chieh; Han, Julia; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2016-01-01

    This research is an exploratory study that evaluates the affordances of WeChat for the development of a community of inquiry (CoI) in semi-synchronous language exchange supported by WeChat. WeChat is an instant messenger that facilitates a multimodal environment in which interaction can happen synchronously, semi-synchronously and asynchronously…

  2. Effective leadership in salient groups: revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Michael A; Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, Olga; Mankad, Aditi; Svensson, Alicia; Weeden, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Two studies compared leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the social identity theory of leadership. Study 1 surveyed 439 employees of organizations in Wales, measuring work group salience, leader-member relations, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Study 2 surveyed 128 members of organizations in India, measuring identification not salience and also individualism/collectivism. Both studies provided good support for social identity predictions. Depersonalized leader-member relations were associated with greater leadership effectiveness among high-than low-salient groups (Study 1) and among high than low identifiers (Study 2). Personalized leadership effectiveness was less affected by salience (Study 1) and unaffected by identification (Study 2). Low-salience groups preferred personalized leadership more than did high-salience groups (Study 1). Low identifiers showed no preference but high identifiers preferred depersonalized leadership (Study 2). In Study 2, collectivists did not prefer depersonalized as opposed to personalized leadership, whereas individualists did, probably because collectivists focus more on the relational self.

  3. Academic, Personal, Social and Vocational Needs of International and Exchange Students at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel A Villafañe-Santiago

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the needs of a sample of the international and exchange students staying at the North Tower Residence of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Social and demographic data, as well as the academic, vocational, and social/personal needs were explored with the purpose of gathering relevant information and submitting recommendations to universities serving this student population. Findings revealed particular needs in the academic, vocational areas, including English or Spanish learning, information on internships and study programs in Puerto Rico or abroad, salary and employment opportunities, financial aid and services available to the students of this University. Recommendations are provided to work with the identified needs. According to the literature, difficulties faced by these students may affect their academic performance and emotional health.

  4. Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Carpenter, Michael; Le, Loc; LeBlanc, Linda A; Kellet, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use.

  5. Theoretical Aspects of Innovatization of the Management of Regional Social Systems on the Basis of the Phenomena Complex «Syntellect – Synergy – Synarchy»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartsaba Vjera I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the theoretical substantiation of the role and practicability of the both search and elaboration of innovative concepts, technologies and tools for regional management based on the contemporary management requirements of the managerial harmonization of goals, interests, relationships and interaction of participants in the regional markets under the respective acts on the part of public policy and regional management. A model for transforming resources of the regional social system into the economically and socially significant results of its development has been proposed. A graphical-analytic model for managing the status of dysergy-synergy of a socio-economic system by means of the organizational integration of its subsystems has been created, the coefficients for determining the degree of harmonization when controlling the system have been suggested. A base management algorithm for the 3С-Technology of harmonizing objectives and interests of the subsystems of a socio-economic system has been developed. Proceeding from the fact that the basis of the underlying algorithm for the managerial 3С-Technology is in its turn based on the algorithm for implementation of the management tool Strategic Planning (SP, which is supplemented by the mandatory use with the aim of the progressive transformation of the material resources of the system with an intensive and managed participation of the intellectual resources of the latter, becomes quite practical to explore and evaluate the relationship between the results obtained from the use of this technology

  6. Top-down, bottom-up, and around the jungle gym: a social exchange and networks approach to engaging afterschool programs in implementing evidence-based practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Wise, Eileen; Rosen, Howard; Rosen, Alison; Childs, Sharon; McManus, Margaret

    2014-06-01

    This paper uses concepts from social networks and social exchange theories to describe the implementation of evidence-based practices in afterschool programs. The members of the LEGACY Together Afterschool Project team have been involved in conducting collaborative research to migrate a behavioral strategy that has been documented to reduce disruptive behaviors in classroom settings to a new setting-that of afterschool programs. We adapted the Paxis Institute's version of the Good Behavior Game to afterschool settings which differ from in-school settings, including more fluid attendance, multiple age groupings, diverse activities that may take place simultaneously, and differences in staff training and experience (Barrish et al. in J Appl Behav Anal 2(2):119-124, 1969; Embry et al. in The Pax Good Behavior Game. Hazelden, Center City, 2003; Hynes et al. in J Child Serv 4(3):4-20, 2009; Kellam et al. in Drug Alcohol Depend 95:S5-S28, 2008; Tingstrom et al. in Behav Modif 30(2):225-253, 2006). This paper presents the experiences of the three adult groups involved in the implementation process who give first-person accounts of implementation: (1) university-based scientist-practitioners, (2) community partners who trained and provided technical assistance/coaching, and (3) an afterschool program administrator. We introduce here the AIMS model used to frame the implementation process conceptualized by this town-gown collaborative team. AIMS builds upon previous work in implementation science using four phases in which the three collaborators have overlapping roles: approach/engagement, implementation, monitoring, and sustainability. Within all four phases principles of Social Exchange Theory and Social Network Theory are highlighted.

  7. Exploring the Effects of Social Exchange Relationships on the Scholarly Productivity of New Faculty Members in Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrin, Joseph C.; Odom, Marcus D.; Pearson, J. Michael; Bahmanziari, Tammy R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how social relationships between new accounting faculty members and their former dissertation chairs can influence the publishing productivity of the new faculty members in their early academic careers. The focus on social relationships offers a unique approach to studying the effectiveness doctoral education. Our findings show…

  8. Communication, advice exchange and job satisfaction of nursing staff: a social network analyses of 35 long-term care units.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.P.A. van; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.P.M.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in

  9. Improving policy and practice to promote equity and social justice - a qualitative comparative analysis building on key learnings from a twinning exchange between England and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Narle, Ginder; Gibbs, Martin; Ruddock, Charmaine; Grady, Michael; Brookes, Chris; Hopkins, Trevor; Norwood, Jayne

    2013-12-01

    Community health promotion interventions, targeted at marginalised populations and focusing on addressing the social determinants of health (SDH) to reduce health inequalities and addressing the processes of exclusion, are an important strategy to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and promote the health of underprivileged and under-resourced groups. This article builds on key lessons learnt from a learning exchange between Communities for Health in England and the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the US (REACH US) communities that are tackling health inequities. It presents a qualitative analysis further capturing information about specific community interventions involved in the exchange and identifying lessons learnt. This exchange was led by a partnership between the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Union for Health Promotion and Education, the Department of Health of England, Health Action Partnership International, and Learning for Public Health West Midlands. These efforts provide interesting insights for further research, priority areas of action for policy and practice to address the SDH and to promote and sustain equity and social justice globally. The article highlights some key lessons about the use of data, assets-based community interventions and the importance of good leadership in times of crisis and adversity. Whilst complex and time-consuming to arrange, such programmes have the potential to offer other countries including the global south new insights and perspectives that will in turn contribute to the SDH field and provide concrete strategies and actions that effectively reduce inequities and promote the health of our societies. The key learnings have the potential to contribute to the global community and growing documentation on evidence of effective efforts in the reduction of health inequities.

  10. From Reciprocal Social Networks to Action Groups for Market Exchange: “Spontaneous Privatization” in Post-Communist Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lomnitz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following previous research on the significance that social networks have had for the economic and social survival of Latin American and Soviet state-employed middle classes, this paper explores the role of social networks (connections on the process of privatization and market liberalization of Post-Communist Hungary. Based on former academic studies and on field research conducted for several months in Budapest, we will try to show that social networks are central intermediary structures on which individuals and groups construct solutions that allow them to cope with the deficiencies resulting from the formal system. From this perspective we will explore the importance of manager’s connections in the first period of the Hungarian privatization process known as “spontaneous privatization”.

  11. Effect of Picture Exchange Communication System (pecs Training on Social Skills of Boys Children with Autistic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gholami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of pecs training on social skills of children (boys with autistic disorders. Study procedure was experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of this research includes all children with autistic disorders in Shiraz in the academic year 2012- 2013. The sample size was 30 boys with autistic disorders that were selected in an available sampling method and assigned into experimental and control group, randomly. So each group consisted of 15 students. Both groups were assessed pre-test. The Experimental group received pecs training in 16 sessions while control group did not. After completion of intervention period for Experimental group the post-test was administered for both groups. The Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (Jackson, Volkmar & Minderaa, 1998 were administered to assess the social skills. The data analyses by ANCOVA showed that there were significantly increase in the mean scores of social skills and subscales (Not tune, Tendency to withdraw, Orientation problems, Not understanding, Stereotyped behavior, Fear of changes in experimental group (P<0.01. Findings indicated that pecs training intervention lead to improve social skills of boys with autistic disorders. Therefore, it is suggested to design and implemen pecs training in order to increase children’s social skills with autistic disorders.

  12. The influence of social skills on getting social support for adolescents during study abroad: A case study of Japanese short-term exchange students

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHAMA, Ai; NISHIMURA, Yoshie; TANAKA, Tomoko

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how short-term international students get social support and achieve cross-cultural adjustment during study abroad using interviews based on a recall method. The participants of the study are 8 Japanese students who studied in the U.S for about 6 months to one year. They were asked about their study abroad experiences in relation to their cross-cultural adaptation and about their social support networks. Two findings were obtained. First, the participants of the study ...

  13. Differential multiple quantum relaxation caused by chemical exchange outside the fast exchange limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunyu; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2002-01-01

    Differential relaxation of multiple quantum coherences is a signature for chemical exchange processes in proteins. Previous analyses of experimental data have used theoretical descriptions applicable only in the limit of fast exchange. Theoretical expressions for differential relaxation rate constants that are accurate outside fast exchange are presented for two-spin-system subject to two-site chemical exchange. The theoretical expressions are validated using experimental results for 15 N- 1 H relaxation in basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The new theoretical expression is valuable for identification and characterization of exchange processes in proteins using differential relaxation of multiple quantum coherences

  14. The social representation of public space for the design and management of sustainable territories A theoretical-practical and methodological proposal for participatory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Natalie Contreras-Lovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La representación social del espacio público para el diseño y gestión de territorios sostenibles. Una propuesta teórica-práctica y metodológica para un urbanismo participativo. ResumenA partir de la gestión integral participativa se orienta el desarrollo espacial de los territorios vistos desde el individuo, para comprender la gestión, acción y ordenamiento territorial, desde la diferencia entre la ciudad entendida como lo que es y el espacio público como objeto de observación. Las vías para recolectar la información fueron la revisión bibliográfica y, a partir de la aplicación de una metodología mixta, se evidenciaron las representaciones vivenciales de los individuos que construyen el saber y el conocimiento a partir del espacio cultural vivido, en donde las experiencias y las prácticas del espacio prevalecen en el desarrollo de un urbanismo participativo. La propuesta se consolida a partir del hacer, el saber y el evaluar, en una trialéctica del ambiente humanizado. Se concluye con los aportes de la propuesta en términos teóricos, prácticos y metodológicos, con el fin de validar una gestión humana participativa en la cual el individuo se vaya convirtiendo en un ser creativo que fomente la calidad de vida y el bienestar social.Palabras clave: desarrollo urbano, diseño urbano, espacio público, gestión urbana, imaginarios urbanos, participación ciudadana. The social representation of public space for the design and management of sustainable territoriesA theoretical-practical and methodological proposal for participatory planningAbstractFrom participatory integrated management, spatial development of the territories seen by the individual is oriented to understand the management, action and land from the difference between the city understood as what it is and public space as an object of observation. The ways to collect the information were the literature review and from the application of a mixed methodology

  15. The Exchange of Social Support on Online Bariatric Surgery Discussion Forums: A Mixed-Methods Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Molly E; Friedman, Aliza; Meisner, Brad A; Cassin, Stephanie E

    2018-05-01

    Bariatric surgery patients often experience physical and psychosocial stressors, and difficulty adjusting to significant lifestyle changes. As a result, social support groups that provide patients with support, coping skills, and nutritional information are valuable components of bariatric care. Support group attendance at bariatric centers is associated with greater post-surgery weight loss; however, several barriers hinder attendance at in-person support groups (e.g., travel distance to bariatric centers). Consequently, online support forums are an increasingly utilized resource for patients both before and after surgery. This study examined and described the type and frequency of social support provided on a large online bariatric surgery forum. A total of 1,412 messages in the pre- (n = 822) and post-surgery (n = 590) sections of the forum were coded using qualitative content analysis according to Cutrona and Suhr's (1992) Social Support Behavior Code model (i.e., including informational, tangible, esteem, network, and emotional support types). The majority of messages provided informational and emotional support regarding: a) factual information about the bariatric procedure and nutrition; b) advice for coping with the surgery preparation process, and physical symptoms; and c) encouragement regarding adherence to surgical guidelines, and weight loss progress. Network, esteem, and tangible support types were less frequent than informational and emotional support types. The results inform healthcare providers about the types of social support available to bariatric patients on online support forums and, thus, encourage appropriate referrals to this resource.

  16. Accounting for structural and exchange mobility in models of status attainment: Social fluidity in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menés, Jorge Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to distinguish structural from exchange mobility in status attainment models with interval endogenous variables. In order to measure structural mobility, the paper proposes to trace occupational and educational changes across generations using information provided by children about their fathers. The validity of the method is assessed by comparing the effects of father's socio-economic status and education on son's status and educational attainments, net of occupational upgrading and educational expansion, in five European countries: Britain, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and Spain, using data from the 2005 EU-SILC survey. The results show that the effect of father's on son's ISEI weakens greatly in all countries after considering occupational upgrading, and that much of father's influence over sons occurs by directing them towards occupations with good economic prospects. Useful extensions to the method are discussed in the conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  18. Book Review of “Human Behaviour and the Social Environment: Models, Metaphors, and Maps for Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Practice”. 640 pages, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2007, by James A. Forte

    OpenAIRE

    Moula, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This voluminous book which draws on almost 1000 references provides an important theoretical base for practice. After an informative introduction about models, maps and metaphors, Forte provides an impressive presentation of several perspectives for use in practice; applied ecological theory, applied system theory, applied biology, applied cognitive science, applied psychodynamic theory, applied behaviourism, applied symbolic interactionism, applied social role theory, applied economic theory...

  19. Information exchange in virtual communities: a typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burnett

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available While there is wide agreement that virtual communities - and other phenomena utilizing CMC technologies - have the capability to provide both interpersonal and informational interactions, the degree to which they can be seen as specifically information-oriented social spaces has been open to some question. Drawing upon theoretical and empirical work that emphasizes an environmental model of human information behaviour, a foundation is developed for a model of information exchange in virtual communities, and a typology of the varieties of information behaviour to be found in virtual communities is proposed. This typology will provide a mechanism for assessing the characteristics of virtual communities in terms of their support for information exchange, and has the potential to enhance our understanding of virtual communities as information environments.

  20. Communication, advice exchange and job satisfaction of nursing staff: a social network analyses of 35 long-term care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Adriana P A; Wagner, Cordula; Spreeuwenberg, Peter P M; Frijters, Dinnus H M; Ribbe, Miel W; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2011-06-01

    The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in healthcare settings. This is the first study that investigates informal communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care. We examine the structure of the networks, how they are related to the size of units and characteristics of nursing staff, and their relationship with job satisfaction. We collected social network data of 380 nursing staff of 35 units in group projects and psychogeriatric units in nursing homes and residential homes in the Netherlands. Communication and advice networks were analyzed in a social network application (UCINET), focusing on the number of contacts (density) between nursing staff on the units. We then studied the correlation between the density of networks, size of the units and characteristics of nursing staff. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationship between social networks and job satisfaction of nursing staff, taking characteristics of units and nursing staff into account. Both communication and advice networks were negatively related to the number of residents and the number of nursing staff of the units. Communication and advice networks were more dense when more staff worked part-time. Furthermore, density of communication networks was positively related to the age of nursing staff of the units. Multilevel analyses showed that job satisfaction differed significantly between individual staff members and units and was influenced by the number of nursing staff of the units. However, this relationship disappeared when density of communication networks was added to the model. Overall, communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care are relatively dense. This fits with the high level of cooperation

  1. International Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Int'l Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics (TCP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on Theoretical and Computational Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. TCP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of Theoretical and Computational Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  2. LA OPULENCIA EN LA ESCASEZ. INTERCAMBIOS DE OBJETOS, RELACIONES SOCIALES Y AMBIGÜEDADES EN INSTITUTOS CORRECCIONALES DE CÓRDOBA / Opulence on scarcity. Exchange of objects, social relations and ambiguities in correctional institutes of Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela María Tedesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone reflexionar sobre las relaciones sociales que se entrelazan durante el proceso de dar, recibir, intercambiar distintos objetos en institutos correccionales de la ciudad de Córdoba. A través del análisis de situaciones como “la visita”, “el arreglo de las habitaciones”, “el fumar y compartir en el sector”; se analizan formas de tejer vínculos con el afuera, actualizar recuerdos sobre la calle, y de producir intercambios y reforzar ciertos valores dentro del grupo que convive en el instituto. La descripción de estas situaciones implica asimismo, indagar los mecanismos y circuitos a través de los cuales se incorporan distintos sentidos a los objetos, así como también, el modo en que éstos configuran la subjetividad de las personas. De esta manera, el artículo busca mostrar la dinámica que lleva a que, en contextos institucionales marcados por privación y escasez, los jóvenes generen diversos intercambios y utilicen la ambigüedad como un medio para un construir abundancia y poder.Palabras clave: jóvenes, institutos correccionales, relaciones sociales, objetosAbstractThis article proposes to reflect on the social relations that are intertwined in the process of giving, receiving, exchanging various objects in correctional institutes in the city of Córdoba. Across the analysis of situations as “the visit”, “the arrangement of the bedroom”, “to smoke and share in the sector”; discusses ways to weave ties to the outside, upgrade memory on the street and produce exchanges and strengthen certain values within the group that lives in institute. The description of these situations also means, investigate the mechanisms and circuits through which incorporate different meanings to objects, and also, they shape the subjectivity of people. Thus, the article shows the dynamics means that, in institutional contexts marked by deprivation and scarcity, young men exchanges and use the ambiguity, as a

  3. Occupational safety and health aspects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Japanese companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) first section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Futoshi; Taniyama, Yukari; Hwi, Song You; Fujisaki, Takeshi; Kameda, Takashi; Mori, Koji

    2005-11-01

    Recently, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is becoming widely recognized as an issue for Japanese companies. Corporate responsibility for employees is considered important by various stakeholders, and occupational safety and health is regarded as one of these responsibilities. The present authors examined this issue from the viewpoint of corporate management by analysis of statements found in CSR-related reports. For companies listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE), we searched for CSR-related reports, and titles and contents, based on two established guidelines: the GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines 2002 as the international reference and the Environmental Reporting Guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, as the domestic reference. Corporations that published CSR reports were 26.3% (416/1,581) of the total, and large differences were recognized by type of industry. Comparing the numbers of pages for various contents, more concern was shown about the environment than about social activity, indicating the environment to be the main issue of CSR in Japan. In the items included in the guidelines, many matters about occupational accidents were mentioned, but it was found that statements regarding HIV/AIDS, which is not of such strong social concern in Japan, and statements regarding the costs of safety that are difficult to calculate were few. However, statements regarding mental health, which is of high interest socially, were many, even though this issue is not included in the two guidelines used. In revising the guidelines, these matters should be reviewed. In the future, continuance of analysis of CSR-related reports with regard to changes and comparisons with overseas reports will help improve occupational safety and health.

  4. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  5. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  6. Automated exchange transfusion and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funato, M; Shimada, S; Tamai, H; Taki, H; Yoshioka, Y

    1989-10-01

    An automated blood exchange transfusion (BET) with a two-site technique has been devised by Goldmann et al and by us, using an infusion pump. With this method, we successfully performed exchange transfusions 189 times in the past four years on 110 infants with birth weights ranging from 530 g to 4,000 g. The exchange rate by the automated method was compared with the rate by Diamond's method. Serum bilirubin (SB) levels before and after BET and the maximal SB rebound within 24 hours after BET were: 21.6 +/- 2.4, 11.5 +/- 2.2, and 15.0 +/- 1.5 mg/dl in the automated method, and 22.0 +/- 2.9, 11.2 +/- 2.5, and 17.7 +/- 3.2 mg/dl in Diamond's method, respectively. The result showed that the maximal rebound of the SB level within 24 hours after BET was significantly lower in the automated method than in Diamond's method (p less than 0.01), though SB levels before and after BET were not significantly different between the two methods. The exchange rate was also measured by means of staining the fetal red cells (F cells) both in the automated method and in Diamond's method, and comparing them. The exchange rate of F cells in Diamond's method went down along the theoretical exchange curve proposed by Diamond, while the rate in the automated method was significantly better than in Diamond's, especially in the early stage of BET (p less than 0.01). We believe that the use of this automated method may give better results than Diamond's method in the rate of exchange, because this method is performed with a two-site technique using a peripheral artery and vein.

  7. Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game theoretic considerations for Kenyan health governance. ... theoretic considerations in their practice in order to achieve market-driven competition ... Key words: Game theory, social capital, good governance, health policy, health systems.

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  9. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  10. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr

  11. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear theory program deals with the properties of nuclei and with the reactions and interactions between nuclei and a variety of projectiles. The main areas of concentration are: heavy-ion direct reactions at nonrelativistic energies; nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure; nuclear matter and nuclear forces;intermediate-energy physics and pion-nucleus interactions; and high-energy collisions of heavy ions. Recent progress and plans for future work in these five main areas of concentration and a summary of other theoretical studies currently in progress or recently completed are presented

  12. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  13. Burnout en profesores: Una perspectiva social del intercambio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical perspective on teacher burnout that is based on the principles of social exchange. More specifically, it is argued that burnout results from a lack of reciprocity; that is, from a mismatch between investments and outcomes. Typically, burned-out teachers have given

  14. Maintenance and methods of forming theoretical knowledge and methodical and practical abilities in area of physical culture for students, future specialists on social work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyfa A.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The value of theoretical knowledge, methodical, practical studies, skills in forming physical activity of students is rotined. The level of mastering of components of physical activity is closely associate with the basic blocks of professional preparation of students and their future professional activity. Theoretical knowledge on discipline the «Physical culture» assist the certain affecting depth and breadth of mastering of knowledge of professional preparation.

  15. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S.

    2010-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  16. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  17. Data Exchange Management Information System (DEMIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEMIS combines a database (Operational Data Store - ODS) of data exchange-related Management Information (MI) with the agency's querying and reporting utility, the...

  18. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  19. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  20. Corporate social responsibility disclosure—choices of report and its determinants: Empirical evidence from firms listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneerat Wuttichindanon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the report choices used for corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure and the determinants of CSR disclosure of firms listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET. Since 2014, firms listed on the SET have been required to disclose CSR in either an annual registration statement or a separate report called a sustainability report. It was, therefore, noteworthy to examine the choices these firms chose in the first year of disclosure. The independent variables were hypothesized under three dimensions—shareholder power (government ownership, corporate visibility (firm size and age, and economic performance (profitability and leverage. The results revealed that government-owned firms or large firms are more likely to prefer the sustainability report. In addition, content analysis of CSR disclosure was conducted in three industries: resources, technology and industrial products. Nine CSR components with 43 indices were developed and used to score the disclosure of firms in the three industries. The three highest CSR disclosure items found were declaring concerns of human rights and equality, having a policy of anti-corruption, and generous giving. Moreover, this study found a positive relationship between the number of CSR disclosure items and government ownership; however, neither firm age nor economic performance in the year before was related to the CSR disclosure. These research findings support the proposition of the stakeholder theory affirming that firms carry out CSR activities because of their stakeholders' influence, and regardless of economic performance. In Thailand, stakeholders' influence and corporate visibility are significant determinants of the CSR disclosure.

  1. The action and the psychosocial approach of the intervention in social contexts: can we move from the fashion to the theoretical, epistemological, and methodological precision?.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2012-01-01

    The following article, derived from research, poses the question about a growing issue in Colombia: the increase in projects of psychosocial intervention in diverse social sectors, particularly with victims of the armed conflict, social violence, violence of gender and family, etc., as well as population in a situation of extreme poverty, forced displacement and victims of natural disasters. In relation to this logic of intervention and action, the academic reflection tends to be scarce, uncl...

  2. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  3. Use and exchange value in mathematics education: Contemporary CHAT meets Bourdieu's sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Empirical work has shown how mathematics education exhibits certain tensions between its value as being practically useful to production and consumption on the one hand and in offering access to scarce resources on the other hand. These tensions can be ultimately traced to the contradictions in the way mathematical knowledge enhances the use value and exchange value of labour power, respectively. To understand this as a social psychological phenomenon, I look to two well-known theoretical per...

  4. Nível do câmbio e crescimento econômico: teorias e evidências para países em desenvolvimento e emergentes Exchange rate levels and economic growth: theoretical analysis and empirical evidence for developing and emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, teórica e empiricamente, a relação entre nível da taxa de câmbio e crescimento econômico nos países em desenvolvimento. Inicialmente, os objetivos da política cambial são discutidos, enfatizando sua importância como instrumento gerador de crescimento econômico. Dando continuidade, alguns canais de influência do nível da taxa de câmbio sobre o crescimento econômico são apontados: (i os canais do investimento; (ii da exportação dos bens não tradicionais; (iii do desempenho do setor de bens comercializáveis; (iv da compensação às falhas de mercado e falhas contratuais; e (v de estímulo às elasticidades-renda das exportações. Na parte empírica, uma medida de subvalorização cambial é construí-da para 82 países em desenvolvimento entre 1980 e 2007. Essa medida é empregada para captar a relação entre taxa de câmbio desvalorizada e crescimento econômico. Os resultados indicam uma correlação positiva e significante entre a medida de subvalorização cambial construída e o crescimento econômico nos países que fazem parte da amostra.The article analyses, theoretically and empirically, the relationship between exchange rate level and economic growth in emerging and developing countries. Firstly, the exchange rate policy objectives are discussed, emphasizing the importance of this policy to generate economic growth. Continuing, the article explores the channels through which exchange rates can affect economic growth, highlighting its stimulus to investment, export of non-traditional goods, productivity as well as its compensation to market failures and its stimulus to export income-elasticity. In the empirical part, a measure of exchange rate undervaluation based on Rodrik (2007 is built for 82 emerging and developing countries, between 1980 and 2007. This measure is used to investigate the relationship between devalued exchange rate and economic growth, by econometric techniques for panel data

  5. Trust and Transitions in Modes of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Coye; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Cook, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relationship between uncertainty and trust in exogenous shifts in modes of social exchange (i.e., those that are not initiated by the individuals in a given exchange system). We explore how transitions from a high uncertainty environment (reciprocal exchange) to lower-uncertainty environments (nonbinding or…

  6. GÖRGÜ TANIKLARININ ETKİSİ: SOSYAL BİR İKİLEM DURUMU ÜZERİNE OYUN TEORİSİ YAKLAŞIMI (THE BYSTANDERS’ EFFECT: A GAME THEORETIC APPROACH TO ONE SOCIAL DILEMMA SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan KÜÇÜKŞENEL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Sosyal psikolojide “görgü tanıklarının etkisi” olarak ifade edilen sosyal ikilem, herhangi bir durumda mağdur konumundaki bir kişiye etrafındaki diğer kişilerin yardım etme ihtimalleri ile ilgilidir. Oyun teorisyenleri ve deneysel iktisatçılar tarafından bu sosyal ikilemin genel olarak gönüllülerin ikilemi ile aynı sosyal olguyu ifade ettiği varsayılmıştır. Bu makalenin amacı, farklı isimlerle anılan ancak aynı sosyal olguyu ifade ettiği tartışılan bu iki farklı ikilemi incelemektir. Makalenin temel sorusu “acaba bu iki sosyal ikilem, aynı sosyal olguyu mu temsil etmektedir?” şeklindedir. Çalışma öncelikle geniş bir literatür taraması verecek, ardından oyun teorik bir yaklaşım ile gönüllülerin ikileminin çözümünü ortaya koyacak ve son olarak görgü tanıklarının etkisi için alternatif bir teorik yaklaşım sunarak bu iki durumun benzer ve farklı yönlerini tartışacaktır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Davranışsal İktisat, Görgü Tanığı Etkisi, Gönüllünün İkilemi, Fedakârlık, Sosyal İkilem. ABSTRACT: In social psychology, the bystander effect, defined as a social dilemma, is related to the probability of help to a victim by the mere presence of others. This dilemma has been generally assumed, by game theoreticians and experimental economists, to represent the same social phenomenon as the volunteer’s dilemma. In this paper, we analyze these two different social dilemmas and the main question of the article is whether these two different social dilemmas represent the same social state. We first provide a broad literature review, and discuss the game theoretical foundation of the volunteer’s dilemma. Then, we provide an alternative theoretical explanation for the bystander effect and discuss the differences between these two social states. Keywords: Behavioral Economics, Bystander Effect, Volunteer's Dilemma, Altruism, Social Dilemma.

  7. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  8. Appreciation of a constructivist curriculum for learning theoretical knowledge by social work students with different kinds and levels of learning motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bommel, Marijke; Boshuizen, Els; Kwakman, Kitty

    2018-01-01

    Social work students differ largely in their appreciation of a constructivist curriculum that leaves ample room for student's self-directed learning and allows them to place their own emphasises. This study showed that students' motivational differences and need for cognition affected students'

  9. Listening to agent agendas in student exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    The paper is based upon a research study of short-term student exchanges. The study took place from 1996-2000, and comprises seven classes of students from six Danish business schools. Short-term student exchanges in terms of EU funded exchanges and local school exchanges are means to develop...... institutional scepticism and placed within the theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. The methodology applied is qualitative, grounded theory, and the data originate from diaries, semi-structured interviews and semi-open questionnaires. The findings show that the students have their own exchange...

  10. International trade and exchange rate volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFor currencies with well developed forward markets several papers have investigated the conjectured negative relationship between trade and short term exchange rate volatility, without being very successful. A theoretical explanation for the empirical anomalies is provided by solving

  11. Integrating motivational, social, and contextual work design features: a meta-analytic summary and theoretical extension of the work design literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Stephen E; Nahrgang, Jennifer D; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-09-01

    The authors developed and meta-analytically examined hypotheses designed to test and extend work design theory by integrating motivational, social, and work context characteristics. Results from a summary of 259 studies and 219,625 participants showed that 14 work characteristics explained, on average, 43% of the variance in the 19 worker attitudes and behaviors examined. For example, motivational characteristics explained 25% of the variance in subjective performance, 2% in turnover perceptions, 34% in job satisfaction, 24% in organizational commitment, and 26% in role perception outcomes. Beyond motivational characteristics, social characteristics explained incremental variances of 9% of the variance in subjective performance, 24% in turnover intentions, 17% in job satisfaction, 40% in organizational commitment, and 18% in role perception outcomes. Finally, beyond both motivational and social characteristics, work context characteristics explained incremental variances of 4% in job satisfaction and 16% in stress. The results of this study suggest numerous opportunities for the continued development of work design theory and practice. (c) 2007 APA.

  12. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  13. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  14. Model Uncertainty and Exchange Rate Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); A. Markiewicz (Agnieszka); R. Verhoeks (Ralph); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a theoretical framework of exchange rate behavior where investors focus on a subset of economic fundamentals. We find that any adjustment in the set of predictors used by investors leads to changes in the relation between the exchange rate and fundamentals. We test the

  15. Marriage exchanges, seed exchanges, and the dynamics of manioc diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delêtre, Marc; McKey, Doyle B; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2011-11-08

    The conservation of crop genetic resources requires understanding the different variables-cultural, social, and economic-that impinge on crop diversity. In small-scale farming systems, seed exchanges represent a key mechanism in the dynamics of crop genetic diversity, and analyzing the rules that structure social networks of seed exchange between farmer communities can help decipher patterns of crop genetic diversity. Using a combination of ethnobotanical and molecular genetic approaches, we investigated the relationships between regional patterns of manioc genetic diversity in Gabon and local networks of seed exchange. Spatially explicit Bayesian clustering methods showed that geographical discontinuities of manioc genetic diversity mirror major ethnolinguistic boundaries, with a southern matrilineal domain characterized by high levels of varietal diversity and a northern patrilineal domain characterized by low varietal diversity. Borrowing concepts from anthropology--kinship, bridewealth, and filiation--we analyzed the relationships between marriage exchanges and seed exchange networks in patrilineal and matrilineal societies. We demonstrate that, by defining marriage prohibitions, kinship systems structure social networks of exchange between farmer communities and influence the movement of seeds in metapopulations, shaping crop diversity at local and regional levels.

  16. Theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical physics program in the Physics Division at ORNL involves research in both nuclear and atomic physics. In nuclear physics there is extensive activity in the fields of direct nuclear reactions with light- and heavy-ion projectiles, the structure of nuclei far from stability and at elevated temperatures, and the microscopic and macroscopic description of heavy-ion dynamics, including the behavior of nuclear molecules and supernuclei. New research efforts in relativistic nuclear collisions and in the study of quark-gluon plasma have continued to grow this year. The atomic theory program deals with a variety of ionization, multiple-vacancy production, and charge-exchange processes. Many of the problems are selected because of their relevance to the magnetic fusion energy program. In addition, there is a joint atomic-nuclear theory effort to study positron production during the collision of two high-Z numbers, i.e., U+U. A new Distinguished Scientist program, sponsored jointly by the University of Tennessee and ORNL, has been initiated. Among the first appointments is G.F. Bertsch in theoretical physics. As a result of this appointment, Bertsch and an associated group of four theorists split their time between UT and ORNL. In addition, the State of Tennessee has established a significant budget to support the visits of outstanding scientists to the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research at ORNL. This budget should permit a significant improvement in the visitor program at ORNL. Finally, the Laboratory awarded a Wigner post-doctoral Appointment to a theorist who will work in the theory group of the Physics Division

  17. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five PhD students are working for their degree under supervision of the senior members from the Department. In the last year we have completed our active participation in the educational TEMPUS programme funded by the European Communities. This programme has in particular allowed exchange of students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. In 1998 we joined the SOCRATES - ERASMUS project which will make it possible to continue this exchange. (author)

  18. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research, yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five students are working for their Ph.D. or MSc degrees under supervision of the senior members from the Department. We continue our participation at the EC SOCRATES-ERASMUS educational programme which allows exchange of graduate students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the UK. (author)

  19. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowodiuk, Walter

    1976-01-06

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration.

  20. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  1. Exchange rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Bev

    2003-09-01

    IN MAY this year, I was lucky enough to go to Larissa in northern Greece as part of Hope Exchange 2003, an annual study tour organised by the European Union's hospital committee and administered by the Institute of Healthcare Management (IHM).

  2. Heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daman, Ernest L.; McCallister, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger is provided having first and second fluid chambers for passing primary and secondary fluids. The chambers are spaced apart and have heat pipes extending from inside one chamber to inside the other chamber. A third chamber is provided for passing a purge fluid, and the heat pipe portion between the first and second chambers lies within the third chamber.

  3. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  4. Two on exchange : Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors

  5. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  6. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A heat exchanger such as forms, for example, part of a power steam boiler is made up of a number of tubes that may be arranged in many different ways, and it is necessary that the tubes be properly supported. The means by which the tubes are secured must be as simple as possible so as to facilitate construction and must be able to continue to function effectively under the varying operating conditions to which the heat exchanger is subject. The arrangement described is designed to meet these requirements, in an improved way. The tubes are secured to a member extending past several tubes and abutment means are provided. At least some of the abutment means comprise two abutment pieces and a wedge secured to the supporting member, that acts on these pieces to maintain the engagement. (U.K.)

  7. Heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, E L; Eisenmann, G; Hahne, E [Stuttgart Univ. (TH) (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Waermetechnik

    1976-04-01

    A survey is presented on publications on design, heat transfer, form factors, free convection, evaporation processes, cooling towers, condensation, annular gap, cross-flowed cylinders, axial flow through a bundle of tubes, roughnesses, convective heat transfer, loss of pressure, radiative heat transfer, finned surfaces, spiral heat exchangers, curved pipes, regeneraters, heat pipes, heat carriers, scaling, heat recovery systems, materials selection, strength calculation, control, instabilities, automation of circuits, operational problems and optimization.

  8. SOLAR-WIND ION-DRIVEN X-RAY EMISSION FROM COMETARY AND PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES: MEASUREMENTS AND THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS OF CHARGE-EXCHANGE CROSS-SECTIONS AND EMISSION SPECTRA FOR O{sup 6+} + H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, NO, N{sub 2}O, AND Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machacek, J. R. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 2601 (Australia); Mahapatra, D. P. [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India); Schultz, D. R. [Department of Physics, Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Ralchenko, Yu. [Atomic Spectroscopy Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States); Moradmand, A.; El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Chutjian, A. [Astrophysics and Space Sciences Section, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    Relevant to modeling and understanding X-ray emission from cometary and planetary atmospheres, total cross-sections for 1.17 and 2.33 keV/u O{sup 6+} colliding with H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, NO, N{sub 2}O, and Ar have been measured for the processes of single, double, and triple charge exchanges. Using these measurements as benchmarks, synthetic emission spectra spanning the X-ray, UV, and visible range have been calculated based on theoretical treatment of the transfer of between one and six electrons from the target neutrals to the projectile ion, followed by radiative and non-radiative decay of the highly excited states produced in these collisions. The results help add to the base of knowledge required to simulate ion-neutral processes in astrophysical environments; refine the present understanding of these fundamental atomic processes; and guide future observations, laboratory measurements, and theoretical predictions.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of the double ionization by electron impact involving the Auger effect: processes and exchanges interferences; Etude theorique et experimentale de la double ionisation par impact electronique incluant l'effet auger: interferences d'echanges et de processus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoire, F

    2006-09-15

    In this work, double ionisation mechanisms of argon by electron impact in which the Auger effect is included have been studied as a function of the incident electron energy. Five and six fold differential cross sections in angle and in energy have been measured and analysed in a coplanar geometry. The efficiency of the apparatus has been improved by the use of a new toroidal analyser. For the first time, the six fold differential cross section in which the Auger electron and the ejected electron with identical kinetic energies (205 eV) are involved, was measured at an incident energy of 956 eV in the case of argon. In the theoretical models developed during this work, the triple continuum is represented by a manifold of coulomb waves describing the interaction of all electrons with the residual ion. Exchange effects between electrons were also included in the models. Comparison between experimental and theoretical results allows to study the relative contribution of the Auger process and the direct double ionisation on the angular dependence five fold differential cross section. In particular, the Auger process contribution seems to become increasingly important as the incident energy is increased.

  10. Cancer patients and the provision of informational social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James D; Tian, Yan

    2009-07-01

    Research into the impact of social support on health-care patients has focused on the benefits of receiving social support. Although recipients benefit from social support, there are also potential benefits to the providers of social support that have gone relatively unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between the reception and provision of informational social support by cancer patients. Based on the work of Gouldner (1960), this investigation attempts to examine the role reciprocity plays within the social support process. The norm of reciprocity is conceptualized as a generalized moral belief rather than as a simple pattern of exchange between caregivers and care receivers. Use of reciprocity as a generalized moral belief instead of a pattern of behavioral exchange between providers and recipients of social support allows a more thorough integration theoretically and more methodical examination of the role the relationship between providers and recipients plays in this process. Specifically, this investigation employs the notion of optimal matching as part of the mechanism underlying the satisfactions derived from informational social support. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggest that reciprocity is a viable explanation of the mechanism underlying the desire to provide social support to others among cancer patients and among adults who have never been diagnosed with cancer. This relationship between the reception and the provision of informational social support remains even after controlling for age, education, gender, race, social integration, and cancer diagnosis. Implications for the social support literature are discussed.

  11. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Exchange interactions in Fe/Y multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkabil, R.; Elkaidi, I.; Annouar, F.; Lassri, H.; Hamdoun, A.; Bensassi, B.; Berrada, A.; Krishnan, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetization of Fe/Y multilayers has been measured as a function of temperature. A bulk-like T 3/2 temperature dependence of the magnetization is observed for all multilayers in the temperature range 5-300 K. The spin-wave constant B is found to decrease inversely with t Fe . A simple theoretical model with exchange interactions only, and with non-interacting magnons, has been used to explain the temperature dependence of the magnetization and the approximate values for the bulk exchange interaction J b , surface exchange interaction J s and the interlayer exchange interaction J I for various Fe layer thicknesses have been obtained

  13. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  14. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria. ... problems in Nigeria are analysed in the context of a social dilemma. Game theoretic models based on the famous ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  16. Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. This paper provides an account of changing perspectives of caste relations in social science writing and political discourse. The discourse of caste has been shifted from ritual hierarchy and social discrimination to an instrument to mobilize people for economic and political gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10437 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 51-86

  17. Matchmaker Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreira, Nara L M; Arachchi, Harindra; Buske, Orion J; Chong, Jessica X; Hutton, Ben; Foreman, Julia; Schiettecatte, François; Groza, Tudor; Jacobsen, Julius O B; Haendel, Melissa A; Boycott, Kym M; Hamosh, Ada; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-18

    In well over half of the individuals with rare disease who undergo clinical or research next-generation sequencing, the responsible gene cannot be determined. Some reasons for this relatively low yield include unappreciated phenotypic heterogeneity; locus heterogeneity; somatic and germline mosaicism; variants of uncertain functional significance; technically inaccessible areas of the genome; incorrect mode of inheritance investigated; and inadequate communication between clinicians and basic scientists with knowledge of particular genes, proteins, or biological systems. To facilitate such communication and improve the search for patients or model organisms with similar phenotypes and variants in specific candidate genes, we have developed the Matchmaker Exchange (MME). MME was created to establish a federated network connecting databases of genomic and phenotypic data using a common application programming interface (API). To date, seven databases can exchange data using the API (GeneMatcher, PhenomeCentral, DECIPHER, MyGene2, matchbox, Australian Genomics Health Alliance Patient Archive, and Monarch Initiative; the latter included for model organism matching). This article guides usage of the MME for rare disease gene discovery. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  18. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, F; Yanagida, T; Fujie, K; Futawatari, H

    1975-04-30

    The purpose of this construction is the improvement of heat transfer in finned tube heat exchangers, and therefore the improvement of its efficiency or its output per unit volume. This is achieved by preventing the formation of flow boundary layers in gaseous fluid. This effect always occurs on flow of smooth adjacent laminae, and especially if these have pipes carrying liquid passing through them; it worsens the heat transfer of such a boundary layer considerably compared to that in the turbulent range. The fins, which have several rows of heat exchange tubes passing through them, are fixed at a small spacing on theses tubes. The fins have slots cut in them by pressing or punching, where the pressed-out material remains as a web, which runs parallel to the level of the fin and at a small distance from it. These webs and slots are arranged radially around every tube hole, e.g. 6 in number. For a suitable small tube spacing, two adjacent tubes opposite each other have one common slot. Many variants of such slot arrangements are illustrated.

  19. MEMBEDAH TEORI SOSIOLOGI: Teori Pertukaran (Exchange Theory George Caspar Homans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardani Wardani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at analyzing critically George Caspar Homans’s theory of exchange. The critical analysis that may be called here simply as “maping ideology” embodied in theory is needed to place the theory within the specific social and political condition, intellectual background, school of thought having great influence on it, and so forth, and also to assesses its limitedness as a theoretical frame-work of scientific research to explain complicated social phenomenon or human interaction. Influenced by psychological and economic theories, Homans’s theory of exchange has been intended at the beginning by the author as attack against Marxism domination that addressed criticism to capitalism as macro-structure oppressing the proletariat by the ruling class and against Durkheimian structural functionalism. By addressing the attack against Marxism and because of his intellectual and social background, Homans’s theory then has been regarded as an explanation justifying the existing situation. Being attributed as psychological reductionism, as neglecting the important role of structure, and deterministic are some of the objections addressed to his theory.

  20. Reciprocal Exchange Patterned by Market Forces Helps Explain Cooperation in a Small-Scale Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Hooper, Paul L; Beheim, Bret A; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-08-22

    Social organisms sometimes depend on help from reciprocating partners to solve adaptive problems [1], and individual cooperation strategies should aim to offer high supply commodities at low cost to the donor in exchange for high-demand commodities with large return benefits [2, 3]. Although such market dynamics have been documented in some animals [4-7], naturalistic studies of human cooperation are often limited by focusing on single commodities [8]. We analyzed cooperation in five domains (meat sharing, produce sharing, field labor, childcare, and sick care) among 2,161 household dyads of Tsimane' horticulturalists, using Bayesian multilevel models and information-theoretic model comparison. Across domains, the best-fit models included kinship and residential proximity, exchanges in kind and across domains, measures of supply and demand and their interactions with exchange, and household-specific exchange slopes. In these best models, giving, receiving, and reciprocating were to some extent shaped by market forces, and reciprocal exchange across domains had a strong partial effect on cooperation independent of more exogenous factors like kinship and proximity. Our results support the view that reciprocal exchange can provide a reliable solution to adaptive problems [8-11]. Although individual strategies patterned by market forces may generate gains from trade in any species [3], humans' slow life history and skill-intensive foraging niche favor specialization and create interdependence [12, 13], thus stabilizing cooperation and fostering divisions of labor even in informal economies [14, 15]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Commodity and its Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    and the value of the quota are examined through the concrete exchange of fishing rights, and it is explained why quota trade can give rise to speculation and monopolies. In the final part of the chapter, it is argued that the value of transferable fishing quotas rely on a social relation between owners...

  2. Knowledge Exchange with Sistema Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…

  3. Assessing Two Theoretical Frameworks of Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrero, Benilde; Pérez-Martínez, María Guadalupe; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Caso-Niebla, Joaquín; Díaz-López, Carlos David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test two major theoretical models: a modified version of the social capital model (Pattie, Seyd and Whiteley, 2003), and the Informed Social Engagement Model (Barr and Selman, 2014; Selman and Kwok, 2010), to explain civic participation and civic knowledge of adolescents from Chile, Colombia and Mexico,…

  4. Exchange-Rate Unification with Black Market Leakages; Russia 1992

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg

    1993-01-01

    In 1992 Russia unified the multiple exchange rates that had applied to international transactions. This paper describes the multiple exchange rate system that existed in Russia prior to mid-1992 and undertakes a theoretical exploration of the effects of the exchange rate unification that took place in July 1992. The model developed here allows for leakages between official and black markets and permits flexibility of the exchange rates in both official and parallel currency markets. Within th...

  5. Data Exchanges and Verifications Online (DEVO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DEVO is the back-end application for processing SSN verifications and data exchanges. DEVO uses modern technology for parameter driven processing of both batch and...

  6. Segmented heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean; Willi, Martin Leo; Fiveland, Scott Byron; Timmons, Kristine Ann

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  7. Exchange Rate Volatility and Investment: A Panel Data Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima Amadou DIALLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between real exchange rate volatility and domestic investment by using panel data cointegration techniques. We study the empirical connection between real effective exchange rate volatility and investment for 51 developing countries (23 low-income and 28 middle-income countries. The theoretical relationship between investment and real exchange rate volatility predicts that the effects of exchange rate uncertainty on profits are ambiguous. The empirical results illustrate that real effective exchange rate volatility has a strong negative impact on investment. This outcome is robust in low income and middle income countries, and by using an alternative measurement of exchange rate volatility.

  8. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  9. Theoretical disagreement about law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the dominant direction of the study of legal phenomena, legal positivism has suffered criticisms above all from representatives of natural law. Nevertheless, the most complex criticism of legal positivism came from Ronald Dworkin. With the methodological criticism he formed in 'Law's Empire', Dworkin attacked the sole foundations of legal positivism and his main methodological assumptions. Quoting the first postulate of positivism, which understands the law as a fact, Dworkin claims that, if this comprehension is correct, there could be no dispute among jurists concerning the law, except if some of them make an empirical mistake while establishing facts. Since this is not the case, Dworkin proves that this is actually a theoretical disagreement which does not represent a disagreement about the law itself, but about its morality. On these grounds, he rejects the idea of law as a fact and claims that the law is an interpretive notion, which means that disagreements within jurisprudence are most frequently interpretative disagreements over criteria of legality, and not empirical disagreements over historic and social facts.

  10. Cecília Donnangelo: pioneira na construção teórica de um pensamento social em saúde Cecília Donnangelo: a pioneer in the theoretical construction of social thinking in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Duarte Nunes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa aspectos do percurso intelectual de Maria Cecília Ferro Donnangelo e seus principais trabalhos. Destaca-se no texto o papel inovador e pioneiro da sua obra nos momentos iniciais das ciências sociais no campo da saúde, na segunda metade dos anos 1960, contextualizados no momento em que ocorriam mudanças no ensino médico e na prática da medicina no Brasil.The present article analyzes aspects of the intellectual trajectory of Maria Cecília Ferro Donnangelo and her principal works. The text emphasizes the innovating and pioneer role her work played in the first moments of social sciences in the field of health in the mid sixties, occurring just together with changes in medical education and medical practice in Brazil.

  11. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  12. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf ESMER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, having just leadership or entrepreneurship qualities by business managers is not enough for success of enterprises. Managers need to have both leadership and entrepreneurship qualities in order to be successful. At this point, the concept of entrepreneurial leadership emerges. Entrepreneurial leadership is a new and modern type of leadership that is a combination of leadership qualities and spirit of entrepreneurship. In addition, entrepreneurial leadership is creating new products, new processes and expansion opportunities in existing businesses, working in social institutions and dealing with ignored social issues, participating in social and political movements, contributing to the change of current services and policies implemented by civil society organizations and governments. In recent times, entrepreneurial leadership has become a new phenomenon in business management that needs to be discussed. In this regard, in this study, the importance of entrepreneurial leadership is emphasized by examining the concept of entrepreneurial leadership within a theoretical framework.

  13. Green” Technology and Ecologically Unequal Exchange: The Environmental and Social Consequences of Ecological Modernization in the World-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bonds

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to understandings of ecologically unequal exchange within the world-systems perspective by offering a series of case studies of ecological modernization in the automobile industry. The case studies demonstrate that “green” technologies developed and instituted in core nations often require specific raw materials that are extracted from the periphery and semi-periphery. Extraction of such natural resources causes significant environmental degradation and often displaces entire communities from their land. Moreover, because states often use violence and repression to facilitate raw material extraction, the widespread commercialization of “green” technologies can result in serious human rights violations. These findings challenge ecological modernization theory, which rests on the assumption that the development and commercialization of more ecologically-efficient technologies is universally beneficial.

  14. Exchange and fellowship programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    By February 1959, the IAEA had received and considered nearly 300 nominations from 31 countries for nuclear science fellowships. More than 200 of the candidates - from 29 countries - had been selected for placement in centres of training in 21 countries. The programme covers three types of training: 1. General techniques training: to develop skills in the use of some fundamental techniques in the field of nuclear energy; 2. Specialist training: to prepare specialists in the theoretical and experimental aspects of the science and technology of nuclear energy; 3. Research training: to provide advanced training, including active participation in research work; this is for persons potentially qualified to develop and carry out research programmes in the basic sciences and engineering. The duration of training varies from some weeks to five or six years. The long-duration training is given at universities or educational establishments of university level, and is of special interest to Member States lacking personnel with the requisite university education. Under its 1959 exchange and fellowship programme, the Agency will be in a position to award over 400 fellowships. Some of these will be paid out of the Agency's operating fund, while 130 fellowships have been offered directly to IAEA by Member States for training at their universities or institutes. There are two new features in the Agency's 1959 programme. One provides for fellowships for scientific research work, the other is the exchange of specialists

  15. Exporter Price Response to Exchange Rate Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund

    Firms exporting to foreign markets face a particular challenge: to price their exports in a foreign market when the exchange rate changes. This paper takes on pricing- to-market using a unique data set that covers rm level monthly trade at great detail. As opposed to annual trade ows, monthly trade...... theoretical contributions to the litterature on pricing-to-market and exchange rate pass-through....

  16. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  17. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  18. Sharing "Sex Secrets" on Facebook: A Content Analysis of Youth Peer Communication and Advice Exchange on Social Media about Sexual Health and Intimate Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-09-01

    Social media present opportunities and challenges for sexual health communication among young people. This study is one of the first to examine the actual use of Facebook for peer communication of sexual health and intimate relations. Content analysis of 2186 anonymous posts in a "sex secrets" Facebook page unofficially affiliated with a Hong Kong University shows gender balance among posters, inclusiveness of sexual minorities, and frequent sharing of personal experiences in storytelling or advice seeking. The findings illuminate young people's health concerns regarding condom use, avoiding pain, birth control, sexually transmitted infections, and body appearance. Relational concerns found entailed sexual practices, expectations, and needs-predominantly within dating relationships and include not wanting to have sex. Supportive communication among users was prevalent. A majority of posts involved advice solicitation in the form of request for opinion or information (30.38%), request for advice (13.68%), situation comparison (5.40%), or problem disclosure (9.97%). Comments to the advice-seeking posts were mostly supportive (69.49%); nonsupportive responses (unsolicited messages and gratuitous humor) were concentrated with ambiguous advice solicitations. These findings hold implications for understanding self-disclosure of intimate concerns within social networks, and attuning sexual health intervention on social media to young people's actual needs and advice preferences.

  19. How to govern physician-hospital exchanges: contractual and relational issues in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybou, Jeroen; Gemmel, Paul; Annemans, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to investigate contractual mechanisms in physician-hospital exchanges. The concepts of risk-sharing and the nature of physician-hospital exchanges - transactional versus relational - were studied. Two qualitative case studies were performed in Belgium. Hospital executives and physicians were interviewed to develop an in-depth understanding of contractual and relational issues that shape physician-hospital contracting in acute care hospitals. The underlying theoretical concepts of agency theory and social exchange theory were used to analyse the data. Our study found that physician-hospital contracting is highly complex. The contract is far more than an economic instrument governing financial aspects. The effect of the contract on the nature of exchange - whether transactional or relational - also needs to be considered. While it can be argued that contractual governance methods are increasingly necessary to overcome the difficulties that arise from the fragmented payment framework by aligning incentives and sharing financial risk, they undermine the necessary relational governance. Relational qualities such as mutual trust and an integrative view on physician-hospital exchanges are threatened, and may be difficult to sustain, given the current fragmentary payment framework. Since health care policy makers are increasing the financial risk borne by health care providers, it can be argued that this also increases the need to share financial risk and to align incentives between physician and hospital. However, our study demonstrates that while economic alignment is important in determining physician-hospital contracts, the corresponding impact on working relationships should also be considered. Moreover, it is important to avoid a relationship between hospital and physician predominantly characterized by transactional exchanges thereby fostering an unhealthy us-and-them divide and mentality. Relational exchange is a valuable alternative to contractual

  20. The production of scientific videos: a theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Gavilondo Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of theoretical research on the production of scientific videos and its application to the teaching-learning process carried out in schools in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. It is located within the production line and Audiovisual Communication. Creation of scientific videos, from the Communication major with a concentration in audiovisual production and multimedia of the Salesian Polytechnic University. For the realization of the article it was necessary to use key terms that helped subsequently to data collection. used terms such as: audiovisual production, understood as the production of content for audiovisual media; the following term used audiovisual communication is recognized as the process in which there is an exchange of messages through an audible and / or visual system; and the last term we use is scientifically video, which is one that uses audiovisual resources to obtain relevant and reliable information.As part of the theoretical results a methodological proposal for the video production is presented for educational purposes. In conclusion set out, first, that from the communicative statement in recent times, current social relations, constitute a successful context of possibilities shown to education to generate meeting points between the world of the everyday and the knowledge. Another indicator validated as part of the investigation, is that teachers surveyed use the potential of the audiovisual media, and supported them, deploy alternatives for use. 

  1. Wireless Information-Theoretic Security in an Outdoor Topology with Obstacles: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagiuklas Tasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.

  2. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triolo, R.; Lietzke, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  3. Physical Violence between Siblings: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kristi L.; Kiecolt, K. Jill; Edwards, John N.

    2005-01-01

    This study develops and tests a theoretical model to explain sibling violence based on the feminist, conflict, and social learning theoretical perspectives and research in psychology and sociology. A multivariate analysis of data from 651 young adults generally supports hypotheses from all three theoretical perspectives. Males with brothers have…

  4. Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jerrold

    1989-05-01

    This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12-17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article. (AIP)

  5. Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12--17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article

  6. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  7. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  8. Interacciones entre alumnos en entornos mediados por TIC. Un análisis de la dimensión social de los intercambios = (Interactions among students in environments mediated by ICTS. An analysis of the social dimension of exchanges)

    OpenAIRE

    Chiecher, Analía

    2013-01-01

    El artículo atiende al propósito de analizar las interacciones entre pares en entornos virtuales, focalizando la atención en la dimensión social y afectiva de la comunicación. Se trabajó con 34 estudiantes de grado y 42 alumnos que cursaban un posgr

  9. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  10. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  11. Exchange Rate Regime in Russia, Evaluation and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Olga, Vasilevskaya

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies exchange rate choice in Russia with respect to social, economic and political determinants. The study deliberately narrowed the scope of the discussion to two extreme cases, i.e. fixed and floating exchange rate. Today Russia applies managed floating exchange rate arrangement and it is important to determine the direction of the further monetary policy development either towards fixed or floating exchange rate. The paper argues that the logical extension of the historical t...

  12. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.; Leitch, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of double-analog, nonanalog, and continuum pion double charge exchange in the 50- to 310-MeV energy range are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 22 papers in these proceedings

  13. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  14. Knowledge Exchange and Discovery in the Age of Social Media: The Journey From Inception to Establishment of a Parent-Led Web-Based Research Advisory Community for Childhood Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dianne J; Sprung, Jennifer; McCauley, Dayle; Kraus de Camargo, Olaf; Buchanan, Francine; Gulko, Roman; Martens, Rachel; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-11-11

    Efforts to involve parents and families in all aspects of research, from initiating the question through to dissemination and knowledge exchange, are increasing. While social media as a method for health communication has shown numerous benefits, including increasing accessibility, interactions with others, and access to health care information, little work has been published on the use of social media to enhance research partnerships. Our objective was to describe the development and evaluation of a Web-based research advisory community, hosted on Facebook and connecting a diverse group of parents of special needs children with researchers at CanChild Centre for Childhood Disability Research. The goal of this community is to work together and exchange knowledge in order to improve research and the lives of children and their families. The Web-based Parents Participating in Research (PPR) advisory community was a secret Facebook group launched in June 2014 and run by 2 parent moderators who worked in consultation with CanChild. We evaluated its success using Facebook statistics of engagement and activity (eg, number of posts, number of comments) between June 2014 and April 2015, and a Web-based survey of members. The PPR community had 96 participants (2 parent moderators, 13 researchers, and 81 family members) as of April 1, 2015. Over 9 months, 432 original posts were made: 155 (35.9%) by moderators, 197 (45.6%) by parents, and 80 (18.5%) by researchers. Posts had a median of 3 likes (range 0-24) and 4 comments (range 0-113). Members, rather than moderators, generated 64% (277/432) of posts. The survey had a 51% response rate (49/96 members), with 40 (82%) being parent members and 9 (18%) being researchers. The initial purpose of the group was to be an advisory to CanChild, and 76% (28/37) of parents and all the researchers (9/9) identified having an impact on childhood disability research as their reason for participating. A total of 58% (23/40) of parents and 56

  15. Can Supervisors Win over Followers by Virtue? Study on the Effects of Ethical Leadership from Perspectives of Social Learning and Social Exchange%管理者真能“以德服人”吗?——社会学习和社会交换视角下伦理型领导作用机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪雁; 王端旭

    2011-01-01

    Following recent ethical scandals and accusations in business which make enterprises fall into decay or go bankrupt and lead to trust crisis of the whole society,there has been a surge in interest in the development of ethical leadership.Although much has been done about the constructs,antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership,there are still many questions relating to its effects on psychological and organizational processes.Focusing on team leaders,we draw on social learning theory and social exchange theory to explore the impacts of ethical leadership on team members.Based on social learning theory,ethical leadership influences followers' outcomes through psychological safety and ethical climate.However,a social exchange perspective on ethical leadership proposes that team leaders influence the ethical conducts of followers via job characteristics and leader-member exchange.Future research directions are discussed in the end.%因组织伦理失范引发的企业衰落、倒闭甚至社会信任危机唤起了人们选择和开发伦理型领导的强烈动机。现有研究虽然探讨了伦理型领导的概念、前因和后果,但是仍然缺乏对伦理型领导作用机理的系统分析。以团队领导为对象,从社会学习和社会交换两个不同的理论视角深入剖析了伦理型领导对团队成员产生影响的过程机制。从社会学习视角看,伦理型领导主要是通过心理安全和伦理氛围两个重要的中介变量影响团队成员;从社会交换视角看,伦理型领导主要通过工作特征和领导—部属交换对团队成员产生影响。最后展望了未来研究方向。

  16. Pion double charge exchange and hadron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will review theoretical results to show how pion double charge exchange is contributing to our understanding of hadron dynamics in nuclei. The exploitation of the nucleus as a filter is shown to be essential in facilitating the comparison between theory and experiment. 23 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Nuclear structure and the single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Strottman, D.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on meson-induced single-charge-exchange reactions on light nuclei is discussed within the context of the Glauber approximation. Selection rules which are expected to be approximately obeyed in elastic and inelastic pion and kaon scattering are proposed. Theoretical predictions are presented for (π + ,π 0 ) and (K + ,K 0 ) reactions on 13 C. 14 figures

  18. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  19. The exchangeable cations in soils flooded with sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der W.H.

    1958-01-01

    The changes in the exchangeable cations of soils flooded with sea-water were extensively studied in the Netherlands after the inundations of 1940, 1945 and 1953. A synopsis of the results was given, both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

    Current formulae for ion-exchange tested in the

  20. The Brazilian experience in managing interest-exchange rate nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Carneiro; Pedro Rossi

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses four main questions: firstly, it discusses some theoretical background related to the interest-exchange rate nexus; secondly, it makes an attempt to explain why the interest rate in Brazil is so high, examining briefly the main explanations for it; thirdly, it describes Brazil’s foreign exchange markets, their size and hierarchy; and lastly, it explains the carry trade dynamics considering the institutionalism of the Brazilian foreign exchange market and also the govern...