WorldWideScience

Sample records for social dream worlds

  1. My Dream, My World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph DeVeto; 赵惠妙

    2005-01-01

    @@ I often dream the same dream: I am driving together with my mother on a stretched straight path1.The birds are singing and playing2 around the car, the flowers are opening3 richly4 which decorate5 the land.The breeze is flirting with ourhair, my long, black waterfall and my mother's short gray hair6.

  2. The Social Life of Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijnen, Adriënne

    The Social Life of Dreams: Thousand Years of Negotiated Meanings in Iceland is the first anthropological work that discusses how dreams, remembered upon awakening, motivate human action and influence social relations in contemporary Europe. Through detailed anthropological analyses of the ways...... in which many Icelanders see dreams as legitimate sources of knowledge, this book argues that sleeping and dreaming -- activities which are often considered to be psychological and “non-social”-- should be included in the analysis of social life....

  3. The "One Belt and One Road" :the Bridge between the Chinese Dream and the World Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Zhouxian; Liu; Guang

    2015-01-01

    To build the "One Belt and One Road" is the profound strategic conception put forward by the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the General Secretary,focusing on adherence to and further development of socialism with Chinese characteristics and realizing the Chinese dream of great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.To seize the opportunity to promote implementation of the strategic conception is bound to open up a new situation and create new opportunities to realize the Chinese dream,and will inject more new energy and new vitality into the world dream.

  4. The Chinese Dream-A New Dream Provided By China For The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保

    2013-01-01

    Along With promotion of comprehensive national strength, Chinese dream, as a new term ,begins to more and more popular. It is introduced, explained and spread by officials, scholars and medias. Would it be another dream for the world beside the American one?

  5. True dreams: Encounter of the worlds in Islamic philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available True dreams that explicitly or symbolically reveal the events of the past and the future, in the ontological sense tell more than just about the content of a dream because they bespeak the supratemporal dimension of human beings and represent man's ability to connect to different worlds, and respectively multitudinous forms and levels of being. In this paper, without going into the psychological or physiological analysis of dreams, we try to clarify the ontological significance and position of true dreams in existing worlds. In Islamic philosophy, the underlying cognitive basis for the description of the ontological level of true dreams was established by the founder of Illuminative Philosophy, Shaykh al-Ishraq (1155-1191, and it was expanded by the founder of Transcendental Philosophy, Mulla Sadra Shirazi (1572-1640. Shaykh al-Ishraq explained in detail existential position of supramaterial beings that on the one hand are above the world of matter and in a direct active contact with it, and on the other hand, are under the dominant world of intellect. He called these creatures Midworld (Barzakh and, for the first time in Islamic philosophy, stated that it is a separate world of imagination that is different from the material and intelligible one. True dreams are one of the many indications that man has a supratemporal dimension that exposes supramaterial and temporally unlimited worlds to him. Apart from true dreams, most important signs of supramaterial worlds in human life are the prophetic revelation, as well as revelations and mystical-gnostic intuition. Unlike the last two examples, true dreams are known and accessible to all people, both from their immediate experience and from the stories of the ones close to them. For this reason, in this paper we explain how true dreams represent a blend of worlds in human life.

  6. Digital technologies, dreams and disconcertment in anthropological world-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2017-01-01

    In this article I explore dreaming and sharing of images in social media (such as Snapchat and Instagram), as future-making action. I propose to view them as techniques to research the future anthropologically. Through my 14-month fieldwork among young Muslim women in Copenhagen, it became apparent...

  7. Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永康

    1994-01-01

    People have beliefs since ancient times that dreams were veryimportant. More recently psychiatrist Sigmand Freud believed dreamsshowed a person’s true hidden feelings. He said dreams were theresult of sexual and aggressive needs and represented a person’s deepestdesires. Many psychiatrists now dispute the importance of dreams in

  8. Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Hughes; 徐觉庆

    2006-01-01

    @@ Dreams L.Hughes Hold fast to dreams, For if dreams die, Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams, For when dreams go, Lire is a barren field Frozen with snow. 梦想 徐觉庆 译 紧紧地攥住梦想, 因为梦想一旦天亡, 生活就像折翼的鸟儿 再也不能飞翔. 紧紧地攥住梦想, 因为梦想一旦消逝, 生活犹如荒芜的田地覆盖着雪霜.

  9. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-10-01

    The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient's dreams. Dreams can reflect a patient's aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting.

  10. Ordinary stories, dreams, miracles and social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Papachristophorou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling and vernacular religion are complementary on multiple levels in the example of Lipsi (southeast Aegean, Greece, where the use of common symbols proves to be more durable than practices, even when the framework of official religion has changed. It is on this narrative web, which unfolds as oral tradition, as ritual practices or as landscape, that community members portray their routes over space and time.. This flow of stories told by all members of the community at every kind of gathering makes a collective identity trait through which the islanders communicate their worldviews, their perception of local history and shape their present lives as well. In my ethnography of Lipsi, storytelling emerges as an “art”, in terms of aesthetic expression through performance. However, at the ‘very moment’ of this fieldwork experience, the natural and supernatural worlds are perceived as an indivisible whole whose parts are in constant communication, either through miracles, hierophanies and visions or through an abundance of wishes and invocations that people utter all the time in their everyday routine. In this paper I also report my own intersubjective amalgamation as a she-ethnographer within the fieldwork I conducted in the small Aegean island. The paper focuses on the storytelling practices of the community, presenting fieldwork data registered during 2005-2011, and 2014.

  11. AMERICAN DREAM: THE AMERICAN HEGEMONIC CULTURE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasiyarno .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nation could be a great one as long as it has a great dream. The best example for this is America. Through its long history, it manages to realize a dream to be a superpower. It can be said that “American Dream” is one of the most significant features for the growth of a “constantly eyeing for winner” culture. American Studies experts call it as a “hegemonic culture” in which American norms, values and cultural practices are considered superior against the world culture. Globalizing the culture has been the most effective engine to spread American cultural values and to shape the global civilizations. Using American Studies perspective, this paper attempts to review the extent to which the “American Dream” has successfully established Americanization, as well as how the hegemonic culture has influenced the lives of peoples across the world in the form of popular culture.

  12. Understanding Afrocentrism: Why Blacks Dream of a World without Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Describes the perceived failure of integration and the growing number of black Americans who are looking at the world from an African perspective instead of from the European-centered perspective that dominates American culture. The article explains Afrocentrism's appeal in giving Blacks an ideological unity, not just on color but as an expression…

  13. Dreams of Small Nations in a Polycentric Fashion World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lise

    2011-01-01

    takes on national significance, in terms of staging events and displays, and engaging with cultural references outside the field of fashion. This article explores how such place-making abilities structure the polycentric world of fashion, taking the United Nations Security Council as a model......Fashion production has been split between a globalized clothing industry, which tends towards extreme centralization, and localized designer fashion sectors, acting as intermediaries between international suppliers and national events, media, and public. Under these conditions, designer fashion...... for the interaction between first- and second-tier fashion cities. The article analyzes the rhetoric of new fashion centers as a traveling discourse that detaches fashion design from the concerns of textile and clothing industries and links it with those of cultural institutions and governments. It also examines how...

  14. The Secret Dream World of Ángela Carballino in Unamuno's San Manuel Bueno, mártir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shehzad Zaidi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Critics have long held that Miguel de Unamuno’s San Manuel Bueno, mártir concerns a village priest, Manuel Bueno, who suppresses his private doubts in order to preserve the happiness and simple faith of his parishioners. Notwithstanding critical tradition, a close look at the novella reveals that Manuel belongs to the secret dream world of its first-person narrator, Ángela Carballino. This paper peers into the hidden world of a protagonist who becomes a mother through her dreams.

  15. The Cognitive Social Network in Dreams: Transitivity, Assortativity, and Giant Component Proportion Are Monotonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Joo; Schweickert, Richard; Xi, Zhuangzhuang; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2016-04-01

    For five individuals, a social network was constructed from a series of his or her dreams. Three important network measures were calculated for each network: transitivity, assortativity, and giant component proportion. These were monotonically related; over the five networks as transitivity increased, assortativity increased and giant component proportion decreased. The relations indicate that characters appear in dreams systematically. Systematicity likely arises from the dreamer's memory of people and their relations, which is from the dreamer's cognitive social network. But the dream social network is not a copy of the cognitive social network. Waking life social networks tend to have positive assortativity; that is, people tend to be connected to others with similar connectivity. Instead, in our sample of dream social networks assortativity is more often negative or near 0, as in online social networks. We show that if characters appear via a random walk, negative assortativity can result, particularly if the random walk is biased as suggested by remote associations. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Creating a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Gardner, Charles O.; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A.; Prescott, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. Objective To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from mid-childhood through early adulthood. Design Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. Setting General community. Participants Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998–2004 (n=1802). Main Outcome Measure Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Results Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. Conclusions As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs

  17. Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kathleen; Coecklebergh, M; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Billing, Erik; Ziemke, Tom; Gomez, P; Vanderborght, Bram; Belpaeme, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Development of Robot-enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders The development of social robots for children with autism has been a growth field in the last 15 years. This paper reviews studies in robots and autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts on social-communication development and the way in which social robots could help children with autism develop social skills. Drawing on the ethics research from the EU funded DREAM project (framework 7), based on ...

  18. What physicians need to know about dreams and dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James F

    2012-11-01

    An overview of the current status of dream science is given, designed to provide a basic background of this field for the sleep-interested physician. No cognitive state has been more extensively studied and is yet more misunderstood than dreaming. Much older work is methodologically limited by lack of definitions, small sample size, and constraints of theoretical perspective, with evidence equivocal as to whether any special relationship exists between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming. As the relationship between dreams and REM sleep is so poorly defined, evidence-based studies of dreaming require a dream report. The different aspects of dreaming that can be studied include dream and nightmare recall frequency, dream content, dreaming effect on waking behaviors, dream/nightmare associated medications, and pathophysiology affecting dreaming. Whether studied from behavioral, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, pathophysiological or electrophysiological perspectives, dreaming reveals itself to be a complex cognitive state affected by a wide variety of medical, psychological, sleep and social variables.

  19. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  20. [Brief history of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, D

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions. This paper reviews some of the dreams that have been a part of the world's literature and historical tradition.

  1. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  2. Oedipus Dreaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    2012-01-01

    ’s internal and external worlds. I argue that La Diabolique Tragédie provides us with a unique narrative representation of the early oedipal situation, as defined by Klein, and its final resolution. At the end of the article, I contend such a narrative might approximate the kind of dream that the King...

  3. Participatory communication on internal social media - a dream or reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vibeke Thøis

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to explore the extent to which internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication within organizations with a capability of influencing and moving the organization. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on two exploratory stu...

  4. Comparing the Chinese Dream with the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David S.Pena

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of the Chinese Dream with the American Dream reveals that the Chinese Dream has four main themes:national rejuvenation,common prosperity,democracy,and the people's happiness;whereas,the American Dream emphasizes personal liberty,individual success,and upward social and economic mobility.Investigation of the historical origins and development of the two dreams,conjoined with an account of their aims and purposes,shows that full realization of the Chinese Dream is achieved by successfully building socialism with Chinese characteristics;the American Dream,by contrast,serves as an ideological prop for a particularly aggressive,predatory,and imperialistic form of capitalism.Furthermore,a comparison of each dream in actual practice shows that the Chinese Dream of fully developed socialism has been more successful at promoting common prosperity and peaceful,sustainable development,while the American Dream of unbridled capitalism encourages unsustainable development,growing poverty and inequality,and imperialist wars.Finally,an enumeration of the fundamental differences between the Chinese and American Dreams concludes that the Chinese Dream is fundamentally benign,whereas the American Dream is basically malignant.In order for the American Dream to shed its harmful characteristics,it must reject its capitalist underpinnings and adopt socialism as its ultimate goal.

  5. The Impact of the Social, Academic, and Moral Development Programs of an Achievable Dream on Students during Their College and University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…

  6. When dreaming is believing: the (motivated) interpretation of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Norton, Michael I

    2009-02-01

    This research investigated laypeople's interpretation of their dreams. Participants from both Eastern and Western cultures believed that dreams contain hidden truths (Study 1) and considered dreams to provide more meaningful information about the world than similar waking thoughts (Studies 2 and 3). The meaningfulness attributed to specific dreams, however, was moderated by the extent to which the content of those dreams accorded with participants' preexisting beliefs--from the theories they endorsed to attitudes toward acquaintances, relationships with friends, and faith in God (Studies 3-6). Finally, dream content influenced judgment: Participants reported greater affection for a friend after considering a dream in which a friend protected rather than betrayed them (Study 5) and were equally reluctant to fly after dreaming or learning of a plane crash (Studies 2 and 3). Together, these results suggest that people engage in motivated interpretation of their dreams and that these interpretations impact their everyday lives.

  7. Consumption dreams: how night dreams reveal the colonization of subjectivity by the imaginary of consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Xavier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I offer an overview of my doctoral dissertation, which studied the social imaginary of consumerism, and the psychological subjectivity it produces, through the dream - as both a leitmotif or thematic lens, and the empirical object of research. For such I employed an interdisciplinary exploratory outlook, whose theoretical framework first discusses the symbolic imaginaries (G. Durand and their relations with the unconscious psyche, dream, imagination, and subjectivity (C. G. Jung, and then explores their relationships with consumption (Baudrillard, Bauman and its semiotic imaginaries and ideology, focusing on the concepts of consumption dreams and dream-worlds of consumption. The main research aim was to explore how night dreams represent the colonization of subjectivity by the imaginary of consumerism. The method consisted in a multiple-case study in which each night dream was taken as a case and interpreted through Jungian hermeneutics. Findings stress that night dreams can offer a deep sociocultural critique; in them the imaginary of consumption appeared as a totalizing mass ideology engendering colonization of both symbolic imaginaries and the subject and her unconscious psyche. Conclusions emphasize such colonization as an anthropological mutation - the progressive commodification and dehumanization of the subject.

  8. Dream and Creative Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨公建

    2015-01-01

    Freud asserts that the unconscious will express its suppressed wishes and desires. The unconscious will then redirect andreshape these concealed wishes into acceptable social activities, presenting them in the form of images or symbols in our dreams and/or our writings. Dream is the unconscious which promotes the creative writing.

  9. Innovation and Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玉娟

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is to attempt to discover the relationship between Carrie's American dream and American social innvoation by the end of 19th century. The purpose is to discuss Carrie's dream-searching while she stepped up to the peak of her life and career.

  10. Memory in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Gabriella

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the author discusses a specific type of dreams encountered in her clinical experience, which in her view provide an opportunity of reconstructing the traumatic emotional events of the patient's past. In 1900, Freud described a category of dreams--which he called 'biographical dreams'--that reflect historical infantile experience without the typical defensive function. Many authors agree that some traumatic dreams perform a function of recovery and working through. Bion contributed to the amplification of dream theory by linking it to the theory of thought and emphasizing the element of communication in dreams as well as their defensive aspect. The central hypothesis of this paper is that the predominant aspect of such dreams is the communication of an experience which the dreamer has in the dream but does not understand. It is often possible to reconstruct, and to help the patient to comprehend and make sense of, the emotional truth of the patient's internal world, which stems from past emotional experience with primary objects. The author includes some clinical examples and references to various psychoanalytic and neuroscientific conceptions of trauma and memory. She discusses a particular clinical approach to such dreams and how the analyst should listen to them.

  11. Big lie, small world: what E. Lynn Harris wanted readers to understand about the struggle for African American, homosexual males seeking to attain the American dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    This article will examine the social implications for African American homosexual males seeking to achieve the American Dream. Invisible Life and Just as I Am-the first two novels in a trilogy by the late E. Lynn Harris writing from a semi-autobiographical perspective in late-twentieth century America-will serve as the texts that drive this research topic. Careful analysis of these works will substantiate the assertion that the American Dream, even on the cusp of the new millennium, is just beyond the grasp of this specific subpopulation.

  12. Restructuring Searle's Making the Social World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    Institutions are normative social structures that are collectively accepted. In his book Making the Social World, John R. Searle maintains that these social structures are created and maintained by Status Function Declarations. The article's author criticizes this claim and argues, first, that

  13. Descartes' dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Robert

    2008-11-01

    René Descartes is often regarded as the 'father of modern philosophy'. He was a key figure in instigating the scientific revolution that has been so influential in shaping our modern world. He has been revered and reviled in almost equal measure for this role; on the one hand seen as liberating science from religion, on the other as splitting soul from body and man from nature. He dates the founding of his philosophical methods to the night of 10(th) November 1619 and in particular to three powerful dreams he had that night. This article utilizes Descartes' own interpretations of the dreams, supported by biographical material, as well as contemporary neuroscientific and psychoanalytic theory, to reach a new understanding of them. It is argued that the dreams can be understood as depicting Descartes' personal journey from a state of mind-body dissociation to one of mind-body deintegration. This personal journey may have implications for a parallel journey from Renaissance to modern culture and from modernity to post-modern culture.

  14. Beat Dreams?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Two of the founding members of the Beat Generation of the 1950s wrote dream books with almost identical titles: Jack Kerouac's Book of Dreams (1961) and William Burroughs' My Education: A Book of Dreams (1995). This paper queries the function of such dream books, both from a perspective of seeing...... dream writing as a confessional genre, and from the perspective of didacticism implicit in sharing one's dream life with one's readers. What role does memory, politics, fantasies and reality play in communicating with and via dreams?...

  15. Navigating the Waves of Social and Political Capriciousness: Inspiring Perspectives from DREAM-Eligible Immigrant Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Amanda; Herrera, Socorro; Murry, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the psychological and sociological impacts of the proposed Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors (DREAM) Act and in-state tuition legislation on DREAM-eligible students in the Midwestern United States. The researchers sought to capture the lived experiences of undocumented immigrant students through their rich…

  16. Einsteins dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the following topics: the search for meaning; Einstein's dream; curved space; Einstein and warped space-time and extreme wraping; early unified field theories; star death; beyond the white dwarf; the early universe; the hadron, Lepton, and Radiation eras; the redshift controversy; other universes; the final fate of the universe; the missing mass; bounce; fate of the open universe; the world of particles and fields; Dirac's equation; Yukawa; gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; supergravity and superstrings; twistors and heaven; and the new Einstein

  17. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  18. Waking up from the dream of reason; Rationality in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2007-01-01

    Review Essay of: Gerd Gigerenzer, Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 344 pp. ISBN 0–19–513622–5 (hbk). Gerd Gigerenzer, Reckoning with Risk: Learning to Live with Uncertainty. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 2002. 310 pp. ISBN 0–713–99512–2

  19. The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective on Cinematic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explains the relevance to film criticism of Jung's theory of the collective unconscious and its archetypal manifestations. Analyzes "The Shining," a film representative of the presently dominant occult-horror genre, in terms of the Jungian approach. Discusses the role of film in relation to the world's psychic balance. (PD)

  20. Worst accident in the world. Chernobyl: the end of the nuclear dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N; Lean, G; Leigh, D; McKie, R; Pringle, P; Wilson, A

    1986-01-01

    This is the full story of Chernobyl, before, during and after the reactor accident in April 1986. The scene is set at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The nature of radioactivity, the risks and the health hazards posed by radioactivity and the world-wide nuclear energy scene are then discussed, followed by the particular nuclear situation in Russia. This includes the background to the nuclear power industry in Russia - its history, personnel and management, and ultimately the building of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The accident itself is then explained, minute by minute. The consequences, both short-term and long-term, on the immediate area and the rest of Europe are discussed. These are the medical effects on humans, the effects on the environment and the effect on the nuclear policies of the whole world.

  1. World energy tendencies: social and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichs, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The current world energy situation is the result of the combination of diverse economic, political, technological, social and environmental tendencies that conform a crisis panorama for the high price of the hydrocarbons and especially in the petroleum. Under the current conditions the necessity of a global energy restructuring is imposed that changes the current patterns of generation and energy consumption significantly

  2. Women’s Education and World Peace: A Feminist Dream Comes True

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Wang, Ya-Chien

    2016-01-01

    This commentary on Potts et al provides a critical view on their thesis that increasing the level of education among women is likely to reduce terrorism. Presence of a strong family planning program enables women to control family size resulting in women’s public participation more likely and facilitating the emergence of small birth cohorts who are less likely to become unemployed. In spite of the several theoretical insights their paper offers, they have not adequately described the multiple social and economic linkages that may exist between fertility rates and lowering frequency of wars, terrorism, etc PMID:26927396

  3. Latin American critical ('Social') epidemiology: new settings for an old dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breilh, Jaime

    2008-08-01

    Epidemiology's role as the 'diagnostic' arm of public health has submitted epidemiological reasoning and practice to the crossfire of oppositional social values and demands. In Latin America, the visible signs of extreme social and political authoritarianism and inequity, as well as the growing unfairness of the World economy, inspired a culture of social critique and a corresponding academic reform movement, which nurtured a profound social awareness among health scientists. Aims The authors' aim is to call attention to the need to overcome this scientific North/South divide. An imperative, at a moment when the demolition of health standards under the pressures of global economic acceleration and 'unhealthy health policies,' confront us all with the common challenge of cross-fertilizing the strengths of academic traditions from both South and North. The present paper offers a fresh perspective from the South about the relevance of progressive Latin American public health (termed 'collective health') by highlighting a number of its hard scientific contributions which, unfortunately, remain almost unknown to mainstream medical and public health researchers outside Latin America. An armed form of structural greed has now placed the world on the brink of destruction. At the same time, however, fresh winds blow in the continent. This paper is an invitation to confront the menacing forces producing our unhealthy societies and an opportunity to form fraternal partnerships on the intercultural road to a better world, where only an epidemiology of dignity and happiness will make sense.

  4. West Germany's super-deep boring project KTB. To make thw world deepest dream come true

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urabe, Tetsuro [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, (Japan)

    1989-07-01

    West Germany has started a project of the world deepest boring of 14km depth which requires more than 10 years and as much as 40 billion yen. This is a national project of scientific research called Continental Deep Boring Project(abbreviated as KTB). This project was proposed by the West German Research Association about 10 years ago, and pre-investigation, technical investigation and selection of proper field were started in 1981. The project was approved by the Federal Research Technology Ministry in 1985 and was started with the overall budget(upper limit) of 450 million Deutchemarks. At present, a 5,000m deep well for the investigation of the shallow part is being drilled, and mud analysis and core analysis are being carried out. Super deep drilling is comprehensive system engineering that includes the robotizing of lifts, the development of drill pipe material which is strong and light enough not to be torn by its own weight, the improvement of the turbo drill bit, and the development of heat resisting and pressure-tight semiconductor for in-the-bore-measuring instruments. In West Germany, the official, civil and academic circles participate in this project. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Electronic Follow-Up of Developing World Cleft Patients: A Digital Dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tom W M; Chadha, Ambika; Rodgers, William; Mills, Caroline; Ayliffe, Peter

    2017-10-01

    To identify potential access to telemedicine follow-up of children with clefts operated on a humanitarian mission. A cross-sectional study of parents of children presenting to a humanitarian cleft lip and palate mission in a Provincial Hospital in the Philippines. A purpose designed questionnaire was used to assess access to electronic and digital resources that could be used to aid follow-up. Forty-five (N = 45) parents of children having primary cleft lip and or palate surgery participated. There were no interventions. Access to the Internet was through Parent Perceived Affordability of Internet Access and Parent Owned Devices. Thirty-one (N = 31) respondents were female. There was 93% mobile phone ownership. The mean distance traveled to the clinic was 187 km. Majority (56%) were fluent in English. Thirty-one percent accessed the Internet daily. Sixteen percent reported use of e-mail. Fifty-one percent accessed the Internet on a mobile device, and short message service use was the most affordable means of communication. Due to perceived unaffordability and low levels of access to devices with cameras and the Internet, as well as issues with privacy, we cannot recommend relying on electronic follow-up of patients in the developing world.

  6. Nano Dreams and Nano Worlds: The Emergence and Disciplinary Formation of Nanoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Emily

    This dissertation analyzes the sociotechnical practices through which nanoengineering is produced as a new disciplinary and professional site of "innovation for the benefit of society." I argue that innovation constitutes a rationalizing discourse that serves to justify the establishment of a field, department, and major. Additionally, it serves as an organizing logic that constitutes the nanoengineer as an inherently ethical actor, and nanoengineering as a benefactor of a universalized consumer-subject. I contribute an empirically grounded feminist science studies perspective on how material and discursive practices of innovation rationalize, define, and justify a new scientific discipline; how moral and ethical reasoning is figured within technical practices and pedagogies; and how sociocultural, historical, political, and technical imaginaries figure and are themselves refigured in the constitution of nanoengineering. My analysis is based on an ethnography I conducted from 2010-2014 of one of the world's first nanoengineering departments and its new undergraduate nanoengineering major, located at the University of California, San Diego. This included observing most of the undergraduate courses; conducting 85 interviews with faculty, students, and administrators; observing a nanoengineering laboratory; participating in department meetings and events; collaborating with the department to produce a new department newsletter; and analyzing the media used in the department and curriculum. More specifically, my dissertation chapters examine how popular culture is enrolled in the consolidation of a new discipline; how a particular ethos, with a moral stance and value positions, gets taught in the context of technical education; how liberal and neoliberal logics of rational individualism, autonomy, and the invisible hand get worked into the material and discursive practices of self-assembly in the nanoengineering laboratory; how the institutional goal of producing human

  7. Aphotic Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nassiroghli, Fakhteh

    2012-01-01

    One hour and ten minutes theatre production of Aphotic Dream, written and directed by Fay Nassiroghli. The production took place at Studio T at SFU (Goldcorp Campus). Aphotic Dream was a multidisciplinary piece combining dance, text, lighting, surround audio system and music. Aphotic Dream included a cast of eleven people from diverse cultural and professional backgrounds as well as 4 major collaborators in the areas of lighting, sound and audio design, dramaturgy and directing. The audience ...

  8. Accessible tourism futures: the world we dream to live in and the opportunities we hope to have

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Michopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Accessible tourism is evolving as a field of academic research and industry practice, set within a dynamic social context. The field is interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary. The purpose of this paper is to examine key concepts and global initiatives that will shape accessible tourism futures. Design/methodology/approach – Three of the authors have extensive academic experience in the area and the fourth author is the Managing Director of the pre-eminent European Network for Accessible Tourism. In taking a limited Delphi approach to canvassing key areas likely to shape accessible tourism futures, the following concepts and policy initiatives were examined: motivations, dreams and aspirations of people with disability; demography; UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities; destination competitiveness; universal design (UD; and the UN Sustainable Development Goals for 2030. Findings – A discussion of each of the above areas was placed in context to accessible tourism futures and to contextualise the papers that were selected for the special issue. The latter part of the paper outlines the contribution of each empirical paper to the issue discussing the approach, findings and implications. Stakeholder collaboration was identified as the key common theme of the papers and the factor for developing accessible tourism solutions, recognising the value of the market and capitalising on it. A collaborative approach is required to recognise the complementary nature of the different paradigms; to re-shape and transform the future of the accessible tourism industry. To assist in the development of accessible tourism futures, UD principles should provide a foundation to enhance the future competitiveness of tourism destinations and organisations. Originality/value – The paper's examination of the concepts and global policy considerations provides a strong academic and practitioner foundation for

  9. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  10. Colorful Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉峰; 李永浩; 王雷; 刘玉; 李娜

    2007-01-01

    Every young student has a beautiful dream in his/her heart.In order to make it come true,we work hard.Sometimes we want to give it up when facing difficulties, but we still go on.Dreams make our lives wonderful...

  11. Big Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  12. Dream catchers: labor relations and social change among fisherman families due to summer vacations and beach tourism in Salinópolis, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Adrião

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The resort and tourist activity in the city of Salinópolis, Salgado Region of Pará, has brought a lout important transformation in the social and spatial organization of the place, through an accelerated valorization and land speculation in second residences (summer residences of people on vacation and tourists. The local population, composed of traditional fishermen and small rural producers, in front of the tourist invasion process, preferring works as housekeepers in summerhouses incorporating new ways of relations with the world. Though, without abandoning their modus vivendi habited by enchanted beings and explained by nature force. The objective of this research is the center of attention in family and social-cultural life of the natives of Prainha, who was transfers the city center for periphery , giving focus on changes in working relations between fishermen families and how these changes that involve the men and the many manifestation forms of nature, defining the quotidian these dwellers, causing some changes in the local system. The 'Fishers of Dreams' are these fishermen and their families that, slowing abdicate, leave fishing in it's traditional form, to search for many others activities centered on the summer market, expecting to improve quality of life.

  13. The function of dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, H

    2001-01-01

    Theories on the function of REM sleep and dreaming, with which it has a contingent relationship, remain diverse. They include facilitation of memory storage, reverse learning, anatomical and functional brain maturation, catecholamine restoration, psychoanalytical (wish fulfilment or otherwise). It is possible that one function is grafted onto another as the personality develops. Given a close relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, and given that the neonate spends 18 hours asleep per day, of which 12 hours are spent in REM sleep, it is logical to look in the neonate for a primary function of dreaming. The two constants in the dreaming process are: 1) the dreamer is always present as first person observer; 2) there is always a topographical setting. Based on the foregoing, it is proposed that a major function of REM sleep is the development and maintenance of a sense of personal identity, through creating a 'being there' environment at regular intervals during prolonged periods of absence from a waking state in topographical surrounds. The infant cannot forget who he/she is. Thus, he/she develops a clear sense of his/her own identity, or the 'I'ness of me', and a sense of his/her separateness from the topographical world. At the same time, by largely forgetting the dreams, he/she is not burdened by the need for an elaborate method of storage of the vicarious and bizarre experiences.

  14. The Great Gatsby and the Collapse of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄红

    2014-01-01

    Gatsby's dream is a typical American Dream. His failure signified the decay of the American post-war spirit. His death belled the alarm for the other disillusioned people from fantasy dreams and set them to reconsider the social reality.This thesis would discuss the collapse of the Gatsby's dream and that of American dream based on the book plot and the background of 1920s.

  15. Dream controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  16. Beyond Death’s Dream Kingdom: modernity and the psychoanalytic Social Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Turnbull

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The appearance on the historical stage of Western modernity is often understood as an “epochal event” that overturned an earlier pre-modern cultural condition that was premised on the dialectic of life and death and the attempt to forge a suitable balance or harmony between them. As such Western modernity is often viewed as the emergence as a new liberal political order based upon individualism, radical immanence and the emergence of a new calculating subjectivities and governmentalities in ways that led to the rejection of the transcendent, the metaphysical and the theological dimensions of human life. In this paper, using Hans Holbein’s famous painting The Ambassadors as a point of reference and adopting the oblique position in relation to the modern taken up by the artist in this painting, I suggest that in the 20th Century, largely as a result of an awareness of the metaphysical significance of the catastrophe of the First World War, that modern liberalism was thrown into crisis and the old pre-modern metaphysical problematic returned as new focus of social and political concern. With specific reference to the work of Sigmund Freud and later psychoanalytic thinkers who took Freud’s idea of the death drive as their theoretical point of departure, I show how in the 20th century psychoanalytically-informed practitioners attempted to resolve the ancient conflict between the forces of life and death through the creation of an enchanted phantasmagoria of mass consumable objects that were often specifically designed and marketed in order to eroticise the nascent thanatic dimensions of modern life, thereby rendering the latter manageable and ultimately liveable. Drawing on the work of social theorists of the imaginary such as Glibert Durand as well as famous propagandisers of Freud such as Edward Bernays and Ernst Dichter (who saw in Freud’s work the possibility of developing a political technology I will suggest that in the 20th century

  17. Shattering a Cartesian Sceptical Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hetherington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Scepticism about external world knowledge is frequently claimed to emerge from Descartes’s dreaming argument. That argument supposedly challenges one to have some further knowledge — the knowledge that one is not dreaming that p — if one is to have even one given piece of external world knowledge that p. The possession of that further knowledge can seem espe-cially important when the dreaming possibility is genuinely Cartesian (with one’s dreaming that p being incompatible with the truth of one’s accompany-ing belief that p. But this paper shows why that Cartesian use of that possi-bility is not at all challenging. It is because that putative sceptical challenge reduces to a triviality which is incompatible with the sceptic’s having de-scribed some further piece of knowledge which is needed, if one is to have the knowledge that p.

  18. Three Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    1996-01-01

    Once three young men went hunting in the woods and took a-long another to be the cook.They hunted all day long withoutstopping to eat,and when evening came they had caught nothingbut one partridge(鹧鹕).One little bird was hardly enough for four hungry men,sothey hit upon(突然想起)a plan.They would save the partridgefor breakfast,and whoever dreamed the best dream in the nightshould have it.Then they went to sleep.

  19. Dreams Rewired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning; Luksch, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Bidraget kommenterer filmen Dreams Rewired og skaber refleksive spor i det vidt forgrenede film-arkiviske materiale om mere end et århundredes tele- og real-time kommunikation, hvor kropslig bevægelse bl.a gøres til data.......Bidraget kommenterer filmen Dreams Rewired og skaber refleksive spor i det vidt forgrenede film-arkiviske materiale om mere end et århundredes tele- og real-time kommunikation, hvor kropslig bevægelse bl.a gøres til data....

  20. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  1. Just Dreaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Many of the nation's colleges and universities are not sure what the proposed DREAM Act would mean for their institutions--and a number of them are operating amid confusion in trying to serve undocumented students legally in light of the defeat of the measure in the Senate last year to pass the legislation. It would have allowed some immigrants…

  2. Representation of the Self in REM and NREM Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; McLaren, Deirdre; Durso, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that representations of the Self (or the dreamer) in dreams would change systematically, from a prereflective form of Self to more complex forms, as a function of both age and sleep state (REM vs. non-REM). These hypotheses were partially confirmed. While the authors found that all the self-concept-related dream content indexes derived from the Hall/Van de Castle dream content scoring system did not differ significantly between the dreams of children and adults, adult Selves were more likely to engage in “successful” social interactions. The Self never acted as aggressor in NREM dream states and was almost always the befriender in friendly interactions in NREM dreams. Conversely, the REM-related dream Self preferred aggressive encounters. Our results suggests that while prereflective forms of Self are the norm in children’s dreams, two highly complex forms of Self emerge in REM and NREM dreams. PMID:19169371

  3. Marketing your practice in a social world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley; Grundin, Erica; Harrison, Dash; Espinoza, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Social media use has moved beyond just being a way for family and friends to keep in touch. Now it is imperative that all businesses implement a social media strategy into their overall marketing plan. Medical practices are no exception. Using social media within your medical practice will allow you take your marketing to a new level of success. It also allows you to connect with patients on a more personal, less corporate level.

  4. developing world poverty, inequality, violence and social

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DOSMeD) or Ten-Country Study)2 and the International. Study of ... rates in relation to variables such as geographical site, urban. Dispelling a myth: ... violence and social fragmentation ... However, the reality is that significant political, social and economic ills that ... schizophrenia “is fertile ground for the generation of new.

  5. Dreaming of Justice: Critical Service-Learning and the Need to Wake Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Dan Butin exmines and questions whether the goal, or dream, of service-learning has been actualized in practice. He raises the possibility that what educators dream of-a critical service-learning able to ameliorate persistent real-world inequities-may be a case of their dreaming being fulfilled, rather than their dreams. More specifically, he…

  6. 'Being Social' in the Brave New World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Avital, Michel

    ‘Being social’ is inherent in the human desire to understand, influence and interact with the environment. In the modern era, we have witnessed how media serve as an agent that facilitates human interaction. One of the most dominant types of media today is social media. As with the introduction...... of written, conversational, recording and broadcasting media, social media have brought about changes in the way we interact and engage with each other. In this theory development paper, we investigate how social media influence the way we are social. We pursue this research question in order to develop...... in terms of distribution, amplification, contextualization, integration and preservation of information. The theoretical findings are related in an outline of the influence of media affordances on ‘being social’. We explore the relationship through the development of five propositions that show how social...

  7. [Unusual dreams in epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyrev, A I

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses bizarre dreams characteristic of epileptics and never occurring in normal subjects which have an important practical implication especially for early detection of epilepsy and the prevention of severe forms of the disease. This group of dreams includes vivid nightmares with vital fear, dreams not infrequently transforming into pro-dream states; persistently repeated stereotyped dreams and dreams with invariably the same unpleasant sensations representing an isolated aura of subsequent epileptic attacks. Diagnostically important may also be dreams with the symptoms of derealization and depersonalization, vague dream images and the deja vu phenomenon.

  8. Do "Undocumented Aliens" Dream of Neoliberal Sheep?: Conditional DREAMing and Decolonial Imaginaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Anne; Stern, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Dreams have long been thought to be a space of fantasy and utopic hope. From Paulo Freire to Gloria Anzaldúa to Robin Kelley, many scholars have related the ability to dream with the ability to act collectively, to self-actualize, and to call into being worlds yet to be realized--dreaming as a radical political act. What happens, then, when dreams…

  9. A Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecile; Fries

    2013-01-01

    <正>The rising sun flames clouds. Through the airplane window I am enjoying the clouds with golden edges. In a few hours I will set foot on the soil of China, a country that has always been in my dreams. Thoughts thronged my mind. Perhaps, in my life I will never have a chance to travel to China, a faraway, strange and mysterious country;

  10. Undertaking qualitative health research in social virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Evelyn; Cheater, Francine M; Kidd, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the methodological challenges of using the 3D social virtual world Second Life for research and offers some solutions on a range of research issues including research ethics committee approval, gaining consent, recruitment of sample, data collection and engagement with 'in - world culture'. The attraction of social virtual worlds to researchers is their ability to mimic the physical world, as they, are seen as 'places' where people have a feeling of presence (being there) and social presence (being there with others) through the use of a 'customisable' avatar (digital self-representation). Emerging research demonstrating the persuasive nature of avatars on health behaviours through virtual worlds, online games and the 3D web has increased the use of and interest in these areas for delivering health information, advice and support. However, conducting research can be challenging in a 3D world where people are represented as anonymous avatars in an environment unlike any other online media. 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted in Second Life from September 2011-June 2012. Nurses wishing to undertake research in social virtual worlds should spend time in-world to acquire technical skills and gain an understanding of the culture of the world. Our experience of an interview-based study in virtual worlds indicates that researchers require several virtual world technical skills to create innovative tools to recruit, gain consent and collect data and an understanding of in-world culture, language and social norms to increase the chances of successful research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Dream and a Bus: Black Critical Patriotism in Elementary Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Christopher L.; Walker, Irenea

    2017-01-01

    Extant conceptions of patriotism in social studies curricula are centered upon blind allegiance to the state or a belief in ideals of a liberal democracy. Yet these conceptions fail to account for the complex racial experiences that mediate citizenship and civic action, especially for Black persons. In this article, we advance a theory of Black…

  12. Fulfilling Their Dreams: Marginalized Urban Youths' Perspectives on a Culturally Sensitive Social and Emotional Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaten, Christopher D.; Rivera, Roberto C.; Shemwell, Daniel; Elison, Zachary M.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests educators need to focus on cultivating social and emotional competencies that youth will need to thrive in the new knowledge economy (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). For marginalized urban youth, in particular, few have derived programs and interventions to assist with these…

  13. Migrants' dreams and planners' nightmares: international labour migration in the Arab world and the growth of two sets of cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, A M

    1985-11-01

    "The author investigates how trends in international labour migration in the Arab world have been paralleled by new directions in migration research....[She] seeks to evaluate why the urban impact of international migration is so great and outlines the considerable potential which exists for pursuing research on this aspect of urban development." excerpt

  14. Persisting Dreams: The Impact of the Doctoral Socialization Process on Latina Post-Doctoral Career Aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Westerband, Yamissette

    2016-01-01

    Latinas are underrepresented within the professorate and within doctoral programs, particularly within Research Intensive Institutions. This dissertation explores how the doctoral socialization process impacts the pipeline from the Ph.D. to scholarly careers for Latinas in Research universities. Given the low numbers of representation and production at the doctoral level for Latinas, what happens when they do enter Ph.D. programs? Their doctoral experience must be marked in one way or anot...

  15. "Hypothetical machines": the science fiction dreams of Cold War social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Rebecca

    2010-06-01

    The introspectometer was a "hypothetical machine" Robert K. Merton introduced in the course of a 1956 how-to manual describing an actual research technique, the focused interview. This technique, in turn, formed the basis of wartime morale research and consumer behavior studies as well as perhaps the most ubiquitous social science tool, the focus group. This essay explores a new perspective on Cold War social science made possible by comparing two kinds of apparatuses: one real, the other imaginary. Even as Merton explored the nightmare potential of such machines, he suggested that the clear aim of social science was to build them or their functional equivalent: recording machines to access a person's experiential stream of reality, with the ability to turn this stream into real-time data. In this way, the introspectometer marks and symbolizes a broader entry during the Cold War of science-fiction-style aspirations into methodological prescriptions and procedural manuals. This essay considers the growth of the genre of methodological visions and revisions, painstakingly argued and absorbed, but punctuated by sci-fi aims to transform "the human" and build newly penetrating machines. It also considers the place of the nearly real-, and the artificial "near-substitute" as part of an experimental urge that animated these sciences.

  16. Dreaming and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeffrey L.

    Parallels between dream states and schizophrenia suggest that the study of dreams may offer some information about schizophrenia. A major theoretical assumption of the research on dreaming and schizophrenia is that, in schizophrenics, the dream state intrudes on the awake state creating a dreamlike symptomatology. This theory, called the REM…

  17. Teen Girls' Resistance and the Disappearing Social in "Ghost World."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines "Ghost World," a Hollywood film about youth, friendship, alienation, and survival, critically investigating how popular representations of youth signal a particular crisis of the social through a discourse of privatization, which fails to locate youth and problems they face within the related geographies of the social and political. The…

  18. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  19. Social mindfulness: Skill and will to navigate the social world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doesum, N.J.; van Lange, D.A.W.; van Lange, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Although one may not always see it, social life often involves choices that make people act in ways that are mindful of others or not. We adopt an interdependence theoretical approach to the novel concept of social mindfulness, which we conceptualize in terms of other-regarding choices involving

  20. ICTP: From a dream to a reality in 50+ years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, F.

    2017-03-01

    For more than 50 years, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics has fostered the growth and sustainability of physics and mathematics in the developing world, benefitting hundreds of thousands of scientists. What began as a dream by its founder, Pakistani Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam, has become a first-rate international research hub connecting scientists from all corners of the globe. As the social and economic situations in many developing countries has shifted, ICTP has responded with the creation of relevant research and training programmes that continue to boost science in disadvantaged parts of the world. Today, ICTP remains a beacon of hope for scientists who aspire to greatness.

  1. Women's Education and World Peace: A Feminist Dream Comes True: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vijayan K; Wang, Ya-Chien

    2015-10-01

    This commentary on Potts et al provides a critical view on their thesis that increasing the level of education among women is likely to reduce terrorism. Presence of a strong family planning program enables women to control family size resulting in women's public participation more likely and facilitating the emergence of small birth cohorts who are less likely to become unemployed. In spite of the several theoretical insights their paper offers, they have not adequately described the multiple social and economic linkages that may exist between fertility rates and lowering frequency of wars, terrorism, etc. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  3. Japanese dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejrup, Jens

    2018-01-01

    This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building in contempor......This paper traces the history of a Japanese-funded annex to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam over the past twenty-five years. The analysis focuses on three key years in the building’s history: 1991, 1999, and 2015. Critically examining public debate and media coverage of the building...... in contemporary Dutch- and Japanese-language sources, I argue that changing claims and public perceptions of Japan reflected the country’s shifting economic fortunes and international position during the period. The sources consistently framed the Japanese-designed building within a language of dreams. However...

  4. Dream missions space colonies, nuclear spacecraft and other possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a journey through the history of extremely ambitious, large and complex space missions that never happened. What were the dreams and expectations of the visionaries behind these plans, and why were they not successful in bringing their projects to reality thus far? As spaceflight development progressed, new technologies and ideas led to pushing the boundaries of engineering and technology though still grounded in real scientific possibilities. Examples are space colonies, nuclear-propelled interplanetary spacecraft, space telescopes consisting of multiple satellites and canon launch systems. Each project described in this book says something about the dreams and expectations of their time, and their demise was often linked to an important change in the cultural, political and social state of the world. For each mission or spacecraft concept, the following will be covered: • Description of the design. • Overview of the history of the concept and the people involved. • Why it...

  5. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  6. Social dimensions of expertise in World of Warcraft players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Expertise development in the massively multiplayer online game World of Warcraft (Blizzard Entertainment, 2004 depends greatly on a player's use of social skills to gain access to expert player groups and accrue social and cultural capital. Drawn from ethnographic research, this paper maps out various forms of expert practice and highlights the social aspects of game play that often eclipse the importance of game-mechanics knowledge. At the time of this research, playing World of Warcraft and developing expertise in the game happened roughly within a two-stage process: (1 leveling up, or advancing one's character or avatar while learning the mechanics of the game, and (2 drawing on social capital gained during the first stage to join a group of up to 40 players to partake in high-end or endgame content.

  7. Dream emotionality. Selected formal properties of dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywacz Kinga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify hypotheses about time changeability of dream characteristics depending on the participants’ age and affective value of the dream. The study was conducted online. Participants of the study were 68 individuals between the age of 17 and 85. The participants were asked to prepare detailed descriptions of their dreams, next they had to identify elements of the dreams, refer them to their real life, and assess their affective value. In the dreams of late adolescents, and young and middle-aged adults the most frequently recalled period in a positive context turned out to be late adolescence and early adulthood, whereas in a negative context the participants would recall their present developmental phase and the period of late childhood. Unpleasant dreams of older individuals were mainly connected with the period of middle adulthood, whereas those pleasant ones referred to various periods of their entire life.

  8. Using Social Media components in business world – SMEs perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Robu, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    SMEs have a major contribution to economic growth and job creation. In a dynamic world, marked by very rapid technological and economic changes, they must adapt and seek new ways to improve business. Social Media seems to provide tools to improve the work, especially on the sales and marketing. This paper is to capture how social media components are used in SMEs, also highlighting some of the advantages of them.

  9. Group dream work as a support for self – awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Brumen Žarn, Zarja

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis discusses group dream work as a form of support for increasing the individual's self-awareness. Working with dreams encourages creativity, opens up the possibilities of self-knowing and helps individuals to guide their life paths. One of the fundamental concepts of social pedagogy is the empowerment of individuals for problem solving and self-development. For this purpose, social educational profession develops and uses a number of methods and approaches. Working with dreams i...

  10. Understanding the Dynamics of Learning across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Aanestad, Margunn

    2013-01-01

    participation, politics and learning in IS implementation and use. We consider learning to be an integral part of the social practice, and it occurs mainly through encounters and negotiations between actors from different social worlds who might have competing interests and values. The paper also analysed how......This paper adopts a novel learning perspective on information systems development. Building on the works of Anselm Strauss we conceptualize development processes as “negotiated orders” where members from different “social worlds” encounter and negotiate differences and tensions. We argue...

  11. Social Experience in "World of Warcraft": Technological and Ideological Mediations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Nicole Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    As society shifts towards spending more time online for business and leisure, examining human behavior in virtual environments is crucial. To better understand the role that games play in our society, I analyze social experience in World of Warcraft (WoW), one of the longest running massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMO). Since its…

  12. Consumer world-mindedness, social-mindedness, and store image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.; Douglas, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in communications technology shrink the impact of geographic distance, consumers are likely to become more aware of and familiar with products and services in other parts of the world, as well as global social and ethical issues. Retailers have responded to these trends (termed here

  13. Dreams and acting out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L

    1987-01-01

    Dreams can be used as containers that free patients from increased tension. This may be the principal function of certain types of dreams, called "evacuative dreams." They are dreams used for getting rid of unbearable affects and unconscious fantasies, or as a safety valve for partial discharge of instinctual drives. These dreams are observed primarily in borderline and psychotic patients, but can also be seen in the regressive states of neurotic patients during weekends and other periods of separation. Such dreams have to be differentiated from "elaborative dreams," which have a working-through function and stand in an inverse relationship to acting out: the greater the production of elaborative dreams, the less the tendency to act out, and vice versa.

  14. World war II veterans, social support, and veterans' associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2001-05-01

    People use many different coping strategies to deal with their traumatic recollections. Twenty-five British World War II veterans were interviewed regarding the ways they used social support both during the war and in the years afterwards. The findings demonstrate that social support is used in fundamentally different ways. During the war comradeship was particularly important and even fifty years after the war comrades are still a valuable resource for discussing war experiences, and dealing with the emotional content of traumatic recollections. Veterans rely on wives and families to help deal with the more physical and practical elements of coping, but tend not to discuss their traumatic memories with them. The findings show that social support is an important lifelong coping strategy for World War II veterans.

  15. Reaching young women who sell sex: Methods and results of social mapping to describe and identify young women for DREAMS impact evaluation in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyaka, Tarisai; Mushati, Phillis; Hensen, Bernadette; Chabata, Sungai; Hargreaves, James R.; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J.; Cowan, Frances M.; Busza, Joanna R.

    2018-01-01

    Young women (aged 15–24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls’ and young women’s HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a “social mapping” approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a “social map” for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact evaluations

  16. Reaching young women who sell sex: Methods and results of social mapping to describe and identify young women for DREAMS impact evaluation in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyaka, Tarisai; Mushati, Phillis; Hensen, Bernadette; Chabata, Sungai; Hargreaves, James R; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J; Cowan, Frances M; Busza, Joanna R

    2018-01-01

    Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a "social map" for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact evaluations.

  17. Reaching young women who sell sex: Methods and results of social mapping to describe and identify young women for DREAMS impact evaluation in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarisai Chiyaka

    Full Text Available Young women (aged 15-24 who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a "social map" for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact

  18. Drawing the Ideal World and Real World: A Study of Lesbian, Labour and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Luiz Caproni Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the experience of lesbian women in Juiz de Fora on the scope of work, society and the individual, from drawings made by them. Discussed the experience of sexuality and lesbophobia as aspects present in their lives and at work, considering that fall into a heteronormative context. So, we conducted a qualitative study with the preparation of drawings and interviews that allowed the construction of categories: being lesbian, inclusion and social integration, personal and professional development, and real world and the ideal world. These drawings are shown as a rich and interesting technique to provide access to their subjective and symbolic dimensions as to their social and work experiences. Finally, we advocate a reflective and humanistic stance both in society and in organizations about the socially constructed and valued patterns that can marginalize or stigmatize those fleeing them.

  19. I had a dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By William E. Wright

    2012-01-01

    I had a dream. Like Martin Luther King, Jr. said in a speech memorized by almost all Chinese students, I had a dream. My dream was that one day I would teach in a foreign country. Little did I know how fascinating and rich teaching in the Law School of Shandong University would be.

  20. Costly Signaling Theory of REM Sleep and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of REM sleep dreaming is still unknown. We situate our approach to understanding dream phenomenology and dream function within that part of evolutionary theory known as Costly Signaling Theory (CST. We contend that many of the signals produced by the dreaming brain can be and should be construed as “costly signals”—emotions or mental simulations that produce daytime behavioral dispositions that are costly to the dreamer. For example, often the dreamer will appear in the dream as handicapped in some way (i.e., no clothes, no ID, no money, is under attack, being chased etc.. The dreamer, during waking life, is then influenced by the carry-over effect of the unpleasant dream content. The informational and affective content of the dream creates a mental set in the dreamer that operates during the daytime to facilitate the signaling of a “handicapped” Self. The subtle signaling effect might be via display of the intense emotions or physical demeanor that had first appeared in the dream. When the dreamer shares his dream with others the dream has a more direct impact on waking life and social interactions. In effect, the dreamer uses his or her dreams to adopt a self-handicapping strategy when dealing with significant others. The increased use of costly signals (the self-handicapping strategy during the daytime then facilitates some vital communicative goal of the dreamer.

  1. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Filevich, E.; Dresler, M.; Brick, T.R.; Kuhn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participant...

  2. "In Dreams Begins Responsibility": A Self-Study about How Insights from Dreams May Be Brought into the Sphere of Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…

  3. Cultural psychopathology: uncovering the social world of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S R; Guarnaccia, P J

    2000-01-01

    We review cultural psychopathology research since Kleinman's (1988) important review with the goals of updating past reviews, evaluating current conceptualizations and methods, and identifying emerging substantive trends. Conceptual advances are noted, particularly developments in the definition of culture and the examination of both culture-specific and cultural-general processes. The contributions of the Culture and Diagnosis Task Force for DSM-IV and the World Mental Health Report are reviewed and contrasted. Selected research on anxiety, schizophrenia, and childhood disorders is examined, with particular attention given to the study of ataque de nervios, social factors affecting the course of schizophrenia, and cross-national differences in internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Within the last ten years, cultural psychopathology research has become a significant force. Its focus on the social world holds promise to make significant inroads in reducing suffering and improving people's everyday lives.

  4. Resources for Creating Another World: Financial Strategies of the World Social Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Liliana Diaz analyzes the financial structure and strategy of the World Social Forum (WSF). Considering the importance of the ‘participative budget’ as an initiative promoted by the Forum, she looks at this as a strategy to finance the WSF, and as a model by other social movements. Diaz examines six different funding arrangements in each of the Forums looking at the consequences of the financing arrangements for the sustainability of the Forum process. Development (2006) 49, 93–101. doi:10.10...

  5. VIRTUAL WORLD MARKETING: THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    EVERTON DAMIÃO TAVANO SANTOS; JOÃO PAULO DA SILVA GOMES; CARLOS EDUARDO CICCONE

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly present at peolpe´s daily life and seeking to satisfy their wishes, marketing is searching to adapt itself to consumer´s real necessities as well as to the environments currently used by them. With the growing use of technology and internet access, marketing ceases to act only on physical media such as magazines, newspapers and pamphlets to go further, searching for a new environment where customers go like social networking in virtual world where the dissemination of informa...

  6. Social Evolution, Global Governance and a World Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bummel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the relevance of a world parliament in the context of long-term social evolution and the crisis of global governance.[*] It is argued that due to the development of weapons of mass destruction and complex interdependency, war has ceased to be a driver of socio-evolutionary consolidation of power at the world-system level. At the same time, there is an increasingly urgent need for global governance in spheres such as climate change mitigation or economics and finances. The author looks at how the established and now dysfunctional pattern of evolutionary change can be overcome and identifies the institution of a world parliament as an important political and psychological aspect of the evolving collective.

  7. The China Dream and the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAM; A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked"The China Dream"as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China’s future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of20 prominent"China dreamers"in terms of debates over the proper relationship between(1)politics and economics,(2)equality and hierarchy,(3)civilization and civility,and(4)nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary ideals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  8. The China Dream and the American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAM A.CALLAHAN

    2014-01-01

    Since Xi Jinping invoked "The China Dream" as a key concept in November 2012,this phrase has come to dominate discussions of China's future.This paper will examine the China dream phenomenon first by placing it in the context of debates that have been raging in Chinese civil society over the past few years.It will analyze the works of 20 prominent "China dreamers" in terms of debates over the proper relationship between (1) politics and economics,(2) equality and hierarchy,(3) civilization and civility,and (4) nationalism and statism.The other main context for the China dream concept is the American dream.While it is common to dismiss the American dream as crass materialism,this essay will examine how it stresses the complementary (i)deals of freedom and equality.More importantly,it will examine how the American dream has been used as a critical tool to comment on problems in the United States,and relate this to examples in the PRC where the China dream is being used as a critical tool as well.

  9. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filevich, E.; Dresler, M.; Brick, T.R.; Kuhn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition.

  10. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences

  11. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-12-08

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior.

  12. How bizarre? A pluralist approach to dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Melanie G

    2018-05-05

    Are dreams bizarre, nonsensical experiences or real-world simulations? I introduce a pluralist approach to dream content that highlights the philosophical and empirical implications of treating dreaming as a highly varied experience that can be anywhere on a spectrum from truly bizarre and incoherent to wake-like and mundane. Here I discuss several explanations for why theorists disagree on whether dreams should be defined as primarily bizarre or convincing, real-world simulations. Rating scales can underestimate or overestimate bizarreness depending on the variables of the scale and interpretation of contextual factors. Although double blind analysis of dream reports is assumed to be the most accurate method of quantifying dream bizarreness, contextual factors can only be clarified by the dreamer themselves, since only they can judge whether an event would be bizarre in their own lives, however the dreamer might find elements bizarre after waking that they did not find unusual during the dream. Dreams can at times be so bizarre and incoherent that that they are difficult or impossible to report accurately, mundane and indistinguishable from waking life or anything in-between. Both bizarre and mundane dreams should be of great interest to philosophers of mind and cognitive scientists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dreaming and insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  14. Constructing Social Networks from Unstructured Group Dialog in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Fahad; Sukthankar, Gita

    Virtual worlds and massively multi-player online games are rich sources of information about large-scale teams and groups, offering the tantalizing possibility of harvesting data about group formation, social networks, and network evolution. However these environments lack many of the cues that facilitate natural language processing in other conversational settings and different types of social media. Public chat data often features players who speak simultaneously, use jargon and emoticons, and only erratically adhere to conversational norms. In this paper, we present techniques for inferring the existence of social links from unstructured conversational data collected from groups of participants in the Second Life virtual world. We present an algorithm for addressing this problem, Shallow Semantic Temporal Overlap (SSTO), that combines temporal and language information to create directional links between participants, and a second approach that relies on temporal overlap alone to create undirected links between participants. Relying on temporal overlap is noisy, resulting in a low precision and networks with many extraneous links. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can ameliorate this problem by using network modularity optimization to perform community detection in the noisy networks and severing cross-community links. Although using the content of the communications still results in the best performance, community detection is effective as a noise reduction technique for eliminating the extra links created by temporal overlap alone.

  15. A "Social Bitcoin" could sustain a democratic digital world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Helbing, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    A multidimensional financial system could provide benefits for individuals, companies, and states. Instead of top-down control, which is destined to eventually fail in a hyperconnected world, a bottom-up creation of value can unleash creative potential and drive innovations. Multiple currency dimensions can represent different externalities and thus enable the design of incentives and feedback mechanisms that foster the ability of complex dynamical systems to self-organize and lead to a more resilient society and sustainable economy. Modern information and communication technologies play a crucial role in this process, as Web 2.0 and online social networks promote cooperation and collaboration on unprecedented scales. Within this contribution, we discuss how one dimension of a multidimensional currency system could represent socio-digital capital (Social Bitcoins) that can be generated in a bottom-up way by individuals who perform search and navigation tasks in a future version of the digital world. The incentive to mine Social Bitcoins could sustain digital diversity, which mitigates the risk of totalitarian control by powerful monopolies of information and can create new business opportunities needed in times where a large fraction of current jobs is estimated to disappear due to computerisation.

  16. The dreams that stuff is made of the most astounding papers of quantum physics and how they shook the scientific world

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    "God does not play dice with the universe." So said Albert Einstein in response to the first discoveries that launched quantum physics, as they suggested a random universe that seemed to violate the laws of common sense. This 20th-century scientific revolution completely shattered Newtonian laws, inciting a crisis of thought that challenged scientists to think differently about matter and subatomic particles. The Dreams That Stuff Is Made Of compiles the essential works from the scientists who sparked the paradigm shift that changed the face of physics forever, pushing our understanding of the

  17. Dream Content in Complicated Grief: A Window into Loss-Related Cognitive Schemas Running Head: Dreams in Complicated Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Shear, Katherine M.; Walsh, Colleen; Buysse, Daniel J.; Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Frank, Ellen; Silowash, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Bereavement and its accompanying psychological response (grief) constitute potent experiences that necessitate the reorganization of cognitive-affective representations of lost significant attachment figures during both wakefulness and dreaming. The goals of this preliminary study were to explore whether the dream content of 77 adults with complicated grief (CG) differed from that of a normative sample, and to explore whether CG patients who dream of the deceased differ from CG patients who do not dream of the deceased on measures of daytime emotional distress. CG dreams were characterized by more family and familiar characters including the deceased (in women), and fewer social interactions and emotions compared to norms. Increased representations of familiar characters in CG dreams may reflect attempts to reorganize relational cognitive schemas to compensate for the loss. PMID:24524436

  18. [Phenomenology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    A phenomenology of dreams searches for meaning, with the aim not only of explaining but also of understanding the experience. What and who is it for? And what about the nearly forgotten dream among the moderns, the banal returning to the nightmare, sleepiness, or dreamlike reverie. Nostalgia for the dream, where we saw a very early state of light, not a ordinaire qu duel. Regret for the dreamlike splendor exceeded by the modeling power of modern aesthetics--film and the explosion of virtual imaging technologies. Disappointment at the discovery of a cognitive permanence throughout sleep and a unique fit with the real upon awaking? An excess of methodological rigor where we validate the logic of the dream, correlating the clinical improvement in psychotherapy and the ability to interpret one's own dreams. The dangerous psychological access when the dream primarily is mine, viewed as a veiled expression of an unspoken desire, or when the dream reveals to me, in an existential conception of man, through time and space, my daily life, my freedom beyond my needs. Might its ultimate sense also mean its abolition? From the story of a famous forgotten dream, based on unexpected scientific data emerges the question: do we dream to forget? The main thing would not be consciousness but confidence, when " the sleeping man, his regard extinguished, dead to himself seizes the light in the night " (Heraclitus).

  19. On the Social Constraints of Having a World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    consequences for the bodied individual and his or her possibilities in life. The paper then proceeds to carry out an EMCA analysis of a face-to-face interaction. The aim is to demonstrate how bodied individuals, as participants in interaction, may orient to a commonly established, i.e. known, relation between...... types of ‘engagement with the world’, ‘having a world’, and ‘being part of this world’ in the concrete details of face-to-face interaction; this analysis constitutes the main part of the paper. We conclude that socially (re)established ordinary knowledge, of and about engagement with the world...

  20. The role of dream analysis for exploring emotional content during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems that were revealed by the dream analysis, include(d) anxiety, aggression, negative self-concepts, feelings of social isolation and depression. These were revealed by means of manifest dream content such as being chased, falling, biting, fighting and stabbing. The emotional problems were often caused by fear, ...

  1. Is the "American Dream" of Homeownership an Equal Opportunity Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Martha Graham; Halper, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Teaching empathy can be a means to teach multiple perspectives in the social studies classroom. Examining U.S. history through the lens of the pursuit of the "American Dream" will resonate with many high school students. This article suggests a framework using the theme of the "American Dream" of homeownership for a high school…

  2. Entre o conformismo e o sonho: percepções de mulheres em situação de vulnerabilidade social à luz das concepções de Amartya Sen Between conformism and dreams: perceptions of women in social vulnerability situations from the perspective of Amartya Sen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Alves Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    2007 in Paula Candido, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. We interviewed 110 women (10% enrolled in the Programa Bolsa Família [Family Grant Program], randomly selected. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire and analyzed using the thematic analysis technique. It was found that the desire for a "better life" was ultimately, the greatest dream of the women interviewed, the set "education-work-money" the most cited way to achieve a dignified life. However, poor education, informal and precarious employment and poor pay are obstacles to achieving their dreams. Due to such adversity, the attitude of the interviewees ranged from resignation to self-awareness and hopelessness of their situation as a subject in the world, able to dream and believe in the possibility of realizing their aspirations, using their skills and resources to fight for a "better life". It is noteworthy that a policy to fight poverty - as the FGP - should seek the expansion of human capabilities, articulating with structural actions in order to achieve the ultimate goal of the program: the emancipation and social inclusion of the benefited families.

  3. Chasing the Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    People’s pursuit of better lives pushes the nation forward The belief that anyone can live a better life in the United States through hard workis called the American Dream. Many European settlers were drawn to the new continent by the American Dream.

  4. Dreams, Daydreams and Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. A.; Luckcock, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    It has been discovered that dreams and daydreams can be productive states in the process of scientific innovation. An attempt is made to provide some typical examples of insights which have come to scientists during dream-like states and in sleep. (Author/MA)

  5. Deflating Autonomy: Human Interactivity in the Emerging Social World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen; Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This article critiques recent enactivist attempts to bridge an epistemological divide between the individual and the social (i.e. to fill in the posited macro-micro gap). Its central claim is that an inflated view of ‘autonomy’ leads to error. Scrutinising two contributions, we find that methodol......This article critiques recent enactivist attempts to bridge an epistemological divide between the individual and the social (i.e. to fill in the posited macro-micro gap). Its central claim is that an inflated view of ‘autonomy’ leads to error. Scrutinising two contributions, we find...... that methodological solipsism taints Varela’s model: It induces De Jaegher & Di Paolo to ascribe social knowledge to perturbances – contingencies whose logic arises from the closed organization of an individual (De Jaegher & Di Paolo, 2007) and Steiner & Stewart to posit that the pre......-dispositions of an organizationally closed world prompt individuals to “receive” shared norms (Steiner & Stewart, 2009). On our deflated view, neither organizational closure nor participatory sense making apply to most human cognition. Rather, we invoke a developmental process based on the recursive self-maintenance that is found...

  6. Interlaced Social Worlds: Exploring the Use of Social Media in the Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this article examines mediatization processes in an American kindergarten. The kindergarten is considered as a social world in which forms of communication, as well as the identities of those involved (children, teachers, parents), evolve through the use of digital technologies. The relationships between the different…

  7. Dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Carla; Costa, João; Peralta, Rita; Pires, Joana; Sousa, Paula; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate morning dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Fifty-two patients with pharmacoresistant TLE submitted to a written dream diary during five consecutive days and continuous video-electroencephalographic (video-EEG) monitoring. A matched control group of 41 healthy subjects completed the same diary at home. The number of recalled dreams (including long dreams) and nonrecalled dream mentation were collected, and the Dream Recall Rate (DRR) was calculated. Hall and Van de Castle dream content analysis was performed. Greater than 70% of patients with TLE (37 of 52) recall their dreams, but DRR rate in these patients is lower than in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Dream recall does not appear to be influenced by the presence of neuropsychological deficits nor seizure frequency. In dreams descriptions, TLE patients (vs. controls) have a higher percentage of familiarity in settings and fewer dreams with at least one success. Onirical activity of patients with TLE is different from that of healthy subjects. Our results support the role of mesial and neocortical temporal structures in dream experience. The selective activation of dysfunctional mesial structures may be responsible for some of the observed variability. However, dream content changes can also mirror social and psychological comorbidities of patients with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Hello, world: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Emily; Mignone, Claudia; O'Flaherty, Karen; Homfeld, Anne-Mareike; Bauer, Markus; McCaughrean, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented mission as it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and a global impact was achieved. Rosetta-specific social media accounts - @ESA_Rosetta on Twitter, the Rosetta Mission Facebook page and the rosettamission Instagram account - were developed during 2013/14 and used alongside the traditional reporting line of the main ESA website and the Rosetta blog to build awareness about the mission. Coordinated with ESA's existing social media channels (Flickr, YouTube, G+, Twitter, Facebook and Livestream) and with the support of ESA's country desks and Rosetta partner agency accounts (including @philae2014), information could be shared in a number of European languages, ensuring a wide reach across Europe - and the world. We discuss the roles of the various social media accounts in supporting and promoting the competitions and social media campaigns that were built around the key mission milestones of 2014: waking up from deep space hibernation (January), arriving at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (August) and naming the landing site for Philae ahead of the landing event in November. We discuss the different approach to each channel, such as the first person twitter accounts, the dialogue with and between blog users, and the discussions held live via G+ Hangouts with leading scientists and spacecraft operators. We compare and contrast the audiences, the interaction we had with them and how challenges were overcome. We also use the science-fiction-meets-science-fact Ambition short movie, and its "undercover" dissemination on social media, as an example of how the profile of the Rosetta mission was raised in a unique way. By using a variety of social media platforms to target different audiences with

  9. Lucid Dreaming in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy Settings: University hospital sleep disorder unit Design: Case-control study Participants: Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls Methods: Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Results: Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P dreams/month (P dreaming. Seven of 12 narcoleptic (and 0 non-narcoleptic) lucid dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Conclusion: Narcoleptics have a high propensity for lucid dreaming without differing in REM sleep characteristics from people without narcolepsy. This suggests narcolepsy patients may provide useful information in future studies on the nature of lucid dreaming. Citation: Dodet P, Chavez M, Leu-Semenescu S, Golmard JL, Arnulf I. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2015;38(3):487–497. PMID:25348131

  10. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  11. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Media discourses on the World Social Forums: Towards comparative analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ekecrantz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The reflections to be presented in this and a parallel article by Maia and Castro are based on ongoing studies of Brazilian, Swedish and Russian and Chinese media materials dealing with the World Social Forums (WSF in 2001-2004. The overriding question in this paper concerns the ways mainstream media of very different societieshave re-constructed the global and local issues addressed by the Forums. Of the four market-oriented economies, Communist China and Post-Socialist Russia stand out as being almost silent about the WSF, favouring economic globalization - seemingly at odds with cultural globalization. In Brazil and Sweden the dominant media harbourcontradictory discourses reflecting different political positions visavi the WSF.

  13. Social Desirability Bias and Earnings Management around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niszczota Paweł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test whether inter-country variation in individuals’ tendency to conform, as measured by the Lie (social desirability scale used in the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, can explain differences in the propensity to employ corporate earnings management around the world. Such a link is feasible, given that survey data suggest executives tend to be under severe pressure to meet earnings benchmarks, to which they often succumb by engaging in earnings management (to the detriment of the company’s long-term prospects. We hypothesize that in countries where the propensity to act in a socially desirable (outsider-satisfying way is stronger, earnings management should be more prevalent. Research results support our hypothesis, and demonstrate the existence of a positive relationship between the prevalence of earnings management in a country and the mean score of individuals from that country on the Eysenck Lie scale, which further evidences that capital market pressure is a significant determinant of earnings management.

  14. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2010-02-01

    Dreams are a remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that the human brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate an entire world of conscious experiences by itself. Content analysis and developmental studies have promoted understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging and neurophysiology have advanced current knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research to address fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Dreaming and the brain: from phenomenology to neurophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nir, Yuval; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Dreams are a most remarkable experiment in psychology and neuroscience, conducted every night in every sleeping person. They show that our brain, disconnected from the environment, can generate by itself an entire world of conscious experiences. Content analysis and developmental studies have furthered our understanding of dream phenomenology. In parallel, brain lesion studies, functional imaging, and neurophysiology have advanced our knowledge of the neural basis of dreaming. It is now possible to start integrating these two strands of research in order to address some fundamental questions that dreams pose for cognitive neuroscience: how conscious experiences in sleep relate to underlying brain activity; why the dreamer is largely disconnected from the environment; and whether dreaming is more closely related to mental imagery or to perception. PMID:20079677

  16. Dreaming as inspiration evidence from religion, philosophy, literature, and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the history of religion, philosophy, literature, and film to suggest that dreaming is a primal wellspring of creative inspiration. Powerful, reality-bending dreams have motivated the cultural creativity of people all over the world and throughout history. Examples include the dream revelations of Egyptian Pharaohs, the philosophical insights of Socrates, the dark literary themes of Fyodor Dostoevsky, and the cinematic artistry of Akira Kurusawa. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from these sources are limited by several methodological factors, the evidence gives contemporary researchers good reasons to explore the creative potentials of dreaming and the impact on waking life behavior of certain types of extraordinary dream experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex.

  18. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Önnerth, Lars; Neubert, Mikkel; Omerbasic, Dejan; Heyman, Minch; Kimberly, Marie; Nielsen, Lyngbo; Mynte, Anne; Hørlyck Kaastrup, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon that is the American Dream and its effect on the working and upper class citizens in American society. To give context to the American dream and its origin, we have made use of professor Jim Cullen’s book “The American Dream: A Short Story of an Idea that Shaped a Nation” from 2003. We have identified what we decided to call the “the traditional dream” and “the modern dream”, both representing different outlooks on lives and ethical standards. We have done t...

  19. VIRTUAL REALITY IN WAKING AND DREAMING CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan eHobson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that – through experience-dependent plasticity –becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM sleep dreaming, may provide the theatre for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep – and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness. In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the sensorium to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis – evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  20. Research on Social Work Practice in Egypt and the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at introducing the research on social work practice in Egypt and the Arab World as a thematic topic. It has started with the essence of the current Arab World and its definition. Social work practice and models of social work intervention in this specific region have been described in terms of its specific and topographic nature.…

  1. Dream as a projection of future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Masyuk

    2014-12-01

    The results can be used to improve the teaching of subjects such as «Philosophy», «Psychology», «Management», «Political Science». Understanding dreams is valuable for marketing research and management of social processes.

  2. Dream Team - A pregraduate surgical talent development project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Dall; Seyer-Hansen, Mikkel; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Dream Team is an extracurricular pregraduate surgical talent development project founded in 2009 at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. It aims to identify and develop laparoscopic surgical talents during medical school. Dream Team contains two parts: 1) a weeklong boot camp where app. 10 % of 8th...... the mentorship the students will be in operation room at least once a week and participate as much as their skills allow. Dream Team differs from similar pregraduate programs as it selects the most talented students, but does the boot camp select the best and does the mentorship program provide optimal learning......? A PhD project aims to critically analyze and develop Dream Team. The PhD project is based on theories about deliberate practice[1] and social learning[2]. In addition, we compare surgical talent development[3][4] with talent development in elite sport in order to inspire, refine and develop Dream Team...

  3. Ontogenetic patterns in the dreams of women across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allyson; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; De Koninck, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The present study supports and extends previous research on the developmental differences in women's dreams across the lifespan. The participants included 75 Canadian women in each of 5 age groups from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85, totaling 375 women. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using the method of content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the ontogenetic pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated significant ontogenetic decreases (linear trends) for female and familiar characters, activities, aggression, and friendliness. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging as postulated by the continuity hypothesis. Limitations and suggestions for future research including the examining of developmental patterns in the dreams of males are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  5. Dreaming and Neuroesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcaro, Umberto; Paoli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper, which is limited to the art of painting, aims to support the idea that a substantial insertion of concepts and methods drawn on dream psychology and dream neuroscience can contribute to the advancements of Neuroesthetics. The historical and scientific reasons are discussed that have determined the so far poor role played by the dream phenomenon in the developments of Neuroesthetics. In the light of recent advancements in psychophysiological research, a method of analyzing artistic products is proposed that is based on the recognition of precise features proper of the dreaming experience. Four examples are given for application of this method, regarding works by Giorgione, Leonardo da Vinci, Vermeer, and Millais, respectively. PMID:26157373

  6. Lucid dreaming in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodet, Pauline; Chavez, Mario; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency, determinants and sleep characteristics of lucid dreaming in narcolepsy. University hospital sleep disorder unit. Case-control study. Consecutive patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls. Participants were interviewed regarding the frequency and determinants of lucid dreaming. Twelve narcolepsy patients and 5 controls who self-identified as frequent lucid dreamers underwent nighttime and daytime sleep monitoring after being given instructions regarding how to give an eye signal when lucid. Compared to 53 healthy controls, the 53 narcolepsy patients reported more frequent dream recall, nightmares and recurrent dreams. Lucid dreaming was achieved by 77.4% of narcoleptic patients and 49.1% of controls (P dreamers achieved lucid REM sleep across a total of 33 naps, including 14 episodes with eye signal. The delta power in the electrode average, in delta, theta, and alpha powers in C4, and coherences between frontal electrodes were lower in lucid than non-lucid REM sleep in spectral EEG analysis. The duration of REM sleep was longer, the REM sleep onset latency tended to be shorter, and the percentage of atonia tended to be higher in lucid vs. non-lucid REM sleep; the arousal index and REM density and amplitude were unchanged. Narcolepsy is a novel, easy model for studying lucid dreaming. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. World of warcraft, the aftermath : how game elements transfer into perceptions, associations and (day)dreams in the everyday life of MMORPG players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, K.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Kort, de Y.A.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the phenomenon of game-biased perceptions and associations, or how, through intensive game play, elements from the game world can trigger thoughts and imagery outside the game world, influencing the perception and interpretation of stimuli in everyday life. Examples include the

  8. CHINA DREAM or CHINESE DREAM based on COCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Meng-qing

    2016-01-01

    There has a lot of discussion about the correct expression of CHINESE DREAM or CHINA DREAM. This paper aims to make well use of COCA, a free online corpus, to clear this question. After contrast, we finally find that the exact expression is CHINESE DREAM instead of the original CHINA DREAM. The application of corpus can also be a new pattern for us to pur-sue our study career and will also be an effective way to help us in research field.

  9. You and Man in the Western World. A Cultural Approach. Eighth Grade Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsippany - Troy Hills Board of Education, Parsippany, NJ.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 8. SUBJECT MATTER: Social Studies--You and Man in the Western World. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide contains five units: 1) cultural orientation; 2) social studies dimensions in Western Europe; 3) social studies dimensions in Eastern Europe and Soviet Union; 4) social studies dimensions in Latin America; and…

  10. Twitter Seismology: Earthquake Monitoring and Response in a Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, D. C.; Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Smoczyk, G.

    2011-12-01

    detections is very small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS PDE global earthquake catalog for the same five month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on Tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 80% occurred within 2 minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. The USGS will continue investigating how to use Twitter and other forms of social media to augment is current suite of seismographically derived products.

  11. This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2004-08-01

    It is the art of psychoanalysis in the making, a process inventing itself as it goes, that is the subject of this paper. The author articulates succinctly how he conceives of psychoanalysis, and offers a detailed clinical illustration. He suggests that each analysand unconsciously (and ambivalently) is seeking help in dreaming his 'night terrors' (his undreamt and undreamable dreams) and his 'nightmares' (his dreams that are interrupted when the pain of the emotional experience being dreamt exceeds his capacity for dreaming). Undreamable dreams are understood as manifestations of psychotic and psychically foreclosed aspects of the personality; interrupted dreams are viewed as reflections of neurotic and other non-psychotic parts of the personality. The analyst's task is to generate conditions that may allow the analysand--with the analyst's participation--to dream the patient's previously undreamable and interrupted dreams. A significant part of the analyst's participation in the patient's dreaming takes the form of the analyst's reverie experience. In the course of this conjoint work of dreaming in the analytic setting, the analyst may get to know the analysand sufficiently well for the analyst to be able to say something that is true to what is occurring at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The analyst's use of language contributes significantly to the possibility that the patient will be able to make use of what the analyst has said for purposes of dreaming his own experience, thereby dreaming himself more fully into existence.

  12. The dream in contemporary psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, M F

    2001-03-01

    This article offers selective reviews of cogent sectors of research regarding the dream in contemporary psychiatry. First, the author discusses relatively recent research (1953-1999) on the neurobiology and clinical psychophysiology of dreaming sleep; second, he reviews experimental cognitive neuroscientific studies of perception, emotion, and memory and the putative interrelationships among them in generating dream imagery; and third, he interprets psychoanalytic studies (1900-1999) on related aspects of dreams and the dream process. Exploration for interrelationships among information from these three areas entails discussion of the mind/brain problem. These considerations illuminate some of the logical and interpretive dilemmas that enter into debates about Freud's theory of the dream. The author proposes a preliminary psychobiologic concept of the dream process and discusses, in light of the foregoing considerations, the importance of collaborative research for developing a realistic perspective concerning the proper place of the dream in contemporary psychiatry.

  13. Dreaming, fenfluramine, and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, A; Wilson, C W; Wilson, B P

    1977-01-08

    The effect of increasing doses of fenfluramine on dream patterns was studied in 20 patients receiving a reducing diet with or without a controlled dietary intake of vitamin C daily. The dream pattern was unchanged in six patients and dreams disappeared in another who normally dreamed often. In 13 patients dreams increased in frequency and intensity, and in five the dreams assumed frightening proportions. There was a significant straight-line relation between response and the size of the dose. When placebo tablets were given to four patients their dreams disappeared or assumed their pretreatment normal pattern. Absence of vitamin C from the diet did not significantly affect the dream pattern. That fenfluramine has dose-related cerebral effects should be remembered in patients with a history of mental illness.

  14. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  15. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  16. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  17. The use of dreams in spiritual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranahan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of dreams in the context of pastoral care. Although many people dream and consider their dreams to hold some significant spiritual meaning, spiritual care providers have been reluctant to incorporate patients' dreams into the therapeutic conversation. Not every dream can be considered insightful, but probing the meaning of some dreams can enhance spiritual care practice. Hill's Cognitive-Experimental Dream Interpretation Model is applied in the current article as a useful framework for exploring dreams, gaining insight about spiritual problems, and developing a therapeutic plan of action. Bulkeley's criteria for dream interpretation were used to furnish safeguards against inappropriate application of dream interpretation to spiritual assessment and interventions.

  18. [Neuropsychology of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J

    2012-07-16

    Dreams are a universal human experience and studying them from the point of view of neuroscience, consciousness, emotions and cognition is quite a challenge for researchers. Thus, dreams have been addressed from a number of different perspectives ranging from philosophy to clinical medicine, as well as psychiatry, psychology, artificial intelligence, neural network models, psychophysiology or neurobiology. The main models are grounded on the biological function of dreams, especially those based on processes involving the consolidation of memory and forgetting, and models of simulation. Similarly, current models are developed upon the neurobiology and the neuropsychology of the REM phases of sleep and how they are differentiated from wakefulness. Thus, neurobiologically speaking, dreams are related to the role of acetylcholine and, neuropsychologically, to the activation of the limbic and paralimbic regions, the activation of the basal ganglia, the activation of cortical areas with a specific modality (especially Brodmann's areas 19, 22 and 37) and the deactivation of the ventromedial, parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate. Dreams can be considered a state of consciousness that is characterised by a reduced control over their content, visual images and activation of the memory, and which is mediated by motivational incentives and emotional salience.

  19. Having belief(s) in social virtual worlds: A decomposed approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merikivi, J.; Verhagen, T.; Feldberg, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in social virtual worlds with multiple functions has mushroomed during the past few years. The key challenge social virtual worlds face while attempting to anchor and serve the masses is to reflect the core beliefs of their users. As existing research lacks insight into these core

  20. Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Africa, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...

  1. Dreams that do not come true: Re-addressing social security to expand old-age social protection : The case of informal workers in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E.A. Joya (Nancy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on old-age income security, with the objective to explore obstacles and opportunities to expand social protection for informal workers in El Salvador. It first introduces the main concepts and debates on social security, social protection, coverage and informality, to

  2. Music in the Early Years: Pathways into the Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Two assumptions that underlie much research in early childhood music education are that music is a social endeavor and musical participation is beneficial to children's overall social development. As members of cultural and social groups, young children engage with music in a multitude of ways and with different companions. This article examines…

  3. Linking Online and Offline Social Worlds: Opportunities and Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cailing

    2017-01-01

    Social networks bring both opportunities and threats to the users. On one hand, social networks provide a platform for users to build online profiles, make connections with others beyond geographical boundaries, enjoy the "openness" of social networks to meet their intrinsic need of "self-presentation", explore and strengthen…

  4. The complexities of governing in a social media world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Thomas G; Swettenham, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of governing has increased with the Internet's introduction of social media. Boards need to be aware of social media impact upon external stakeholder relations, as well as legal responsibilities within the organization. This paper outlines the various implications of social media that a board needs to consider. A governance framework is used to help put the issues in perspective. The conclusion is that boards need to take social media seriously and ensure that their organization has a social media risk mitigation strategy for external communications, as well as eDiscovery. Various other strategies and tactics are suggested to help boards address the challenge.

  5. Living the Behavioral Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    Most of us have had a workday where we left a bit frustrated about one thing or another and thought "if I was in charge, I know I could do it better." We dream of a better tomorrow where we tell our employer goodbye and become our own boss. Is that not the American Dream? We are told from early childhood that anything is possible and we can be anything we want to be if we just work hard. Somewhere between those naive childhood years and today we probably have come to realize these grand promises are more myths than truths and we become content with an approximation of this dream. To some individuals, however, approximations are not close enough.

  6. Dreaming in the Classroom: Practices, Methods, and Resources in Dream Education. SUNY Series in Dream Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Philip; Bulkeley, Kelly; Welt, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Dreaming in the Classroom" provides teachers from virtually all fields with a uniquely informative guidebook for introducing their students to the universal human phenomenon of dreaming. Although dreaming may not be held in high esteem in mainstream Western society, students at all education levels consistently enjoy learning about…

  7. Social world interactions: how company connects to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collip, D; Oorschot, M; Thewissen, V; Van Os, J; Bentall, R; Myin-Germeys, I

    2011-05-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that social contact, even when it is neutral, triggers paranoid thinking in people who score high on clinical or subclinical paranoia. We investigated whether contextual variables are predictive of momentary increases in the intensity of paranoid thinking in a sample of participants ranging across a psychometric paranoia continuum. The sample (n=154) consisted of 30 currently paranoid patients, 34 currently non-paranoid patients, 15 remitted psychotic patients, 38 high-schizotypy participants, and 37 control subjects. Based on their total score on Fenigstein's Paranoia Scale (PS), three groups with different degrees of paranoia were defined. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), a structured diary technique, was used to assess momentary social context, perceived social threat and paranoia in daily life. There were differences in the effect of social company on momentary levels of paranoia and perceived social threat across the range of trait paranoia. The low and medium paranoia groups reported higher levels of perceived social threat when they were with less-familiar compared to familiar individuals. The medium paranoia group reported more paranoia in less-familiar company. The high paranoia group reported no difference in the perception of social threat or momentary paranoia between familiar and unfamiliar contacts. Paranoid thinking is context dependent in individuals with medium or at-risk levels of trait paranoia. Perceived social threat seems to be context dependent in the low paranoia group. However, at high levels of trait paranoia, momentary paranoia and momentary perceived social threat become autonomous and independent of social reality.

  8. Dream Big: Exploring Empowering Processes of DREAM Act Advocacy in a Focal State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forenza, Brad; Mendonca, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    This original, qualitative research analyzed in-depth interviews with five undocumented, college-age, Latino DREAM Act advocates in a single state. An organizational empowerment framework was utilized to explore processes allied with such advocacy. Four emergent themes transcended the data inductively: (1) Challenging Social Injustice, which…

  9. The future of dream science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the future prospects of scientific dream research. Three frontiers of investigation hold special promise: neuroscientific studies of the brain-mind system's activities during sleep (such as during lucid dreaming); systematic analyses of large collections of dream reports from diverse populations of people; and psychotherapeutic explorations of the multiple dimensions of personal and collective meaning woven into the dream experiences of each individual. Several helpful books on the science of sleep and dreaming are mentioned for further study. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Metacognitive mechanisms underlying lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Dresler, Martin; Brick, Timothy R; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-21

    Lucid dreaming is a state of awareness that one is dreaming, without leaving the sleep state. Dream reports show that self-reflection and volitional control are more pronounced in lucid compared with nonlucid dreams. Mostly on these grounds, lucid dreaming has been associated with metacognition. However, the link to lucid dreaming at the neural level has not yet been explored. We sought for relationships between the neural correlates of lucid dreaming and thought monitoring. Human participants completed a questionnaire assessing lucid dreaming ability, and underwent structural and functional MRI. We split participants based on their reported dream lucidity. Participants in the high-lucidity group showed greater gray matter volume in the frontopolar cortex (BA9/10) compared with those in the low-lucidity group. Further, differences in brain structure were mirrored by differences in brain function. The BA9/10 regions identified through structural analyses showed increases in blood oxygen level-dependent signal during thought monitoring in both groups, and more strongly in the high-lucidity group. Our results reveal shared neural systems between lucid dreaming and metacognitive function, in particular in the domain of thought monitoring. This finding contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms enabling higher-order consciousness in dreams. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351082-07$15.00/0.

  11. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  12. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    OpenAIRE

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical ske...

  13. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve colle...

  14. Gender Disparity in Third World Technological, Social, and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akubue, Anthony I.

    2001-01-01

    Socialization of women in developing countries inhibits their education and employment in scientific and technical fields. This mindset perpetuates poverty and limits economic and social development. Solutions include elimination of gender bias, information dissemination, replication of successful development projects, use of role models, and…

  15. Dream-Enacting Behaviors in a Normal Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Svob, Connie; Kuiken, Don

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the prevalence and gender distributions of behaviors enacted during dreaming (“dream-enacting [DE] behaviors”) in a normal population; the independence of such behaviors from other parasomnias; and the influence of different question wordings, socially desirable responding and personality on prevalence. Design: 3-group questionnaire study Setting: University classrooms Participants: Three undergraduate samples (Ns = 443, 201, 496; mean ages = 19.9 ± 3.2 y; 20.1 ± 3.4 y; 19.1 ± 1.6 y) Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Subjects completed questionnaires about DE behaviors and Social Desirability. Study 1 employed a nonspecific question about the behaviors, Study 2 employed the same question with examples, and Study 3 employed 7 questions describing specific behavior subtypes (speaking, crying, smiling/laughing, fear, anger, movement, sexual arousal). Somnambulism, somniloquy, nightmares, dream recall, alexithymia, and absorption were also assessed. Factor analyses were conducted to determine relationships among DE behaviors and their independence from other parasomnias. Prevalence increased with increasing question specificity (35.9%, 76.7%, and 98.2% for the 3 samples). No gender difference obtained for the nonspecific question, but robust differences occurred for more specific questions. Females reported more speaking, crying, fear and smiling/laughing than did males; males reported more sexual arousal. When controlling other parasomnias and dream recall frequency, these differences persisted. Factor solutions revealed that DE behaviors were independent of other parasomnias and of dream recall frequency, except for an association between dream-talking and somniloquy. Sexual arousal was related only to age. Behaviors were independent of alexithymia but moderately related to absorption. Conclusions: Dream-enacting behaviors are prevalent in healthy subjects and sensitive to question wording but not social desirability

  16. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children's dream reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Kertész, Katinka; Bódizs, Róbert

    2015-01-01

    The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be fully explored. However, while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in the case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers' dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of numerous recent and relevant studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children's dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70%) in their mostly kinematic (82%) dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70 and 7% of all dream characters respectively), and social interactions, self-initiated actions, and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers' dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children. PMID:25983708

  17. Content analysis of 4 to 8 year-old children’s dream reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piroska eSándor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of dreaming in childhood and in adulthood are still equally enigmatic fields yet to be explored. However while there is a consensus at least about the typical content and formal characteristics of adult dream reports, these features are still a matter of debate in case of young children. Longitudinal developmental laboratory studies concluded that preschoolers’ dreams usually depict static images about mostly animals and body states of the dreamer but they basically lack the active representation of the self, human characters, social interactions, dream emotions and motion imagery. Due to methodological arguments these results became the reference points in the literature of developmental dream research, in spite of the significantly different results of some more recent studies using extra-laboratory settings. This study aims to establish a methodologically well-controlled and valid way to collect children’s dreams for a representative period of time in a familiar home setting to serve as a comparison to the laboratory method. Pre trained parents acted as interviewers in the course of a 6 week-period of dream collection upon morning awakenings. Our results suggest that even preschoolers are likely to represent their own self in an active role (70% in their mostly kinematic (82% dream narratives. Their dream reports contain more human, than animal characters (70% and 7% of all dream characters respectively, and that social interactions, self-initiated actions and emotions are usual part of these dreams. These results are rather similar to those of recent extra-laboratory studies, suggesting that methodological issues may strongly interfere with research outcomes especially in the case of preschoolers’ dream narratives. We suggest that nighttime awakenings in the laboratory setting could be crucial in understanding the contradictory results of dream studies in case of young children.

  18. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  19. Dreams Memories & Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  20. Television: Stuff of Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Jon

    The fluctuating effects of media can be observed by a data collection technique which reveals patterns of audience response similar to those which C.G. Jung observed in his analyses on word association and dreaming. The technique is known as Continuous Response Movement (CRM). A typical CRM training session automates the audience feedback process…

  1. Mobilizing Social Science in the Arab World: Knowledge, Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... project will -institutionalize and strengthen ACSS' ability to implement programs that ... problems -foster a new generation of social scientists integrated into regional ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ... adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  2. World History. A Program for Senior High School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Patrick

    GRADES OR AGES: Senior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: World history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers ten units: 1) Perspective--Man in Pre-historic and Ancient Times; 2) Feudalism and the Church in the Middle Ages; 3) Renaissance and Reformation; 4) The Emergence of Nationalism--Its Cause and Effects; 5) Revolutions of Rising…

  3. Hunger in Our World: A Social Studies Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Sam

    1984-01-01

    Describes activities of a unit on world hunger which include presenting a lexicon, topic overview, and guest speakers; reading topically related novels; creating scrapbooks; discussing pertinent quotations; exploring government role in ameliorating hunger; and completing final papers or projects. Resource materials are listed, including pertinent…

  4. Women’s Education and World Peace: A Feminist Dream Comes True; Comment on “The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This commentary on Potts et al provides a critical view on their thesis that increasing the level of education among women is likely to reduce terrorism. Presence of a strong family planning program enables women to control family size resulting in women’s public participation more likely and facilitating the emergence of small birth cohorts who are less likely to become unemployed. In spite of the several theoretical insights their paper offers, they have not adequately described the multiple social and economic linkages that may exist between fertility rates and lowering frequency of wars, terrorism, etc.

  5. Role of Social Networks in Developing Religious and Social Values of the Students of the World Islamic Sciences & Education University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mosa, Nosiba Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the role of Social Networks in the social and religious values of The World Islamic Sciences & Education University students. The study applied the survey and descriptive Approach. The population of the study represents all BA students who enrolled in the first academic semester for the year 2014-2015. The sample of…

  6. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiaruga, Anastasia; Scarpelli, Serena; Bartolacci, Chiara; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most of all, the lack of longitudinal psychophysiological studies seems to be the main issue. As a main message, we suggest that future longitudinal studies should collect dream reports

  7. "Hello, World!" Harnessing Social Media for the Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; Scuka, D.; Homfeld, A. M.; Ranero, K.; Rolfe, E.; Bennett, M.; Schepers, A.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency's comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. As it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and inspired by this once-in-a-lifetime event by harnessing a range of outlets for communicating the key messages. These included traditional online platforms, such as news websites, blogs, and Livestream, as well as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Flickr, YouTube, Google+ and SoundCloud. In this article, we outline the role social media channels played in making Rosetta one of the European Space Agency's biggest communication and public engagement successes.

  8. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  9. This is Not a Game - Social Virtual Worlds, Fun, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mark W.; Smith-Robbins, Sarah; Withnail, Greg

    This chapter asks a simple question: what is required to make learning fun in social virtual worlds? Several scholars have connected fun with learning but most of these have centered on the function of games in learning. Studies of learning in massive multiplayer online role playing games connect the game mechanics to how learning occurs. However, few have asked whether learning in a virtual world can be fun if there is no game. In a social virtual world, like Second Life (SL) there are no game mechanics (unlike game worlds like World of Warcraft [WoW]). There are no quests, challenges, rewards or other game elements in SL. So can a virtual world that has no game-content provided be a place where fun learning can take place? We define fun and explore how fun has been related to learning. We explore theories of fun from Koster, Crawford, Csíkszentmihályi and others as well as views of the ways fun is explored as related to the learning experience. With these models in mind, we explore how fun is different in a social virtual world. Drawing on definitions of fun from Castronova and others, we see game structures in virtual worlds may not be needed to have fun. These fun activities include game creation, business interactions, and most importantly, identity play and socialization in a social virtual world. Finally, we propose that if learning is to be successful and fun in a social virtual world it should pay close attention to these two activities.

  10. Elaborations of grounded theory in information research: arenas/social worlds theory, discourse and situational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, A.C.; Sen, B.A.; Rosa, A.; Ellis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores elaborations of Grounded Theory in relation to Arenas/Social Worlds Theory. The notions of arenas and social worlds were present in early applications of Grounded Theory but have not been as much used or recognised as the general Grounded Theory approach, particularly in the information studies field. The studies discussed here are therefore very unusual in information research. The empirical contexts of these studies are those of (1) the role of discourse in the organisat...

  11. Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

  12. Emotional Experiences beyond the Classroom: Interactions with the Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew S.; Rivers, Damian J.

    2018-01-01

    Research into the emotional experiences of language learners and their impact upon the language-learning process remains relatively undernourished within second language education. The research available focuses primarily on emotions experienced within the classroom, rather than in the daily lives of learners within various social contexts. This…

  13. Research in the real world: Social context and its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Adeline G; Levine, Murray

    2014-03-01

    Although scientists are supposedly concerned only with the pursuit of scientific truth, it was recognized early on that they have personal and professional agendas and are subject to human fallibilities. Openness allowing the scientific community to oversee each member's work depends a great deal upon publication of scientific work. Research reports are cultural artifacts shaped by social forces. In most instances of theoretically oriented work, the roles making up the social context, the researchers, funding agencies, journal editors, publishers, critics, and consumers of research all tend to be scientists sharing common interests and assumptions. There are many actors in addition to scientists in the social context of evaluative research. The actors-sometimes called stakeholders-include people whose lives may change, politicians, government agencies, private foundations, businesspersons, taxpayers, the mass media, and advocates. These actors have varied interests in the research enterprise, are embedded in varied reference groups, and bring different assumptions and values to the task. Their interactions shape the research product at every step. In this genre of research, the contexts are diverse. To illustrate the generality of the influence of social context, the authors draw on three diverse examples spanning a century: the Love Canal industrial disaster of the late 1970s, the ultimately failed attempt in the early 1900s to transplant the Gary, Indiana, progressive school system to New York City (NYC); and some recent studies of charter school students' academic performance.

  14. Predicting Hierarchical Structure in Small World Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2009-01-01

    Typisk analytisk foranstaltninger i grafteori gerne grad centralitet, betweenness og nærhed centralities er meget almindelige og har lang tradition for deres vellykkede brug. Men modellering af skjult, terrorister eller kriminelle netværk gennem sociale grafer ikke rigtig give den hierarkiske str...

  15. A naturalistic inquiry into the social world of whitewater kayakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason W. Whiting; Katharine A. Pawelko

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research focused on kayakers at whitewater kayaking parks; the social and recreational characteristics of this specific user group had not previously been studied from a managerial and theoretical standpoint. Twelve kayakers were interviewed at whitewater kayaking parks in Colorado and Utah. The interviewers utilized naturalistic methodology with a...

  16. A consideration of ketamine dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejja, P; Galloon, S

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to see whether covering of the eyes during and after ketamine anaesthesia would reduce the incidence of dreams. One hundred and fifty patients, randomly divided into three groups, underwent therapeutic abortion with ketamine as the sole anaesthesia. One hundred patients had their eyes completely covered, 50 in the operating room only and 50 in the operating room and in the recovery room. The third 50 were controls, with their eyes uncovered. All patients were questioned post-operatively about dreams, nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness and experiences, and also how frequently they dreamed at home. Although covering the eyes in the recovery room only reduced the incidence of dreams marginally, it became obvious that the patients who dreamed after ketamine (in all 3 groups) were those who normally dreamed at home. There were 82 patients who were recorded as not being home-dreamers, and only two of these dreamed after ketamine. In contrast, of the 68 home-dreamers, 50 dreamed after ketamine, and 17 of these had unpleasant dreams. In the home-dreamers, covering the eyes reduced the incidence of dreams from 86 per cent in Group 1 to 72 per cent in Group 2 and 64 per cent in Group 3. It is suggested that goggles may be advantageous when dealing with home-dreamers, and a question about the patient's tendency to dream should be included in the preoperative questioning. Alterations in premedication and the use of a quiet dark room during recovery may even further reduce unpleasant dreams in this group.

  17. Navigating the massive world of reddit: using backbone networks to map user interests in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal S. Olson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the massive online worlds of social media, users frequently rely on organizing themselves around specific topics of interest to find and engage with like-minded people. However, navigating these massive worlds and finding topics of specific interest often proves difficult because the worlds are mostly organized haphazardly, leaving users to find relevant interests by word of mouth or using a basic search feature. Here, we report on a method using the backbone of a network to create a map of the primary topics of interest in any social network. To demonstrate the method, we build an interest map for the social news web site reddit and show how such a map could be used to navigate a social media world. Moreover, we analyze the network properties of the reddit social network and find that it has a scale-free, small-world, and modular community structure, much like other online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. We suggest that the integration of interest maps into popular social media platforms will assist users in organizing themselves into more specific interest groups, which will help alleviate the overcrowding effect often observed in large online communities.

  18. Emotional experiences beyond the classroom: Interactions with the social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Ross

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research into the emotional experiences of language learners and their impact upon the language-learning process remains relatively undernourished within second language education. The research available focuses primarily on emotions experienced within the classroom, rather than in the daily lives of learners within various social contexts. This article contends that the focus placed upon emotions within the relatively structured environment of the formal classroom is problematic, particularly within an ESL environment, as the target language is more frequently experienced beyond the classroom. Drawing on data collected within Australia, the study explored the emotional experiences of a small cohort of eight university-level ESL learners experienced within their various social interactions beyond the classroom with a specific focus on the emotions of hope, enjoyment and frustration. Semi-structured interviews revealed that their emotional experiences beyond the classroom were particularly intense in comparison to emotional experiences within the formal language-learning classroom.

  19. COMPANY’S SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - A CHALLENGE FOR CONTEMPORARY WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ciutacu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an essay, a challenge to reflection and debate about the concept of company’s, or corporation’s social responsibility concept (CSR. The fundamental resorts constituting the background of promoting this concept are investigated through critical analyses. As well as the (economic, legal, moral and philanthropic manifestation forms of CSR, and its (reactive, defensive, adjustment and pro-active typology, the (positive and negative motivations that determine companies to adopt a more and more responsible and coherent attitude with respect to the internal dimension, and the external one of CSR. It is estimated that CSR’s viability could be proven only to the extent it will gain a planetary size, so as to assist not only to economies globalisation, but also to a “social justice globalisation.

  20. Hello World: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Homfeld, A.-M.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented space adventure as the spacecraft reached its destination ten years later, a wide range of new audiences were reached and could follow this once-in-a-lifetime mission.

  1. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Seeing Possible Futures: Khmer Youth and the Discourse of the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I add to the critique of the myth of the American Dream by examining ethnographically the ways its dominant discourse is circulated to Khmer American middle school children of migratory agricultural workers. Drawing on social theories of discourse, I juxtapose the ideology embedded in the American Dream Discourse with the…

  3. Loneliness and Social Internet Use: Pathways to Reconnection in a Digital World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowland, Rebecca; Necka, Elizabeth A; Cacioppo, John T

    2018-01-01

    With the rise of online social networking, social relationships are increasingly developed and maintained in a digital domain. Drawing conclusions about the impact of the digital world on loneliness is difficult because there are contradictory findings, and cross-sectional studies dominate the literature, making causation difficult to establish. In this review, we present our theoretical model and propose that there is a bidirectional and dynamic relationship between loneliness and social Internet use. When the Internet is used as a way station on the route to enhancing existing relationships and forging new social connections, it is a useful tool for reducing loneliness. But when social technologies are used to escape the social world and withdraw from the "social pain" of interaction, feelings of loneliness are increased. We propose that loneliness is also a determinant of how people interact with the digital world. Lonely people express a preference for using the Internet for social interaction and are more likely to use the Internet in a way that displaces time spent in offline social activities. This suggests that lonely people may need support with their social Internet use so that they employ it in a way that enhances existing friendships and/or to forge new ones.

  4. Fighting for Social Democracy: R.H. Tawney and Educational Reconstruction in the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    R.H. Tawney (1880-1962), a leading English economic historian and prominent socialist, was vigorously involved in educational reconstruction during the Second World War. For Tawney, the war was a war for social democracy. His ideals of social democracy formed a basis for his case for Public (independent) School reform and free secondary education…

  5. The money-flows of socially responsible investment funds around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Zhang, C.; Baker, H.K.; Nofsinger, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter studies the money flows into and out of socially responsible investment (SRI) funds around the world. In their investment decisions, investors in SRI funds may be more concerned with ethical or social issues than with fund performance. Therefore, SRI money flows are less related to past

  6. Manifest Dream Content as a Predictor of Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, Myron L; Kramer, Milton

    2017-01-01

    A number of behavioral, social, biological, and cultural factors are associated with suicide. However, the ability to predict an imminent suicide attempt remains problematic. Prior studies indicate that the manifest dream content of depressed, non-suicidal patients differs from that of depressed, suicidal patients. The dream imagery of depressed, suicidal patients contains themes of death, dying, violence, and departure. The dream imagery of depressed, non-suicidal patients contains themes of rejection, helplessness, hopelessness, humiliation, failure, and loss. In the present study, the dream reports of 52 depressed patients were collected and rated for various themes. Patients were divided into three groups: Depressed and non-suicidal; Depressed, with suicidal ideation; Depressed, with suicidal ideation and/or attempt(s). Themes of death and/or dying, and to a lesser extent, themes of violence, injury, and/or murder occurred with greater frequency in the dream reports of depressed patients with suicidal ideation and/or attempts, than in the dream reports of depressed patients without suicidal ideation or behavior. These observations correspond with the prevailing psychodynamic explanation of suicide; namely, that it is a murderous attack on the self that is identified with hated internalized objects.

  7. From the dreams of a generation to the theory of dreams: Freud's Roman dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghnagi, David

    2011-06-01

    In The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud's interpretation of oedipal desires does not occur at the expense of historical and personal desires, which are always there as a backdrop. In the relentless examination of his own dreams that Freud makes in order to show the mechanisms inherent in all oneiric deformation, we are also led to another, specifically historical, aspect of the issue of Jewish emancipation, which he experiences at first hand. By analysing his own dreams, Freud not only shows us the mechanisms governing dream formation, but also develops a pointed critique of his contemporary society and its prejudices. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners.

  9. [Life cannot consist of dreams alone: reflections on advertising and a healthy diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagelim, Andréa Siliveste Brasil; Prado, Shirley Donizete; Freitas, Ricardo Ferreira; Carvalho, Maria Claudia da Veiga Soares; Cruz, Claudia Olsieski da; Klotz, Juliana; Freire, Gesseldo de Brito

    2012-03-01

    In this essay we present some thoughts on advertising and a healthy diet in the contemporary world, where consumption plays a highly relevant role. We seek to emphasize two aspects, among many others yet to be explored in the scientific literature in the food and nutritional field: the hegemony of the biomedical paradigm and the fragmentation of human life when advertising campaigns associate food with the idea of a healthy diet. We believe that we cannot merely live through advertisements in which our desires are triggered constantly and where the world is only dreams and the main goal is to sell more and earn more, even using some strategies for dissemination of biomedical and nutritional information. In our opinion, the merger between diet and health, i.e. a healthy diet, must involve enlightenment of the individual including information on quality in the context of social life in order to achieve the ideal of happiness. Individuals whose identities are fully formed both in dreams and reality can boldly seek knowledge and think about themselves in the world context, as well as zeal for their diet and health.

  10. Trait and neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Pace-Schott, Edward F

    2010-01-01

    Individuals differ greatly in their dream recall frequency, in their incidence of recalling types of dreams, such as nightmares, and in the content of their dreams. This chapter reviews work on the waking life correlates of these differences between people in their experience of dreaming and reviews some of the neurobiological correlates of these individual differences. The chapter concludes that despite there being trait-like aspects of general dream recall and of dream content, very few psychometrically assessed correlates for dream recall frequency and dream content have been found. More successful has been the investigation of correlates of frequency of particular types of dreams, such as nightmares and lucid dreams, and also of how waking-life experience is associated with dream content. There is also potential in establishing neurobiological correlates of individual differences in dream recall and dream content, and recent work on this is reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Play and dream your city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    tool to investigate the creative fi eld between the digital and the analogue. There is an incompatibility embedded in the sketching process. The analogue sketch represents the known and open-ended, the digital the more concrete, while the cave technology is a more open and free dream room...... for experience. 5. Keywords: Analog, digital, game, dream, cave, intuition, and hermeneutic....

  12. The genius of the dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, S R

    1983-01-01

    In Act V of A Midsummer Night's Dream, Theseus and Hippolyta exchange views on the dreamlike adventures reported by the young lovers. Theseus dismisses their stories as fantasies of wish fulfillment, but Hippolyta points out that despite their strangeness, the tales reflect an adaptive change in the psychic reality of the lovers. The dramatic action of the play supports Hippolyta's view. The release of Demetrius from his transferential infatuation with Hermia comes at the moment of awakening from a dream in which he has matched his current feelings for Hermia with a repressed libidinal fantasy of childhood. This example of a correction dream illustrates how condensation in dreams functions adaptively in matching a new experience with previously stored representations of related events in the past. It also illustrates the ability of the matching process to go beyond the narrow logical categories of waking thought to reach deeper levels of experience otherwise inaccessible to the dreamer. This ability accounts for the important role played by dreaming in the creative process generally and in the day-to-day working-through process of psychoanalytic therapy. The adaptive function of dreaming is subject at many points to interference from the censorship mechanisms discovered and emphasized by Freud. A theory of dreaming combining these antagonistic processes is more consistent with the data of the sleep laboratory than the traditional psychoanalytic theory alone. It also provides a better fit with the introspective date more familiar to the analyst as illustrated by Freud's well-documented analysis of his own dreams.

  13. Social media and social work education: understanding and dealing with the new digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators.

  14. Dream content of Canadian males from adolescence to old age: An exploration of ontogenetic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Allyson; Lafrenière, Alexandre; De Koninck, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a first look at the ontogenetic pattern of dream content across the lifespan for men. The participants included 50 Canadian men in each of 5 age groups, from adolescence to old age including 12-17, 18-24, 25-39, 40-64, and 65-85. The last age group included 31 participants, totaling 231 males. One dream per participant was scored by two independent judges using content analysis. Trend analysis was used to determine the lifespan-developmental pattern of the dream content categories. Results demonstrated a predominance of aggressive dream imagery in the adolescent age group in line with social-developmental research. These patterns of dream imagery reflect the waking developmental patterns as proposed by social theories and recognized features of aging. Limitations and suggestions for future research, including the examining of the developmental pattern of gender differences across the lifespan, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spotlight on dream recall: the ages of dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiaruga A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro Department of Psychology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most

  16. Social values and biodiversity conservation in a dynamic world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsch, Alia M; Teel, Tara L; Manfredo, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Understanding what shape values (which ultimately shape human behavior) will help improve the effectiveness of conservation solutions that depend on public support. To contribute to this understanding, we investigated the influence of societal-level changes, such as modernization, on values in a multilevel framework. We collected survey responses (n = 4183) to questionnaires mailed to a random selection of households within each county in Washington (U.S.A.) (response rate 32%). We used multilevel modeling to determine the relationship between modernization (e.g., county-level urbanization, wealth, and education) and wildlife value orientations (values that shape thought about wildlife) while controlling for individual-level sociodemographics. We then explored how values influence conservation support at different levels (e.g., individual and county) and how values explain conservation support in a case study of public responses to wolf (Canis lupis) recovery. We found positive associations between county-level examples of modernization and mutualism (a wildlife value orientation that prioritizes the perceived needs of wildlife) independent of a respondent's sociodemographics, and negative associations between modernization and domination (a wildlife value orientation that prioritizes human needs). Our results suggest that context has an additive impact on one's values; certain locations exhibited domination values, whereas others exhibited a mix of value types. This finding is important because actions that restrict human interests to promote biodiversity were negatively associated with domination and positively associated with mutualism. In the wolf case study, mutualism was strongly correlated with less social conflict over wolf recovery in many, but not all, counties (e.g., Pearson's r correlation = 0.59 in one county and a nonsignificant correlation in another). Our findings suggest that modernization operates on values within a state with implications for

  17. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  18. The Use of Dream Discussions in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical underpinnings of dream theories and suggests that discussions of dreams in counseling can aid in setting up and maintaining therapeutic contact with clients. A number of theoretical positions on the function of dreams are discussed. Specific dream counseling techniques are also delineated. (JAC)

  19. Beyond DreamWeaving: Honoring Our Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Martha M.

    DreamWeavers listen for the dreams within themselves and within others. The process of career counseling, career management coaching and career/life planning invites practitioners to consistently listen for the dreams, understand that dreams are visions and that visions guide us to action. This paper highlights how career practitioners are called…

  20. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  1. Increased lucid dreaming frequency in narcolepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rak, M.; Beitinger, P.; Steiger, A.; Schredl, M.; Dresler, M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Nightmares are a frequent symptom in narcolepsy. Lucid dreaming, i.e., the phenomenon of becoming aware of the dreaming state during dreaming, has been demonstrated to be of therapeutic value for recurrent nightmares. Data on lucid dreaming in narcolepsy patients, however, is

  2. The view from everywhere: disciplining diversity in post-World War II international social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcer, Perrin

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the attempt of social scientists associated with Unesco to create a system of knowledge production to provide the international perspective necessary for democratic governance of a world community. Social scientists constructed a federal system of international associations that institutionalized American disciplines on an international scale. An international perspective emerged through the process of interdisciplinary international research. I call this ideal of coordinating multiple subjectivities to produce objectivity the "view from everywhere." Influenced by social psychological "action-research," collaborative research was group therapy. The attempt to operationalize internationalists' rallying slogan, "unity in diversity," illuminated tensions inherent in the mobilization of science for social and political reform.

  3. Teachers' perceptions of virtual worlds as a medium for social inclusion for adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Susan; Molka-Danielsen, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore educators' perceptions of a virtual world Second Life TM as an environment for social interaction and social inclusion for the Norwegian adult students with intellectual disability that they supported. Five educators who supported a total of 10 adult students with intellectual disability in computer classes in community Adult Education Centres participated in individual in-depth interviews. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis. Participants were positive about Second Life although they did not perceive that it offered a successful context for social interaction or inclusion. They identified a number of benefits to using a virtual world and for students participating in virtual world research. Barriers identified included language, literacy, and technology issues along with the complexity of participating independently in a virtual world. Some people with intellectual disability can use virtual worlds but the skills required need additional research. Virtual worlds may provide a stimulating, safe, and exciting context for a range of activities but the level of support required by many people is high and consequently expensive.

  4. Bizarreness effect in dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, C; Bolzani, R; Cornoldi, C; De Beni, R; Fagioli, I

    1993-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain a) whether morning reports of dream experience more frequently reproduce bizarre contents of night reports than nonbizarre ones and b) whether this effect depends on the rarity of bizarre contents in the dream or on their richer encoding in memory. Ten subjects were awakened in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep three times per night for 4 nonconsecutive nights and asked to report their previous dream experiences. In the morning they were asked to re-report those dreams. Two separate pairs of judges scored the reports: the former identified the parts in each report with bizarre events, characters or feelings and the latter parsed each report into content units using transformational grammar criteria. By combining the data of the two analyses, content units were classified as bizarre or nonbizarre and, according to whether present in both the night and corresponding morning reports, as semantically equivalent or nonequivalent. The proportion of bizarre contents common to night and morning reports was about twice that of nonbizarre contents and was positively correlated to the quantity of bizarre contents present in the night report. These findings support the view that bizarreness enhances recall of dream contents and that this memory advantage is determined by a richer encoding at the moment of dream generation. Such a view would seem to explain why dreams in everyday life, which are typically remembered after a rather long interval, appear more markedly bizarre than those recalled in the sleep laboratory.

  5. Actinide AMS at DREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojasteh, Nasrin B.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, Andreas; Ziegenruecker, Rene [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Pavetich, Stefan [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); ANU, Canberra (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclides such as {sup 236}U and {sup 239}Pu were introduced into the environment by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, reactor accidents (Chernobyl, Fukushima), releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities (Sellafield, La Hague), radioactive waste disposal, and accidents with nuclear devices (Palomares, Thule) [1]. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method to measure these actinides. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) facility is located at a 6 MV accelerator, which is shared with ion beam analytics and implantation users, preventing major modifications of the accelerator and magnetic analyzers. DREAMS was originally designed for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 129}I. To modify the system for actinide AMS, a Time-of-Flight (TOF) beamline at the high-energy side has been installed and performance tests are on-going. Ion beam and detector simulations are carried out to design a moveable ionization chamber. Especially, the detector window and anode dimensions have to be optimized. This ionization chamber will act as an energy detector of the system and its installation is planned as closely as possible to the stop detector of the TOF beamline for highest detection efficiency.

  6. Older people's experiences of dream coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadensten, Barbro

    2009-12-01

    Recalling and talking about dreams could initiate dream work among older people and provide an opportunity for self-confrontation and personal growth, which could in turn promote gerotranscendental development. The present article describes older people's opinions about participating in a dream-coaching group; it also briefly describes the theoretical foundation of dream coaching. The study aim was to investigate older people's experience of participating in a dream-coaching group based on Jungian psychology. A descriptive design was used. Retrospective interviews were explored using qualitative content analysis. The participants were satisfied with the arrangement of the dream-coaching groups. All participants believed that they had recalled their dreams and thought much more about their dreams during the period in which the dream-coaching group met. Three diverse appraisals of participating in a dream-coaching group, which had different effects on the participants, were identified: "An activity like any other activity," "An activity that led to deeper thoughts about the meaning of dreams," and "An activity that led to deeper thoughts both about the meaning of dreams and about how dreams can improve one's understanding of the life situation." It is possible to arrange dream-coaching groups for older people and could be a way to promote personal development using this type of intervention. The study provides some guidance as to how such a group could be organized, thus facilitating use of dream-coaching groups in gerontological care.

  7. Channels of Social Mobility of Russian Society: World War I influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim M. Rynkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with World War I influence on dynamics of social processes in Russia. The subject of the research is limited by the channels of social mobility, which mean horizontal or mainly horizontal movement in social space. The conclusions are based on studying statistic sources and modern historiography. In 1914–1917 due to war influence severe deformation of previously stable working channels of social mobility took place. Large groups of people who had not had any prerequisites of social status change started to migrate. Some channels almost stopped working, such as agrarian migration, seasonal work, but some new ones emerged, such as refugees, captivity, desertion. The war effaced estates boundaries and deformed class groups. Produced by war, the processes of society restructuring are characterized by high level of social entropy – the most important prerequisite of revolutionary explosion of 1917.

  8. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  9. Reporting dream experience: Why (not) to be skeptical about dream reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent) with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested. PMID:24223542

  10. Reporting dream experience:Why (not to be skeptical about dream reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Michelle Windt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Are dreams subjective experiences during sleep? Is it like something to dream, or is it only like something to remember dreams after awakening? Specifically, can dream reports be trusted to reveal what it is like to dream, and should they count as evidence for saying that dreams are conscious experiences at all? The goal of this article is to investigate the relationship between dreaming, dream reporting and subjective experience during sleep. I discuss different variants of philosophical skepticism about dream reporting and argue that they all fail. Consequently, skeptical doubts about the trustworthiness of dream reports are misguided, and for systematic reasons. I suggest an alternative, anti-skeptical account of the trustworthiness of dream reports. On this view, dream reports, when gathered under ideal reporting conditions and according to the principle of temporal proximity, are trustworthy (or transparent with respect to conscious experience during sleep. The transparency assumption has the status of a methodologically necessary default assumption and is theoretically justified because it provides the best explanation of dream reporting. At the same time, it inherits important insights from the discussed variants of skepticism about dream reporting, suggesting that the careful consideration of these skeptical arguments ultimately leads to a positive account of why and under which conditions dream reports can and should be trusted. In this way, moderate distrust can be fruitfully combined with anti-skepticism about dream reporting. Several perspectives for future dream research and for the comparative study of dreaming and waking experience are suggested.

  11. Understanding the diffusion and adoption of mobile IT across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    IT facilitated and mediated negotiation and collaboration among various stakeholders at one time and become source of tension and conflicts at other times between different social worlds. Indeed, the trajectory of mobile IT adoption was of a top-down approach and the use of the new technology interfered...

  12. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  13. Relationship between a Belief in a Just World and Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sejal B.; Post, Phyllis; Flowers, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how belief in a just world (BJW), political ideology, religious ideology, socioeconomic status of origin, and race relate to social justice advocacy attitudes among school counseling professionals. A sequential multiple regression indicated that political ideology and BJW were statistically significant…

  14. Training for Social Development Staff at the World Bank, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. Gross; Matthew LeDuc

    2010-01-01

    The social development family is facing a major challenge given the significant increase in lending made by the Bank in the last five years. Lending overall has more than doubled between FY05 and FY09; investment lending has increased by 82 percent and infrastructure lending by 125 percent. In this report, International Evaluation Group (IEG) suggests that the World Bank's safeguard policies ...

  15. Training for Social Development Staff at the World Bank, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Daniel R.; LeDuc, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The social development family is facing a major challenge given the significant increase in lending made by the Bank in the last five years. Lending overall has more than doubled between FY05 and FY09; investment lending has increased by 82 percent and infrastructure lending by 125 percent. In this report, International Evaluation Group (IEG) suggests that the World Bank's safeguard policies ...

  16. Social Gains from Female Education: A Cross-National Study. World Bank Discussion Papers 194.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, K.; Raney, Laura

    This paper on the social gains from female education is part of a series, prepared by the World Bank, on the benefits of improving opportunities for women. The paper suggests that expanding women's opportunities enhances their productivity and earning potential and thus contributes to better economic performance and poverty alleviation. Education…

  17. Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence: A social, economic, legal, and ethical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    2011-01-01

    The book "Safeguards in a world of ambient intelligence" is unique in its kind. It discusses social, economic, legal, technological and ethical issues related to identity, privacy and security in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It introduces AmI and, subsequently, makes it vivid by describing four

  18. Our World of 7 Billion: Population Studies in Today's Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The study of world population integrates so many themes and disciplines in the social studies because it encompasses all of human history--the rise of agriculture and civilizations, scientific progress, territorial conflicts, changing gender roles and more. It is also at the heart of human geography and how people came to dominate and alter the…

  19. Dream Content and Adaptation to a Stressful Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koninck, Joseph M.; Koulack, David

    1975-01-01

    The present study considered whether it is better to dream about a stressful presleep experience and have anxious dreams, or is it better to dream about something else and have pleasant dreams. (Author/RK)

  20. Theoretical trajectories: Dreams and dreaming from Freud to Bion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinocur Fischbein, Susana; Miramón, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims at comparing Freud's and Bion's conceptual models on dreams and dreaming. Beyond both authors' shared disposition vis-à-vis problems posed by knowledge, a critical gap opens regarding their differing clinical practices. It is hypothesized that their ideas do not belong to irreconcilable paradigms, but that there are continuities besides discontinuities more frequently highlighted between Freudian statements on psychic functioning--described in his theory on dreams--and Bion's findings in his development of both the original theory and the connections between dreaming and thinking. Firstly, Freud's and Bion's epistemological sources are examined as well as their creative use and historical environment. Then certain general theoretical and clinical issues are considered concerning their theories on dreams, the evolution of their ideas and corresponding clinical contexts. In a third section, their confluences and dissimilarities are dealt with, including clinical vignettes belonging to the authors to illustrate their interpretative modes of working. This is meant to show both an implicit theoretical-clinical complementarity and the fact that, though their routes bifurcate about the function of dreams, there remain connecting paths. Lastly, the final remarks review certain issues that have frequently been controversial between these lines of thought. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  1. Forgotten dreams: recalling the patient in British psychotherapy, 1945-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskett, James

    2015-04-01

    The forgotten dream proved central to the early development of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic technique in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). However, little attention has been paid to the shifting uses of forgotten dreams within psychotherapeutic practice over the course of the twentieth century. This paper argues that post-war psychotherapists in London, both Jungian and Freudian, developed a range of subtly different approaches to dealing with their patients' forgotten dreams. Theoretical commitments and institutional cultures shaped the work of practitioners including Donald Winnicott, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Edward Griffith. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream. This suggests a broader need for a detailed social history of post-Freudian psychotherapeutic technique, one that recognises the demands of both patients and practitioners.

  2. Forgotten Dreams: Recalling the Patient in British Psychotherapy, 1945–60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskett, James

    2015-01-01

    The forgotten dream proved central to the early development of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic technique in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). However, little attention has been paid to the shifting uses of forgotten dreams within psychotherapeutic practice over the course of the twentieth century. This paper argues that post-war psychotherapists in London, both Jungian and Freudian, developed a range of subtly different approaches to dealing with their patients’ forgotten dreams. Theoretical commitments and institutional cultures shaped the work of practitioners including Donald Winnicott, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Edward Griffith. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream. This suggests a broader need for a detailed social history of post-Freudian psychotherapeutic technique, one that recognises the demands of both patients and practitioners. PMID:25766542

  3. Secondary students' use of social and natural world information in a land use decision context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumler, Laura M.

    Many societal problems, including land use issues, are complex integrated human-ecological challenges that require an understanding of social and natural world connections. This dissertation investigates how secondary students perceive the social and natural world dimensions of land use, how they might act to support sustainable land use, and how Kaplan and Kaplan's (2008) Reasonable Person Model can inform teaching approaches to prepare students for such complex decisions and action-taking. The dissertation argues that subject compartmentalization in high schools adversely impacts students' abilities to use and to integrate information from various subjects to make a land use decision. Nine secondary science and social studies teachers and their students (n=500) participated in a quasi-experiment using pre- and posttests with treatment and comparison groups to gauge students' requests for social versus natural world information to make land use decisions. Students' self-reported actions and knowledge of actions to support sustainable land use were also measured. Additional data included classroom observations, teacher logs and interviews, and 52 student interviews. Results indicated that students requested social world over natural world information and preferred to consult with social scientists and stakeholders over natural scientists. Results also suggested that experiencing an integrated curriculum increased students' requests for natural world information relevant to the land use decision. Interestingly, this effect occurred even among social studies students whose teachers reported putting scant emphasis on the natural world curriculum content. Moreover, the type of course in which students experienced the curriculum predicted student information use. Finally, students were found to have a limited repertoire of land use actions and knowledge of actions and generally reported undertaking and thinking of individual actions such as recycling or trash pick

  4. The Use of Dreams in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Bohusch, Claudia; Kahl, Johanna; Mader, Andrea; Somesan, Alexandra

    2000-01-01

    Since the publication of Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, dream interpretation has been a standard technique often used in psychotherapy. However, empirical studies about the frequency of working on dreams in therapy are lacking. The present study elicited, via a self-developed questionnaire, various aspects of work on dreams applied by psychotherapists in private practice. The findings indicate that dreams were often used in therapy, especially in psychoanalysis. In addition, a significant relationship was found between the frequency of the therapists' working on their own dreams and frequency of work on dreams in therapy. Because work on dreams was rated as beneficial for the clients, further studies investigating the effectiveness and the process of working on dreams will be of interest. PMID:10793127

  5. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A

    2011-12-21

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans' dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream's significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  6. Algab animafilmide festival "Animated dreams"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nukufilmi stuudio ja animafilmide festival "Animated Dreams" (21.-25. XI kinos Sõprus) korraldavad Nukufilmi 50. juubeli tähistamiseks 22.-24. novembrini rahvusvahelise konverentsi "Voodoo hing". Filmiprogrammist tutvustavalt

  7. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. The Petrochemical Dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Soler, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The article tries about the construction and setting in march of a petrochemical complex of olefins and polyethylene, in Mamonal, and to integrate it with the refinery of Cartagena of ECOPETROL and with the petrochemical industries already existent and in operation, in such way that the Promoter of Olefins of the Caribbean was founded in 1995. The central axis of this development constitutes it the petrochemical complex of olefins that acquires new life with the potential supply of raw matters resultant of the amplification of the Refinery of Cartagena with its Main Development Plan (MDP). This is the way as the managers of the petrochemical sector have caressing the dream of the integration of the productive chain that would allow the conformation of the petrochemical cluster and the development of an industry of plastics of tip technology, high added value, competitive and exporter

  9. Aqueous reprocessing - some dreams!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    India has been pursuing a aqueous reprocessing based closed fuel cycle for both thermal and fast reactor fuels employing the PUREX process. Though the country has more than six decades of experience, the dreams or wish lists such as, a highly efficient process with textbook specifications of 99.9% recovery of U and Pu, a DF of more than 10 7 for both U and Pu from the fission products, operating with name plate capacity with high safety, low waste generation, recovery of useful fission products and minor actinides from high level waste are never ceasing and ever growing. The talk will cover safety precautions and actions to be taken in the steps listed below, to ensure a safe and successful process

  10. Importance of fishing as a segmentation variable in the application of a social worlds model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Chase, Loren

    2017-01-01

    Market segmentation is useful to understanding and classifying the diverse range of outdoor recreation experiences sought by different recreationists. Although many different segmentation methodologies exist, many are complex and difficult to measure accurately during in-person intercepts, such as that of creel surveys. To address that gap in the literature, we propose a single-item measure of the importance of fishing as a surrogate to often overly- or needlesslycomplex segmentation techniques. The importance of fishing item is a measure of the value anglers place on the activity or a coarse quantification of how central the activity is to the respondent’s lifestyle (scale: 0 = not important, 1 = slightly, 2 = moderately, 3 = very, and 4 = fishing is my most important recreational activity). We suggest the importance scale may be a proxy measurement for segmenting anglers using the social worlds model as a theoretical framework. Vaske (1980) suggested that commitment to recreational activities may be best understood in relation to social group participation and the social worlds model provides a rich theoretical framework for understanding social group segments. Unruh (1983) identified four types of actor involvement in social worlds: strangers, tourists, regulars, and insiders, differentiated by four characteristics (orientation, experiences, relationships, and commitment). We evaluated the importance of fishing as a segmentation variable using data collected by a mixed-mode survey of South Dakota anglers fishing in 2010. We contend that this straightforward measurement may be useful for segmenting outdoor recreation activities when more complicated segmentation schemes are not suitable. Further, this index, when coupled with the social worlds model, provides a valuable framework for understanding the segments and making management decisions.

  11. Social representation of events in world history: crosscultural consensus or Western discourse? How Turkish students view events in world history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Serap; Ergün, Gökçe

    2013-01-01

    The perceptions of historical events are considered to be an important cultural, political, and social psychological variable. Earlier studies have shown a crosscultural consensus on historical events that are considered to be important. It has been indicated that a strong Western-Christian European template dominates the view of which events are considered to be important events in history, by many samples across the world. It was the aim of this study to test this finding with a Turkish sample, which would represent some unique characteristics in that it is Muslim, comes from an Empire background, and has undergone a recent nation-building process. College students (n = 372) responded to a questionnaire that was utilized in seven other countries. It was shown that Turkish students were not Eurocentric as expected by the literature: They were highly sociocentric; they gave importance to events related to Turkish history. They were similar to their European counterparts in that war and violence were given primary importance when selecting events as important in history. However, they did not behave as predicted by earlier literature: They did not see Western European events as having a primary importance in history but gave at least equal importance to events that originated from Ottoman Empire roots. The results were discussed in terms of the unique cultural and historical variables that contribute to the identity and social psychological attributions of Turkish students. Further research should focus on not only which events are considered as important historical events but also the reasons behind these.

  12. The Super DREAM Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Despite the fact that DOE provided only a fraction of the requested funds, the goals we defined in the proposal on which award ER41783 was based were essentially all met. This was partially due to the fact that other funding agencies, which supported our collaborators (especially from Italy and Korea) contributed as well, and partially due to the effective solutions that were developed to compensate for the fact that the detector we had proposed to build had to be scaled down. The performance of the SuperDREAM calorimeter is better than anything that has been built or proposed so far. This has of course not gone unnoticed in the scientific community. Scientists who are preparing experiments for the proposed new generation of particle accelerators (FCCee, CPEC,..) are all very seriously considering the technology developed in this project. Several new collaborations have formed which aim to adapt the dual-readout calorimeter principles to the demands of a 4 environment. Preliminary measurements using silicon photomultipliers as light sensors have already been carried out. This type of readout would make it possible to operate this detector in a magnetic field, and it would also allow for a longitudinal segmentation into electromagnetic and hadronic sections, if so desired. In addition, SiPM readout would eliminate the need for “forests” of fibers sticking out of the rear end of the calorimeter (Figure 1), and obtain an arbitrary fine lateral segmentation, which might be very important for recognizing electrons inside jets. The improvements in our understanding of the fundamental structure of matter and the forces that govern its behavior have always hinged on the availability of detectors that make it possible to explore the possibilities of new, more powerful particle accelerators to the fullest extent. We believe that the SuperDREAM project has created a quantum leap in detector technology, which may turn out to be crucially important for future discoveries in

  13. The effect of social support derived from World of Warcraft on negative psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Huon; O'Connor, Erin; Obst, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    Previous research examining players of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) suggests that players form meaningful relationships with each other. Other research indicates that people may derive social support from online sources, and this social support has been associated with greater well-being. This study used an online survey of players (N = 206) of the MMOG World of Warcraft (WoW) to examine if social support can be derived from MMOGs and to examine its relationship with negative psychological symptoms. Players of WoW were found to derive social support from playing and a positive relationship was found between game engagement and levels of in-game social support. Higher levels of in-game social support were associated with fewer negative psychological symptoms, although this effect was not maintained after accounting for social support derived from the offline sources. Additionally, a small subsample of players (n = 21) who played for 44 to 82 hours per week (M = 63.33) was identified. These players had significantly lower levels of offline social support and higher levels of negative symptoms compared to the rest of the sample. This study provides evidence that social support can be derived from MMOGs and the associated potential to promote well-being but also highlights the potential harm from spending excessive hours playing.

  14. Environmental and social pressure as drivers of corporate social responsibility in a globalizing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haleem, Fazli; Farooq, Sami; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Studies of drivers of corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices that also explore the influence of company size and location are rare. This paper fills this gap by showing the extent to which environmental and social pressures affect the efforts companies put into implementing internal...... and external CSR practices and how size and location affect this relationship. The paper is based on data collected in 2013 using the sixth release of the International Manufacturing Strategy Survey....

  15. Feminists eminists at the World Social Forum: Challenges for a New Political Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Celiberti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the ways of incursion of the feminist plurality’s significant expressions in the World Social Forum. These incursions express the changes in the subjectivities and in strategies of struggle that feminist movements in particular and social movements in general begin to develop, in the frame of a globalised world and in the new millennium. It’s an unprecedented process, that is promoting the development of new paradigms for collective action, that combines local and global issues, the interconnection of multiple agendas and the recovery of a more profound dimension of economic, social, cultural and symbolic justice, broadening, in this process, the concept of politics, the political and the power. The article sets discussion around the ways in which social movements converging in the Forum – that drag old dynamics and at the same time recreate new paradigms – work in politics and open the possibility of re-inventing an emancipation map and a social conception, capable of competing with neo-liberal consensus and with the single thought, recuperating diversity and plurality of social individuals and actors.

  16. POETICS OF SLEEP AND DREAM IN THE TEXTS OF M. KUZMIN

    OpenAIRE

    Anna V. Gik

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the poetic and aesthetic development of the image of dream and sleep in the works of M. Kuzmin. Status of sleep in M. Kuzmin’s works correlates with wakefulness. Sleep is an important part of not only human physiology, but in many ways defines the spiritual and creative component of existence. The dream becomes a “meeting place” of day’s and night’s world of man, conscious and subconscious. A special place is given to the structure of dreams, reproduced in poetry and pros...

  17. Visual perception: digital imagination and sensitive experience of the social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio La Rocca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With every historical epoch comes a different way of thinking, a different way of seeing, capable of identifying the fundamental elements of a change of paradigm. Any discussion of ‘paradigm’ in relation to the contemporary world must include the development of the digital realm and its technological apparatus, which transform vision and influence how we perceive the world. Central to this development has been the emergence of myriad new forms of communication and a culture of sharing life, which characterize the process of seeing.Technology opens up new horizons in terms of how we expose our presence in the world: via digital photography and video, in every instant of everyday life we are in a position to expose our social world, the fragments of our existence. This cultural effect is not merely a consequence of ways of structuring existence, but also constitutes a change in the way we think about our relationship with the world. Every cultural and technical change brings together a variation of thought and perception, and this represents a basis on which to understand and interrogate the continual mutation of our social imaginary and the process of building, producing and transforming the Real.

  18. Small Worlds Week: An online celebration of planetary science using social media to reach millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Louis

    2015-11-01

    In celebration of the many recent discoveries from New Horizons, Dawn, Rosetta, and Cassini, NASA launched Small Worlds Week, an online, social media driven outreach program leveraging the infrastructure of Sun-Earth Days that included a robust web design, exemplary education materials, hands-on fun activities, multimedia resources, science and career highlights, and a culminating social media event. Each day from July 6-9, a new class of solar system small worlds was featured on the website: Monday-comets, Tuesday-asteroids, Wednesday-icy moons, and Thursday-dwarf planets. Then on Friday, July 10, nine scientists from Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, and Lunar and Planetary Institute gathered online for four hours to answer questions from the public via Facebook and Twitter. Throughout the afternoon the scientists worked closely with a social media expert and several summer interns to reply to inquirers and to archive their chats. By all accounts, Small Worlds Week was a huge success with 37 million potential views of the social media Q&A posts. The group plans to improve and replicate the program during the school year with a more classroom focus, and then to build and extend the program to be held every year. For more information, visit http:// sunearthday.nasa.gov or catch us on Twitter, #nasasww.

  19. Putting Social Media in Its Place: A Curatorial Theory for Media’s Noisy Social Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Gray

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The quest to make sense of media’s impact—what it does to us—dominates communication theories and popular discourse about media. But the impulse to collar, cultivate, domesticate, or measure the impact of media on individuals and society can have pernicious effects, too. This essay calls for a set of new analytical models to account for media as messy instantiations of social interaction transforming before our very eyes. We need to shift from a media effects paradigm that narrowly focuses on the brightest signals of social media use and turn to what I will call here a curatorial theory of social media. This approach, inspired by research from several founding editors of Social Media + Society , focuses on media’s cultural work and myriad manifestations—from its technologies to the discourses that flow through and from them. Let us attend to the more elusive, noisy cultural and social forces that bring some aspects of media sharply into focus while obscuring others. And, above all, let us pay attention to the curatorial reworking of media that happens in particular places—nations, towns, bodies.

  20. Perceived social support among patients with burn injuries: A perspective from the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Turk, Marvee; Naveed, Sadiq; Amin, Atif; Kiwanuka, Harriet; Shafique, Neha; Chaudhry, Muhammad Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Social support is among the most well-established predictors of post-burn psychopathology after burn. Despite a disproportionately large burden of burns in the developing world, the nature of social support among burn patients in this context remains elusive. We, therefore, seek to investigate social support and its biopsychosocial determinants among patients with burn injuries in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study of 343 patients presenting with burn injuries at four teaching hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan was conducted. Patient evaluation consisted of a multi-part survey of demographic status, clinical features, and social support as measured by the validated Urdu translation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate associations between patient characteristics and MSPSS score. Mean overall MSPSS score was 57.64 (std dev 13.57). Notable positive predictors of social support include male gender, Punjabi ethnicity, burn surface area, and ego resiliency. Our study reveals a troubling pattern of inadequate social support among certain subgroups of Pakistani burn patients. Addressing these inequities in the provision of social support must be prioritized as part of the global burn care agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Social support, volunteering and health around the world: cross-national evidence from 139 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Calvo, Rocio; Avendano, Mauricio; Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-03-01

    High levels of social capital and social integration are associated with self-rated health in many developed countries. However, it is not known whether this association extends to non-western and less economically advanced countries. We examine associations between social support, volunteering, and self-rated health in 139 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Data come from the Gallup World Poll, an internationally comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 and over. Volunteering was measured by self-reports of volunteering to an organization in the past month. Social support was based on self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends. We started by estimating random coefficient (multi-level) models and then used multivariate logistic regression to model health as a function of social support and volunteering, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and religiosity. We found statistically significant evidence of cross-national variation in the association between social capital variables and self-rated health. In the multivariate logistic model, self-rated health were significantly associated with having social support from friends and relatives and volunteering. Results from stratified analyses indicate that these associations are strikingly consistent across countries. Our results indicate that the link between social capital and health is not restricted to high-income countries but extends across many geographical regions regardless of their national-income level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dream Recall and Dream Content in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Sartorius, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep is widely investigated in children with ADHD, dream studies in this group are completely lacking. The continuity hypothesis of dreaming stating that waking life is reflected in dreams would predict that waking-life symptoms are reflected in the dreams of such children. 103 children with ADHD and 100 controls completed a dream…

  3. Social Justice and Social Action in Everyday Worlds: Literature Bridging History, Hope, and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia; Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Christine; Brown, Jackie; Core, Elizabeth; Cordova, Carmen; Youngsteadt-Parish, Denise; Robinson, Dwan; Tyson, Cynthia

    1999-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 20 recently published children's books discussing them in tandem with 40 landmark children's books, in the following categories: (1) poetry: gathering strength through song, verse, and prayer; (2) picture books: images of history, hope, and action; (3) chapter books: engaging and extending the social awareness of older…

  4. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett A. Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives.

  5. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Digital dream analysis: a revised method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2014-10-01

    This article demonstrates the use of a digital word search method designed to provide greater accuracy, objectivity, and speed in the study of dreams. A revised template of 40 word search categories, built into the website of the Sleep and Dream Database (SDDb), is applied to four "classic" sets of dreams: The male and female "Norm" dreams of Hall and Van de Castle (1966), the "Engine Man" dreams discussed by Hobson (1988), and the "Barb Sanders Baseline 250" dreams examined by Domhoff (2003). A word search analysis of these original dream reports shows that a digital approach can accurately identify many of the same distinctive patterns of content found by previous investigators using much more laborious and time-consuming methods. The results of this study emphasize the compatibility of word search technologies with traditional approaches to dream content analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Curious Connection Between Insects and Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    A majority of humans spend their waking hours surrounded by insects, so it should be no surprise that insects also appear in humans’ dreams as we sleep. Dreaming about insects has a peculiar history, marked by our desire to explain a dream’s significance and by the tactic of evoking emotions by injecting insects in dream-related works of art, film, music, and literature. I surveyed a scattered literature for examples of insects in dreams, first from the practices of dream interpretation, psychiatry, and scientific study, then from fictional writings and popular culture, and finally in the etymology of entomology by highlighting insects with dream-inspired Latinate names. A wealth of insects in dreams, as documented clinically and culturally, attests to the perceived relevance of dreams and to the ubiquity of insects in our lives. PMID:26467945

  8. Analysing the diffusion and adoption of mobile IT across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2014-01-01

    focused on organizations and individuals as the unit of analysis with little emphasis on the environment in which health care organizations are embedded. We propose the social worlds approach as a promising theoretical lens to deal with this limitation and reports from a case study of a mobile......Abstract Diffusion and adoption of IT innovations (such as mobile IT) in health care organizations is a dynamic process of change involving multiple stakeholders with competing interests, varying commitments and values. Yet, extant literature on mobile IT diffusion and adoption has predominantly...... IT innovation in elderly home care in Denmark including both the socio-political level and organization level within the analysis. By using notions of social worlds, trajectories and boundary objects, we show how mobile IT innovation in Danish home care facilitated negotiation and collaboration across different...

  9. Feministas en el Foro Feminists at the World Social Forum: challenges for a new political culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Celiberti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El articulo trata sobre la forma de incursión de expresiones significativas de la pluralidad feminista en el Foro Social Mundial expresa. Estas incursiones expresan los cambios en las subjetividades y en las estrategias de lucha que comienzan a desarrollar los movimientos feministas en particular y los movimientos sociales en general, en el marco de un mundo globalizado y en el nuevo milenio. Es un proceso inédito, que esta impulsando el desarrollo de nuevos paradigmas para la acción colectiva, que combina lo local y lo global, la interconexión de múltiples agendas y la recuperación de una dimensión mas profunda de la justicia económica, social, cultural y simbólica, ampliando, en este proceso, el concepto de la política, lo político y el poder. El articulo coloca en debate las formas de hacer política de los movimientos sociales que confluyen en el Foro - que arrastran viejas dinámicas y al mismo tiempo recrean los nuevos paradigmas - y que abren la posibilidad de reinventar un mapa emancipatorio y un imaginario social, capaz de competir con el consenso neoliberal y el pensamiento único, recuperando la diversidad y la pluralidad de sujet@s y actor@s sociales.The article deals with the ways of incursion of the feminist plurality's significant expressions in the World Social Forum. These incursions express the changes in the subjectivities and in strategies of struggle that feminist movements in particular and social movements in general begin to develop, in the frame of a globalised world and in the new millennium. It's an unprecedented process, that is promoting the development of new paradigms for collective action, that combines local and global issues, the interconnection of multiple agendas and the recovery of a more profound dimension of economic, social, cultural and symbolic justice, broadening, in this process, the concept of politics, the political and the power. The article sets discussion around the ways in which social

  10. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  11. The Connection Between Introversion/Extraversion and Social Capital Outcomes of Playing World of Warcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reer, Felix; Krämer, Nicole C

    2017-02-01

    Some studies indicated that playing online games yields a "rich-get-richer effect" and is especially socially beneficial for extraverted players, while other authors argue that online gaming could have compensational effects for introverted players. The current survey study (N = 409) investigates the connection between introversion/extraversion and social capital outcomes of playing the popular role-playing game World of Warcraft and shows that the rich-get-richer and the compensation perspective are not mutually exclusive. Path analysis revealed that extraverted players communicated and self-disclosed more extensively, more often engaged in team play, and, hence, had better chances to build up social capital than introverts. However, at least some of the introverted players used the game for social compensation. These players chose a more social playing style, which increased their chances to acquire social capital. The results demonstrate that the group of introverted players is more heterogeneous than previously thought and that the links between personality aspects and social outcomes of playing are quite complex and rather indirect than direct.

  12. What are the memory sources of dreaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore A; Stenstrom, Philippe

    2005-10-27

    Investigators since Freud have appreciated that memories of the people, places, activities and emotions of daily life are reflected in dreams but are typically so fragmented that their predictability is nil. The mechanisms that translate such memories into dream images remain largely unknown. New research targeting relationships between dreaming, memory and the hippocampus is producing a new theory to explain how, why and when we dream of waking life events.

  13. To search new technology of dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Chang Uk

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with new technology of dream like cold nuclear fusion is possible, alchemy of the 21 century, cold transmutation of element, cold nuclear fusion on the desk, fire of multiarc recalling earth environment, like miracle fire and multiarc device, field fulfilling of dream, pioneers of anti gravity research, dream of anti gravity which is realized by mobius, N-machine and space energy, challenge for infinite power unit like engine of dream, Kawai magnet motor and attaching magnet on the motorcycle.

  14. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  15. Sharing sensitive health information through social media in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Khalifa, Mohamed; Shabir, Syed-Abdul; Hossain, Md Nassif; Iqbal, Usman; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-02-01

    Sharing daily activities on social media has become a part of our lifestyle, but little is known about sharing sensitive health information in the Arab world. The objective of this study is to explore how social media users in the Arab world share sensitive health information through Facebook. A retrospective qualitative analysis was used in the study. A total of 110 Facebook groups, related to HIV, sickle cell and depression were screened between 5 June and 1 December 2014. Forty four Facebook groups met the inclusion criteria. 28 471 posts were extracted, of which 649 met inclusion criteria. Forty two percent of health information exchanged were related to HIV, 34% to depression and 24% to sickle cell diseases. The majority of postings were from Egypt 21.1%, Saudi Arabia 20%, Algeria 10% and Libya 9.2%. Male posts were 54.2% while 45.8% were posted by females. Individuals utilized Facebook groups to share personal experiences of their disease 31%, in addition to being used for seeking queries 13.6%, offering explicit advice 8.3%, reporting signs and symptoms of the disease 7.3% and posting their communication with the health-care provider 6.6%. Users in the Arab world use social media to exchange sensitive health information, which could have serious implications regarding the privacy of the information shared with other members of the group. On the other hand, sharing health information could have positive effects for patients, such as sharing disease experiences and peer support. However, more work is needed to ensure that Facebook users in the Arab world are aware of the potential consequences of sharing sensitive health information through social media. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. VIRTUAL SOCIAL LIFE AND RELATED MARKETING EFFORTS IN THE WORLD OF ONLINE GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYIRCI, Cevdet; YILDIRIM, Fazli

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet and the World Wide Web proliferate, a new form of communication and interaction has been made possible. People live increasingly hybrid lives where the physical and the digital, the real and the virtual interact. Massively multiplayer online role - playing games (MMORPGs), i.e. online role playing games, are a special medial and social phenomenon of our time and experienced a massive growth of players. Studies reveal that mmorpg players compose a heterogenic population and spe...

  17. The Colonel’s Dream and Charles Chesnutt’s Afrofuturist Vision of a Utopian South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Allen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads Charles Chesnutt’s final published novel The Colonel’s Dream as an early work of Afrofuturism because of its speculation of the South as the site of a possible utopia for African Americans. The novel’s protagonist, Colonel Henry French, dreams of creating a capitalist utopia in his hometown of Clarendon, North Carolina, where both white Americans and African Americans who are eugenically fit can rise both socially and economically. However, in the end, the Colonel’s dream fails because he finds that the South has not progressed from the psychological hold that racism has on the mindset of white southerners.

  18. Minding the dream self: perspectives from the analysis of self-experience in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windt, Jennifer Michelle

    2013-12-01

    Can ancient art of memory (AAOM) principles explain the function of dreaming? The analysis of self-experience in dreams suggests that the answer is no: The phenomenal dream self lacks certain dimensions that are crucial for the efficacy of AAOM in wakefulness. However, the comparison between dreams and AAOM may be fruitful by suggesting new perspectives for the study of lucid dreaming as well an altered perspective on the efficacy of AAOM itself.

  19. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  20. [Dreams in normal and pathological aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Marcaggi, Geoffrey; Baleyte, Jean-Marc; Garma, Lucile

    2010-06-01

    Although most of scientific knowledge in dream research is based on young adult studies, this article provides a review of the effects of normal and pathological aging on dream psychology. It starts with preliminary comments about epistemological and methodological principles of dream research, its singularities in aged persons, and the modifications of sleep physiology with age. The whole literature agrees that dream recall progressively decreases from the beginning of adulthood - not in old age - and that dream reports become less intense, perceptually and emotionally. This evolution occurs faster in men than women, with gender differences in the content of dreams. The chronological modifications could be explained partly by changes in lifestyle and attitude towards dreams in early adulthood, but mainly by modifications of sleep physiology, particularly the decrease and qualitative changes of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams have usually little subjective importance in the mental life of aged persons. However, working with dreams can be a valuable tool for psychotherapy in the aged. According to the few existing data, patients suffering degenerative dementia dream much less than healthy aged persons. In Alzheimer's disease, this could be linked to the decrease of REM sleep, and atrophy of associative sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Most studied aspects of dreaming in degenerative cognitive disorders are REM sleep behavior disorders, and nightmares induced by cholinesterase inhibitors. More studies are needed to better characterize the evolution of dreams with age, particularly studies performed in sleep laboratory.

  1. Unraveling reported dreams with text analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, Iris; Onrust, Louis; Kunneman, Florian; Hürriyetoglu, Ali; Stoop, Wessel; van den Bosch, A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate what distinguishes reported dreams from other personal narratives. The continuity hypothesis, stemming from psychological dream analysis work, states that most dreams refer to a person’s daily life and personal concerns, similar to other personal narratives such as diary entries.

  2. The Abdus Salam dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichichi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The frontiers in Physics are dominated by the contributors of Abdus Salam in terms of new basic ideas. These contributions have their most fascinating synthesis in the following question: does the Superworld exist? The only possible answer to this question is to review the most basic results of Super-Grand unification. We focus the attention on two specific models and their predictions. These two models represent an example of a direct comparison between a traditional unified-theory and a string-inspired approach to the solution of the many open problems of the Standard Model. Viable models must satisfy all available experimental constraints and be as simple as theoretically possible. The two well defined supergravity models, SU(5) and SU(5) x U(1), can be described in terms of only a few parameters (five and three respectively) instead of the more than twenty needed in the MSSM model, i.e., the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. A case of special interest is the strict no-scale SU(5) x U(1) supergravity where all predictions depend on only one parameter (plus the top-quark mass). A general consequence of these analyses is that the Superworld can be at the verge of discovery, lurking around the corner at present and near future facilities. This is in fact the projection of Salam's dream in the real axis. (author). 45 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  3. Putting Social Media in Its Place: A Curatorial Theory for Media’s Noisy Social Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Mary L. Gray

    2015-01-01

    The quest to make sense of media’s impact—what it does to us—dominates communication theories and popular discourse about media. But the impulse to collar, cultivate, domesticate, or measure the impact of media on individuals and society can have pernicious effects, too. This essay calls for a set of new analytical models to account for media as messy instantiations of social interaction transforming before our very eyes. We need to shift from a media effects paradigm that narrowly focuses on...

  4. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  5. Neuropeptide diversity and the regulation of social behavior in New World primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A.; Taylor, Jack H.; Mustoe, Aaryn C.; Cavanaugh, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are important hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate peripheral physiology, and have emerged as important modulators of brain function, particularly in the social realm. OT structure and the genes that ultimately determine structure are highly conserved among diverse eutherian mammals, but recent discoveries have identified surprising variability in OT and peptide structure in New World monkeys (NWM), with five new OT variants identified to date. This review explores these new findings in light of comparative OT/AVP ligand evolution, documents coevolutionary changes in the oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OTR and V1aR), and highlights the distribution of neuropeptidergic neurons and receptors in the primate brain. Finally, the behavioral consequences of OT and AVP in regulating NWM sociality are summarized, demonstrating important neuromodulatory effects of these compounds and OT ligand-specific influences in certain social domains. PMID:27020799

  6. Dreams of the Rarebit Fiend: food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Powell, Russell A.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines three aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: (1) assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; (2) determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and (3) explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreams. Three hundred and ninety six students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; with dairy products being the most frequently blamed food category (39–44%). Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that includes poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting). Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest four explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: (1) food specific effects; (2) food-induced distress; (3) folklore influences, and (4) causal

  7. Dreams of the rarebit fiend: Food and diet as instigators of bizarre and disturbing dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1900s, the Dream of the Rarebit Fiend comic strip conveyed how the spicy cheese dish Welsh rarebit leads to bizarre and disturbing dreams. Today, the perception that foods disturb dreaming persists. But apart from case studies, some exploratory surveys, and a few lab studies on how hunger affects dreaming, there is little empirical evidence addressing this topic. The present study examines 3 aspects of the food/dreaming relationship; it attempts to: 1 assess the prevalence of the perception of food-dependent dreaming and the types of foods most commonly blamed; 2 determine if perceived food-dependent dreaming is associated with dietary, sleep or motivational factors; and 3 explore whether these factors, independent of food/dreaming perceptions, are associated with reports of vivid and disturbing dreaming. 396 students completed questionnaires evaluating sleep, dreams, and dietary habits and motivations. Items queried whether they had noticed if foods produced bizarre or disturbing dreams and if eating late at night influenced their dreams. The perception of food-dependent dreaming had a prevalence of 17.8%; dairy products were the most frequently blamed food type (39%-44%. Those who perceived food-dependent dreaming differed from others by reporting more frequent and disturbing dreams, poorer sleep, higher coffee intake, and lower Intuitive Eating Scale scores. Reports of disturbing dreams were associated with a pathological constellation of measures that include poorer sleep, binge-eating, and eating for emotional reasons. Reports of vivid dreams were associated with measures indicative of wellness: better sleep, a healthier diet, and longer times between meals (fasting. Results clarify the relationship between food and dreaming and suggest 4 explanations for the perception of food-dependent dreaming: 1 food specific effects; 2 food-induced distress; 3 folklore influences, and 4 causal misattributions. Clinical implications are

  8. An essay on dreaming, psychical working out and working through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Barros, Elias M

    2002-10-01

    In this paper the author attempts to expand the idea put forward by Freud who considered dreams as a special form of unconscious thinking. It is the author's contention that the psychical working-out function performed by dreams is a form of unconscious thinking, which transforms affects into memories and mental structures. He also attempts to clarify the way in which meaning is built and transformed in mental life. In that respect the unconscious internal world is seen as a form of unconscious thinking, a private theatre where meaning is generated and transformed. He focuses on what happens to feelings in dreams in connection with the meanings as a result of and an expression of the several stages of working through. The dream world is described as the setting where the mind gives expressive pictorial representation to the emotions involved in a conflict: a first step towards thinkability. The dreamwork also constitutes a process through which meaning is apprehended, built on and transformed at an expressive non-discursive level, based on representation through figurative/pictorial images. The author draws on Meltzer's formulation to conjecture that the working-through function of dreams, mainly in response to interpretations, is performed by a process of progression in formal qualities of the representations made available by dreaming in the form he has called affective pictograms. It is through progression in formal qualities of the representation that the thinking capabilities of the affective life develop and become part of the process of what is called metaphorically the metabolisation of emotional life. This process takes place through migration of meaning across various levels of mental process. In this perspective the analyst's interpretations of dreams effect what linguists call transmutation of the symbolic basis, a process that is necessary to help the mind to improve its capacity to think. Something expressed on the evocative plane and condensed into a

  9. [Generation and functions of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano-Martínez, Pablo; Ramos-Platón, M José

    2014-10-16

    Over the last decade an ever-increasing number of articles have been published on dreams, which reflects the interest that several fields of neuroscience have in the topic. In this work we review the main scientific theories that have contributed to the body of knowledge on how they are produced and what function they serve. The article discusses the evolution of their scientific study, following a neurophysiological and neurocognitive approach. The first of these two methods seeks to determine the neurobiological mechanisms that generate them and the brain structures involved, while the second considers dreams to be a kind of cognition interacting with that of wake-fulness. Several different hypotheses about the function of dreams are examined, and more particularly those in which they are attributed with a role in the consolidation of memory and the regulation of emotional states. Although the exact mechanism underlying the generation of dreams has not been determined, neurobiological data highlight the importance of the pontine nuclei of the brainstem, several memory systems, the limbic system and the brain reward system and a number of neocortical areas. Neurocognitive data underline the relation between the cognitive and emotional processing that occurs during wakefulness and during sleep, as well as the influence of the surroundings on the content of dreams. With regard to their function, one point to be stressed is their adaptive value, since they contribute to the reprocessing of the information acquired in wakefulness and the control of the emotions. This suggests that dreams participate in the development of the cognitive capabilities.

  10. The conscious life - the dream we live in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Tudor Cosmin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is most likely for anyone to ask himself at least once if it would be possible to live in a dream? Questioning the fabric of “reality” we live in consciously was one of the main doubts man ever had. It is so likely for us to answer positive to it due to so many factors; starting from the many and various facets of reality each individual envision the world, from the enormous differences we all have while perceiving and defining the reality, etc. That is why, at the conscious level, life seems almost like a dream in a dream, always hoping to wake up from the negative, unwanted version of it. That is why my assertion here, based on latest theories on consciousness and AI (artificial intelligence, aim to say that we live in between reality and dream, being “conscious” of ourselves, but not really wanting to be “aware” of what is really going on with us.

  11. Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

  12. Dreaming and Interventional Cardiology: Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafal Sztembis[1] Joanna Sztembis[2] Andrzej Przybylski[2] Janusz Romanek[2

    2017-01-01

    Sleep and dreaming play important physiological and psychological role in human life. And though dreams playedimportant role and sometimes even changed course of mankind history, very seldom both doctors and patientstalked about it. Article is case report of precongnitive dream of patient with heart attack and analysis of populationof consecutive 100 patients admitted to hospital with heart attack in relation to presence and meaning ofprecognitive dreams. Our study proves that we can talk about precognitive dreams in population of patients withheart attack however what may be their influence on patients' wellbeing is matter of open questions.

  13. Dreams and creative problem-solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2017-10-01

    Dreams have produced art, music, novels, films, mathematical proofs, designs for architecture, telescopes, and computers. Dreaming is essentially our brain thinking in another neurophysiologic state-and therefore it is likely to solve some problems on which our waking minds have become stuck. This neurophysiologic state is characterized by high activity in brain areas associated with imagery, so problems requiring vivid visualization are also more likely to get help from dreaming. This article reviews great historical dreams and modern laboratory research to suggest how dreams can aid creativity and problem-solving. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. I Had a Dream: AAAI Presidential Address

    OpenAIRE

    Bledsoe, Woody

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago I had a dream, a daydream, if you will. A dream shared with many of you. I dreamed of a special kind of computer, which had eyes and ears and arms and legs, in addition to its "brain." I did not dream that this new computer friend would be a means of making money for me or my employer or a help for my country - though I loved my country then and still do, and I have no objection to making money. I did not even dream of such a worthy cause as helping the poor and handicap...

  15. The narrative of dream reports

    OpenAIRE

    Blagrove, Mark Thomas

    1989-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Two questions are addressed: 1) whether a dream is meaningful as a whole, or whether the scenes are separate and unconnected, and 2) whether dream images are an epiphenomenon of a functional physiologicaL process of REM sleep, or whether they are akin to waking thought. Theories of REM sleep as a period of information-processing are reviewed. This is Linked with work on the relation...

  16. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  17. Development of a structure-validated Sexual Dream Experience Questionnaire (SDEQ) in Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanzhen; Qin, Ke; Su, Weiwei; Zhao, Jialian; Zhu, Zhouyu; Fang, Xiangming; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dreams reflect the waking-day life, social problems and ethical concerns. The related experience includes different people and settings, and brings various feelings, but there is no systematic measure available to date. We have developed a statement-matrix measuring the sexual dream experience and trialed it in a sample of 390 young Chinese university students who had a life-long sexual dream. After both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we have established a satisfactory model of four-factor (32 items). Together with an item measuring the sexual dream frequency, we developed a Sexual Dream Experience Questionnaire (SDEQ) based on the 32 items, and subsequently named four factors (scales) as joyfulness, aversion, familiarity and bizarreness. No gender differences were found on the four scale scores, and no correlations were found between the four scales and the sexual dream frequency or the sexual experience in real life. The SDEQ might help to characterize the sexual dreams in the healthy people and psychiatric patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, L.; Dang-Vu, T. T.; Desseilles, M.; Schwartz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia, sleep deprivation) would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations. PMID:23898315

  19. Sleep and dreaming are for important matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in sleep and dreaming have described an activation of emotional and reward systems, as well as the processing of internal information during these states. Specifically, increased activity in the amygdala and across mesolimbic dopaminergic regions during REM sleep is likely to promote the consolidation of memory traces with high emotional/motivational value. Moreover, coordinated hippocampal-striatal replay during NREM sleep may contribute to the selective strengthening of memories for important events. In this review, we suggest that, via the activation of emotional/motivational circuits, sleep and dreaming may offer a neurobehavioral substrate for the offline reprocessing of emotions, associative learning, and exploratory behaviors, resulting in improved memory organization, waking emotion regulation, social skills, and creativity. Dysregulation of such motivational/emotional processes due to sleep disturbances (e.g. insomnia, sleep deprivation would predispose to reward-related disorders, such as mood disorders, increased risk-taking and compulsive behaviors, and may have major health implications, especially in vulnerable populations.

  20. Creativity, organizational knowledge, and the power of dreams

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavone, Francesco; Villasalero, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the question of how dreams might improve organizational creativity in real-world situations. Both Freudian and Jungian perspectives are considered in a study that seeks to explore whether the personal and the collective unconscious can be put to the service of high-tech companies. A multiple case study methodology based on 10 projects from two companies shed light on the role that intrinsic motivation (personal unconscious) and organizational ideals (collective unco...

  1. Dreaming of you: client and therapist dreams about each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Knox, Sarah; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E; Hess, Shirley A; Miles, Joe; Spangler, Patricia T; Pudasaini, Sakar

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the frequency of therapists' dreams about their clients and clients' dreams about their therapists, to determine how therapists and clients who had such dreams differed from those who did not have such dreams, whether therapy process and outcome differed for those who had and did not have such dreams, and to describe the content and consequences of these dreams. Thirteen doctoral student therapists conducted psychodynamic psychotherapy with 63 clients in a community clinic. Therapists who had dreams about clients had higher estimated and actual dream recall than did therapists who did not dream about clients. Qualitative analyses indicated that therapists' dreams yielded insights about the therapist, clients, and therapy; therapists used insights in their work with the clients. Among the clients, only two (who were particularly high in attachment anxiety and who feared abandonment from their therapists) reported dreams that were manifestly about their therapists. Therapists-in-training dreamed more about their clients than their clients dreamed about them. Dreams about clients can be used by therapists to understand themselves, clients, and the dynamics of the therapy relationship.

  2. Dreams and the temporality of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuffie, Katherine; Mashour, George A

    2010-01-01

    Understanding dreams has long been considered fundamental to the development of a theory of consciousness. Evidence from neurobiology and neuroimaging research has paved the way for new theories of dreaming that are empirically supported. In this article we argue that dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates 3 temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future. The temporal complexity of dreams is made possible in part by the unique neurobiological environment of sleep, in which stimuli are internally generated and many of the restrictions associated with waking thought are absent. Because dream consciousness is not determined by sensory stimuli, a flexible integration of past experiences and the forging of novel connections are possible. We argue that disparate dream theories may not be mutually exclusive but rather relate to different temporal domains of the dream state.

  3. Exploring the dreams of hospice workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shirley A; Knox, Sarah; Hill, Clara E; Byers, Tara; Spangler, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    Nine adults who worked at least 1 year with patients at US hospice centers completed an in-person audiotaped dream session focusing on a dream about a patient. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Patients were generally manifestly present in participants' dreams, and dreams were typically realistic (i.e., not bizarre). In the dream, the dreamer typically interacted with the patient as a caretaker but was also typically frustrated by an inability to help as fully as desired. Dreams gave dreamers insight into the stress of hospice work, their own fears of death, and inter-/intrapersonal interactions beyond hospice work. Dreamers generally sought to take better care of themselves and find balance in their lives after the dream session. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Dream content: Individual and generic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan; Kahn, David

    2007-12-01

    Dream reports were collected from normal subjects in an effort to determine the degree to which dream reports can be used to identify individual dreamers. Judges were asked to group the reports by their authors. The judges scored the reports correctly at chance levels. This finding indicated that dreams may be at least as much like each other as they are the signature of individual dreamers. Our results suggest that dream reports cannot be used to identify the individuals who produced them when identifiers like names and gender of friends and family members are removed from the dream report. In addition to using dreams to learn about an individual, we must look at dreams as telling us about important common or generic aspects of human consciousness.

  5. Religion and spirituality in contemporary dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Nell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the spiritual value and role of dreams in the lives of South African Christians, based on the findings of a qualitative research project in which semistructured interviews were used to examine the dream-related beliefs and practices of contemporary Christians. The findings indicated that dreams are still considered to be of distinct religious value and importance by a significant number of the Christian participants who took part in the study. Specifically, the participants reported that their dreams often serve as source of spiritual inspiration, insight and guidance, as well as feedback on decisions and ways of living. It was also indicated that dreams sometimes constituted an important natural resource in coming to terms with bereavement. In response to this, the article closes with a call for a re-evaluation of the position and value of dreams in contemporary Christianity, and offers several practical suggestions for working with dreams in a spiritual context.

  6. When the world collapses: changed worldview and social reconstruction in a traumatized community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Corkalo Biruski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective: This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method: The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results: Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions: In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations.

  7. Transcending the caesura: reverie, dreaming and counter-dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstein, Avner

    2013-08-01

    The author reflects about our capacity to get in touch with primitive, irrepresentable, seemingly unreachable parts of the Self and with the unrepressed unconscious. It is suggested that when the patient's dreaming comes to a halt, or encounters a caesura, the analyst dreams that which the patient cannot. Getting in touch with such primitive mental states and with the origin of the Self is aspired to, not so much for discovering historical truth or recovering unconscious content, as for generating motion between different parts of the psyche. The movement itself is what expands the mind and facilitates psychic growth. Bion's brave and daring notion of 'caesura', suggesting a link between mature emotions and thinking and intra-uterine life, serves as a model for bridging seemingly unbridgeable states of mind. Bion inspires us to 'dream' creatively, to let our minds roam freely, stressing the analyst's speculative imagination and intuition often bordering on hallucination. However, being on the seam between conscious and unconscious, dreaming subverts the psychic equilibrium and poses a threat of catastrophe as a result of the confusion it affords between the psychotic and the non-psychotic parts of the personality. Hence there is a tendency to try and evade it through a more saturated mode of thinking, often relying on external reality. The analyst's dreaming and intuition, perhaps a remnant of intra-uterine life, is elaborated as means of penetrating and transcending the caesura, thus facilitating patient and analyst to bear unbearable states of mind and the painful awareness of the unknowability of the emotional experience. This is illustrated clinically. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Social Roots of Global Environmental Change: A World-Systems Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Timmons Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide is understood to be the most important greenhouse gas believed to be altering the global climate. This article applies world-system theory to environmental damage. An analysis of 154 countries examines the contribution of both position in the world economy and internal class and political forces in determining a nation's CO, intensity. CO, intensity is defined here as the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit of economic output. An inverted U distribution of CO, intensity across the range of countries in the global stratification system is identified and discussed. Ordinary Least Squares regression suggests that the least efficient consumers of fossil fuels are some countries within the semi-periphery and upper periphery, spe-cifically those nations which are high exporters, those highly in debt, nations with higher military spending, and those with a repressive social structure.

  9. Women's dreaming: women, sexuality and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, E

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes.

  10. The Five Star Method: A Relational Dream Work Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Thurston, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a systematic method of dream work called the Five Star Method. Based on cocreative dream theory, which views the dream as the product of the interaction between dreamer and dream, this creative intervention shifts the principal focus in dream analysis from the interpretation of static imagery to the analysis of the dreamer's…

  11. Comparison of dream content of depressed vs nondepressed dreamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D; Loeffler, M

    1992-04-01

    Dreams of 20 college women classified as depressed by scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were compared with those of 21 nondepressed college women. The depressed group recalled fewer dreams, had significantly shorter dream length, and displayed less anger in their dreams. They also had fewer characters in their dreams and especially fewer strangers.

  12. Dreaming as mind wandering: evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kieran C R; Nijeboer, Savannah; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Domhoff, G William; Christoff, Kalina

    2013-01-01

    Isolated reports have long suggested a similarity in content and thought processes across mind wandering (MW) during waking, and dream mentation during sleep. This overlap has encouraged speculation that both "daydreaming" and dreaming may engage similar brain mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we systematically examined published first-person experiential reports of MW and dreaming and found many similarities: in both states, content is largely audiovisual and emotional, follows loose narratives tinged with fantasy, is strongly related to current concerns, draws on long-term memory, and simulates social interactions. Both states are also characterized by a relative lack of meta-awareness. To relate first-person reports to neural evidence, we compared meta-analytic data from numerous functional neuroimaging (PET, fMRI) studies of the default mode network (DMN, with high chances of MW) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (with high chances of dreaming). Our findings show large overlaps in activation patterns of cortical regions: similar to MW/DMN activity, dreaming and REM sleep activate regions implicated in self-referential thought and memory, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), medial temporal lobe structures, and posterior cingulate. Conversely, in REM sleep numerous PFC executive regions are deactivated, even beyond levels seen during waking MW. We argue that dreaming can be understood as an "intensified" version of waking MW: though the two share many similarities, dreams tend to be longer, more visual and immersive, and to more strongly recruit numerous key hubs of the DMN. Further, whereas MW recruits fewer PFC regions than goal-directed thought, dreaming appears to be characterized by an even deeper quiescence of PFC regions involved in cognitive control and metacognition, with a corresponding lack of insight and meta-awareness. We suggest, then, that dreaming amplifies the same features that distinguish MW from goal-directed waking thought.

  13. The Book of My Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci Gundogmus, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    This study offers an opportunity for learning the characteristics of elementary school students' dream books that can increase their willingness to read. In the study, for which the qualitative research method was adopted in line with this main purpose, 275 elementary school students that attended different schools at 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades were…

  14. Dreaming of Shakespeare in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazou, Rand T.

    2015-01-01

    In September 2011, I travelled to the Palestinian Occupied Territories to participate in an internship with the Al Kasaba Theatre in Ramallah. As part of my internship I was invited to attend rehearsals of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" with students of the Drama Academy Ramallah. Directed by Samer Al-Saber, with movement and choreography…

  15. Personality maturation around the world: a cross-cultural examination of social-investment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-12-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. In the research reported here, we conducted the first systematic cross-cultural test of these theories using data from a large Internet-based sample of young adults from 62 nations (N = 884,328). We found strong evidence for universal personality maturation from early to middle adulthood, yet there were significant cultural differences in age effects on personality traits. Consistent with social-investment theory, results showed that cultures with an earlier onset of adult-role responsibilities were marked by earlier personality maturation.

  16. Dreaming of science: Undocumented Latin[a]s' testimonios across the borderlands of high school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Valdez, Jean Rockford

    Comprehensive Immigration Reform (CIR) or the DREAM (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) Act. These students' lived realities, identifying as undocumented and DREAM Act eligible, also known as "DREAMers," show that more work must be done, beyond the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) permits some have received, before these students' dreams can be realized. The students' testimonios call for a space in the U.S. where their talents and dreams in science are welcome and can thrive. These students speak to the injustice inherent in shutting out talented youth with potential contributions to make to science due to an immigrant status that was never their choice. Given the dearth of highly skilled and committed contributors to the field of science in the U.S., especially scarce in Latin representation, these students' prospects are vital in an increasingly globalized scientific world. This study makes this case as a deliberate appeal to interest convergence, while also attending to issues of social justice and problematizing the culture of school power that these students must navigate and assimilate into to "prove" themselves. This study adds to the science education research by providing insights into the lives of students who are Latin and undocumented, a considerable population in many science classes yet rarely discussed in science education literature, and elucidating how they negotiate science and science education framed by the larger structures they must face. Implications of this study suggest new ways of understanding this population in non-deficit ways that advocate changing the public dialogue and taking educational and political steps towards social change in solidarity with this group of students.

  17. Bereavement dream? Successful antidepressant treatment for bereavement-related distressing dreams in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mayumi; Onishi, Hideki; Wada, Mei; Wada, Tomomi; Wada, Makoto; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Nomura, Shinobu

    2010-03-01

    The death of a person is a stressful event. Such stress affects the physical and psychological well-being of the bereaved. As an associated mental disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) is common. Some dream of the deceased, and these dreams are called bereavement dreams. Some MDD patients also experience dreams. These two types of dreams are sometimes difficult to differentiate. The dream of the bereaved might be only a bereavement-related dream, yet it might be a symptom of MDD. Herein, we report one patient who had distressing dreams after the death of her mother. A 63-year-old woman was referred for psychiatric consultation because of generalized fatigue and insomnia. Questioning her about recent events, she said that her mother had died of colonic carcinoma 5 months previously. Two months after the death, she suddenly started dreaming of her mother, getting angry with her almost every night. Generalized fatigue, insomnia, and distressing dreams appeared simultaneously. The dream caused much distress, making her afraid to fall asleep. Her psychiatric features fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD, single episode. The death of her mother was considered to be one of the causes of MDD. She was administered 25 mg/day of sertraline hydrochloride. After that, her symptoms gradually disappeared, and the frequency of distressing dreams was reduced. Five months later, physical and psychiatric symptoms of MDD were completely resolved. Subsequently, she has not suffered from any distressing dreams of her mother. This case indicates that dreams experienced after the death of a loved one should not be regarded simply as bereavement dreams. Some of the dreams may be symptoms of MDD. If the dreams are the symptoms of MDD, antidepressant treatment as well as psychotherapy may be useful. Therefore, we should avoid regarding symptoms of MDD as reactions to bereavement.

  18. QUESTDONE APPLICATION WITH SOCIAL NETWORKING FEATURES AS THE ACTUAL WORLD INTERACTION MEDIA ON ANDROID SMARTPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhio Sutoyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is the design and implementation of an application that allows users to play and socialize at the same time and directly with the environment around the Android-based smart phone. This application is also expected to be a campaign media for a new product or specific event. The used method consists of two ways: the methods of analysis and design. The method of analysis includes the study of literatures, questionnaires, and comparisons with similar applications. The design method used for this research is Scrum. The obtained results are an application that helps users of Android-based smart phone to do social interaction and provide knowledge about the route that users will be addressed. It is also used as a new campaign media for entrepreneurs who want to promote a product or event. Furthermore, this application is also built with interesting but not complex design, thus allowing users to easily use it. The conclusions are this application provides experience for users to visit various places and can be a media campaign for a new product or specific event. It also becomes a tool of social interaction and useful for finding location of friends.Keywords: Applications; Social Networking; Interaction; Real World; Smartphone; Android

  19. Voice hearing within the context of hearers' social worlds: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Amy; Berry, Katherine; Murray, Craig; Hayward, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Research has found relational qualities of power and intimacy to exist within hearer-voice interactions. The present study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the interpersonal context of voice hearing by exploring participants' relationships with their voices and other people in their lives. This research was designed in consultation with service users and employed a qualitative, phenomenological, and idiographic design using semi-structured interviews. Ten participants, recruited via mental health services, and who reported hearing voices in the previous week, completed the interviews. These were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes resulted from the analysis. Theme 1: 'person and voice' demonstrated that participants' voices often reflected the identity, but not always the quality of social acquaintances. Theme 2: 'voices changing and confirming relationship with the self' explored the impact of voice hearing in producing an inferior sense-of-self in comparison to others. Theme 3: 'a battle for control' centred on issues of control and a dilemma of independence within voice relationships. Theme 4: 'friendships facilitating the ability to cope' and theme 5: 'voices creating distance in social relationships' explored experiences of social relationships within the context of voice hearing, and highlighted the impact of social isolation for voice hearers. The study demonstrated the potential role of qualitative research in developing theories of voice hearing. It extended previous research by highlighting the interface between voices and the social world of the hearer, including reciprocal influences of social relationships on voices and coping. Improving voice hearers' sense-of-self may be a key factor in reducing the distress caused by voices. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Direct fitness benefits and kinship of social foraging groups in an Old World tropical babbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sara A.; Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Armstad, Connor E.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular studies have revealed that social groups composed mainly of nonrelatives may be widespread in group-living vertebrates, but the benefits favoring such sociality are not well understood. In the Old World, birds often form conspecific foraging groups that are maintained year-round and offspring usually disperse to other social groups. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding group members are largely unrelated and gain direct fitness benefits through breeding opportunities (males) and brood parasitism (females) in the tropical gray-throated babbler, Stachyris nigriceps, in Malaysian Borneo. Babblers foraged in social groups containing one or more breeding pairs (median = 8 group members of equal sex ratio), but group members rarely assisted with breeding (9% of 67 breeding pairs had a third helper; exhibiting facultative cooperative breeding). Although 20% of 266 group member dyads were first-order relatives of one or both members of the breeding pairs, 80% were unrelated. Male group members gained direct fitness benefits through extrapair and extra-group paternity (25% of 73 offspring), which was independent of their relatedness to the breeding pair and increased with decreasing group size. In contrast, females did not gain direct fitness benefits through brood parasitism. The low levels of relatedness and helping in social groups suggest that most group members do not gain indirect fitness benefits by helping to raise unrelated offspring. These findings highlight the importance of examining benefits of sociality for unrelated individuals that largely do not help and broaden the direct fitness benefits of group foraging beyond assumed survival benefits.

  1. Dreaming: a gateway to the unconscious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Barrett, Deirdre; Bulkeley, Kelly; Naiman, Rubin

    2017-10-01

    Where do our dreams originate from, and what do they tell us? Is there a universal set of symbols that are common to all dreams, regardless of a person's ethnicity or culture? What does dreaming reveal about the unconscious? Why do some dreams remain etched in our memories, whereas others are almost instantly forgotten? Some scientists have adopted the position that dreams are little more than noise in the brain, without any substantive purpose or function. Yet, such a stance seemingly runs counter to the experience of many people who reflect upon and even analyze their dreams, often in search of clues to their daily lives or insights into their deeper selves. Similarly, in virtually all wisdom traditions, dreams are invoked as an important source of revelation or prophecy. Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion that included psychologist Deirdre Barrett, dream researcher Kelly Bulkeley, and psychologist and sleep/dream medicine specialist Rubin Naiman; they examined dreams from a variety of perspectives to answer these questions. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Daydreams and nap dreams: Content comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore

    2015-11-01

    Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zagreb during World War I: Historic newspapers as source for social history research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Jurić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to reconstruct the social image of Zagreb during World War I by focusing on the influence of war circumstances on urban life, the living conditions and the position of children as the most vulnerable group of inhabitants, by using primarily newspapers as historical sources. In order to achieve as complete an image as possible, various publications were used (‘Narodne novine’, ‘Jutarnji list’, ‘Obzor’, ‘Novine’, ‘Hrvatska’, ‘Ilustrovani list’, ‘Katolički list’ and ‘Narodna zaštita’ which proved to be an inexhaustible source of information and contemporary observations on the above-mentioned issues. The paper tells about the general sense of insecurity in the city during wartime, the usual war motives (the wounded in the streets, life under war regulations, forced charity events and the consequences of the war situation (shortage of living supplies and poverty, begging and vagrancy, neglected children and war orphans. The paper has proven that historic newspapers are a first-class historical source. The essential scientific contribution of the paper is the reconstruction of part of Zagreb social history during World War I, highlighting that this part of Croatian history has still been poorly and incompletely researched.

  4. The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A; McCarley, R W

    1977-12-01

    Recent research in the neurobiology of dreaming sleep provides new evidence for possible structural and functional substrates of formal aspects of the dream process. The data suggest that dreaming sleep is physiologically determined and shaped by a brain stem neuronal mechanism that can be modeled physiologically and mathematically. Formal features of the generator processes with strong implications for dream theory include periodicity and automaticity of forebrain activation, suggesting a preprogrammed neural basis for dream mentation in sleep; intense and sporadic activation of brain stem sensorimotor circuits including reticular, oculomotor, and vestibular neurons, possibly determining spatiotemporal aspects of dream imagery; and shifts in transmitter ratios, possibly accounting for dream amnesia. The authors suggest that the automatically activated forebrain synthesizes the dream by comparing information generated in specific brain stem circuits with information stored in memory.

  5. Cybersafe protecting and empowering kids in the digital world of texting, gaming, and social media

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn

    2014-01-01

    Children today are growing up in a world far different from the one in which their parents were raised. Between the Internet, gaming systems, mp3 players, and cell phones, today's kids are nearly always connected to something digital. And, because it's developing so fast, it's hard for parents to stay on top of the technology—and even harder to figure out how to help their kids make good decisions when it comes to these things. This informative book will guide parents through the landscape of the digital world, helping them better understand things like: • The history and the future of the Internet • Cyberbullying (and how to help kids deal with it if it happens to them) • Social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace • Gaming and virtual worlds • Parental control systems that allow parents to monitor kids' online activities • Digital footprints (and how kids can make sure theirs is a good one) Beyond informing readers on the latest trends in technology, Dr. Gwenn gives provides the tools parents n...

  6. Fermilab | Science | Questions for the Universe | Einstein's Dream of

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces In this Section: Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces Are there dream of an ultimate explanation for everything from the tiniest quanta of particle physics to the

  7. The reality of the other: dreaming of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruta, Anna

    2009-02-01

    The author discusses the obstacles to symbolization encountered when the analyst appears in the first dream of an analysis: the reality of the other is represented through the seeming recognition of the person of the analyst, who is portrayed in undisguised form. The interpretation of this first dream gives rise to reflections on the meaning of the other's reality in analysis: precisely this realistic representation indicates that the function of the other in the construction of the psychic world has been abolished. An analogous phenomenon is observed in the countertransference, as the analyst's mental processes are occluded by an exclusively self-generated interpretation of the patient's psychic world. For the analyst too, the reality of the other proves not to play a significant part in the construction of her interpretation. A 'turning-point' dream after five years bears witness to the power of the transforming function performed by the other throughout the analysis, by way of the representation of characters who stand for the necessary presence of a third party in the construction of a personal psychic reality. The author examines the mutual denial of the other's otherness, as expressed by the vicissitudes of the transference and countertransference between analyst and patient, otherness being experienced as a disturbance of self-sufficient narcissistic functioning. The paper ends with an analysis of the transformations that took place in the analytic relationship.

  8. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Henley-Einion, Josephine A; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Davies, Anna C; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  9. Assessing the Dream-Lag Effect for REM and NREM Stage 2 Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagrove, Mark; Fouquet, Nathalie C.; Henley-Einion, Josephine A.; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Davies, Anna C.; Neuschaffer, Jennifer L.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5–7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM) and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM). This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2) dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation. PMID:22046336

  10. Assessing the dream-lag effect for REM and NREM stage 2 dreams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Blagrove

    Full Text Available This study investigates evidence, from dream reports, for memory consolidation during sleep. It is well-known that events and memories from waking life can be incorporated into dreams. These incorporations can be a literal replication of what occurred in waking life, or, more often, they can be partial or indirect. Two types of temporal relationship have been found to characterize the time of occurrence of a daytime event and the reappearance or incorporation of its features in a dream. These temporal relationships are referred to as the day-residue or immediate incorporation effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring on the immediately preceding day, and the dream-lag effect, where there is the reappearance of features from events occurring 5-7 days prior to the dream. Previous work on the dream-lag effect has used spontaneous home recalled dream reports, which can be from Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (REM and from non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREM. This study addresses whether the dream-lag effect occurs only for REM sleep dreams, or for both REM and NREM stage 2 (N2 dreams. 20 participants kept a daily diary for over a week before sleeping in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights. REM and N2 dreams collected in the laboratory were transcribed and each participant rated the level of correspondence between every dream report and every diary record. The dream-lag effect was found for REM but not N2 dreams. Further analysis indicated that this result was not due to N2 dream reports being shorter, in terms of number of words, than the REM dream reports. These results provide evidence for a 7-day sleep-dependent non-linear memory consolidation process that is specific to REM sleep, and accord with proposals for the importance of REM sleep to emotional memory consolidation.

  11. Imagination, creation and literary origins: dreaming and waking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Farrar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quotation, allusion, mediumship and speaking with or through others’ voices is an established ad well-worked aspect of culture, indeed, it seems, across all cultures, an appropriate subject indeed for COMPASIO. So too has the inspiration artists have drawn for their creation from dreams and the voices of a world beyond themselves. This has been relatively well studied in such fields as visual art and music. Less attention, however, despite its clear centrality, has been given to literary creation. This paper, by a cultural anthropologist, uses a personal case study to illustrate how this can work through the interaction between dreams and narrative. The case here, though only singular in its detailed content and process has wider implications for the comparative anthropological and comparative study of culture, individuality, imagination and creativity.

  12. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison

  13. Dreaming Your Fear Away: A Computational Model for Fear Extinction Learning During Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.; Lu et al., B.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a computational model is presented that models how dreaming is used to learn fear extinction. The approach addresses dreaming as internal simulation incorporating memory elements in the form of sensory representations and their associated fear. During dream episodes regulation of fear

  14. Understanding Gender Differences in Rape Victim Blaming: The Power of Social Influence and Just World Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-08-01

    Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  16. Advancing social psychiatry in a fragmented world: Can information technology do it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Bennegadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern technology (internet, smartphones, etc. already has an impact on communication and health care services throughout the world. Evidently, everyone knows what it means to be able to better communicate with new technology (such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn etc.. The problem is not here. It is evident that science advances quickly and turns peoples’ lives upside down, even if these advances have never had much of an impact on social, cultural, and psychological dimensions of the individual, the family, and the social group. At what point, then, do these advances in science have an impact for us, the mental health professionals? We will soon find ourselves in a situation where we will be obliged to accept the new methods of communication being presented to us, not only by policy makers, but also by patients and their families. Therefore, we must look at how we both have been integrating the advances of Information Technology into social psychiatry, but also how we can do so in the future.

  17. Dream recall and dream content in obsessive-compulsive patients: is there a change during exposure treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelz, Anne K; Stotz, Ulrike; Riemann, Dieter; Schredl, Michael; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about dreams in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, especially regarding changes over the course of treatment with stimulus exposure and response prevention. By use of dream content analysis, 40 dreams of 9 obsessive compulsive (OC) inpatients were compared with 84 dreams of 10 matched OC outpatients and 63 dreams of 11 healthy control participants. Dream protocols of inpatients were collected at the beginning of treatment and after the first exposure exercises. Controls filled in dream protocols in respective intervals. Before treatment, dreams of patients showed significantly less positive contents than dreams of healthy controls. Under treatment with exposure, a significant reduction of OC themes was observed. The findings support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming by showing a link between day-time symptoms and OC symptoms in dreams. Contrary to expectations, however, exposure treatment does not intensify dreams.

  18. Social Media, Futbol, and Crisis: An exploratory case study examining the FIFA World Cup addressing player concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Hughey

    2015-01-01

    Social media strategies and practices continue to be integrated across various athletic sports, particularly futbol. One of the recent global athletic events that occurred where social media played an important role was the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup in Brazil. While social media brings forth great opportunities for teams to engage with fans and share real-time updates, it also allows active fans to voice concerns around particular issues like player safe...

  19. What Do You Know about Your Dreams?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郦东

    2007-01-01

    How many times have you told someone"I had the most terrible dream last night"?Lots of times,huh?You can have up to six dreams every night.Some of them are sure to be wild.Dreams are created by the part of your brain that stores memories,motions~* and thoughts.At night,your brain mixes what’s stored in your mind with what you’ve been thinking

  20. Dream as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Egorova,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the main theoretical concepts of a dream: dream definitions, ideas about its genesis, functions, dream location in the structure of activity. We analyze the similarities and differences between the approaches. The results of empirical studies of adolescent and adult dreams are generalized, dream functions in adolescence are analyzed. Based on the analysis of different approaches, we chose theoretical basis of our own research – A. Leontiev activity theory, L.S. Vygotsky concept, K. Lewin's model. We formulated and substantiated the definition of dream as emotionally colored image of the desired future, having a subjective significance. We show the significance and hypotheses of our research: 1 the content of dreams is connected not only with a situation of frustration, but also with the teenager abilities, 2 the dream is involved in regulating of values choice; 3 restoration and development of the ability to dream can be used in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy as an effective tool to help adolescents and adults

  1. Are delusional contents replayed during dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Armando; Aletti, Giacomo; Carboni, Martina; Cavallotti, Simone; Limosani, Ivan; Manzone, Marialaura; Scarone, Silvio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between dream content and waking life experiences remains difficult to decipher. However, some neurobiological findings suggest that dreaming can, at least in part, be considered epiphenomenal to ongoing memory consolidation processes in sleep. Both abnormalities in sleep architecture and impairment in memory consolidation mechanisms are thought to be involved in the development of psychosis. The objective of this study was to assess the continuity between delusional contents and dreams in acutely psychotic patients. Ten patients with a single fixed and recurring delusional content were asked to report their dreams during an acute psychotic break. Sixteen judges with four different levels of acquaintance to the specific content of the patients' delusions were asked to group the dreams, expecting that fragments of the delusional thought would guide the task. A mathematical index (f,t) was developed in order to compare correct groupings between the four groups of judges. Most judges grouped the dreams slightly above chance level and no relevant differences could be found between the four groups [F(3,12)=1.297; p=n.s.]. Scoring of dreams for specific delusional themes suggested a continuity in terms of dream and waking mentation for two contents (Grandiosity and Religion). These findings seem to suggest that at least some delusional contents recur within patients' dreams. Future studies will need to determine whether such continuity reflects ongoing consolidation processes that are relevant to current theories of delusion formation and stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The dream of an ultimate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Steven Weinberg describes how the dream of an ultimate theory began when one tried to unify the fundamental laws governing the stars constellations as elementary particles: electromagnetism, weak-electro theory then standard model which gives only one quantity out of its fields, the gravitation. He tries to explain to what an ultimate theory could look like. but the dream of an ultimate theory is not yet realized, there are some elementary particles to find before and then to build superconducting super colliders. The europe made it. the dream of an ultimate theory became an european dream. (N.C.)

  3. [The weakness of individual psychologic dream theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, F

    1988-05-13

    This article undertakes a critical evaluation of Adlerian dream theory. The main weakness of the theory is found to be its lack of an inherent instance of truth that shows the dreamer the way to a better and more feasible life style. Contemporary Adlerians' treatment of the master's dream dogmas and their practical use in psychotherapy are described. There seems to be a convergence movement of today's practical application methods of the dream in all psychotherapeutic schools. Adlerian dream interpretation in the original sense intended by Adler is practised nowhere by psychotherapists today and seems largely antiquated.

  4. [Are oppressive dreams indicators in bereavement?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purebl, György; Pilling, János; Konkolÿ, Thege Barna; Bódizs, Róbert; Kopp, Mária

    2012-07-30

    It is widely believed that oppressive dreams are frequent in bereavement--despite the lack of scientific investigations of the subject. The aims of our study were the analysis of dream quality as well as the correlates of oppressive dreams in bereavement. Participants with (N = 473) and without bereavement were compared upon the database of a national representative study (Hungarostudy Epidemiological Panel Survey 2006, N = 4329). Dream contents were assessed with the Dream Quality Questionnaire (DQQ). Depressive symptoms (BDI-S) and the presence anxiety were also investigated. Oppressive dreams occurred significantly higher frequency in the first year of bereavement (men: F = 17.525, p dreams were significantly associated with anxiety (F = 37.089, p dreams are significantly more frequent in the first year of bereavement, and may act as indicators of bereavement-linked mental health consequences like depression and anxiety. These are often masked by the symptoms of grief and therefore remain untreated. Our preliminary results could be a starting point for the development of further research aiming to clarify the relationship amongst dream contents, anxiety, and depression in bereavement.

  5. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  6. Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Zackova, Eva; Kelemen, Jozef; Beyond Artificial Intelligence : The Disappearing Human-Machine Divide

    2015-01-01

    This book is an edited collection of chapters based on the papers presented at the conference “Beyond AI: Artificial Dreams” held in Pilsen in November 2012. The aim of the conference was to question deep-rooted ideas of artificial intelligence and cast critical reflection on methods standing at its foundations.  Artificial Dreams epitomize our controversial quest for non-biological intelligence, and therefore the contributors of this book tried to fully exploit such a controversy in their respective chapters, which resulted in an interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from engineering, natural sciences and humanities.   While pursuing the Artificial Dreams, it has become clear that it is still more and more difficult to draw a clear divide between human and machine. And therefore this book tries to portrait such an image of what lies beyond artificial intelligence: we can see the disappearing human-machine divide, a very important phenomenon of nowadays technological society, the phenomenon which i...

  7. Dreaming and offline memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-12-07

    The activities of the mind and brain never cease. Although many of our waking hours are spent processing sensory input and executing behavioral responses, moments of unoccupied rest free us to wander through thoughts of the past and future, create daydreams, and imagine fictitious scenarios. During sleep, when attention to sensory input is at a minimum, the mind continues to process information, using memory fragments to create the images, thoughts, and narratives that we commonly call 'dreaming'. Far from being a random or meaningless distraction, spontaneous cognition during states of sleep and resting wakefulness appears to serve important functions related to processing past memories and planning for the future. From single-cell recordings in rodents to behavioral studies in humans, recent studies in the neurosciences suggest a new conception of dreaming as part of a continuum of adaptive cognitive processing occurring across the full range of mind/brain states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  9. Surviving in two worlds: social and structural violence of Thai female injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2014-01-01

    Thai females injecting drugs are ensnared in a web of problems arising from forms of prejudice that magnify their vulnerability. They are vulnerable, at risk, and exposed to a high degree of social suffering. This paper aims to elucidate how social production and structural violence combine to shape the lives of these women. Using a qualitative methodology, two focus groups with 5 key informants and in-depth interviews involving a total of 35 women injecting drugs were conducted in Bangkok. The findings reveal that the structural environment that directly impacts upon these women's lives becomes the reason for their suffering. The structural environment puts these women at risk of violence in numerous social settings in which these women engage as well as generating tension at a subjective level (i.e. the habitus) of these women. Thai female injecting drug users are trapped in a difficult tension between the demands for being Thai women seeking to exist in the masculine world of drug use but at the same time meeting Thai society's expectations of womanhood. Unequal gender relations are manifest in the everyday violence that women face in the drug community, culminating in the essential nature of women being questioned, undermined and threatened. Living in the drug community, women are subjected to violence and harassment, and gendered brutality by intimate partners. In conclusion, the social suffering that Thai female injecting drug users find themselves confronting is confined to dilemmas cause by tensions between drug use and the overriding gender habitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Contraceptive social marketing in the third world: a case of multiple transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, R

    1991-01-01

    A researcher conducted a case study of the Family Planning Social Marketing Project (FPSMP) in Bangladesh between 1974-1987 to point out the irreducible qualitative differences between the commercial and social contexts and between the developed and developing world. The research consisted of interviews with chief personnel of the technical assistance contractor Population Services International (PSI), project documentation, a review of marketing principles and methods, and summary reports on contraceptive social marketing projects in various countries. FPSMP, a vertical marketing organization, marketed 3 condom brands, 2 oral contraceptive brands, and 1 vaginal foam tablet. At least 70% of the advertising budget was allocated for conventional media (television [TV], radio, and newspapers), even though the poor and illiterate target population did not own a radio or TV and could not read a newspaper. In fact, conventional media were basically accessible to the urban elite. A PSI leader defended the use of conventional media because opinion leaders (urban elite) exert considerable influence on the population so they must receive the family planning messages in order to support family planning. Yet this assumption had not been tested, but was based on the experience of technical assistance contractors from previous projects in developing countries. Moreover, FPSMP based acceptability of message content on the elite's definition and not on the definition of the target group. Its information strategy included emphasis on the sales indicator and the creation of positive product associations while downplaying information about side effects and contraindications. This indicated that FPSMP did not consider client health and well being as important. Another issue was the need to satisfy USAID and the government. More research on other social marketing projects is needed.

  11. Keeping a Dream Alive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daudigeos, Thibault; Boxenbaum, Eva; Colombero, Sylvain

    Rational myths provide idealized cultural accounts that specify the appropriate means that organizations should adopt to rationally pursue socially valuable ends. Being taken for granted, rational myths eschew demonstrations that they actually hold true. Our empirical study uses visual and verbal...

  12. Tobacco Industry vs. the World Health Organization: a historical confrontation between social networks of stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Boeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present an introduction to the history of the tobacco industry and the confrontation between its social network of stakeholders and the network led by the World Health Organization (WHO, with a focus on the Brazilian context and the role of the Alliance for the Control of Tobacco Use (ACT as the coordinator of multiple stakeholders opposing the tobacco industry strategies in Brazil. The article seeks to describe the problematic relationship between tobacco production and export on the one hand and tobacco control on the other, as exemplified by the approval, in February 2005, of the first international public health treaty (WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. The text is based on research leading to a PhD thesis in 2000, which has been updated through articles and ongoing research since then, with the aim of monitoring the unfolding of this issue that is central to the public health policies

  13. Belief in a just world, social influence and illness attributions: evidence of a just world boomerang effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Alexander, Sheldon; Firestone, Ira; Lebreton, James M

    2009-03-01

    Characteristics of individuals and illnesses can both influence receptivity to preventative health messages. We examined whether receptivity to health messages depends on interactions between illness characteristics and dispositional concern for justice. Participants considered the preventability of six illnesses after exposure to a message that manipulated personal responsibility for illness. Paradoxically, participants with strong just world beliefs reported greater preventability for less preventable illnesses, such as brain cancer, when exposed to an unpreventable health message. In parallel, participants with low justice beliefs reported less preventability for lung cancer when exposed to a preventable message. This just world boomerang effect suggests that individual dispositions and illness characteristics can interact in ways that can produce either acquiescence or opposition to persuasive health messages.

  14. RELIGION, TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE: REPRESENTATIONS OF MUSLIM WORLD IN ACADEMIC ANALYSES OF THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE ARAB SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeela Arshad Ayaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deconstructs the dominant constructions and portrayals of the Muslim world in literature on social media and civic engagement in relation to the Arab Spring. A critical reading of literature on social media and ‘Arab Spring’ shows that analyses by Western scholars and commentators are still grounded in ‘modernist dualism’ and orientalist understandings. The article starts by tracing the history of technology to argue that analyses of social media’s educational and civic potential within the Western context in general, is continuation of arguments about earlier technologies in relation to societal development. However, when it comes to analyzing social media and civic engagement particularly in the Muslim world this tendency gets muddled with another well-established trend, that of Orientalism. The overall impact of this tendency results in restricting majority of arguments within the essentialists/determinists paradigm. Such analyses essentialize the technological aspects of social media as universal and constitute the West as civilized, democratic, multicultural, and progressive. On the other hand Muslim world is represented as uncivilized, undemocratic, uncultured, and chained in past traditions. Thus, there is a need for a nuanced understanding of the relationship between the social media and civic engagement in the Muslim world, which can be conceptualized by framing the issues within a postcolonial critique of neoliberal globalization. DOI: 10.15408/tjems.v1i2.1264

  15. Dreaming the Chinese Dream. How the People’s Republic of China Moved from Revolutionary Goals to Global Ambitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan R. Landsberger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1 October 2014, the People’s Republic of China (PRC will observe the 65th anniversary of its founding which ended a decades’ long period of oppression by imperialism, internal strife and (civil war. Under the Chinese Communist Party (CCP, modernisation became the most important task. Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought guided the nation along this path that would lead to modernisation and the recognition of the new, strong China. As the first three decades passed, it became clear that ideological purity and revolutionary motivation did not lead to the realisation of the dream of rejuvenation. In late 1978, the Maoist revolutionary goals were replaced by the pragmatic policies that turned China into today’s economic powerhouse. How has this radical turn from revolution to economic development been realised? How has it affected China’s political, social and artistic cultures? Is China’s present Dream structurally different from the one cherished in 1949?

  16. Needs’n’dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The heretic European generation

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available I do not care to unite my voice with the useless and non-harmonious social, political and economical analyses of the current context. CRISIS: the crisis is here, and not only since yesterday or the day before yesterday. The economic difficulties experienced by the precarious workers and the migrants might well be multiplied due to the troubles in the financial sector, but very little can get even worse. We know what crisis means, and those who do not, will find out tomorrow.

  17. A Brief Review of the Modern Development of the World and Life in the Works of Scientists of Bryansk Philosophical School of Social-Technogenic World Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifankov Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of the formation of Bryansk scientific and philosophical school, which has gained high prestige in Russia, is considered. The school explores the issues of formation of the new direction of society development, known as technogenic, and a new direction of development of the world, called as a social-technogenic one, on the basis of science and technology. School representatives use a new methodological approach – a socio-natural one, which origin dates back to the works of V.I.Vernadsky, who regarded the problems of formation of the new world of the biosphere - the noosphere. The authors of this research direction come to the conclusion that the biosphere is being destructed and a postbiospheric world is being built. The technogenic world means transition of mankind from the biosphere to the technosphere, translating biological processes into it as a result of the creation of bio-technology industries. The most important discovery of the school is the change of life evolution on the Earth from the biosphere and biological, which has existed for about 4 billion years, to a socio-techno-natural one. Such a shift could lead to the destruction of biosphere life and formation of a new life shell – postbiosphere, if people follow the spontaneous market development of the world.

  18. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  19. Emil Kraepelin's dream speech: A psychoanalytic interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, H.J.M.; Heynick, F.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2003-01-01

    Freud's contemporary fellow psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin collected over the course of several decades some 700 specimens of speech in dreams, mostly his own, along with various concomitant data. These generally exhibit far more obvious primary-process influence than do the dream speech specimens

  20. Dreaming Consciousness: A Contribution from Phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Zippel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The central aim of this paper is to offer a historical reconstruction of phenomenological studies on dreaming and to put forward a draft for a phenomenological theory of the dream state. Prominent phenomenologists have offered an extremely valuable interpretation of the dream as an intentional process, stressing its relevance in understanding the complexity of the mental life of subject, the continuous interplay between reality and unreality, and the possibility of building parallel spheres of experience influencing the development of personal identity. Taking into consideration the main characteristics of dream experience emphasized by these scholars, in the final part of the paper I propose to elaborate a new phenomenology of dreaming, which should be able to offer a theoretical description of dream states. My sketched proposal is based on Eugen Fink’s notion of the dream as “presentification”. By combining the past and the present of phenomenological investigation, I aim at suggesting a philosophical framework to explain the intentional features of dreaming as Erlebnis.

  1. The dynamic radiation environment assimilation model (DREAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Koller, Josef; Tokar, Robert L.; Chen, Yue; Henderson, Michael G.; Friedel, Reiner H.

    2010-01-01

    The Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) is a 3-year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy to provide global, retrospective, or real-time specification of the natural and potential nuclear radiation environments. The DREAM model uses Kalman filtering techniques that combine the strengths of new physical models of the radiation belts with electron observations from long-term satellite systems such as GPS and geosynchronous systems. DREAM includes a physics model for the production and long-term evolution of artificial radiation belts from high altitude nuclear explosions. DREAM has been validated against satellites in arbitrary orbits and consistently produces more accurate results than existing models. Tools for user-specific applications and graphical displays are in beta testing and a real-time version of DREAM has been in continuous operation since November 2009.

  2. The dream: a psychodynamically informative instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, M L

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations.

  3. Insomnia, dreams, and suicide: Connecting links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar B Karia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A growing empirical literature has examined insomnia symptoms as a possible risk factor for a range of suicidal behavior. Not much literature is available in normal adolescent population. Aims: The aim is to find insomnia prevalence, studying various dream factors, and suicidality prevalence among students of various courses. To check if there is a relation between insomnia and suicidal behavior and dreams, particularly nightmares and suicide. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 students of various courses were assessed using Insomnia Severity Index and The Mannheim Dream Questionnaire and Suicide Behaviour Questionnaire. Results: Insomnia was present in 11%, 23%, 19%, and 19% and suicide behavior in 16%, 17%, 12%, and 22%, respectively, in medical, commerce, engineering, and arts students. Statistically significant correlation was found between suicide and insomnia severity and various dream factors. Conclusions: Insomnia and dreams had relation with suicidality in normal adolescent population.

  4. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.

  5. The social world of Australian practice nurses and the influence of medical dominance: an analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Hallinan, Christine

    2009-12-01

    In Australia, the number of practice nurses is growing at a rapid rate. On the nursing landscape, this group of nurses stand out because of their relationship with the Australian Government who both fund them, and concern themselves with their continuing professional development. This paper provides a construction of the social world of Australian practice nurses, identifying stakeholders in the business of practice nursing. Literature produced by the various social world segments is analysed for the influence of medical dominance on the role, image, power and politics of practice nurses.

  6. Lived Culture and Psychology: Sharedness and Normativity as Discursive, Embodied and Affective Engagements with the World in Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    Topic, we want to examine closer what exactly can be understood by “sharedness” and “normativity” by taking a closer look at discursive, embodied and affective engagements with the world in social interaction. As Charles Goodwin has convincingly shown, these discursive practices need to be understood...... of certain ways of understanding the world and the normative dimension of social life as action based, as processual, mutually shaped, dynamic and fluid, ever evolving meaning making in situated social interaction (cp. Bakhtin, Garfinkel and Wittgenstein). Within the broader field of Cultural Psychology......, this Research Topic considers approaches that deem the nature of psychological phenomena to be dialogically intertwined with discursive and embodied practices in social interaction, the shape of which is always situational, ecologically embedded. We specifically want to address the question of methodology. What...

  7. The dream between neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, M

    2004-07-01

    The dream is tackled sometimes from the neurobiological viewpoint, sometimes from the neuropsychological angle, or from the positions of experimental and psychoanalytical psychology. Interest in dreams started with psychoanalysis in 1900, and 53 years later the discovery of REM sleep by Aserinski and Kleitman, and subsequent psychophysiological findings took the dream into the realm of biology. The dichotomous model of REM and non-REM sleep is described, as a basis for thought-like activity (non-REM sleep) and dreaming (REM sleep). This led to Hobson and McCarley's theory of activation-synthesis, suggesting that the mind while dreaming is simply the brain self-activated in REM sleep. Psychophysiological research has shown that people dream in all phases of sleep, from falling asleep to waking, but that the characteristics of the dreams may differ in the different phases. Bio-imaging studies indicate that during REM sleep there is activation of the pons, the amygdala bilaterally, and the anterior cingulate cortex, and disactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex. The images suggest there is a neuroanatomical frame within which dreams can be generated and then forgotten. Psychoanalysis studies the dream from a completely different angle. Freud believed it was the expression of hallucinatory satisfaction of repressed desires. Today it is interpreted as the expression of a representation of the transference in the hic et nunc of the session. At the same time it also has symbol-generating functions which provide an outlet by which affective experiences and fantasies and defences stored as parts of an unrepressed unconscious in the implicit memory can be represented in pictorial terms, then thought and rendered verbally. From the psychoanalytical point of view, the dream transcends neurobiological knowledge, and looks like a process of internal activation that is only apparently chaotic, but is actually rich in meanings, arising from the

  8. The Significance of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream

    OpenAIRE

    KREMENIK, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The importance of the character Nick Bottom in A Midsummer Night's Dream will be discussed. He is the only character able to converse with both the natural and fairy worlds in the play. This makes his character special. This article will attempt to analyze why this is so.

  9. Women, Numbers and Dreams. Biographical Sketches and Math Activities. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Teri Hoch; Christner, Patsy

    This teacher's manual provides ideas and suggestions for integrating the booklet "Women, Numbers, and Dreams" into the mathematics program. Shade-ins and role playing are each described, and a timeline to "flesh out" the world in which women live is presented. Discussion questions for each of the 11 biographical stories about 13 women are provided…

  10. LANDSCAPE IMPERMANCENCES IN A SLEEPWALKING EARTH: DREAM AND RESISTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abrahão dos Santos Oliveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze how Mia Couto's novelistic language in Terra sonâmbula (2007 is permeated uncertainties and oniric elements, which brings his work close fantastic realism. Dream and landscape succeeding changes present themselves as traces of resistance. Couto's writing represents a shocking questioning on the oppressive condition of the Mozambican people, who are crushed by a civil war that followed the fight for Independence. In a country which faces a serious economic and cultural crisis, Mia Couto's fiction shows the “heroic” resistance of the Mozambique people who, by means of the mythical way and oral tradition (in a process which tradition is one the main pillars, still dare to dream and to have hope, despite barbarism, cruelty, arbitrariness and abuse of power. Couto's fiction increases the potential value of dreams to convert and regenerate life. Moreover, his work originates a literature engaged both to the historic and social scope. It is literature which creates and recreates oppressiveness and real oppressor – clamorous traits in colonial and post-colonial Mozambique.

  11. Dreaming woman: Image, place, and the aesthetics of exile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    Looking closely at an Argentine dream interpretation column published in a popular women's magazine from 1948 to 1951, this article examines the role of the dream image in shaping psychoanalytic discourse on femininity and national identity. The column, 'Psychoanalysis Will Help You,' emerged during Juan Domingo Perón's first presidency, featuring verbal interpretations written under the pen name 'Richard Rest,' as well as surreal photomontages by Grete Stern, a German-born, Bauhaus-trained photographer living in exile since 1936. While the column's Jungian text encourages readers' adaptation to the external reality of their social situation, Stern's droll images emphasize the disjuncture between subject and environment, exposing tensions between the experience of exile and the Peronist mission to consolidate an Argentine national identity. Experimenting formally with European avant-garde techniques, Stern presents femininity and nation as conflictive imaginary configurations. This theme resurfaces at the 2013 Venice Biennale, where Nicola Costantino's multimedia installation Eva - Argentina: A Contemporary Metaphor was exhibited alongside Carl Jung's Red Book. Formal contrasts between Stern's use of photomontage, Costantino's projection technique, and Jung's theory of mandala symbolism indicate the divergent ways in which their artwork posits the therapeutic function of the dream image, as well as the role of aesthetic production in psychoanalytic care. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An alternative view of the neurobiology of dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, G W

    1978-12-01

    The author critiques the recently proposed activation-synthesis hypothesis about the origin and formation of dreams. Many findings do not support the new hypothesis that specific pontine physiological processes, rather than mental processes, instigate dreams and produce their distortion. First, dreaming often occurs in the absence of the pontine processes. Second, forebrain activity (which can have mental correlates) is crucial to the instigation and maintenance of dreaming sleep. Finally, activity of the proposed pontine dream generator, which is claimed to cause dream distortion, is not reliably accompanied by dream distortion.

  14. What is complex in the complex world? Niklas Luhmann and the theory of social systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Eckert Baeta Neves

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Niklas Luhmann's understanding of complexity, its function in the theory and the different ways of its use. It starts with the paradigmatic change that occurred in the field of general Science, with the rupture of the Newtonian model. In the 20th century, the paradigm of order, symmetry, regularity, regulation of the intellect to things, collapses.Based on new formulations of Physics, Chemistry, etc., a new universe is built on bases radically opposed to those of modern Science.Chaos, the procedural irreversibility, indeterminism, the observer and the complexity are rehabilitated.This new conceptual context served as substratum to Niklas Luhmann's theoretical reflection.With his Theory of Social Systems, he proposes the reduction of the world's complexity.Social systems have the function of reducing complexity because of their difference in relation to the environment.On the other hand, the reduction of complexity also creates its own complexity. Luhmann defines complexity as the moment when it is not possible anymore for each element to relate at any moment with all the others. Complexity forces the selection, what means contingency and risk. Luhmann expands the concept of complexity when he introduces the figure of the observer and the distinction of complexity as a unit of a multiplicity. He also deals with the limit of relations in connection, the time factor, the self-reference of operations and the representation of complexity in the form of sense. To conclude, the paper discusses the complexity in the system of science, the way it reduces internal and external complexity, in accordance in its own operative basis.

  15. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  16. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    foreign gene with a genome of an integrated organism. Also application of biotechnology provides transfer of one or several favorable genes from any evolutionary category into other category of an organism and in such a way it is possible to develop genetically modified organisms (GMO having expressed desired, target traits. A survey of the application of biotechnology in the world and our country is presented in this paper.

  17. [Health and social conditions in Brod na Savi during World War I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Balen, Ivica

    2015-11-01

    During World War I, social and health conditions were difficult in Brod na Savi, as it stationed a large number of troops, and the military hospital was crowded with patients. With so many able-bodied men and breadwinners mobilised, the town's economy verged on the brink of poverty, but people managed to keep starvation at bay. The most common diseases among civilians were tuberculosis, malaria, intestinal infectious diseases, diphtheria, and venereal diseases, and in 1915 cholera broke out that lasted five months. At the end of 1918 "Spanish flu" also hit the town. The number of wounded and sick soldiers occasionally surpassed the hospital's capacity, so they had to be stationed at the local school facilities for a while. Over two thousand people died in the military hospital, which suggests that the total number of patients who went through the hospital had to be very large. Unfortunately, there are no records to show the hospital's mortality rate or disease prevalence. We are currently trying to establish the demographics of the 2000 dead buried at the local cemetery during WWI using the death records we have.

  18. Republishing Pre-World War II Hungarian Women Writers After the Fall of Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Immediately before and shortly after the collapse of socialism in 1989, a large number of private publishing houses were founded in Hungary. Some of them began their career by republishing the novels of selected popular Hungarian women writers of the preWorld War II era that had been banned following the Soviet occupation of the country in 1945. The lack of comprehensive literary criticism on the works of women authors drove the new publishers to rely on the so-called “oral canon” of collective memory, which had saved some of their names from oblivion. To grab the attention of prospective readers, the books selected for publication were provided with modern book cover designs, reflecting new, but still patriarchal values. After a brief overview of how prewar literature was censored after 1945, focusing on the editors’ inevitable reinterpretation of the writings of Renée Erdős, Mrs. Kosáry Lola Réz, and Anna Tutsek through book cover designs, Kádár aims in this paper to survey in what ways and how successfully the re-editions of the novels by women writers have contributed to their inclusion in the literary canon since 1989.

  19. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eLara-Carrasco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodelling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from 7 months to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated and later analyzed following four dream categories: 1 Dreamed MMR, 2 Quality of baby/child representations, 3 Pregnancy-related themes, 4 Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p≤0.006. Baby/child representations were less specific in late 3rd than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.005 and than in non-pregnant women (p=0.01. Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p≤.01. Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p=0.01. Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p<.05. Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodelling MMR of the woman as a mother and of the unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric emotional tone in

  20. Maternal representations in the dreams of pregnant women: a prospective comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more dysphoric

  1. The Social World of Peer Rejected Children as Revealed by a Wireless Audio-Visual Transmission System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Steven R.; Gabriel, Sonda W.

    This paper describes an observational methodology designed to permit increased understanding of the day-to-day social world of school children. The methodology was developed in the course of investigations of the extent to which children classified as rejected on sociometric measures actually experience overt rejection at school. Discussions of…

  2. Cashing in on Students' Interest in Money: World Currency as a Motivator in the Social Studies Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G.; Burlbaw, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents classroom activities using banknotes to teach history and social studies. Suggests that students' interest in money can be utilized to teach about geography, national heroes, symbolism, and the image a nation wishes to present to its citizens and the rest of the world. Lists sources for obtaining banknotes and directories to help identify…

  3. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The phenomenology of lucid dreaming: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Johnson, Miriam; Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware that he or she is dreaming. Although such dreams are not that uncommon, many aspects of lucid dream phenomenology are still unclear. An online survey was conducted to gather data about lucid dream origination, duration, active or passive participation in the dream, planned actions for lucid dreams, and other phenomenological aspects. Among the 684 respondents who filled out the questionnaire, there were 571 lucid dreamers (83.5%). According to their reports, lucid dreams most often originate spontaneously in adolescence. The average lucid dream duration is about 14 minutes. Lucid dreamers are likely to be active in their lucid dreams and plan to accomplish different actions (e.g., flying, talking with dream characters, or having sex), yet they are not always able to remember or successfully execute their intentions (most often because of awakening or hindrances in the dream environment). The frequency of lucid dream experience was the strongest predictor of lucid dream phenomenology, but some differences were also observed in relation to age, gender, or whether the person is a natural or self-trained lucid dreamer. The findings are discussed in light of lucid dream research, and suggestions for future studies are provided.

  5. A path model investigation of neurocognition, theory of mind, social competence, negative symptoms and real-world functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Shannon M; Granholm, Eric L; Fish, Scott C

    2011-02-01

    Problems in real-world functioning are pervasive in schizophrenia and much recent effort has been devoted to uncovering factors which contribute to poor functioning. The goal of this study was to examine the role of four such factors: social cognition (theory of mind), neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functional capacity (social competence). 178 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of theory of mind, neurocognition, negative symptoms, social competence, and self-reported functioning. Path models sought to determine the relationships among these variables. Theory of mind as indexed by the Hinting Task partially mediated the relationship between neurocognition and social competence, and negative symptoms and social competence demonstrated significant direct paths with self-reported functioning. Study results suggest theory of mind serves as an important mediator in addition to previously investigated social cognitive domains of emotional and social perception. The current study also highlights the need to determine variables which mediate the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. River of Blood: George Martin’s Fevre Dream and the road to dark designr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Howe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p81 With his publication of Fevre Dream in 1982, George R. R. Martin tried his hand at the “sympathetic vampire” tale, one popularized just a few years previously by Anne Rice.  A tale of vampires haunting the American South during the lead up to the Civil War, Fevre Dream focused upon moral ambiguity, the brutality of power, and other narrative aspects that would eventually emerge more fully developed in the author’s magnum opus, the acclaimed A Song of Ice and Fire series.  Largely forgotten, Fevre Dream is important in that a close reading of the text indicates Martin’s embrace of dark fantasy, not only in the bleak thematic material but also in the embrace of real-world historical events (the American Civil War and institutions (slavery.

  7. The Dehumanizing American Dream in David Mamet’s Glengarry Glen Ross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sepehrmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Dream is a recurrent theme in American literature. In this response, this paper is an attempt to expose the destructive effects of the dream on the human spirit. It is also shown, through the analysis of David Mamet’s glengarry Glen Ross, that despite the promise of the dream it contains many contradictions. Beneath the seeming simple surface of the play lies a deep current of meanings that reflect the calamities of modern American life, and in a broader sense, the modern world. This article indicates how capitalism inculcates ideologies in the mind of individuals in order to facilitate the exploiting process and unquestioning subordination. Ragged individualism, for instance, as  the most prominent of these ideologies, disrupts all communal bonds and even exceeds to the disintegration of friendship and family life.

  8. Bringing the Best of Two Worlds Together for Social Capital Research in Education: Social Network Analysis and Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an analytical consideration for social capital research in education by exploring a pragmatic combination of social network analysis (SNA) and symbolic interactionism (SI) as a research method. The article first delineates the theoretical linkages of social capital theory with SNA and SI. The article then discusses how SNA…

  9. A neuroscientific perspective on dreaming : collaboration between neuroscience and psychoanalysis is needed to progress in dream research

    OpenAIRE

    Perrine Marie RUBY

    2011-01-01

    Dreaming is still a mystery of human cognition though it has been studied at the experimental level since more than one century. Experimental psychology first investigated dream content and frequency. Then, the neuroscientific approach to dreaming arose at the end of the fifties and rapidly proposed a physiological substrate of dreaming : rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Fifty years later, this hypothesis was challenged because it could not explain all the characteristics of dream reports. Th...

  10. [Coping skills and social support in German long-time survivors of rape in the end of World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Svenja; Klauer, Thomas; Grundke, Elena; Freyberger, Harald J; Brähler, Elmar; Kuwert, Philipp

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to document perceived social support in a sample of German war-raped women in World War II. Furthermore the impact of this potential resource on today's posttraumatic symptoms should be pointed out. 27 women (M = 80.3 years, SD = 3.1 years) answered each a semi-structured interview and several questionnaires. Perceived social support shows clearly lower values than in the comparative samples. The measured degree of the variable in the present sample bears negative relationship to the actual posttraumatic symptoms of the women. In World War II sexually traumatized women could profit only few from the examined resource. The found negative relationship between perceived social support and posttraumatic symptoms shows additionally the potentially long-lasting impact of these form of coping on psychological health in trauma victims. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Dreams and Nightmares in Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between dreaming and psychopathology has been studied quite extensively, research on dreaming in patients with personality disorders has been very scarce. In patients with borderline personality disorder, negatively toned dreams and heightened nightmare frequency have been found-characteristics not determined by co-morbid depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. The review includes suggestions for future studies as the existing results clearly indicate that this line of research is most interesting. Lastly, clinical recommendations especially regarding the treatment of the often found co-morbid nightmare disorder will be given.

  12. 'Reverberation time', dreaming and the capacity to dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birksted-Breen, Dana

    2009-02-01

    In this paper the author suggests that understanding the roots of the subjective sense of time can throw light on the disturbances in psychic time which are found in particular in the more severe pathologies. She introduces the argument that the roots of the development of the sense of time rest on a primitive sense of time she calls 'reverberation time'. By this notion she refers to the particular quality of the earliest 'back and forth' internalized exchange with the mother in which the auditory dimension plays a significant part. Referring to a wide range of literature and clinical examples, the author thus suggests that the subjective sense of time is created by the reverberation between mother and infant. Disturbances in this area will be reflected in the pathological 'arresting' of time which is observed in the different pathologies and, in particular, around the negotiation of the depressive position and the oedipal situation.Extending this argument, the author goes on to suggest that it is the internalization of this experience of 'reverberation' which lies at the heart of the experience of dreaming; she considers that dreaming understood as an internal dialogue points both to its roots in the relationship to the maternal object and to its fundamental role in psychic life. The author concludes that 'reverberation time' is also the building block of a psychoanalysis, leading to 'unfreezing' psychic time and enabling the reconnection of 'here and now' with 'there and then' in a flexible way which promotes open possibilities, and that this takes place via the analyst's reverie, or time of reverberation.

  13. Educational Transitions in the United States: Reflections on the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…

  14. Creating a social world: a developmental twin study of peer-group deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Gardner, Charles O; Gillespie, Nathan; Aggen, Steven A; Prescott, Carol A

    2007-08-01

    Peer-group deviance is strongly associated with externalizing behaviors. We have limited knowledge of the sources of individual differences in peer-group deviance. To clarify genetic and environmental contributions to peer-group deviance in twins from midchildhood through early adulthood. Retrospective assessments using a life-history calendar. Analysis by biometric growth curves. General community. Members of male-male pairs from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry personally interviewed in 1998-2004 (n = 1802). Self-reported peer-group deviance at ages 8 to 11, 12 to 14, 15 to 17, 18 to 21, and 22 to 25 years. Mean and variance of peer-group deviance increased substantially with age. Genetic effects on peer-group deviance showed a strong and steady increase over time. Family environment generally declined in importance over time. Individual-specific environmental influences on peer-group deviance levels were stable in the first 3 age periods and then increased as most twins left home. When standardized, the heritability of peer-group deviance is approximately 30% at ages 8 to 11 years and rises to approximately 50% across the last 3 time periods. Both genes and shared environment contributed to individual differences in the developmental trajectory of peer-group deviance. However, while the correlation between childhood peer-group deviance levels and the subsequent slope of peer-group deviance over time resulting from genetic factors was positive, the same relationship resulting from shared environmental factors was negative. As male twins mature and create their own social worlds, genetic factors play an increasingly important role in their choice of peers, while shared environment becomes less influential. The individual-specific environment increases in importance when individuals leave home. Individuals who have deviant peers in childhood, as a result of genetic vs shared environmental influences, have distinct developmental trajectories

  15. Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... effects of levodopa called dyskinesias. Additional Information on Parkinson's Web Links MedlinePlus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  16. Complex dream-enacting behavior in sleepwalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillmann, Frank

    2009-02-01

    Currently, dream-enacting behaviors are viewed as occurring typically in association with a REM-sleep behavior disorder. In some cases, dream-like mentation is found also in non-REM parasomnia. We report a case of complex and dramatic sleepwalking behavior in a 26-year-old adult male who tied his 4-month-old daughter to the clothesline in the attic of his house. The explanation of this seemingly senseless behavior, which was related to psychosocial stressors, was found in a detailed dream-like mentation that was reported by the patient. At the same time, an organic factor, namely, a worsening of the patient's asthma, was identified as the cause of an increased fragmentation of sleep. In some cases of non-REM parasomnia, detailed dream-like mentation may act as a bridge between psychosocial stressors and the specific parasomnic behavior.

  17. Dreams: a framework for distributed synchronous coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proença, J.; Clarke, D.; Vink, de E.P.; Arbab, F.

    2012-01-01

    Synchronous coordination systems, such as Reo, exchange data via indivisible actions, while distributed systems are typically asynchronous and assume that messages can be delayed or get lost. To combine these seemingly contradictory notions, we introduce the Dreams framework. Coordination patterns

  18. [Modernity in dreams and myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopelliti, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness.

  19. International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

    1981-09-01

    This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

  20. The underlying emotion and the dream relating dream imagery to the dreamer's underlying emotion can help elucidate the nature of dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    There is a widespread consensus that emotion is important in dreams, deriving from both biological and psychological studies. However, the emphasis on examining emotions explicitly mentioned in dreams is misplaced. The dream is basically made of imagery. The focus of our group has been on relating the dream imagery to the dreamer's underlying emotion. What is most important is the underlying emotion--the emotion of the dreamer, not the emotion in the dream. This chapter discusses many studies relating the dream-especially the central image of the dream--to the dreamer's underlying emotion. Focusing on the underlying emotion leads to a coherent and testable view of the nature of dreaming. It also helps to clarify some important puzzling features of the literature on dreams, such as why the clinical literature is different in so many ways from the experimental literature, especially the laboratory-based experimental literature. Based on central image intensity and the associated underlying emotion, we can identify a hierarchy of dreams, from the highest-intensity, "big dreams," to the lowest-intensity dreams from laboratory awakenings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming

    OpenAIRE

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Araujo, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversi...

  2. String Theory has Einstein's dream come true?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    After having outlined the difficulties that Einstein and others have encountered in trying to unify our understanding of macroscopic/classical and microscopic /quantum physics, I will explain in simple terms how the latest particle theory revolution, string theory, may finally offer a surprisingly simple realization of these long-standing dreams. Einstein thought that his difficulties stemmed from a clash between the classical and the quantum. Yet, paradoxically, superstrings appear to realize his dream thanks to -and not against- quantum mechanics.

  3. Insomnia, dreams, and suicide: Connecting links

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar B Karia; Nirali Mehta; Devavrat Harshe; Avinash De Sousa; Nilesh Shah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A growing empirical literature has examined insomnia symptoms as a possible risk factor for a range of suicidal behavior. Not much literature is available in normal adolescent population. Aims: The aim is to find insomnia prevalence, studying various dream factors, and suicidality prevalence among students of various courses. To check if there is a relation between insomnia and suicidal behavior and dreams, particularly nightmares and suicide. Materials and Methods: A total of 4...

  4. Resonance Special Issue - World Year of Physics -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance Special Issue - World Year of Physics. Vol 10, No 12, ... Origin (?) of the Universe - The Expanding Universe. Jayant V Narlikar. 12 ... Einstein's Last Dream: The Space - Time Unification of Fundamental Forces. Abdus Salam.

  5. Educacion y Ciencias Sociales en el Mundo Moderno. [Education and the Social Sciences in the Modern World].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.

    The document, written in Spanish, discusses the relationship between research in the social sciences and the role of the university in social science education. The author considers the education of researchers, the application of research, the need for interdisciplinary research methods, and problems involved in cross-cultural studies. He states…

  6. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  7. Well-Being in a Globalized World: Does Social Work Know How to Make It Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Dorothy N.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ubiquitous uses of the term "well-being" in social work codes, values, and literature. It reviews international concepts of well-being as well as those within social work to consider a deeper exploration of the meanings of well-being. Dimensions of well-being that resonate with social work values include eliminating…

  8. Social Media as Space for Peace Education: Conceptual Contours and Evidence from the Muslim World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, M. Ayaz; Arshad-Ayaz, Adeela; Doyle, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we present a conceptual framework to examine the potential of social media as an educational space for peace education. In particular, we examine the characteristics and dynamics of social media that set it apart from other traditional media and educational spaces. Specifically, we conceptualize features of social media such as:…

  9. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.

  10. Economic Challenges of Globalization. The Social Worlds of the Moroccan Company and its Cultural Adaptations. Guidelines for a Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine El Aoufi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of an analysis of the social worlds of the Moroccan company and of its cultures, the author comes to the conclusion that the Moroccan company is subject to a new strategic game in which “social worlds” inside and outside the company play a decisive role in competitive placement . His text urges that a survey be done and proposes the essential axes in regard to functioning, in terms of organization of labor and management, to types of cultural capital in general and linguistic registers in particular within the Moroccan company, and to the consequences of plurality in the companies’ efficiency of production and bottom lines.

  11. A Study of Planet Three: A World Geography/Social Studies Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Duncan

    This 12th grade course in world geography is based on the philosophical assumption that human beings on earth make up a global village of interdependent people. It is world geography with a planetary perspective--an inquiry into the nature of the planet and its dominant species, Homo Sapiens. Seven units cover the following topics on physical and…

  12. On Weighted Regions and Social Crowds : Autonomous-agent Navigation in Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaklin, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments have gained in importance in many aspects of the world we live in today. Immersive virtual worlds are ubiquitous in modern movies, video games, and online communities. They are also important in non-entertainment applications such as training and education software, simulations

  13. Psychodynamic Interpretations of the Immigrant's Dream: Comments on Adler's (1993) "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Mircea A.

    1994-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees often experience difficulty adjusting to a strange new environment. This article considers Adler's (1993) article, "Refugee Dreams and Attachment Theory" but recommends a depth psychology approach, including both Freudian and Jungian perspectives, to incorporating dream analysis as a technique in cross-cultural…

  14. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dreams, reality and memory: confabulations in lucid dreamers implicate reality-monitoring dysfunction in dream consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, P R; Canavan, S V; Nahum, L; Appah, F; Morgan, P T

    2014-01-01

    Dreams might represent a window on altered states of consciousness with relevance to psychotic experiences, where reality monitoring is impaired. We examined reality monitoring in healthy, non-psychotic individuals with varying degrees of dream awareness using a task designed to assess confabulatory memory errors - a confusion regarding reality whereby information from the past feels falsely familiar and does not constrain current perception appropriately. Confabulatory errors are common following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Ventromedial function has previously been implicated in dreaming and dream awareness. In a hospital research setting, physically and mentally healthy individuals with high (n = 18) and low (n = 13) self-reported dream awareness completed a computerised cognitive task that involved reality monitoring based on familiarity across a series of task runs. Signal detection theory analysis revealed a more liberal acceptance bias in those with high dream awareness, consistent with the notion of overlap in the perception of dreams, imagination and reality. We discuss the implications of these results for models of reality monitoring and psychosis with a particular focus on the role of vmPFC in default-mode brain function, model-based reinforcement learning and the phenomenology of dreaming and waking consciousness.

  16. The effects of suppressing intrusive thoughts on dream content, dream distress and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner-Borowik, Tana; Gosch, Stefanie; Hansen, Kathrin; Borowik, Benjamin; Schredl, Michael; Steil, Regina

    2013-10-01

    Suppressing unwanted thoughts can lead to an increased occurrence of the suppressed thought in dreams. This is explainable by the ironic control theory, which theorizes why the suppression of thoughts might make them more persistent. The present study examined the influence of thought suppression on dream rebound, dream distress, general psychiatric symptomatology, depression, sleep quality and perceived stress. Thirty healthy participants (good sleepers) were investigated over a period of 1 week. Half were instructed to suppress an unwanted thought 5 min prior to sleep, whereas the other half were allowed to think of anything at all. Dream content was assessed through a dream diary. Independent raters assessed whether or not the dreams were related to the suppressed target thought. The results demonstrated increased target-related dreams and a tendency to have more distressing dreams in the suppression condition. Moreover, the data imply that thought suppression may lead to significantly increased general psychiatric symptomatology. No significant effects were found for the other secondary outcomes. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  18. Study of the World War I Effects on the Social Structures of the Western Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ranaie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I, the western district of Iran was the place of military and political conflicts of the Entente and Alliance states, owing to its strategic geographical location. On the one side, it was bordered by the Ottoman Empire, and on the other side it was located under the influence of Russia. In this research, we try to consider the impacts of the World War I on the social, economic and political spheres. Based on the results of the research, large numbers of people of this area were killed due to military combats, starvation, famine and disease during the war. Cities became the military base of the hostile powers and economic and social institutions such as municipal and farming were destroyed. The domination of the central government, and the authority of local governors and political stability were exhausted.

  19. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  20. A Dream of the Perfect Map – Calvino’s Invisible Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vrbančić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cartographer’s dream is that of a perfect map: a map that perfectly represents a territory, a dream of Divine knowledge; a map that has haunted the ideology of representation throughout history; a map so detailed that it coincides with real space. In a short parable, ‘Museum, on Exactitude in Science’, Borges describes the mysterious gild of cartographers which charts such a map. Although Borges’ narrative finishes with a nostalgic conclusion about a superfluous and forgotten discipline, the cartographer’s dream of a perfect map has never ceased: it has merely varied throughout history. For medieval cartographers the perfect map included the physical cosmos and the spiritual one. In Dante’s time the European ‘mappa mundi’ depicted one single landmass, the Northern Hemisphere, with Jerusalem in the middle and the world is variously shown as dominated or held by God. In the Psalter mappa mundi, which is surmounted by an illustration of the Last Judgement, God holds a little dark red ball, the size of a golf ball – the world. Its size reminds us of the world’s shrinkage due to the advancing technology of transport and communications of the 20th century. Borges’ mystical Aleph on the other hand contains the whole cosmos within its confines (no bigger than the globe held by God on the Hereford map. In a sense the Aleph is a goal of cartography, its theology. Instead of God’s gaze into the unknown distance (as on the Hereford map, Renaissance cartographers imagined the Ptolemaic human gaze looking down on the Earth. The cartographer’s ‘organ of sight’ began to shift from the inner eye of the soul to the physical eye of the body: the idea of the globe as a whole observed by a ‘roving human eye’ is connected to the Renaissance idea of perspectivism. In many respects Renaissance concepts of space laid the foundations for the Enlightenment project. Maps were stripped of spiritual space, of their angels and their

  1. Evaluation of world's largest social welfare scheme: An assessment using non-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet

    2016-08-01

    Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is the world's largest social welfare scheme in India for the poverty alleviation through rural employment generation. This paper aims to evaluate and rank the performance of the states in India under MGNREGA scheme. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to calculate the overall technical, pure technical, and scale efficiencies of states in India. The sample data is drawn from the annual official reports published by the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. Based on three selected input parameters (expenditure indicators) and five output parameters (employment generation indicators), I apply both input and output oriented DEA models to estimate how well the states utilize their resources and generate outputs during the financial year 2013-14. The relative performance evaluation has been made under the assumption of constant returns and also under variable returns to scale to assess the impact of scale on performance. The results indicate that the main source of inefficiency is both technical and managerial practices adopted. 11 states are overall technically efficient and operate at the optimum scale whereas 18 states are pure technical or managerially efficient. It has been found that for some states it necessary to alter scheme size to perform at par with the best performing states. For inefficient states optimal input and output targets along with the resource savings and output gains are calculated. Analysis shows that if all inefficient states operate at optimal input and output levels, on an average 17.89% of total expenditure and a total amount of $780million could have been saved in a single year. Most of the inefficient states perform poorly when it comes to the participation of women and disadvantaged sections (SC&ST) in the scheme. In order to catch up with the performance of best performing states, inefficient states on an average need to enhance

  2. The social world of street children : street children's peer friendship, group life and subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikre, Kaleab

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the street children’s social world, focusing on their peer friendship, group life, and street subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study shows how street children’s peer friendship, street group, and subculture are part and parcel of children’s quest for survival in the street in the absence of guardians conventionally considered as responsible for the provision and protection of children. The main perspective of the study is grounded in the p...

  3. Can exist social inclusion of disability people in the world of the work and the capitalist education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This text makes a critical analysis, in the marxist perspective, of the process of social inclusion of carrying people of necessities special, having as deep cloth of the current world of the work and the education. One searchs to evidence briefly, despite, the symptoms that corrective delinquents do not allow that the capitalist system makes the inclusion, only, as Mészáros signals.

  4. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  5. Dreaming scientists and scientific dreamers: Freud as a reader of French dream literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroy, Jacqueline

    2006-03-01

    The argument of this paper is to situate The Interpretation of Dreams within an historical context. It is, therefore, impossible to believe Freud entirely when he staged himself in his letters to Fliess as a mere discoverer. In reality Freud also felt he belonged to a learned community of dream specialists, whom I call "dreaming scientists" and "scientific dreamers." Instead of speaking, as Ellenberger does, in terms of influence, I will be offering as an example a portrait of Freud as a reader of two French authors, Maury, and indirectly, Hervey de Saint-Denys. I will analyze how Freud staged himself as replacing Maury and dreaming sometimes like Hervey de Saint-Denys. My premise in this work is that we must forget Freud, in order to adventure into a learned dream culture peculiar to the nineteenth century. Only afterwards can we come back to Freud and place him in this context as a creative heir.

  6. 40 Years Young: Social Media for the World's Longest-Running Earth-Observation Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeek, H.; Rocchio, L. E.; Taylor, M.; Owen, T.; Allen, J. E.; Keck, A.

    2012-12-01

    With social media becoming a communication juggernaut it is essential to harness the medium's power to foster better science communication. On July 23, 2012, the Landsat Earth-observing satellite program celebrated the 40th anniversary of the first Landsat launch. To more effectively communicate the impact and importance of Landsat's four-decade long data record a carefully planned social media event was designed to supplement the day's traditional media communications. The social media event, dubbed the "Landsat Social," was modeled on and supported by the NASA Social methodology. The Landsat Social was the first such event for NASA Earth science not associated with a launch. For the Landsat Social, 23 social media-savvy participants were selected to attend a joint NASA/U.S. Geological Survey Landsat anniversary press event at the Newseum in Washington, D.C. The participants subsequently toured the NASA Goddard Space Flight Facility in Greenbelt, Maryland where they had the opportunity to learn about the latest Landsat satellite; visit the Landsat mission control; download and work with Landsat data; and meet Landsat scientists and engineers. All Landsat Social participants had Twitter accounts and used the #Landsat and #NASASocial hashtags to unify their commentary throughout the day. A few key Landsat messages were communicated to the Landsat Social participants at the event's onset. Propagation of this messaging was witnessed for the duration of the Landsat Social; and a spike in online Landsat interest followed. Here, we examine the Landsat 40th anniversary social event, explain impacts made, and report lessons learned.; Landsat Social attendees are busy tweeting, texting, and blogging as Project Scientist Dr. Jim Irons talks about the Landsat Data Continuity Mission in front of the Hyperwall at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Photo courtesy Bill Hrybyk.

  7. Prediction and Characterization of High-Activity Events in Social Media Triggered by Real-World News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Janani; Quezada, Mauricio; Poblete, Barbara; Lanckriet, Gert

    2016-01-01

    On-line social networks publish information on a high volume of real-world events almost instantly, becoming a primary source for breaking news. Some of these real-world events can end up having a very strong impact on on-line social networks. The effect of such events can be analyzed from several perspectives, one of them being the intensity and characteristics of the collective activity that it produces in the social platform. We research 5,234 real-world news events encompassing 43 million messages discussed on the Twitter microblogging service for approximately 1 year. We show empirically that exogenous news events naturally create collective patterns of bursty behavior in combination with long periods of inactivity in the network. This type of behavior agrees with other patterns previously observed in other types of natural collective phenomena, as well as in individual human communications. In addition, we propose a methodology to classify news events according to the different levels of intensity in activity that they produce. In particular, we analyze the most highly active events and observe a consistent and strikingly different collective reaction from users when they are exposed to such events. This reaction is independent of an event's reach and scope. We further observe that extremely high-activity events have characteristics that are quite distinguishable at the beginning stages of their outbreak. This allows us to predict with high precision, the top 8% of events that will have the most impact in the social network by just using the first 5% of the information of an event's lifetime evolution. This strongly implies that high-activity events are naturally prioritized collectively by the social network, engaging users early on, way before they are brought to the mainstream audience.

  8. Theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks determining in different countries of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashina Nadezhda, I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the problems of the theory and methodology of social, political and economic processes risks in different countries with relative indicators of the socio-economic development level, as well as the size and condition of the public debt. Developed by the authors the methodology of determining the risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world revealed close relationship between socio-economic situation of the countries and their public debt. Within the framework of this methodology two groups of factors characterizing the socio-political and economic processes in the country are being developed. After that each exponent and indicator are being processed, using expert procedures. Maximum statutory values for tentatively referenced countries with effective and ineffective government policies are identified. Then standardization (specification and definition of integral (generalized indexes of socio-political and economic processes in the country are taking place. After that the ranking of countries by aggregated standardized ratio is arranged, taking into account the significance of the developed indicators. The final phase of implementation methodology is identifying risks of social, political and economic processes of public policy around the world. This is the ranking of countries by ratio of stability in public policy (stability of economic and socio-political processes in the country. As the result of implementation methodology the following output was received: what really makes a difference is not the amount of the country's debt, but how effectively it manages this debt, whether it has a goal to improve social and economic indicators. Practical testing methodology has proven that studied indicators fully characterize the development of the countries, their political, social and economic situation on the world stage.

  9. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  10. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A.; Targino, Zé H.; Souza, Bryan C.; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  11. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Targino, Zé H; Souza, Bryan C; Blanco, Wilfredo; Araujo, John F; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2013-01-01

    During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n = 3,427; median age = 25 years) through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%), and that dreams typically depicted actions (93%), known people (92%), sounds/voices (78%), and colored images (76%). The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%), memories of the previous day (13%), or unrelated to the dreamer (30%). Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%), being stalked (48%), or other unpleasant sensations (47%). These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue in dreams, and suggest that dreams and nightmares are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever), and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 min. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and LD control was rare (29%). LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%), a situation that increases rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%), which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is relatively ubiquitous but rare, unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD

  12. El complejo mundo de la interactividad: emociones y redes sociales The complex world of interactivity: emotions and social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Sánchez Martín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación es discernir cómo debe plantearse un aprendizaje en nuevas tecnologías, en especial, en redes sociales. Para esto, se analizará la dinámica neurológica y psicológica de las emociones y cómo se desenvuelven en el ámbito de las redes sociales. La metodología que emplearemos será acudir a diversos estudios neurológicos y psicológicos actuales, en especial de Antonio Damasio, para analizar posteriormente qué sucede con las emociones cuando nos comunicamos a través de redes sociales, tomando como referente un experimento neurológico de dicho autor en el cerebro de varios voluntarios que muestra la aparición de diversos tipos de emociones. Por último, extrapolaremos este experimento a la aparición de emociones si se utiliza como medio de comunicación las redes sociales y realizaremos algunas conclusiones acerca de la dirección a la que debe tender el aprendizaje de nuevas tecnologías, en especial, redes sociales, teniendo en cuenta dichas observaciones.The objective of this research is to discern how it should consider learning on new technologies, especially in social networks. For this, we examine the neurological and psychological dynamics of emotions and how they develop in the field of social networks. Our methodology will go to various neurological and psychological studies today, including Antonio Damasio and how to analyze what happens when we communicate emotions through social networks, by reference to a neurological experiment that copyright in the brain several volunteers that shows the appearance of various types of emotions. Finally, we extrapolate this experiment to the appearance of emotions when social networks are used as media and will make some conclusions about the direction you should aim to learn new technologies, especially social networks, taking into account such observations.

  13. Social networks and female reproductive choices in the developing world: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Samantha M P; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-10

    Continuing high global maternal mortality and morbidity rates in developing countries have resulted in an increasing push to improve reproductive health services for women. Seeking innovative ways for assessing how positive health knowledge and behaviors spread to this vulnerable population has increased the use of social network theories and analysis in health promotion research. Despite the increased research on social networks and health, no overarching review on social networks and maternal health literature in developing countries has been conducted. This paper attempts to synthesize this literature by identifying both published and unpublished studies in major databases on social networks and maternal and child health. This review examined a range of study types for inclusion, including experimental and non-experimental study designs including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, cohort studies, case control studies, longitudinal studies, and cross-sectional observational studies. Only those that occurred in developing countries were included in the review. Eighteen eligible articles were identified; these were published between 1997 and 2012. The findings indicated that the most common social network mechanisms studied within the literature were social learning and social influence. The main outcomes studied were contraceptive use and fertility decisions. Findings suggest the need for continuing research on social networks and maternal health, particularly through the examination of the range of social mechanisms through which networks may influence health behaviors and knowledge, and the analysis of a larger variety of reproductive outcomes.

  14. O 2º Fórum Social Mundial de Porto Alegre e os desafios do movimento social global The 2nd Porto Alegre World Social Forum and the challenges of the global social movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Gómez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se propõe a utilizar elementos analíticos relativos ao significado, alcance e perspectivas do movimento social transnacional contra a globalização neoliberal no conturbado contexto pós-11 de setembro da política mundial. Nas condições extremamente adversas desse novo contexto, a segunda edição do Fórum Social Mundial tornou-se um acontecimento político revelador, tanto da vitalidade e do potencial transformador do "movimento dos movimentos" contra-hegemônico, ainda em processo de constituição, como de suas limitações, contradições e dilemas.The article suggests a framework of analysis to evaluate the meaning, scope and perspectives of the transnational social movement against neoliberal globalization in post-September 11 world politics. In the adverse conditions of this context, the second edition of the World Social Forum revealed the vitality and the potential of transformation of the counter-hegemonic "movement of movements". It revealed, as well, its limits, contradictions and dilemmas.

  15. Introducing the World Population Crises to Secondary Social Studies Classes: An Inquiry-Oriented Instructional Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Randall C.

    1970-01-01

    The author contends that students must be alerted to the dangers of overpopulation of the world and to the methods that exist to control population growth. He suggests topics for student inquiry. (CK)

  16. Stepping in to the social media world: reflections from both personal and institutional points of view (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Like it or not, the world is increasingly run by social media. It has completely transformed the delivery of and access to news, and data show that half or more U.S. citizens now get their news from some form of social media. Interactive web tools determine political campaigns and help catalyze country-scale revolutions. They allow very personal access in ways both good and bad, as well as the rapid dissemination of both high quality information and complete falsehoods. But though they have plenty of downsides, their central and still-rising presence in society means that scientists who study any aspect of global environmental change (as well as those in most other areas of science) cannot afford to be social media luddites. In this panel, I will talk about my recent experiences in diving into this world, from both personal and institutional perspectives. For the former, I'll discuss some lessons learned in adding twitter and a blog to my professional life, and why I ultimately chose to have the blog reveal substantial information about me, not just the science I pursue. For the latter, I'll discuss launching the first blog in the history of the National Science Foundation and what that experience revealed about pushing social media advances on an institutional scale.

  17. The Dream Comes True in the Golden Hall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianZhong; ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Nanjing Traditional Music Ensemble has long dreamed of performing in Vienna's Golden Hall.Now the dream has come true.the whole troupe felt so exciting that they did not even sleep well during the flight.

  18. Cognitive and emotional processes during dreaming: a neuroimaging view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Sterpenich, Virginie; Schwartz, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Dream is a state of consciousness characterized by internally-generated sensory, cognitive and emotional experiences occurring during sleep. Dream reports tend to be particularly abundant, with complex, emotional, and perceptually vivid experiences after awakenings from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This is why our current knowledge of the cerebral correlates of dreaming, mainly derives from studies of REM sleep. Neuroimaging results show that REM sleep is characterized by a specific pattern of regional brain activity. We demonstrate that this heterogeneous distribution of brain activity during sleep explains many typical features in dreams. Reciprocally, specific dream characteristics suggest the activation of selective brain regions during sleep. Such an integration of neuroimaging data of human sleep, mental imagery, and the content of dreams is critical for current models of dreaming; it also provides neurobiological support for an implication of sleep and dreaming in some important functions such as emotional regulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The fate of the dream in contemporary psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loden, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Freud's metapsychology of dream formation has implicitly been discarded, as indicated in a brief review of trends in psychoanalytic thinking about dreams, with a focus on the relationship of the dream process to ego capacities. The current bias toward exclusive emphasis on the exploration of the analytic relationship and the transference has evolved at the expense of classical, in-depth dream interpretation, and, by extension, at the expense of strengthening the patient's capacity for self-inquiry. This trend is shown to be especially evident in the treatment of borderline patients, who today are believed by many analysts to misuse the dream in the analytic situation. An extended clinical example of a borderline patient with whom an unmodified Freudian associative technique of dream interpretation is used with good outcome illustrates the author's contrary conviction. In clinical practice, we should neglect neither the uniqueness of the dream as a central intrapsychic event nor the Freudian art of total dream analysis.

  20. On Dreams and Motivation: Comparison of Freud's and Hobson's Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The merits of Freudian dream theory continue to be debated and both supporters and critics appeal to empirical evidence to support their respective positions. What receives much less attention is the theoretical coherency of either Freudian dream theory or alternative perspectives. This paper examines Freudian dream theory and J. Allan Hobson's alternative position by addressing the role of motivation in dreams. This paper first discusses motivation in Freudian theory and its relation to dreams and disguise-censorship. The role of motivation in Hobson's theory is then considered. Hobson's claim that dream plot and content selection is random and based on design error and functional imbalance is then discussed in relation to the protoconsciousness theory proposal that dreams serve an adaptive function. While there are apparent inconsistencies in Hobson's position, his appeal to emotions and instincts provides a preliminary platform for understanding the role of motivation in dreams that is consonant with the Freudian position.

  1. [Tertullianus and Agostinus. Approaches to dreams in ancient Christianity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Armando

    2009-01-01

    The author analyzes the nature and typologies of dreams in Tertullianus' De anima and, briefly, in the work of Agostinus, two centuries later. What are made dreams of? Are they autonomous productions of psyché or phantasia, or rather messages sent by demons or God, according to dreams' bad or good intimate nature? Is there a relation between time of the night and nature of the dreams? Moreover, is there a relation between seasons and dreams? Does a specific relationship between food, regimen and dreams exist? Which is the soul's faculty able to generate dreams? Is phantasia moved by some other deep and mysterious principle? Which are the connections linking human physiology and dreams?

  2. Deceased loved ones in the dreams of mentally retarded adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J L; Graffam, J H

    1987-11-01

    Dream reports were collected over a 10-year period as part of an ethnographic study of mentally retarded employees in a sheltered workshop. Deceased loved ones, usually parents or other family members, figured prominently as characters in many of these dreams. Dreams about the dead were often recurring and elicited salient emotional reactions from the dreamers. The various forms that these dreams take and their characteristic thematic content were described for 154 dreams by 60 dreamers. Some of the percepts and feelings that reflect the dreamers' understanding of their dreams were also noted. Findings reveal that the dream life of retarded adults is much more rich and diverse than previous studies suggest. Clinical implications and the occurrence of similar dreams among nonretarded persons were discussed.

  3. Ethnographic Intimacy: Thinking Through the Ethics of Social Research in Sex Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pérez-y-Pérez; Tony Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic researchers entering sensitive fields of research become entangled in ethical dilemmas when they encounter 'sticky' questions, situations and issues. In undertaking research within two distinct sex worlds: female sex work and male sexual negotiation/risk and HIV, we struggled to manage the contingent links between our relationships with the people who inhabit these worlds, the ethical requirements of our institutional ethics committees, and our hybrid selves. In the context of 'd...

  4. On Weighted Regions and Social Crowds : Autonomous-agent Navigation in Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Jaklin, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    Virtual environments have gained in importance in many aspects of the world we live in today. Immersive virtual worlds are ubiquitous in modern movies, video games, and online communities. They are also important in non-entertainment applications such as training and education software, simulations of mass events, evacuation scenarios, human factor analysis, and urban city planning. Training and education software itself comprises various application areas, ranging from teaching children with...

  5. Evaluating the impact of DREAMS on HIV incidence among young women who sell sex: protocol for a non-randomised study in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Bernadette; Hargreaves, James R; Chiyaka, Tarisai; Chabata, Sungai; Mushati, Phillis; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde; Busza, Joanna; Cowan, Frances

    2018-01-31

    "Determined, Resilient, AIDS-free, Mentored and Safe" (DREAMS) is a package of biomedical, social and economic interventions offered to adolescent girls and young women aged 10-24 years with the aim of reducing HIV incidence. In four of the six DREAMS districts in Zimbabwe, DREAMS includes an offer of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (DREAMS+PrEP), alongside interventions to support demand and adherence, to women aged 18-24 who are at highest risk of HIV infection, including young women who sell sex (YWSS). This evaluation study addresses the question: does the delivery of DREAMS+PrEP through various providers reduce HIV incidence among YWSS Zimbabwe? We describe our approach to designing a rigorous study to assess whether DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. The study design needed to account for the fact that: 1) DREAMS+PrEP was non-randomly allocated; 2) there is no sampling frame for the target population for the evaluation; 3) there are a small number of DREAMS districts (N = 6), and 4) DREAMS+PrEP is being implemented by various providers. The study will use a cohort analysis approach to compare HIV incidence among YWSS in two DREAMS+PrEP districts to HIV incidence among YWSS in non-DREAMS comparison sites. YWSS will be referred to services and recruited into the cohort through a network-based (respondent-driven) recruitment strategy, and followed-up 12- and 24-months after enrolment. Women will be asked to complete a questionnaire and offered HIV testing. Additional complications of this study include identifying comparable populations of YWSS in the DREAMS+PrEP and non-DREAMS comparison sites, and retention of YWSS over the 24-month period. The primary outcome is HIV incidence among YWSS HIV-negative at study enrolment measured by repeat, rapid HIV testing over 24-months. Inference will be based on plausibility that DREAMS+PrEP had an impact on HIV incidence. A process evaluation will be conducted to understand intervention implementation, and

  6. Consumption dreams: how night dreams reveal the colonization of subjectivity by the imaginary of consumerism Sueños de consumo: cómo los sueños revelan la colonización de la subjetividad por el imaginario de consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Xavier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I offer an overview of my doctoral dissertation, which studied the social imaginary of consumerism, and the psychological subjectivity it produces, through the dream - as both a leitmotif or thematic lens, and the empirical object of research. For such I employed an interdisciplinary exploratory outlook, whose theoretical framework first discusses the symbolic imaginaries (G. Durand and their relations with the unconscious psyche, dream, imagination, and subjectivity (C. G. Jung, and then explores their relationships with consumption (Baudrillard, Bauman and its semiotic imaginaries and ideology, focusing on the concepts of consumption dreams and dream-worlds of consumption. The main research aim was to explore how night dreams represent the colonization of subjectivity by the imaginary of consumerism. The method consisted in a multiple-case study in which each night dream was taken as a case and interpreted through Jungian hermeneutics. Findings stress that night dreams can offer a deep sociocultural critique; in them the imaginary of consumption appeared as a totalizing mass ideology engendering colonization of both symbolic imaginaries and the subject and her unconscious psyche. Conclusions emphasize such colonization as an anthropological mutation - the progressive commodification and dehumanization of the subject.En este articulo describo a grandes rasgos mi tesis doctoral, que investigó el imaginario social del consumismo, y el sujeto psicológico que el mismo produce, a través del sueño - como leitmotif o lente temática y como objeto de investigación empírica. Para eso desarrolla un abordaje exploratorio interdisciplinar, cuyo marco teórico discute primero los imaginarios simbólicos (G. Durand y sus relaciones con la psique inconsciente, sueño, imaginación y subjetividad (C. G. Jung, de manera a explorar sus interrelaciones con el consumo (Baudrillard, Bauman y sus imaginarios semióticos e ideología, enfocando

  7. Mapping the Social World of Classrooms: A Multi-Level, Multi-Reporter Approach to Social Processes and Behavioral Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Cappella, Elise

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the social context of classrooms has been a central goal of research focused on the promotion of academic development. Building on the current literature on classroom social settings and guided by a risk and protection framework, this study examines the unique and combined contribution of individual relationships and quality of classroom interactions on behavioral engagement among low-income Latino students in kindergarten to fifth grade (N = 111). Findings indicate that individual relationships with teachers and peers and classroom quality, each independently predicted behavioral engagement. Moreover, high-quality classrooms buffered the negative influence of students' difficulties in individual relationships on behavioral engagement. Findings illuminate the need to consider multiple layers of social classroom relationships and interactions and suggest the potential benefit of targeting classroom quality as a mechanism for improving behavioral engagement in urban elementary schools. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Learning Management Guidelines for Social Studies towards Thai Citizenship, ASEAN Citizenship, World Citizenship for the 21st Century Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipada Phinla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Contempolary global society is witnessing on extensive competition and cooperation among countries that leads to regional integration to strengthen their common political, social, economic and cultural aspirations. Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia region, has joined other 9 members of ASEAN for the establishment of the ASEAN Community in 2015 The aim of the establishment is For enhancing liberalization of trades among the country members, the arrangements are reflected in the efforts to cope with the change through the civil education system. Education is recognized as a key mechanism in the development of a perfect human being physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually. Therefore, to prepare for learners in the 21st century to become Thai Citizenship, ASEAN Citizenship, World Citizenship, it is important for teachers to develop learners inorder to meet the social aspirations and lead a happy and peaceful life in the society.

  9. Social movements in a globalized world: something new? Los movimientos sociales en un mundo globalizado: ¿alguna novedad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador MARTÍ I PUIG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article develops a number of issues regarding the impact of globalization on collective political actors which we tend to term social movements, or «networks of movements», placing particular emphasis –but not exclusively– on those movements which have emerged in Latin America. To this effect the article has three sections. Firstly, it present a discussion of the global context and its impact on political. Secondly, it develops different explanatory perspectives –which coincide with different analytical frameworks– for the observation of social movements (taken in a broad sense in the newglobal context. Finally, the article reflects on issues concerning the changing forms of social movements as a new century dawns.En el texto que sigue se aportan algunos apuntes sobre el impacto que ha teni­do la globalización en los actores políticos colectivos que convenimos en llamar movimientos sociales o «redes de movimientos» haciendo un especial énfasis –aunque no exclusivamente– en aquellos que han surgido en América Latina. Para ello, dividimos el texto en tres partes: una primera que presenta algunas referencias sobre el contexto global y su impacto en la política; una segunda donde se desarrollan diversos ángulos –coincidentes con las diversas perspectivas analíticas– desde donde interpretar los movimientos sociales (observados desde una perspectiva amplia y difusa en el nuevo entorno global; y finalmente, a modo de reflexión, una tercera donde se esbozan algunas cuestiones sobre la forma que adquieren los movimientos sociales en el nuevo siglo que empieza.

  10. Bridging Worlds in the Social Studies Classroom:Teachers' Practices and Latino Immigrant Youths' Civic and Political Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Rebecca M; Obenchain, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that high school experiences shape young adult political behaviors, particularly among immigrant youth. The U.S. social studies classroom, focused on democratic citizenship education, proves an interesting socializing institution. Through qualitative inquiry, we interviewed Latino immigrant young adults and their former teachers regarding their high school social studies experiences and evolving political and civic engagement. indicate that armed with experience bridging the worlds of the school and home, immigrant students respond and relate to the content and pedagogy of the social studies classroom in such a way that they (1) participate in civic discourse and (2) nurture a disposition toward leadership through teachers' civic expectations of them and instructional emphasis on critical thinking skills. The ability to engage in civic discourse and a disposition toward leadership are both necessary to foster America's democratic ideals, and to take on leadership roles during adulthood. With focused effort on the unique perspective of immigrant youth, high school social studies teachers can nurture in these students the ability to become leaders in young adulthood, broadening the potential leadership pool. This study highlights how the social studies curriculum may be particularly salient to Latino immigrant youth as they transition from adolescence to young adulthood and develop their political and civic identities.

  11. Education and Social Change: Perspectives from the Developing and Developed World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David H. M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses education's purpose as bringing about change and the attraction of using education to effect social change in countries like Australia and newly independent Zimbabwe. Examines both the efficacy and the legitimacy of education's role and contribution to social change as related to particular political positions and thinking styles. (MLH)

  12. On the Irrelevance of Ethnicity in Children's Organization of Their Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Livia Jimenez

    2012-01-01

    When studying the ways of structuring social life in general, and the socialization processes of children in particular, ethnicity is often taken for granted as a basic axis along which people distribute themselves into groups. Most anthropological studies describe and classify agents in ethnic terms. This article argues that ethnicity is not…

  13. A Teacher Supports Her 54 Students to Realize Their Dreams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    "I’VE become a teacher in my dream," Gao Jinying wrote in her composition entitled, "My Dream" when she was a fourth grade student in an elementary school. Now, having been a teacher for 25 years, when she reads her students’ stories about their dreams, she still feels excited. Fifty-Four Dreams There are 54 first year students in Class One at Guangqumen High School.

  14. Present study of dreaming : Comparing brain science with psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    森田, 修平; 岡本, 祐子

    2013-01-01

    Dream has been brought the stage of scientific research from Freud. After the discovery of REM sleep, The research of dream is shifted from the psychoanalysistic stage to the stage of the view of brain science. Hobson thought there is no sense that interpret dream from the view of brain science, so, he criticized the way of Fruedian's psychoanalysis. However, Solms tried to reexamine the psychoanalysis from the view of brain science. Now, the research of dream recall frequency is done by the ...

  15. DREAM plays an important role in platelet activation and thrombogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungho; Tseng, Alan; Barazia, Andrew; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2017-01-01

    Downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, is known to modulate pain responses. However, it is unknown whether DREAM is expressed in anucleate platelets and plays a role in thrombogenesis. By using intravital microscopy with DREAM-null mice and their bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrated that both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell DREAMs are required for platelet thrombus formation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. In a FeCl3-induced thrombosis model, we found that compared with wild-type (WT) control and nonhematopoietic DREAM knockout (KO) mice, DREAM KO control and hematopoietic DREAM KO mice showed a significant delay in time to occlusion. Tail bleeding time was prolonged in DREAM KO control mice, but not in WT or DREAM bone marrow chimeric mice. In vivo adoptive transfer experiments further indicated the importance of platelet DREAM in thrombogenesis. We found that DREAM deletion does not alter the ultrastructural features of platelets but significantly impairs platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by numerous agonists (collagen-related peptide, adenosine 5′-diphosphate, A23187, thrombin, or U46619). Biochemical studies revealed that platelet DREAM positively regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity during platelet activation. Using DREAM-null platelets and PI3K isoform-specific inhibitors, we observed that platelet DREAM is important for α-granule secretion, Ca2+ mobilization, and aggregation through PI3K class Iβ (PI3K-Iβ). Genetic and pharmacological studies in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells showed that DREAM is important for A23187-induced Ca2+ mobilization and its regulatory function requires Ca2+ binding and PI3K-Iβ activation. These results suggest that platelet DREAM regulates PI3K-Iβ activity and plays an important role during thrombus formation. PMID:27903531

  16. Relationships between non-pathological dream-enactment and mirror behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tore; Kuiken, Don

    2013-09-01

    Dream-enacting behaviors (DEBs) are behavioral expressions of forceful dream images often occurring during sleep-to-wakefulness transitions. We propose that DEBs reflect brain activity underlying social cognition, in particular, motor-affective resonance generated by the mirror neuron system. We developed a Mirror Behavior Questionnaire (MBQ) to assess some dimensions of mirror behaviors and investigated relationships between MBQ scores and DEBs in a large of university undergraduate cohort. MBQ scores were normally distributed and described by a four-factor structure (Empathy/Emotional Contagion, Behavioral Imitation, Sleepiness/Anger Contagion, Motor Skill Imitation). DEB scores correlated positively with MBQ total and factor scores even with social desirability, somnambulism and somniloquy controlled. Emotion-specific DEB items correlated with corresponding emotion-specific MBQ items, especially crying and smiling. Results provide preliminary evidence for cross-state relationships between propensities for dream-enacting and mirror behaviors--especially behaviors involving motor-affective resonance--and our suggestion that motor-affective resonance mediates dream-enactment imagery during sleep and emotional empathy during waking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Two Dream Machines: Television and the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Caren J.

    Research into brain physiology and dream psychology have helped to illuminate the biological purposes and processes of dreaming. Physical and functional characteristics shared by dreaming and television include the perception of visual and auditory images, operation in a binary mode, and the encoding of visual information. Research is needed in…

  18. Homing in on consciousness: Why is a dream conscious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Helene Sophrin

    2016-01-01

    Morsella et al. argue convincingly that consciousness is for adaptive voluntary action. What, then, is consciousness in a dream for? Two prior questions present themselves. In a dream, how do contents get into the conscious field? What are the properties of consciousness in a dream?

  19. Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM): Phase 2 Usability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem

    2015-01-01

    The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…

  20. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  1. Neural correlates of insight in dreaming and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Wehrle, R.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Steiger, A.; Holsboer, F.; Czisch, M.; Hobson, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that dreaming can serve as a model for psychosis has a long and honourable tradition, however it is notoriously speculative. Here we demonstrate that recent research on the phenomenon of lucid dreaming sheds new light on the debate. Lucid dreaming is a rare state of sleep in which the

  2. Truthful Fictions: How Dreams Can Help You Write

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Ardashir

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a case for recording and using dreams in the teaching of writing. Calling on some well-known statements of Freud and on some recent research, I attempt to show how dreams can provide writers with a route to their unconscious. I also illustrate the role of dreams in furnishing writers with inspiration and source material. I…

  3. Transforming nursing education in a 140-character world: The efficacy of becoming social.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen Patterson; Nies, Mary A

    A generational gap exists across educational settings today. The potential and actual mismatch of learning styles and curriculum delivery suggests that the current educational models are in need of change. The advent of social media has transformed students from passive recipients of information to co-creators and engaged members of a global and information rich community. Responding proactively with social media integration through a responsive curriculum delivery system would serve to enhance student engagement and improve collaborative learning opportunities. Future implications for social media use in research and education will allow for rapid and efficient research to practice dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In a World That Counts: Clustering and Detecting Fake Social Engagement at Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yixuan; Martinez, Oscar; Chen, Xing; Li, Yi; Hopcroft, John

    2015-01-01

    How can web services that depend on user generated content discern fake social engagement activities by spammers from legitimate ones? In this paper, we focus on the social site of YouTube and the problem of identifying bad actors posting inorganic contents and inflating the count of social engagement metrics. We propose an effective method, Leas (Local Expansion at Scale), and show how the fake engagement activities on YouTube can be tracked over time by analyzing the temporal graph based on...

  5. Dream characteristics in a Brazilian sample: an online survey focusing on lucid dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Arthuro Mota-Rolim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During sleep, humans experience the offline images and sensations that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lacking in rational judgment of their bizarreness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD, subjects know that they are dreaming, and may control oneiric content. Dreaming and LD features have been studied in North Americans, Europeans and Asians, but not among Brazilians, the largest population in Latin America. Here we investigated dreams and LD characteristics in a Brazilian sample (n=3,427; median age=25 years through an online survey. The subjects reported recalling dreams at least once a week (76%. Dreams typically depicted actions (93%, known people (92%, sounds/voices (78%, and colored images (76%. The oneiric content was associated with plans for the upcoming days (37%, memories of the previous day (13%, or unrelated to the dreamer (30%. Nightmares usually depicted anxiety/fear (65%, being stalked (48%, or other unpleasant sensations (47%. These data corroborate Freudian notion of day residue, and suggest that dreams are simulations of life situations that are related to our psychobiological integrity. Regarding LD, we observed that 77% of the subjects experienced LD at least once in life (44% up to 10 episodes ever, and for 48% LD subjectively lasted less than 1 minute. LD frequency correlated weakly with dream recall frequency (r=0.20, p<0.01, and LD control was rare (29%. LD occurrence was facilitated when subjects did not need to wake up early (38%, a situation that increases REMS duration, or when subjects were under stress (30%, which increases REMS transitions into waking. These results indicate that LD is a relatively ubiquitous but not frequent state, being unstable, difficult to control, and facilitated by increases in REMS duration and transitions to wake state. Together with LD incidence in USA, Europe and Asia, our data from Latin America strengthen the notion that LD is a general phenomenon of the human

  6. Variations in dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity by age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore eNielsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed dream recall frequency and dream theme diversity with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10 to 79 years in a cross-sectional design. Dream recall frequency increased from adolescence (ages 10-19 to early adulthood (20-29 and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30-39, proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40-49 than it did for females. For females, it began later (40-49, dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50-59. Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10-19 through 40-49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14-44 yrs. Dream theme diversity decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50-59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60-79. There was a sex difference favouring males on this measure but only for ages 10-19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in dream recall frequency from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease in dream recall frequency—primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep, parallel the observed dream recall changes but are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. However, that decreases in dream theme diversity parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that the diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that is specific to dream recall.

  7. Security and privacy in massively-multiplayer online games and social and corporate virtual worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Hogben, G.; Barosso, D.; Bartle, R.; Chazeran, C.; de Zwart, M.; Doumen, J.M.; Gorniak, S.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kaskenmaa, M.; Benavente López, D.; Martin, A.; Naumann, I.; Reynolds, R.; Richardson, J; Rossow, C.

    2008-01-01

    2007 was the year of online gaming fraud - with malicious programs that specifically target online games and virtual worlds increasing by 145% and the emergence of over 30,000 new programs aimed at stealing online game passwords. Such malware is invariably aimed at the theft of virtual property accumulated in a user’s account and its sale for real money. With 217 million regular users of MMO/VWs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games and Virtual Worlds) and real-money sales of virtual objects es...

  8. "I will change the world": The Intersection of Social Change and Male College Athletes' Leadership Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema D; Harrison, C Keith; Lawrence, S Malia; Eyanson, Jeff; McArdle, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Historically, men have been characterized as task-oriented leaders who are motivated by desires for autonomy, wealth, and power (17, 33). However, these "masculine" views of leadership might not accurately capture the leadership motivations of Millennial males as the views were developed in previous generations (4). Given the commitment of many Millennials towards socially responsible attitudes and behaviors (18, 25), we utilized a qualitative research design to examine the influence of social change on the leadership motivations of Millennial male intercollegiate athletes. In doing so, we found participants were motivated to lead in order to affect social change within their communities and within society. Our findings indicate a new perspective, one which includes a commitment to social change, is potentially needed when discussing "masculine" views of leadership.

  9. K R Y Simha We live in an increasingly fragmented world of social ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of social, cultural, political, economical and technological change. Instantaneous ... The languid pace of learning has been a major cause ... repair technology in vogue today in aircraft, ... tion questions for the benefit of teachers and students.

  10. Chronic Media Worlds: Social Media and the Problem of Pain Communication on Tumblr

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Polledo, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores dynamics of pain communication in the social media platform Tumblr. As a device of health communication, the Tumblr platform brings together a network of behaviors, technologies and media forms through which pain experience is reimaged through and against mainstream biomedical frameworks. The article develops an interpretative approach to analyze how, as social media platforms reorganize affective, emotional, physical and temporal frames of experience, communication about ...

  11. Brand Management in a Digital World: An examination of Hugo Boss's efforts in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Fähnle, Sabrina; Teichmann, Julia; Pätzmann, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The rise of social media is causing challenges for brand managers of premium manufacturers in the fast moving consumer goods industry. Social Media platforms as innovative and open communication channels have to be integrated in the established media mix while preventing the damage of the premium-image. Besides the possibility to create dialogues with customers especially the high credibility of partly user generated content can be identified as an advantage and at the same time threat for br...

  12. The Activists’ Use of Social Networking Sites in the Arab World

    OpenAIRE

    Alatrash, Adib Barakat

    2015-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) became one of the most important tools to activate people in various issues including political and social causes. SNS is widely used by activist; individuals or groups, especially in the regions of conflict and chaos. Arab Spring is one of the recent and crucial examples to see how SNS is being used in activating and mobilizing societies against the autocratic state authorities. Thus, the roles that SNS can play by activists have been increasing day by day to th...

  13. Complementary social science? Quali-quantitative experiments in a Big Data world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Blok

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address such epochal (“large-scale” questions by way of a (situated experiment: at the Danish Technical University in Copenhagen, an interdisciplinary group of computer scientists, physicists, economists, sociologists, and anthropologists (including the authors is setting up a large-scale data infrastructure, meant to continually record the digital traces of social relations among an entire freshman class of students ( N  > 1000. At the same time, fieldwork is carried out on friendship (and other relations amongst the same group of students. On this basis, the question we pose is the following: what kind of knowledge is obtained on this social micro-cosmos via the Big (computational, quantitative and Small (embodied, qualitative Data, respectively? How do the two relate? Invoking Bohr’s principle of complementarity as analogy, we hypothesize that social relations, as objects of knowledge, depend crucially on the type of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods but also for the type of societal (self-knowledge that may be expected from new large-scale social databases.

  14. Multirelational organization of large-scale social networks in an online world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szell, Michael; Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan

    2010-08-03

    The capacity to collect fingerprints of individuals in online media has revolutionized the way researchers explore human society. Social systems can be seen as a nonlinear superposition of a multitude of complex social networks, where nodes represent individuals and links capture a variety of different social relations. Much emphasis has been put on the network topology of social interactions, however, the multidimensional nature of these interactions has largely been ignored, mostly because of lack of data. Here, for the first time, we analyze a complete, multirelational, large social network of a society consisting of the 300,000 odd players of a massive multiplayer online game. We extract networks of six different types of one-to-one interactions between the players. Three of them carry a positive connotation (friendship, communication, trade), three a negative (enmity, armed aggression, punishment). We first analyze these types of networks as separate entities and find that negative interactions differ from positive interactions by their lower reciprocity, weaker clustering, and fatter-tail degree distribution. We then explore how the interdependence of different network types determines the organization of the social system. In particular, we study correlations and overlap between different types of links and demonstrate the tendency of individuals to play different roles in different networks. As a demonstration of the power of the approach, we present the first empirical large-scale verification of the long-standing structural balance theory, by focusing on the specific multiplex network of friendship and enmity relations.

  15. Cardiovascular functioning, personality, and the social world: the domain of hierarchical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L

    2009-02-01

    The present paper considers connections between cardiovascular functioning (i.e., disease status and acute stress responses) and social dominance, and its counterpart, social submissiveness, both of which are part of the broader domain of "hierarchical power" [Bugental, D.B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126, 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression, whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed.

  16. Dream Recall Frequencies and Dream Content in Wilson's Disease with and without REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder: A Neurooneirologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribl, Gotthard G; Trindade, Mateus C; Schredl, Michael; Pires, Joana; Reinhard, Iris; Bittencourt, Thais; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Alves, Rosana Cardoso; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Fonoff, Erich T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Machado, Alexandre A; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto R

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Violent dream content and its acting out during rapid eye movement sleep are considered distinctive for rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). This study reports first quantitative data on dreaming in a cohort of patients with treated Wilson's disease (WD) and in patients with WD with RBD. Methods. Retrospective questionnaires on different dimensions of dreaming and a prospective two-week home dream diary with self-rating of emotions and blinded, categorical rating of content by an external judge. Results. WD patients showed a significantly lower dream word count and very few other differences in dream characteristics compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared to WD patients without RBD, patients with WD and RBD reported significantly higher nightmare frequencies and more dreams with violent or aggressive content retrospectively; their prospectively collected dream reports contained significantly more negative emotions and aggression. Conclusions. The reduction in dream length might reflect specific cognitive deficits in WD. The lack of differences regarding dream content might be explained by the established successful WD treatment. RBD in WD had a strong impact on dreaming. In accordance with the current definition of RBD, violent, aggressive dream content seems to be a characteristic of RBD also in WD.

  17. Dream Skepticism and the Conditionality Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Ernest Sosa (2007) has proposed two novel solutions to the problem of dream skepticism. In the present paper, I argue that Sosa's first solution falls prey to what I will refer to as the conditionality problem, i.e., the problem of only establishing a conditional---in this case, "if x......, then I am awake," x being a placeholder for a condition incompatible with dreaming---in a context where it also needs to be established that we can know that the antecedent holds, and as such can infer the consequent, i.e., "I am awake." Sosa's second solution in terms of so-called reflective knowledge......, I conclude that Sosa has not solved the problem of dream skepticism....

  18. The DREAM Project-Results and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2007-01-01

    High-precision jet spectroscopy will be increasingly important in future high-energy accelerator experiments, particularly at a Linear e + e - Collider. DREAM, a novel type of calorimeter, appears to be well suited for this task. The key aspect of this detector is the simultaneous measurement of the scintillation light and the Cherenkov light generated in the shower development process. By comparing these two signals (which are provided by different types of optical fibers), the electromagnetic shower fraction can be measured event by event, both for single hadrons and for jets, and the effects of fluctuations in this fraction can be eliminated. As a result, the DREAM calorimeter has impressive performance characteristics. The application of the DREAM principles in homogeneous calorimeters, which has the potential of providing ultimate calorimeter performance, is also discussed

  19. [Dreams and sensoperception in epicurean theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangas, Julio César

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the epicurean vision on sensoperception and dreams. This epicurean vision is known to us, specially, from the wrintings of his roman divulger, Titus Lucretius Caro in his work "On the nature of things" ("De rerum natura"), IV Chant. The epicureans adopted the materialistic conception of nature, based upon Democritus of Abdera atomistic theory and, in this way, they distinguished their theories on dreams from the general principles prevailing in the popular greco-roman litterature, as well as from the divinatory perception of oneirocritics like Artemidorus and also from the first steps of the physiological conception of dreams from philosophers as the presocratics and Aristotle. We end this article with some of the more interesting paragraphs from Chant IV of the work by Lucretius, regarding this subjet.

  20. Teaching for Social Justice, Diversity, and Citizenship in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, cultural, and language diversity is increasing in nation-states throughout the world because of worldwide immigration. The deepening ethnic diversity within nation-states and the quest by different groups for cultural recognition and rights are challenging assimilationist notions of citizenship and forcing nation-states to…

  1. Growing Global Citizens: Young Children's Lived Experiences with the Development of Their Own Social World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Danielle; Pendergast, Donna; Twigg, Justin

    2015-01-01

    As the result of an increasingly technologically "connected" world, citizens are finding it difficult to effectively exercise civic responsibilities in relation to global issues such as climate change, poverty, and warfare (Tully, 2009). New understandings of the concept of "citizenship" are being extended beyond traditional…

  2. The Global Quest to Build World-Class Universities: Toward a Social Justice Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Robert A.; Li, Shuai; Ilano, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a critical perspective on the global quest to build world-class universities (WCUs), including global "ranking mania," excessive emphasis on university branding, and the attending threats to the traditional public good mission of the university. Alternatively, we offer suggestions on how rankings may be used to…

  3. World Studies. Japan, India, China: Which Direction? Social Studies: 6478.20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Grace C.; Schmidt, Fran

    This Quinmester world studies elective course for grades 7, 8, and 9, focuses on the comparative study of three far eastern nations: China, India, and Japan. The study examines the successes and failures of each nation in dealing with the common problems of over-population, industrialization, and literacy education, leading to speculation as to…

  4. Security and privacy in massively-multiplayer online games and social and corporate virtual worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogben, G.; Barosso, D.; Bartle, R.; Chazeran, C.; de Zwart, M.; Doumen, J.M.; Gorniak, S.; Kaźmierczak, M.; Kaskenmaa, M.; Benavente López, D.; Martin, A.; Naumann, I.; Reynolds, R.; Richardson, J; Rossow, C.; Rywczyoska, A.; Thumann, M.

    2008-01-01

    2007 was the year of online gaming fraud - with malicious programs that specifically target online games and virtual worlds increasing by 145% and the emergence of over 30,000 new programs aimed at stealing online game passwords. Such malware is invariably aimed at the theft of virtual property

  5. Rapid urbanisation in the third world, with special reference to Tropical Africa: social impact and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerl, G

    1983-01-01

    A review of current urbanization trends around the world is presented, with particular reference to the situation in Tropical Africa. Topics considered include overurbanization, development, and migration. The elements of both short- and long-term policies concerning urbanization are outlined.

  6. Personality maturation around the world – A cross-cultural examination of Social- Investment Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleidorn, W.; Klimstra, T.A.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely

  7. Opaque models: Using drugs and dreams to explore the neurobiological basis of mental phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of four historical and ethnographic case studies of modeling in neuroscience laboratories, this chapter introduces a distinction between transparent and opaque models. A transparent model is a simplified representation of a real world phenomenon. If it is not patently clear, it is at least much better comprehended than its objects of representation. An opaque model, by contrast, looks at one only partially understood phenomenon to stand in for another partially understood phenomenon. Here, the model is often just as complex as its target. Examples of such opaque models discussed in this chapter are the use of hallucinogen intoxication in humans and animals as well as the dreaming brain as models of psychosis as well as the dreaming brain as a model of consciousness in general. Several functions of opaque models are discussed, ranging from the generation of funding to the formulation of new research questions. While science studies scholars have often emphasized the epistemic fertility of failures of representation, the opacity of hallucinogen intoxications and dreams seems to have diminished the potential to produce positive knowledge from the representational relationship between the supposed models and their targets. Bidirectional comparisons between inebriation, dreaming, and psychosis, however, proved to be generative on the level of basic science. Moreover, the opaque models discussed in this chapter implicated cosmologies that steered research endeavors into certain directions rather than others. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Social support, world assumptions, and exposure as predictors of anxiety and quality of life following a mass trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills-Taquechel, Amie E; Littleton, Heather L; Axsom, Danny

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the influence of a mass trauma (the Virginia Tech campus shootings) on anxiety symptoms and quality of life, as well as the potential vulnerability/protective roles of world assumptions and social support. Pre-trauma adjustment data, collected in the six months prior to the shooting, was examined along with two-month post-shooting data in a sample of 298 female students enrolled at the university at the time of the shootings. Linear regression analyses revealed consistent predictive roles for world assumptions pertaining to control and self-worth as well as family support. In addition, for those more severely exposed to the shooting, greater belief in a lack of control over outcomes appeared to increase vulnerability for post-trauma physiological and emotional anxiety symptoms. Implications of the results for research and intervention following mass trauma are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Children's Dreams Viewed through the Prism of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcalf, Neva Ann; Hoffman, Thomas J.; Boatwright, Cassie

    2013-01-01

    During a regular free writing time in class, children in Kindergarten through sixth grade in various areas of the city were given the writing prompt,"My dreams for the world". Writing samples were collected from an elementary school in an affluent area of the city, an elementary and a middle school in a low socio-economic area, and an…

  10. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS CONDITION OF INCLUDING UKRAINE IN EUROPE AND WORLD ECONOMIC SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lytvynenko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The thesis that companies’ activities for introduction of corporate social responsibility stimulates the speed of to the processes of the technical upgrade, modernization of company’s activity and increase of its profitability is proved within the article. Those Ukrainian companies, which have high index of activities transparency, are also the most profitable. However, we can’t observe any significant increment of number of companies joining the Global agreement. One of the explanations we could name is the unproved idea supported by some politicians and economists about a shadow (‘black’ market that allegedly allows creating workplaces and taking off social tension in society on the certain stage. Insignificant values of index of citizens’ trust to activity of industries holds on the development socially of responsible business. Trust considered as a part of the general social capital. The Government of Ukraine must support initiative of companies to introduce social responsibility of business, as many European governments do it. It is also important to inform society of advantages of CSR.

  11. Can multiple sclerosis as a cognitive disorder influence patients? dreams?

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadasi, Abdorreza Naser; Owji, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Dream should be considered as a kind of cognitive ability that is formed parallel to other cognitive capabilities like language. On the other hand, multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease that can involve different aspects of our cognition. Therefore, MS may influence patients’ dreams. In fact, we do not know what the importance of dream is in MS, but further studies may introduce dream and dreaming as a sign of improvement or progression in MS disease.Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a diseas...

  12. Ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komu, M.; Genzer, M.; Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.; Harri, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of ESA ExoMars 2016/Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstration Module (EDM). DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to DREAMS payload by Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. Same kind of device is part of REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3].

  13. Psychosis and the control of lucid dreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Bezerra Mota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dreaming and psychosis share important features, such as intrinsic senseperceptions independent of external stimulation, and a general lack of criticism that is associated with reduced frontal cerebral activity. Awareness of dreaming while a dream is happening defines lucid dreaming (LD, a state in which the prefrontal cortex is more active than during regular dreaming. For this reason, LD has been proposed to be potentially therapeutic for psychotic patients. According to this view, psychotic patients would be expected to report LD less frequently, and with lower control ability, than healthy subjects. Furthermore, psychotic patients able to experience LD should present milder psychiatric symptoms, in comparison with psychotic patients unable to experience LD. To test these hypotheses, we investigated LD features (occurrence, control abilities, frequency, and affective valence and psychiatric symptoms (measure by PANSS, BPRS and automated speech analysis in 45 subjects with psychotic symptoms (25 with Schizophrenia (S and 20 with Bipolar Disorder (B diagnosis versus 28 non-psychotic control (C subjects. Psychotic lucid dreamers reported control of their dreams more frequently (67% of S and 73% of B than non-psychotic lucid dreamers (only 23% of C; S > C with p=0. 0283, B > C with p=0.0150. Importantly, there was no clinical advantage for lucid dreamers among psychotic patients, even for the diagnostic question specifically related to lack of judgment and insight. Despite some limitations (e.g. transversal design, large variation of medications, these preliminary results support the notion that lucid dreaming is associated with psychosis, but falsify the hypotheses that we set out to test. A possible explanation is that psychosis enhances the experience of internal reality in detriment of external reality, and therefore lucid dreamers with psychotic symptoms would be more able to control their internal reality than non-psychotic lucid dreamers

  14. Social Work Programs' Use of the World Wide Web to Facilitate Field Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Finn

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Employing a systems model, this study presents a content analysis of the Websites of social work academic programs in the United States. A sample of 292 academic programs was extracted from the Baccalaureate Programs' Directors' (BPD online directory of CSWE-accredited social work programs. Of these, 119 were MSW or MSW/BSW programs; the remaining 173 were BSW programs. Although many aspects of Website content were examined, field curriculum was the central focus of this study. The results demonstrate the wide variety of information included on the Websites. MSW and MSW/BSW program Websites offer more information than BSW programs. However, most programs are not making use of the Internet to obtain feedback, create interaction, or provide support. A variety of model Websites are offered to assist social work academic programs develop and maintain their own Websites.

  15. Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL Insights from a Connected World

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Derek; Smith, Marc A

    2010-01-01

    Businesses, entrepreneurs, individuals, and government agencies alike are looking to social network analysis (SNA) tools for insight into trends, connections, and fluctuations in social media. Microsoft's NodeXL is a free, open-source SNA plug-in for use with Excel. It provides instant graphical representation of relationships of complex networked data. But it goes further than other SNA tools -- NodeXL was developed by a multidisciplinary team of experts that bring together information studies, computer science, sociology, human-computer interaction, and over 20 years of visual analytic theor

  16. Successful anglo-american entrepreneurs and the american dream. A narrative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, Marian; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most successful entrepreneurs in the Anglo-American world have written their autobiographies. A narrative analysis of these autobiographies reveal the influence of the American Dream on their life and on the way they tell their lifestories. An emphasis on moral correctness as well as on working hard, perseverance and discipline justifies the success of the narrators. The American Myth seems to be a reality – at least for white, Anglo-American, male entrepreneur...

  17. Virtual worlds and social and educational inclusion: case study at Secondary Education Institute Cal Gravat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Castañeda Quintero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study with the goal of becoming familiar with and understanding the incorporation of one virtual learning world –Espurnik- in a curricular diversification classroom with students in a situation of educational exclusion or academic failure. This investigation was carried out from an interpretive paradigm with a qualitative methodology grounded in the Case Studies. The data was collected using different qualitative techniques: documentary analysis, direct observation in the virtual world, semi-structured interview with the teacher, and group interview with the students. The conclusions indicate that the emphasis must not be placed on technologies, but rather on the methodological change that many of them foster, setting up the student not a consumer of information but rather a creator and producer of knowledge in a context of collaborative work, attending comprehensively to the community context of the students’ educational development.

  18. Feminismo em movimento: temas e processos organizativos da Marcha Mundial das Mulheres no Fórum Social Mundial Feminism in motion: issues and organising processes of the World March of Women in the World Social Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Nobre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta uma comparação entre o surgimento e desenvolvimento do processo Fórum Social Mundial e a Marcha Mundial das Mulheres no Brasil. O Fórum teve uma enorme contribuição para historicizar a globalização capitalista e mudar os termos do debate, e o movimento de mulheres tem sua trajetória imersa neste contexto, assim como o feminismo tem um grande potencial para desnaturalizar o discurso sobre a globalização e a economia neoliberal. O texto também mostra as relações construídas entre os movimentos sociais e suas agendas em comum que vêm se expressando no conjunto das ações do movimento antiglobalização.The text presents a comparisson among the raising and development of the World Social Forum and of the World March of Women in Brazil. The Forum has had an enormous contribution to historicize the capitalist globalization and to change the terms of the debate, and the women's movement has its trajectory embeded in this context, as well as the great potential that feminism has to denaturalize the mainstream vision on globalization and neoliberal economy. The text also presents the relation built among the movements and their common agendas that has being expressed in the framework of the anti-globalization movement actions.

  19. Psychoanalytic dream theory and recent neurobiological findings about REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, M D

    1984-01-01

    I have reviewed Hobson and McCarley's activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming which attempts to show that the instigation and certain formal aspects of dreaming are physiologically determined by a brainstem neuronal mechanism, their reasons for suggesting major revisions in psychoanalytic dream theory, and neurophysiological data that are inconsistent with their hypothesis. I then discussed the concept of mind-body isomorphism pointing out that they use this concept inconsistently, that despite their denials they regularly view physiology as primary and psychological processes as secondary, and that they frequently make the error of mixing the languages of physiology and psychology in their explanatory statements. Finally, in order to evaluate Hobson and McCarley's claim that their findings require revision of psychoanalytic dream theory, I examined their discussions of chase dreams, flying dreams, sexual dreams, the formal characteristics of dreams, the forgetting of dreams, and the instigation of dreams. I concluded that although their fascinating physiological findings may be central to understanding the neurobiology of REM sleep, they do not alter the meaning and interpretation of dreams gleaned through psychoanalytic study.

  20. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.