Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan
Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding.
Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Elswijk, van Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan
Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols
Psychosocial interventions for social communication, repetitive, and emotional-behavioral difficulties in children and young people with spectrum disorders: an update on effectiveness and the role of caregivers
van Steensel, F.J.A.; Magiati, I.; Essau, C.A.; Allen, J.L.
A number of time-limited psychosocial interventions targeting social skills, internalizing and externalizing difficulties have been developed for children and young people with ASD. Increasingly more evidence is emerging that such interventions are effective in reducing difficulties and improving sk
Russell, Robert L
Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.
Veronica GHEORGHIȚĂ; Alexandrina PĂDUREȚU
Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face t...
Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen
Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed.
Elizabeth Hellmuth eMargulis
Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.
Full Text Available Social networks visible influence people's ability to interact and communicate. Extending social circles by establishing virtual links involves a number of positive aspects such as: instant access to options for interaction, sharing of information to large communities of people, intensification of acts of communication, high levels of feedback and trust with people with whom we communicate. On the other hand, social networks adversely affects communication by decreasing the interaction face to face, by imposing superficial communications experiences, grammatical and spelling erosion of the language. Therefore, the study aims to capture the spread of social networks, their use and impact on interpersonal communication. More specifically, they look for the answer to the question: what is the nature of interpersonal communication that is found on social networking sites: personal, emotional, private or shared, informal, and public?
For centuries advances in what we now term media have generated concerns about the effect these advances have on values and morality-books, stage drama, movies, TV, and now computer-based fantasy and Internet-based distribution. These media comprise some of the most powerful agents for developing our fundamental strategies for living. Computer-based fantasy can provide waves of sensations that everyday life does not prepare us for; they create a wow effect. The implications are especially, strong for adolescents. Wow effects come to seem ordinary. We can easily overdose on them with a subsequent dulling of sensibility that motivates one to seek the next level. As the wow effect is numbed, socializing restrictions break down. A psychological strategy of distancing is one defense against enhanced imagery - a strategy of cool as antidote. The wow-cool dipole can foster a role as spectator that inhibits empathy and a fundamental distancing from the self. Technology - the source of our concerns-can also help to counteract them. The most powerful drive in children is to learn mastery of the world. New input and output devices and especially properly designed software can enhance the capacity to learn and to be creative, i.e. to gain mastery over the world. These powerful new modes of communication not only give us great access to the world, they give the world great access to us. We must supplant what is now mostly a passive broadcast system with interactive exploration and two-way communication.
Bennett, W. Lance
Proposes a code for a new communication consciousness that would keep language sensitive and accountable to human experience. Focuses on mass political communication and the tendency toward systematic negative communication inherent in news pronouncements. (PD)
Scheufele, Dietram A
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists--driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication--to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.
Serup, Liv; Laursen, Stine; Sandgreen, Michael; Trougaard, Victor; Lind, Line; Hansen, Camilla
This project aims to explore the changes social media platforms have generated onto corporate communication. Exploring the notion of dialogue in relation to various dialogic theories, social media theory, and corporate communication will provide an answer to this, as the respective theories and concepts provide different perspectives. The analysis is anchored in a case study of Danske Bank and Call me, since they represent two well-established organizations on Facebook. It is concluded tha...
Servaes, J.; Lie, R.
The article provides a survey of the field of sustainable social change and communication in the global context. It discusses the history of development communication as well as related policy and rights issues. It reviews approaches such as modernization, globalization and localization, multiplicit
This article discusses whether commercial communication in social media is covered by the European opt in-model concerning unsolicited electronic mail for direct marketing purposes found in the directive on privacy and electronic communications (2002/58). It is concluded that messages in social...... found in the distance selling directive (1997/7). Now, the use of electronic mail for direct marketing purposes in social media must be assessed in accordance with the full harmonisation in the unfair commercial practices directive (2005/29). This directive does not contain a ban on »unsolicited...... to encourage discussions on whether the defi nition of electronic mail set out in the directive on privacy and electronic communications1 is up-to-date. The letter was sent in connection to the publishing of a common Nordic position paper on marketing in social media. The preceding discussions among...
Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.
Full Text Available As a focus of study, ‘social media’ tend to lack definitional clarity and grounding in theories of media and text. This paper establishes and discusses a conceptual framework for defining social media as communicative genres, constituted by the interplay between interactive functionalities configured at the software level and the invocation and appropriation of various software functionalities to achieve specific purposes in and through users’ actual communicative practices. I suggest that social media might be seen as particularly dynamic genres, subject to continuous disruption and uncertainty,owing to their deinstitutionalised and participatory character, and the shifting roles of producers and recipients in the networks and conversations that make up social media content.
Greenfield, P M; Savage-Rumbaugh, E S
Through an analysis of chimpanzee-human discourse, we show that two Pan troglodytes chimpanzees and two Pan paniscus chimpanzees (bonobos) exposed to a humanly devised symbol system use partial or complete repetition of others' symbols, as children do: they do not produce rote imitations, but instead use repetition to fulfil a variety of pragmatic functions in discourse. These functions include agreement, request, promise, excitement, and selection from alternatives. In so doing, the chimpanzees demonstrate contingent turn-taking and the use of simple devices for lexical cohesion. In short, they demonstrate conversational competence. Because of the presence of this conversational competence in three sibling species, chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans, it is concluded that the potential to express pragmatic functions through repetition was part of the evolutionary history of human language, present in our common ancestor before the phylogenetic divergence of hominids and chimpanzees. In the context of these similarities, two interesting differences appeared: (I) Human children sometimes used repetition to stimulate more talk in their conversational partner; the chimpanzees, in contrast, use repetition exclusively to forward the non-verbal action. This difference may illuminate a unique feature of human linguistic communication, or it may simply reflect a modality difference (visual symbols used by the chimpanzees, speech used by the children) in the symbol systems considered in this research. A second difference seems likely to reflect a true species difference: utterance length. The one- and two-symbol repetitions used by the chimpanzees to fulfil a variety of pragmatic functions were less than half the maximum length found in either the visual symbol combinations addressed to them by their adult human caregivers or the oral repetitions of two-year-old children. This species difference probably reflects the evolution of increased brain size and consequent increased
Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies.
Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.
Rizwan Ali Khadim; Bilal Zafar; Muhammad Younis
Social media has changed the shape of communication strategies in the corporate world. Corporations are using social media to reach their maximum stakeholders in minimum time at different social media forums. Consumers being an important corporate stakeholder hold significant importance in corporate communication strategy. The current study examines the role of social media communication on consumer brand perceptions and their buying behavior. A comprehensive survey is conducted through vario...
Morsing, Mette; Spence, Laura J.
to develop a theoretical explanation for SBSR communication. Findings: Our analysis conceptualizes the ‘governmentality dilemma’ as SBSR managers face two simultaneous and potentially counterproductive expectations: responding to externally prescribed expectations, norms and standards such as branding, codes...... of conduct and CSR reporting (i.e. CSR as a “regime of truth”, Foucault) and an internally prescribed ethos of a personal philosophy of ethics and norms such as family identity and employee values, concern for local community and legacy of the company (i.e. CSR as personally held values). We contribute...... to conceptualization of SBSR communication as we develop a framework which suggests a spectrum of disciplining effects of social responsibility in relation to implicit and explicit CSR. We analyse these from the perspectives of surveillance, examination and normalization. Research limitations...
Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes
In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction has been changed as a whole...... response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e. a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards...
Brukner-Wertman, Yael; Laor, Nathaniel; Golan, Ofer
DSM-5 introduced two diagnoses describing neurodevelopmental deficits in social communication (SC); Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SPCD). These diagnoses are differentiated by Repetitive and Restricted Behaviors (RRB), required for an ASD diagnosis and absent in SPCD. We highlight the gaps between the…
Derek L. ANDERSON
Full Text Available The role of deliberate practice in the development of performance has been studied extensively in many contexts, such as in athletics. The construct of deliberate practice in the development of teacher performance has been receiving heightened examination lately, though the role of practice in the development of elementary social studies teachers remains essentially unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a repeated practice microteaching model on the teaching behaviors of 64 elementary preservice teachers (PSTs who taught the same social studies lessons to small groups of 4th-grade students four times in succession. PST reflection journals from all PSTs, observational transcripts of 14 teaching pairs, focus group interviews with the PSTs, and informal cooperating teacher interviews revealed that the PSTs’ lessons changed over the four successive teaching episodes. The PSTs became more comfortable and confident after teaching the same social studies lesson multiple times. PSTs also reported that their lessons became better, yet the qualitative data revealed that even though their teaching became more efficient and student work correctness improved, only a few PSTs increased the cognitive demand of their questions and activities. Nonetheless, most PSTs demonstrated increased use of social studies pedagogical content knowledge through their examples and discussions, as well as increased attention to student thinking. Repeated practice field experiences seem to hold potential for elementary PSTs to develop their use ofsocial studies pedagogical content knowledge
Candidi, Matteo; Curioni, Arianna; Donnarumma, Francesco; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Pezzulo, Giovanni
Non-verbal communication is the basis of animal interactions. In dyadic leader-follower interactions, leaders master the ability to carve their motor behaviour in order to 'signal' their future actions and internal plans while these signals influence the behaviour of follower partners, who automatically tend to imitate the leader even in complementary interactions. Despite their usefulness, signalling and imitation have a biomechanical cost, and it is unclear how this cost-benefits trade-off is managed during repetitive dyadic interactions that present learnable regularities. We studied signalling and imitation dynamics (indexed by movement kinematics) in pairs of leaders and followers during a repetitive, rule-based, joint action. Trial-by-trial Bayesian model comparison was used to evaluate the relation between signalling, imitation and pair performance. The different models incorporate different hypotheses concerning the factors (past interactions versus online movements) influencing the leader's signalling (or follower's imitation) kinematics. This approach showed that (i) leaders' signalling strategy improves future couple performance, (ii) leaders used the history of past interactions to shape their signalling, (iii) followers' imitative behaviour is more strongly affected by the online movement of the leader. This study elucidates the ways online sensorimotor communication help individuals align their task representations and ultimately improves joint action performance.
Araceli Castelló-Martínez, Ph.D.; Vicente-José Ros-Diego, Ph.D.
Online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become essential channels in business strategies. Corporate Social Responsibility communication faces new challenges in these spaces of the Web 2.0, where companies can interact with users, generate a brand community, increase their visibility, and strengthen their position in the market. This research study aims to analyse the way companies use the major online social media to communicate their Corporate Social Responsibility programme...
Araceli Castelló-Martínez, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become essential channels in business strategies. Corporate Social Responsibility communication faces new challenges in these spaces of the Web 2.0, where companies can interact with users, generate a brand community, increase their visibility, and strengthen their position in the market. This research study aims to analyse the way companies use the major online social media to communicate their Corporate Social Responsibility programmes. The methodology involves the examination of the presence in online social platforms and the online corporate reputation of ten companies/brands. The results show that companies use these spaces as channels for business and advertising communication, but not so much for Corporate Social Responsibility communication, despite these social media offer many possibilities for interaction and dialogue.
Sterponi, Laura; Shankey, Jennifer
Echolalia is a pervasive phenomenon in verbal children with autism, traditionally conceived of as an automatic behavior with no communicative function. However, recently it has been shown that echoes may serve interactional goals. This article, which presents a case study of a six-year-old child with autism, examines how social interaction…
Social media sites and applications have become extensively popular all over the world especially in the past decade. Social networking sites, creating and sharing content as well as reviewing products and services online are all based on the concept of web 2.0 and user generated content that enable the interactive communication online. Social media has been gaining a crucial position also in marketing communications. Its popularity is based on consumers’ changed views in the aspect of ma...
Ziggers, Gerrit Willem
The purpose of this paper is to provide firms in the food and agricultural sector a model that enables them to assess their corporate social initiatives in conjunction with their stakeholders. Building on the concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate social performance (CSP) and the relational view the paper argues that firms can improve the results of their corporate social initiatives by setting up a dialogue with their stakeholders and to relate this to their internal or...
Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J
Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders.
Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by pervasive impairments in repetitive behaviors or interests, communication, and socialization. As the onset of these features occurs at a very young age, early detection is of the utmost importance. In an attempt to better clarify the behavioral presentation of communication and socialization…
Tims, Albert R.
Supports the argument that social values have an impact on family environment, determining the political information and communication activity the child is exposed to and shaping parent-child relations. (PD)
Mark-Herbert, Cecilia; von Schantz, Carolina
Corporate action is subject to more scrutiny than ever. An attempt to legitimize the corporate role is seen in corporate social responsibility as a part of a triple bottom line framework. Corporate principles are communicated in various forms to a wide set of stakeholders. Ideally, what is communicated in terms of principles is also seen in business practice. In cases where the principles and actions differ, the platform for creating a brand territory is limited. The communication platf...
Cawyer, Carol Stringer; Friedrich, Gustav W.
Surveys a national sample of new faculty members in communication departments to identify features of organizational socialization. Examines perceptions of socialization for the job interview and the orientation activities. Finds that amount of time spent in orientation activities is the best predictor of satisfaction upon arrival. (SR)
Full Text Available The emergence and spread of Internet communication has led to changes in social relationships, abuse of the Internet and maladaptive behavior. Among the authors who have studied the impact of these changes there is no consensus, and the results of their research are often contradictory. Some authors conclude that Internet communication strengthens networks of its users, while others believe that such communication leads to reduced participation in real social life. In a number of people, excessive use of the Internet adversely affects the mental health and social life and can lead to obsession at the expense of other aspects of life and creating addiction. The greatest risk of negative impacts of online communication is among children and young people. This paper is meant to indicate, the good sides as well as the negative consequences of excessive and non-functional Internet use
How to succeed in facilitating for empowering processes within social work practice is a central topic in both theoretical discussions and regarding its principles in practice. With a particular focus on how dialogical communication can play a part in order to practice empowering social work, through this text the author frames HUSK as a project facilitating the underpinning humanistic approaches in social work. Dialogical communication and its philosophical base is presented and recognized as a means to achieve empowering social work as well as highlighting the importance of the humanistic approach. The author also underscores how HUSK projects in themselves were enabled because of the required collaboration between service users, professionals, and researchers that signified HUSK. This is pinpointed as having potential for a future research agenda as well as pointing at how the outcomes of the projects may impact future social work practice when the goal is to conduct empowering social work.
In 1984, Niklas Luhmann published Soziale Systeme in which he applies the idea of autopoiesis (= self-production) to social systems. Abstracted from its biological connotations, the concept of autopoiesis leads to a sharp distinction between different kinds of autopoietic organization, i.e. between life, consciousness and communication. According to Luhmann, the relationship between social systems and human beings cannot be adequately analysed except by taking into account that they are environments for one another. If this theoretical background is accepted, the concepts and theory of socialization need to be revised. Luhmann takes issues with classical notions such as internalization, inculcation, or 'socialization to the grounds of consensus' (Talcott Parsons). After a historical overview of social systems research and general systems theory, it is indicated how communications trigger further communications and realize the autopoiesis of social systems. In the second part of the article, the distinction between social systems and psychic systems is used to discuss issues crucial to socialization theory. Both a revision of the concept of socialization, and lines for an empirical research programme are proposed in accordance with Luhmann's theory of social systems.
Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.
Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.
Yang, Xinxin; Chen, Bo-Chiuan; Maity, Mrinmoy; Ferrara, Emilio
Social media play an increasingly important role in political communication. Various studies investigated how individuals adopt social media for political discussion, to share their views about politics and policy, or to mobilize and protest against social issues. Yet, little attention has been devoted to the main actors of political discussions: the politicians. In this paper, we explore the topics of discussion of U.S. President Obama and the 50 U.S. State Governors using Twitter data and a...
Key, Alexandra P; Dykens, Elisabeth M
The present study examined possible neural mechanisms underlying increased social interest in persons with Williams syndrome (WS). Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) during passive viewing were used to compare incidental memory traces for repeated vs. single presentations of previously unfamiliar social (faces) and nonsocial (houses) images in 26 adults with WS and 26 typical adults. Results indicated that participants with WS developed familiarity with the repeated faces and houses (frontal N400 response), but only typical adults evidenced the parietal old/new effect (previously associated with stimulus recollection) for the repeated faces. There was also no evidence of exceptional salience of social information in WS, as ERP markers of memory for repeated faces vs. houses were not significantly different. Thus, while persons with WS exhibit behavioral evidence of increased social interest, their processing of social information in the absence of specific instructions may be relatively superficial. The ERP evidence of face repetition detection in WS was independent of IQ and the earlier perceptual differentiation of social vs. nonsocial stimuli. Large individual differences in ERPs of participants with WS may provide valuable information for understanding the WS phenotype and have relevance for educational and treatment purposes.
Thastum, Mikael; Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte;
The purpose of this qualitative study of families where a parent has cancer was to explore ways of informing the child of the parent's illness, how the child perceives the parent's emotional state, how the child copes with the parent's illness, and how this coping relates to the parent's coping...... and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant...... of both the ill and the healthy parent's emotional condition. The children's observations and expressions led us to identify five coping strategies the younger generation used: Helping others, parentification, distraction, keeping it in the head, and wishful thinking. Both adaptive and destructive...
Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.
Full Text Available This paper present the role and interaction between communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, strengtheningin the same time that communication it is a key factor to begin and keep a proper Sustainable Development strategy. The importance of communication is essential, taking in consideration the awareness in the interior and in the exterior of organization strategy, ethical, ecological and socio-economical objectives, since information regarding the impact of the company’s activities, products and services as well as regarding the impacts of changes that can supervene in time, can only be provided in this way. Since there are many ways to communicate regarding the actions of CSR, it is important to know what kind of messages and ideas can resonate with a certain audience, considering the stage in which the ISO 26000 standard’s development stands.
Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF
Carmen Daniela Maier
Full Text Available This article addresses how the multimodal persuasive strategies of corporate social responsibility communication can highlight a company’s commitment to gender empowerment and environmental protection while advertising simultaneously its products. Drawing on an interdisciplinary methodological framework related to CSR communication, multimodal discourse analysis and gender theory, the article proposes a multimodal analysis model through which it is possible to map and explain the multimodal persuasive strategies employed by Coca-Cola company in their community-related films. By examining the semiotic modes’ interconnectivity and functional differentiation, this analytical endeavour expands the existing research work as the usual textual focus is extended to a multimodal one.
Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Harry O; Glass, Joseph E; Margerum-Leys, Jon
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.
Brian E. Perron
Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICTs are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
More and more organizations develop the social media features on their intranet and encourage coworkers to communicate, connect with each other and share knowledge across departmental and geographical distance. The question is however how this internal social media (ISM) influences organizational...... communication and the organization, and the purpose of the dissertation is to explore internal social media and coworkers as communicators on internal social media from a communication perspective to answer the overall research question: Does internal social media create a new kind of participatory...... organizational communication? And if yes, in what way? And what are the dynamics driving coworker communication on internal social media? The dissertation builds on a social-constructivist approach and a communication constitutes organizations (CCO) understanding of organizations, and the theoretical framework...
Bachelor work deals with trends in marketing communication and their focus on solving social problems. Theoretical part generally focuses on the action of the communication and communicating mix in the marketing mix, it describes trend in marketing communication as guerilla marketing and viral marketing. It defines the terms of social marketing, cause related marketing and corporate social responsibility. The practical part describes a nonprofit organization Oxfam International and it also de...
Saramäki, Jari; Leicht, E A; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Dunbar, Robin I M
The social network maintained by a focal individual, or ego, is intrinsically dynamic and typically exhibits some turnover in membership over time as personal circumstances change. However, the consequences of such changes on the distribution of an ego's network ties are not well understood. Here we use a unique 18-mo dataset that combines mobile phone calls and survey data to track changes in the ego networks and communication patterns of students making the transition from school to university or work. Our analysis reveals that individuals display a distinctive and robust social signature, captured by how interactions are distributed across different alters. Notably, for a given ego, these social signatures tend to persist over time, despite considerable turnover in the identity of alters in the ego network. Thus, as new network members are added, some old network members either are replaced or receive fewer calls, preserving the overall distribution of calls across network members. This is likely to reflect the consequences of finite resources such as the time available for communication, the cognitive and emotional effort required to sustain close relationships, and the ability to make emotional investments.
Yang, Xinxin; Maity, Mrinmoy; Ferrara, Emilio
Social media play an increasingly important role in political communication. Various studies investigated how individuals adopt social media for political discussion, to share their views about politics and policy, or to mobilize and protest against social issues. Yet, little attention has been devoted to the main actors of political discussions: the politicians. In this paper, we explore the topics of discussion of U.S. President Obama and the 50 U.S. State Governors using Twitter data and agenda-setting theory as a tool to describe the patterns of daily political discussion, uncovering the main topics of attention and interest of these actors. We examine over one hundred thousand tweets produced by these politicians and identify seven macro-topics of conversation, finding that Twitter represents a particularly appealing vehicle of conversation for American opposition politicians. We highlight the main motifs of political conversation of the two parties, discovering that Republican and Democrat Governors are...
Heinze, J; d'Ettorre, P
Communication in social insects usually serves the good of the whole society and thus increases the inclusive fitness of all individuals. Hence, cheating and dishonesty are not expected when nestmates are to be alarmed or recruited to food sources. However, kin selection predicts a conflict...... of interest among individuals about the partitioning of reproduction. Dishonest communication may then be advantageous. Workers usually do not lay eggs in the presence of a fertile queen, but in many species they do so when the queen is removed. This effect has been explained by manipulative, i.e. dishonest......, queen control or honest fertility signalling. Numerous studies have documented qualitative and quantitative differences in the pheromone blends of reproductives and non-reproductives. We examine these data for signs of honest signalling, conflict and manipulation....
Conditions and notions of corporate reputation underwent in the last years a fundamental change. Economic and technological processes of globalization, modernization, and rationalization enforced the institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the corporate world. It is often...... assumed, that CSR positively affects corporate reputation and leads to financial benefits, although empirical evidence and an appropriate conceptualization of reputation are often missing. This chapter discusses the relation between CSR and reputation by taking a meta-perspective: it presents...... and critically discusses insights from instrumental perspectives and from political-normative perspectives (legitimacy, business ethics). It alternatively develops a constructivist communication view on CSR, building on the “communication constitutes organizations” perspective and a non-dualist turn. It argues...
Krantz, D. H.
In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large
Ana Mª Enrique Jiménez
Full Text Available It is often in the social networks where you detect the first signs of a potential crisis situation. Today, many companies decide to be present in social networks to communicate, listen and respond to their audiences openly with immediacy. A simple complaint is visible and propagates through the network in seconds, being capable of generating a negative impact on the corporate image of the organization. The same can happen to the contrary, ie, to praise the performance of a company, which may affect the creation or strengthening of the good reputation of the company. However, we know that this does not happen with the same intensity. In this paper we analyze the decisions and actions of two opposing companies, Nestlé and Panrico, in front of a possible crisis situation.
Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E
Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.
The concept of social representations, which was developed by Moscovici in 1984, suggests new ways of understanding the social processes that underlie communication between individuals. A social representation is a set of concepts, statements, and explanations originating in daily life in the course of inter-individual communication. The purpose…
Today, social media is changing the way people communicate by giving the influence to the hands of the people. For organizations, it means that the issues of stakeholders are the focus of the communication, not the organizations. The question no longer is whether to use social media in public relations, but how to use it. In this research the social media communication of the Finnish missions abroad is studied. The missions have implemented social media as a part of their communication m...
Salazar Gómez, Mónica; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Sepúlveda, Roberto; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
This article exposes and analyses the different perspectives of students, academics, entrepreneurs and educational authorities about the future of the social communication studies career. Our interest is to contrast the different views on the social communication studies projection; the many positions about how the professional career should be; the expectative regarding what a social communicator should be able to know how to do; and the future of the profession in relation to the country ne...
Lopez, Cecilia Maria
In the competitive atmosphere of today's business world, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become yet another factor organizations use to distinguish themselves and make their values apparent to their audiences. Social media have helped organizations communicate these characteristics with their audiences by enabling timely and cost-effective communication between individuals and organizations. While many studies have explored the role of social media in communicating CSR messages, few...
Moraes, Jorge C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Based on a concrete case, the negotiation of compensation and reparation for environmental damage in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this paper deals with the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as main strategic instrument to set up a relationship among state, businesses and the civil society in the process of licensing and deploying gas pipelines. In this kind of process, a few cultural aspects, such as a social pattern based in philanthropy and paternalism, make difficult for any agreement to be reached among the stake holders. As a result, the process of licensing becomes slow and fragile. In some cases, negotiation ends up unsuccessful. This mental model coexists with an imperious need for investments in energy, leading to a hard contradiction between a traditional behavior and the surge of modern consumerism habits. Besides, local legislation and bureaucracy allow for few or no options to solve the conflict. In this context, as will be seen, CSR is a preferential way to establish fruitful dialog. By means of Corporate Social Investments (CSI), it is possible to create a common experience of local development among entrepreneurs, the state and the community, by this breaking communication barriers and providing alternatives to solve the original contradiction. (author)
Cynthia Gayle Wible
Full Text Available Evidence is reviewed for the existence of a core system for moment-to-moment social communication that is based on the perception of dynamic gestures and other social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, including the posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions. Overactivation of these regions may produce the schizophrenic syndrome. The TPJ plays a key role in the perception and production of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others. These include dynamic gestures of the body, face, and eyes as well as audiovisual speech and prosody. Many negative symptoms are characterized by deficits in responding within these domains. Several properties of this system have been discovered through single neuron recording, brain stimulation, neuroimaging, and the study of neurological impairment. These properties map onto the schizophrenic syndrome. The representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, and tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the perceptual signal of gesture representation is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to rapidly detect threat-related emotions. I review preliminary evidence that overactivation of this system can result in schizophrenia.
The development of mass communication is the result of specific historical conditions; mass communication not only brings the epoch-making revolution of the history, but also profound impact on human consciousness and behavior, which hold the sustained and far-reaching significance in promoting human civilization, freedom of thought and democracy. Through the comprehensive study on the communicational needs and the history of communication industry, and also on the social conditions of technological development, this thesis analyzes the social role of mass media based on the interaction between mass communication and social development from which the dependent pattern can be drawn.
Snavely, William B.; Walters, Ellen V.
Assessed coworkers' perceptions of public school superintendents' behavior related to social style (assertiveness, responsiveness, versatility) and interpersonal communication competence (empathy, social anxiety, listening, self-disclosure, flexibility). Found that superintendents with highly responsive styles were perceived as more competent than…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare patients with Asperger syndrome (AS and control participants on social cognition tasks and communication skills. Twenty young adults were assessed in three social cognition domains; recognition of basic emotions, recognition of complex emotions and Theory of Mind (ToM. In addition participants completed a self-report questionnaire as a measure of social communication skills. The results indicate that adults with AS perform below neurotypical control participants in emotion processing, ToM and communication skills. There were no significant correlations between the variables of social cognition and communication skills in the group of AS. Taken together, results suggest that people with a diagnosis of AS present a deficit in ToM and emotional processing as well as in communication skills. However, it was not possible to identify a significant association between the variables of social cognition and communication skills.
Nagaraja, Shishir; Piyawongwisal, Pratch; Singh, Vijit; Agarwal, Pragya; Borisov, Nikita
We propose the construction of an unobservable communications network using social networks. The communication endpoints are vertices on a social network. Probabilistically unobservable communication channels are built by leveraging image steganography and the social image sharing behavior of users. All communication takes place along the edges of a social network overlay connecting friends. We show that such a network can provide decent bandwidth even with a far from optimal routing mechanism such as restricted flooding. We show that such a network is indeed usable by constructing a botnet on top of it, called Stegobot. It is designed to spread via social malware attacks and steal information from its victims. Unlike conventional botnets, Stegobot traffic does not introduce new communication endpoints between bots. We analyzed a real-world dataset of image sharing between members of an online social network. Analysis of Stegobot's network throughput indicates that stealthy as it is, it is also functionally p...
Albers, H Elliott
Neuropeptides in the arginine vasotocin/arginine vasopressin (AVT/AVP) family play a major role in the regulation of social behavior by their actions in the brain. In mammals, AVP is found within a circuit of recriprocally connected limbic structures that form the social behavior neural network. This review examines the role played by AVP within this network in controlling social processes that are critical for the formation and maintenance of social relationships: social recognition, social communication and aggression. Studies in a number of mammalian species indicate that AVP and AVP V1a receptors are ideally suited to regulate the expression of social processes because of their plasticity in response to factors that influence social behavior. The pattern of AVP innervation and V1a receptors across the social behavior neural network may determine the potential range and intensity of social responses that individuals display in different social situations. Although fundamental information on how social behavior is wired in the brain is still lacking, it is clear that different social behaviors can be influenced by the actions of AVP in the same region of the network and that AVP can act within multiple regions of this network to regulate the expression of individual social behaviors. The existing data suggest that AVP can influence social behavior by modulating the interpretation of sensory information, by influencing decision making and by triggering complex motor outputs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.
Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Gianfranco
This study assessed whether a program based on microswitch and computer technology would enable three post-coma participants (adults) with motor and communication/consciousness impairments to choose among environmental stimuli and request their repetition whenever they so desired. Within each session, 16 stimuli (12 preferred and 4 non-preferred)…
This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication...
Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically...
Blázovics, L.; Varga, C.; Bamford, W.
In this work we are underlining the importance of social mobile networks for upcoming cooperative communication systems. The assumption of this work is that future mobile communication systems will incorporate user cooperation, i.e. a combination of cellular access in parallel with ongoing short...... cases. By the example of the Gedda-Headz gaming community, possible links between cooperative mobile communication and social mobile networks are shown....
Sun Sun Lim
Social media platforms provide the key affordance of “communicative fluidity”, where communication can be more seamless because of the multiple channels users can tap to express themselves. Besides just text therefore, users can communicate via photographs, videos, emoji, and stickers, on top of voice and video calls. The visual richness of social media enables users to make explicit feelings that cannot be articulated in words, while graphical representations such as stickers can lend messag...
Ewa Jaska; Agnieszka Werenowska
Searching for information on products and services combined with the growing interest in social media make them important channels of marketing communication and more and more companies see their advertising potential. In order to demonstrate the role of social media in shaping the corporate image and branding the paper discusses the reasons for companies’ interest in this form of communication, its application in the internal communication system as well as the benefits and risks of a brand ...
literature not only indicates the positive aspects of social identity, but also negative aspects, which may impede intergroup communication and...on behalf of” others is rooted in social identity.152 Normally, there is a negative connotation regarding power and its relationship to intergroup...actualize their roles in those systems.190 Communication is a network that runs through social systems and acts as a catalyst to start the human action
9/1/2011 Army Social Media : harnessing the power of networked communications Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Social Media : harnessing the power of networked communications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the Chief of Public Affairs,Online and Social Media Division,1500 Pentagon,Washington,DC,20301 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9
Parr, Jeremy R.; Dale, Naomi J.; Shaffer, Lara M.; Salt, Alison T.
Aim: The aim of this study was to study systematically social, communication, and repetitive/restrictive (SCRR) behavioural difficulties and clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and/or septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), and to investigate the relationship between visual impairment, SCRR difficulties, ASD,…
Wallace, Gregory L.; Dudley, Katerina; Anthony, Laura; Pugliese, Cara E.; Orionzi, Bako; Clasen, Liv; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Giedd, Jay N.; Martin, Alex; Raznahan, Armin; Kenworthy, Lauren
Although social-communication difficulties and repetitive behaviors are hallmark features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and persist across the lifespan, very few studies have compared age-related differences in these behaviors between youth with ASD and same-age typically developing (TD) peers. We examined this issue using SRS-2 (Social…
As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.
Simms, Mark D; Jin, Xing Ming
• Based on strong research evidence (1), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has increased over the past decade, with a 2010 prevalence of 1:68 (1.5%) in children age 8 years. • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3), the most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) identifies two core dimensions for the diagnosis of ASD: social (social communication and social interaction) and nonsocial (restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities). • Based on some research evidence as well as consensus (3) (31) (32) (33) (34), DSM-V identifies social pragmatic communication disorder (SPCD) as a dissociable dimension of language and communication ability that affects how individuals use language for social exchanges. SPCD is often found in children with language impairments and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other genetic/neurologic conditions. • Based on strong research evidence (2) (26) (27) (28), childhood language disorders affect 7.4% of kindergarteners, and 50% to 80% of these children experience persistent language, academic, and social-emotional difficulties into their adult years, despite having normal nonverbal cognitive abilities. • Based primarily on consensus due to lack of relevant clinical studies, differential diagnosis of autism and language disorders may require a multidisciplinary evaluation that takes into account a child’s overall development, including cognitive, communication, and social abilities. Monitoring the response to appropriate interventions and trajectory of development over time may improve the accuracy of diagnosis, especially in very young children.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
The aim of this paper is to explore to what extend internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication in organizations. The paper is based on two explorative studies: A multiple case study in ten Danish organizations and a single case study in a Danish bank. Based on the two...... studies it is proposed that it is possible to distinguish between three different types of communication arenas created by internal social media: A quiet arena, a knowledge sharing arena and a participatory communication arena. Internal social media does not in itself introduce participatory communication....... Different levels of communication might be reached in different types of organizations, and it is only when coworkers perceive a license to critique that organizations will actually develop participatory communication that has the ability to move the organization....
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
. Different levels of communication might be reached in different types of organizations, and it is only when coworkers perceive a license to critique that organizations will actually develop participatory communication that has the ability to move the organization.......The aim of this paper is to explore to what extend internal social media introduces a new kind of participatory communication in organizations. The paper is based on two explorative studies: A multiple case study in ten Danish organizations and a single case study in a Danish bank. Based on the two...... studies it is proposed that it is possible to distinguish between three different types of communication arenas created by internal social media: A quiet arena, a knowledge sharing arena and a participatory communication arena. Internal social media does not in itself introduce participatory communication...
Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie
Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been…
Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie
Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been paid…
Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C
Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed.
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is an example of an approach to management that emphasizes the importance of organization’s influence exerted by the company on a number of diverse groups called stakeholders. CSR sets new functions for social communication. In this paper chosen examples of social activities communication of Polish mining companies has been addressed. The main risks for the use of contemporary forms of communication as well as possibilities which are the results of application of modern management model has been indicated.
the entire Twitter social graph, a network analysis was carried out to study the structural properties of the CSR community, such as the level of reciprocity, and advanced data mining techniques, i.e. topic and sentiment analysis, were carried out to investigate the communication dynamics. Findings...... is to investigate which corporate communication strategy adopted in online social media is more effective to create convergence between corporations' corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda and stakeholders' social expectations, and thereby, to increase corporate legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – Using....... Empirical findings show that, even when engaging in a dialogue, communication in social media is still conceived as a marketing practice to convey messages about companies. Originality/value – This paper originally investigates organizational legitimacy in the context of social media by applying advanced...
Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Menzel, Florian; Nehring, Volker; Schmitt, Thomas
Insect life strategies comprise all levels of sociality from solitary to eusocial, in which individuals form persistent groups and divide labor. With increasing social complexity, the need to communicate a greater diversity of messages arose to coordinate division of labor, group cohesion, and concerted actions. Here we summarize the knowledge on prominent messages in social insects that inform about reproduction, group membership, resource locations, and threats and discuss potential evolutionary trajectories of each message in the context of social complexity.
Meredith, Michael J.
Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…
Elving, W.; van Vuuren, M.; Bech-Larsen, T.; Frandsen, F.
Organizations need good reputations among their stakeholders. One way of creating a better reputation might be the engagement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or Corporate Responsibility (CR) programs. However, since several organizations were greenwashing their communication (suggesting a r
Dignum, F.P.M.; Linder, B. van; M. Wooldridge J. Muller and N. Jennings
In this paper we present a formal framework for social agents. The social agents consist of four components: the information component (containing knowledge and belief), the action component, the motivational component (where goals, intentions, etc. play arole) and the social component (containing a
Tench, R.; Jones, B
Purpose - The central argument that this paper posits is that traditional media of old presented a clear, ordered world of communication management for organisations to extol their CSR credentials. In contrast to this, new Web 2.0 social media is increasingly being used by activists and hactivists to challenge corporate communication CSR messages and does so by highlighting instances and examples of Corporate Social Irresponsibility (CSI) (Jones, Bowd and Tench, 2009; Tench, Sun and Jones, 20...
Simulations have been widely used in crisis and emergency communication for practitioners but have not reached classrooms in higher education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that simulations using social media have on the learning of crisis communication among college students. To explore the effects, a real-time crisis…
Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.
Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…
Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael; Denke, Claudia
In the philosophical theory of communicative action, rationality refers to interpersonal communication rather than to a knowing subject. Thus, a social view of rationality is suggested. The theory differentiates between two kinds of rationality, the emancipative communicative and the strategic or instrumental reasoning. Using experimental designs in an fMRI setting, recent studies explored similar questions of reasoning in the social world and linked them with a neural network including prefrontal and parietal brain regions. Here, we employed an fMRI approach to highlight brain areas associated with strategic and communicative reasoning according to the theory of communicative action. Participants were asked to assess different social scenarios with respect to communicative or strategic rationality. We found a network of brain areas including temporal pole, precuneus, and STS more activated when participants performed communicative reasoning compared with strategic thinking and a control condition. These brain regions have been previously linked to moral sensitivity. In contrast, strategic rationality compared with communicative reasoning and control was associated with less activation in areas known to be related to moral sensitivity, emotional processing, and language control. The results suggest that strategic reasoning is associated with reduced social and emotional cognitions and may use different language related networks. Thus, the results demonstrate experimental support for the assumptions of the theory of communicative action.
Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung
Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…
Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L
The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change.
Fernanda Martins Romano
Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts caused by the adoption of the so-called digital social media on strategy and on organizational communication processes of Brazilian companies. To this exploratory study´s effect, key organizational communication executives of varied sectors, large-sized companies were interviewed. The 11 in-depth interviews were based on a semi-structured script and processed applying NVivo software. Results revealed the yet incipient adoption of digital social media in organizational communication strategy shaped in the form of a process undergoing evolution thus posing a corporate challenge. The absence of knowledge concerning platform dynamics, of benchmarks and of specialized professionals were mentioned by interviewees as factors that inhibit said adoption. Despite declaring that digital social media is an irreversible phenomenon, executives fear the potential amplification of communication crises, when sprung from web-based blunders.
Mäkelä, Jani; Le Quang, Louis Vinh
The aim of this thesis is to provide adequate knowledge about social media as a marketing tool and to improve the social media marketing communication efforts of Pint Please by incorporating a development plan and an action plan for one year. The commissioner of this thesis, Pint Please, is mobile application company located in Oulu. Their application is about rating beers, discovering new beers and beer recommendations. It is also a social platform where you can share findings with your...
Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan
Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities.
Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.
Namkoong, Kang; Shah, Dhavan V; Gustafson, David H
This study investigates how social support and family relationship perceptions influence breast cancer patients' online communication networks in a computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group. To examine social interactions in the CMSS group, we identified two types of online social networks: open and targeted communication networks. The open communication network reflects group communication behaviors (i.e., one-to-many or "broadcast" communication) in which the intended audience is not specified; in contrast, the targeted communication network reflects interpersonal discourses (i.e., one-to-one or directed communication) in which the audience for the message is specified. The communication networks were constructed by tracking CMSS group usage data of 237 breast cancer patients who participated in one of two National Cancer Institute-funded randomized clinical trials. Eligible subjects were within 2 months of a diagnosis of primary breast cancer or recurrence at the time of recruitment. Findings reveal that breast cancer patients who perceived less availability of offline social support had a larger social network size in the open communication network. In contrast, those who perceived less family cohesion had a larger targeted communication network in the CMSS group, meaning they were inclined to use the CMSS group for developing interpersonal relationships.
de Jong, Peter
Three experiments (N = 90; N = 78; N = 52) examined the communicative and remedial properties of blushing. in Experiments 1 and 2, participants read scripts describing incidents that took place in shops. Following the mishap the actor left while displaying a blush (target condition), left the shop w
Pisters, B.; Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Lodewijks, J.G.L.C.
First, we examined how students value working with multimedia communication tests. As was expected, we found that students showed a great deal of enthusiasm with respect to the multimedia test, reporting that they liked to make use of the test. Next, we wanted to know if participation in the multime
Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication.
Filippova, Eva; Astington, Janet Wilde
To bridge the social-reasoning focus of developmental research on irony understanding and the pragmatic focus of research with adult populations, this cross-sectional study examines 5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds' (n = 72) developing understanding of both social-cognitive and social-communicative aspects of discourse irony, when compared with adults (n =…
The Internet has a major impact when it comes to marketing tools, providing new opportunities that were not previously available is the traditional marketing environment. Each traditional communication channel has its obvious advantages and organizations must continue to use it, but the Internet is a channel in constant development, enjoying high attention and being currently used by more than a third of the global population. Knowing the different advantages and disadvantages of both t...
Cognition theories describe the social with terms like language, interaction or culture, whose theoretical status has also been discussed in modern sociology. These concepts are not well-positioned to understand the emergence and autonomy of social orders. Sociological theory of self-referential systems can be useful to reconstruct the bottom-up process which contributes to the emergence of the social as communication as well as to describe the way in which society exerts downward causation upon cognitive phenomena. The core of this theory is the systemic category of meaning as a shared horizon for psychic and social systems.
Taking into consideration the dramatic changes ushered in by the exponential growth of social networking, marketers are left without a dependable framework on how to implement social networking strategically and in alignment with other modern as well as traditional marketing disciplines. In light of this, the study aims to explore the strategic implementation of social networking within the context of a dependable marketing theoretical model, known as the marketing communications mix. D...
Full Text Available If one starts from the assumption that each entity in one way or another have to communicate with consumers, then opportunities offered by the Internet are endless. As such the presence and impact of social media on communication policies of the various entities can be a remarkable one. According to experts in the field, firms thinking in a realistic way try and shall try in the future to benefit from the opportunities offered by this new medium. The aim is to attract a larger number of customers. However invariably the question arises: is the social media indeed the future, and all the existing communication techniques are no longer of any value in a communication?
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify and analyze the extent to which new media have penetrated the Romanian organizations’ internal communication and have influenced the leadership. We intend also to consider how social media becomes a tool for organizational communication and contributes to the creation of a new kind of leadership associated with open communication. We start from the premise that new media and social media can contribute to the leader’s mission to create around him a vision and makes others to share this vision. In terms of open communication, the external image of organization reflects, in part, leadership practices within the organization. It is about the exercise of the shared collective leadership (Don Tapscott, 1996 that should strengthen the organization position.
Sergey Petrovich Kushneruk
Full Text Available Some results of the official-and-business texts’ qualities revealed on communication level are presented in this article. The system of axes used for national-and-social evaluations of the business communicative instruments is under analysis. The influences of unstable social-and-cultural conditions on technological and organizational circumstances of document-oriented communication are analyzed. Some results of the out-of-officinal factors origin’ and level’s evaluation in their influence on unified forms and textual peculiarities of communicative acts in the forms of “business papers” are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-44
Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio
Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088
Full Text Available The study aims to examine how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects are perceived from both an individual and organizational perspective. Using the framework used in studies on diffusion of innovations, the spread of CSR projects are examined. An online survey to identify individuals’ CSR and communication channel perception as well as interviews with CSR practitioners to have an organizational perspective is realized. Companies are using CSR as a tool to meet various objectives such as crisis management and recruiting talent. The CSR perception among individuals is shaped by interpersonal and mass media communication; companies are perceived as responsible if their communication is rich in information. The information sources are mostly television and radio but there is a growing part of online channels as well. The study also suggests several possibilities for future research including the role of social networks and social media platforms in the diffusion of CSR.
The ability to argue well is a valuable skill for students in both formal and informal learning environments. While many studies have explored the argumentative practices in formal environments and some researchers have developed tools to enhance the argumentative skills, the social argumentation that is occurring in informal spaces has yet to be…
Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G
As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures.
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Since the emerging omnipresence of social media usage in Western societies, marketers have been eager to harness the strategic communication potential of new media (e.g. blogs, wikis, visual content sharing sites and online communities. This is also apparent in event tourism; for instance music...... of challenges. In order to fill a void of empirical studies of managing festival communications, this paper explores how social media is used as a tool for marketing and service innovation. By conducting focus groups and personal interviews with larger music events (Storsjöyran, Way Out West and Roskilde...
Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of the entertainment. Entertainment is perceived as one of the effective forms of communication stimulating the socialization of the individual in the society. There are presented the definitions of that phenomenon given by the representatives of different sciences (psychologists, sociologists, and researchers of culture. The variety, the difficulties of its classification and possibilities are also discussed in the article. There are analysed its kinds and peculiarities and disclosed the main social functions (recreational, cognitive, educational, communicational, representative, its role in life of individual and society.
Full Text Available The Internet has a major impact when it comes to marketing tools, providing new opportunities that were not previously available is the traditional marketing environment. Each traditional communication channel has its obvious advantages and organizations must continue to use it, but the Internet is a channel in constant development, enjoying high attention and being currently used by more than a third of the global population. Knowing the different advantages and disadvantages of both traditional and online marketing, a good marketer may be able to make the right decision when developing integrated marketing strategies.
Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; McKelvey, Karissa; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro
Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing lang...
Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.
To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.
Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias
of sentiments in a quantitative analysis that is based on retrieved textual messages of communication patterns in over 12000 online social networks. Our empirical results suggest a general influence of sentiments on node communication patterns that is evidenced by increased occurrences of subsequent messages......Previous research suggests the existence of sentiments in online social networks. In comparison to real life human interaction, in which sentiments have been shown to have an influence on human behaviour, it is not yet completely understood which mechanisms explain how sentiments influence users...... in online environments. We develop a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between social influence theories that focus on offline interactions on one hand and online interaction in social networks on the other hand. We then test our hypothesis about the influence and dissemination...
Sergey Nikolaevich Makeev
Full Text Available One of the formation factors of modern man becomes virtual network structures, displacing traditional forms of social communication. The Internet technology, making social interaction in an imminent, constant phenomenon moves many intimate moments of interpersonal relationships in virtual reality. The spiritual aspect of our society is changing, its system of values, where the objective reality is replaced by its simulacrum, and natural feelings (love, joy, sorrow, sadness smiles, behind which is not a living person, and its virtual image.
Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive b...
In education, argumentation has an increasing importance because it can be used to foster learning in various fields including philosophy, history, sciences, and mathematics. Argumentation is also at the heart of scientific inquiry. Many educational technology researchers have been interested in finding out how technologies can be employed to improve students' learning of argumentation. Therefore, many computer-based tools or argumentation systems have been developed to assist students in their acquisition of argumentation skills. While the argumentation systems incorporating online debating tools present a good resource in formal settings, there is limited research revealing what argumentative skills students are portraying in informal online settings without the presence of a moderator. This dissertation investigates the nature of argumentative practices in a massively multiplayer online game where the system successfully incorporates the authentic use of online synchronous communication tools and the patterns that emerge from the interplay between a number of contextual variables including synchronicity, interest, authenticity, and topical knowledge.
Full Text Available Social communication is heavily affected in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. Accordingly, mouse models designed to study the mechanisms leading to these disorders are tested for this phenotypic trait. Test conditions vary between different models, and the effect of these test conditions on the quantity and quality of social interactions and ultrasonic communication is unknown. The present study examines to which extent the habituation time to the test cage as well as the shape/size of the cage influence social communication in freely interacting mice. We tested 8 pairs of male mice in free dyadic social interactions, with two habituation times (20 min and 30 min and three cage formats (rectangle, round, square. We tested the effect of these conditions on the different types of social contacts, approach-escape sequences, follow behavior, and the time each animal spent in the vision field of the other one, as well as on the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations and their contexts of emission. We provide for the first time an integrated analysis of the social interaction behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations. Surprisingly, we did not highlight any significant effect of habituation time and cage shape/size on the behavioral events examined. There was only a slight increase of social interactions with the longer habituation time in the round cage. Remarkably, we also showed that vocalizations were emitted during specific behavioral sequences especially during close contact or approach behaviors. The present study provides a protocol reliably eliciting social contacts and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice. This protocol is therefore well adapted for standardized investigation of social interactions in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
Kramer, Michael W.
This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…
Social media has transformed the way we think our campaigns and communicate with our audience, but also it changed the way we get in touch with our target and make it react to what we are saying or doing. The objective of this paper is to emphasize that we not only use social media on a personal level, but we’ve transformed it in an important marketing tool for our business. Today we live in online almost as much as we live in the real world. A company without a website and social...
La Barbera, Francesco
The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Francesco La Barbera
Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Michael D Conover
Full Text Available Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing language and references to the media, while communication among individuals in the same state is more likely to reference protest action and specific places and times. Tying these results to social movement theory, we propose that these features reflect the movement's efforts to mobilize resources at the local level and to develop narrative frames that reinforce collective purpose at the national level.
Conover, Michael D; Davis, Clayton; Ferrara, Emilio; McKelvey, Karissa; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro
Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing language and references to the media, while communication among individuals in the same state is more likely to reference protest action and specific places and times. Tying these results to social movement theory, we propose that these features reflect the movement's efforts to mobilize resources at the local level and to develop narrative frames that reinforce collective purpose at the national level.
St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.
Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
of the dissertation especially draws on theories of employee voice and silence (Brinsfield, 2014; Morrison, 2011, 2014) and of imagined audiences on social media (Litt, 2012; Marwick and boyd, 2011) in order to understand the dynamics driving coworker communication on ISM. Additionally, ISM adoption literature (Chu...... study in Jyske Bank. The three articles included in this thesis are based on these two studies and presents three different perspectives on ISM. The first article “Challenges of Introducing Internal Social Media: ISM coordinators’ Roles and Perceptions of Communication on ISM” views ISM from...... that coworker interpretation and sensemaking of ISM is decisive to how ISM is used, and that the ISM coordinator can play an important role as a facilitator and sensemaker in relation to ISM. The second article “Constructing Organizational Identity on Internal Social Media: A Case Study of Coworker...
Enriquez, Judith Guevarra
In this article, centrality is explored as a measure of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in networked learning. Centrality measure is quite common in performing social network analysis (SNA) and in analysing social cohesion, strength of ties and influence in CMC, and computer-supported collaborative learning research. It argues that measuring…
Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.
The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…
Tatiana F. Datsko
Full Text Available The paper discusses the cognitive aspects of discourse process focusing on the concept of the socially shared knowledge structure underlying culturally determined discourse behavior. It is argued that culture specific differences in the cognitive schemata of the speech events determine the difference in the choice of the interactive strategies and in the repertoires of conventional linguistic means employed for performing these speech events in various languages. Discursive behavior, pertaining to a certain language and sociocultural intercourse, is based on individual, culturally determined socio relevant sense of verbal and non-verbal natural communication. Presented discursive analysis in the process of intercultural communication provides an opportunity not only to distinguish culturally determined mental aspects of different language behavior, but to obtain certain data connected to general patterns of language communication. More than that the process of communication can not be considered adequate without cognitive process of comprehension which takes place in the minds of communication participants while them produce and accept speech. The necessity of linguistic and relevant external communicative parameters research and mental representations becomes evident. The speakers, usually unaware of such a difference in their knowledge structures, subconsciously base their strategic choices on the native hierarchy of beliefs and assumptions in code switching which might result in a communication conflict and even culture clash.
Taggart, Tamara; Grewe, Mary Elisabeth; Conserve, Donaldson F.; Gliwa, Catherine; Roman Isler, Malika
Background Social media, including mobile technologies and social networking sites, are being used increasingly as part of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment efforts. As an important avenue for communication about HIV, social media use may continue to increase and become more widespread. Objective The objective of this paper is to present a comprehensive systematic review of the current published literature on the design, users, benefits, and limitations of using soci...
Full Text Available Social media has transformed the way we think our campaigns and communicate with our audience, but also it changed the way we get in touch with our target and make it react to what we are saying or doing. The objective of this paper is to emphasize that we not only use social media on a personal level, but we’ve transformed it in an important marketing tool for our business. Today we live in online almost as much as we live in the real world. A company without a website and social media presence it does not exists. For researchers and headhunters, social media have become an important tool. So we have to be careful with things we post online, because they can say a lot of things about us and can influence our professional development. The fundaments for this paper are based mainly on the following studies: (1 “Social Media and the Romanian Business Milieu – Impact of Marketing through Social Media on Local Business Environment”, published in October 2013, by Ernst & Young, (2 “Social Media Primetime Survey”, publish by the Romanian consultancy and training company The Connector, (3 “Online Landscape – South-East Europe”, published by Gemius Knowledge, in 2014 and (4 “Online Social Networks”, by Daedalus MillwardBrown, published in 2011. They all show how social media and online development have impacted on traditional media and how companies cannot ignore these new communication and business channels. Studies on social media also showed that internet and mobile platforms are getting more and more popular, that people and companies are drowned into the digital world, communicating through all types of apps and networks. Used wisely, social media can generate greater and faster results with less money than traditional media (print, television, radio, outdoor. The sources used for this paper say that social media is “the it thing” in the 21st century, when almost every person on the planet has a cell phone or access to one
Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer
The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.
Itaya, Satoko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Davis, Peter; Tanaka, Rie; Konishi, Taku; Doi, Shinich; Yamada, Keiji
The study of communication activity in social networks is aimed at understanding and promoting communications in groups, organizations and communities. In this paper, we propose a method for the analysis of communication records to extract content-based network activity, with a focus on first-use. Links between people in a social network are defined based on content and temporal relation of messages sent and received. We introduce the notion of first-use, first-use paths, and classes of users based on first-usage. First-use is defined with respect to a specific time period and specific communication content. It refers to the sending of messages containing the specified contents for the first time before being receiving them from any other user in the specified time period. First-use paths are defined as sequences of first-use events in communication networks, and m-ary classes of users are defined recursively as users who receive for the first time from (m-1)-ary users. We present an example of application of the analysis to the email records of a large company.
Duran, Robert L.; Kelly, Lynne
Examines whether communicative competence influences perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness. Results indicated that communicative competence accounted for 17 percent, 14 percent and 8 percent of the variance in perceived task, social, and physical attractiveness, respectively. (MM)
ABSTRACT In the framework of the doctoral thesis „Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)” a new theoretical approach to corporate communication in social media was developed which will help companies to successfully organize their communication with target publics in social media and will provide a new social media investigation tool for the researchers. An added communicative value model was developed by the author in the framework of the new t...
Christine Tiffany Cool
Full Text Available Problem: In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context: Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome: The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt: During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.
Hui, Pan; Yoneki, Eiko; Crowcroft, Jon; Chan, Shu-Yan
Complex communication networks, more particular Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET) and Pocket Switched Networks (PSN), rely on short range radio and device mobility to transfer data across the network. These kind of mobile networks contain duality in nature: they are radio networks at the same time also human networks, and hence knowledge from social networks can be also applicable here. In this paper, we demonstrate how identifying social communities can significantly improve the forwarding efficiencies in term of delivery ratio and delivery cost. We verify our hypothesis using data from five human mobility experiments and test on two application scenarios, asynchronous messaging and publish/subscribe service.
Microsoft is the most socially responsible company in the world, followed by Google on rank 2 and The Walt Disney Company on rank 3 – at least according to the perceptions of 47,000 people from 15 countries that participated in a survey conducted by the consultancy firm Reputation Institute. In this paper I take a critical look at Corporate Social Responsibility in media and communication industries. Within the debate on CSR media are often only discussed in regard to their role of raising aw...
Gorter, R C; den Dekker, J; Schut, H; Eijkman, M A
An overview is presented of several undergraduate courses given by the Department of Social Dentistry and Dental Health Education (ACTA). A short description of the contents of courses in communication skills, treatment of anxious patients and practice management is given together with the results of a student-evaluation. Students consider these courses useful and relevant for future dental practice. This is especially true in case the direct relevance for clinical practice is clear.
Derks, Daantje; Bos, Arjan E R; von Grumbkow, Jasper
This study investigated the role of emoticons in computer-mediated communication (CMC). The study consisted of an online questionnaire about the social motives for emoticon use and an experimental part in which participants (N = 1,251) had to respond to short Internet chats. In these chats, the interaction partner (friend vs. stranger) and the valence of the context (positive vs. negative) were manipulated. Results showed that emoticons are mostly used to express emotion, to strengthen a message, and to express humor. Furthermore, more emoticons were used in communication with friends than in communication with strangers, and more emoticons were used in a positive context than in a negative context. Participants seem to use emoticons in a way similar to facial behavior in face-to-face communication with respect to social context and interaction partner.
Arroyo González, Rosario; Salvador Mata, Francisco
This article compiles the investigations carried out by a Research Group of the University of Granada, Spain. Its different projects on writing's cognitive social and cultural processes have been supported by the Spanish Government. This line of research joined together linguistic, psychological, social and cultural contributions to the development of writing from the 1970s. Currently, this line of research develops in collaboration with other European Universities: (a) Interuniversity Centre for Research On Cognitive Processing in Natural and Artificial Systems (ECONA), "La Sapienza" University of Rome (Italy); (b) Anadolu University, (Eskisehir, Turkey); (c) Coimbra University (Portugal); (d) University of Zaragoza (Spain); (e) the Institute of Education of the University of London (United Kingdom). The aforementioned collaboration is materializing into projects like the International Master on Multilingual Writing: Cognitive, Intercultural and Technological Processes of Written Communication ( http://www.multilingualwriting.com ) and the International Congress: Writing in the twenty-first Century: Cognition, Multilinguisim and Technologies, held in Granada ( http://www.asprogrades.org ). This research line is focussed on the development of strategies in writing development, basic to train twenty-first century societies' citizens. In these societies, participation in production media, social exchange and the development of multilingual written communication skills through new computer technologies spread multicultural values. In order to fulfil the social exigencies, it is needed to have the collaboration of research groups for designing and applying international research projects.
How does the massive use of social media in contemporary protests affect the character of activist communication? Moving away from the conceptualization of social media as tools, this research explores how activist social media communication is entangled with and shaped by heterogeneous techno-cultu
How does the massive use of social media in contemporary protests affect the character of activist communication? Moving away from the conceptualization of social media as tools, this research explores how activist social media communication is entangled with and shaped by heterogeneous techno-cultu
Full Text Available In our days, the electronic communication media is important because the communication forms based on interactivity lead the participants in the act of sending and receiving information to become more than simply issuers, listeners or viewers, integrating them into a dynamic system. In this approach, the study paper aims to prove the relationship between personal development and that of society determined by the new interactive communication instruments. At the individual level, training, education, health, interpersonal relationships are easier to be acquired and amplified Also, the local communities, companies, educational institutions or non-profit organizations increasingly approach themselves to the citizens, receive their problems and try to solve them efficiently. On the other hand, the expansion of the modern means of communication became possible by the steadily decreasing costs of information and of the appropriate management technologies. Virtual communities may, however, only partially replace the traditional communities and the direct physical interaction between people, because online connections are made between people, not between places. Moreover, a high degree of interconnection involves the spreading of ideas, links and various discoveries or improvements of some already existing equipment and processes. The content of this study paper is created using secondary sources of information â€“ with limited and also limiting feature â€“ in an office research, the areas of analysis being studied separately. The result of the study paper is to evidence the fact that the interest for the interactive electronic communication is increasing. We support the idea that such communication contributes to business development in a particular field, in the social sector, but it is better to be aware of its less desirable effects from which we can notice the loss of privacy, the identity theft, the aggressive promotion etc. In our
Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie
Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data.
Andrien, M; Beghin, I
Seven years ago Hygie published an article on the limits of conventional nutrition education in urban Africa. Strategies and methods in communication for nutrition have since evolved, incorporating results of international research to develop innovative, highly participative approaches. In this article the authors provide an extensive analysis of the different methodologies used in nutrition education programmes, in particular the KAB, social marketing, and community participation models, indicating main areas where each method used separately has failed. Members of the African Nutritional Education Network (RENA) have studied the above mentioned approaches, modifying them or integrating certain elements to adopt a more effective approach, which they consider somewhat as the management of social communication for nutrition education. Needs assessments and programme planning are largely enhanced by a causal analysis component specific to nutrition education in a community setting which has been developed by the authors. Other classic elements of programme implementation such as community participation, diversity of methods and intervention, are then combined with a multi-level/multi-actor evaluation processes to produce what the authors esteem to be a more effective nutrition education programme. They conclude, however, with the warning that although behavioural modifications brought about by nutrition communication and education might be beneficial for public health, they could have different, possibly adverse effects on other aspects of society. Effective nutrition education must therefore be included in a more extensive field of health promotion by acting on the multiple factors which influence the nutrition and health state of vulnerable groups.
As an integrate part of language, style exists where language exists. Language in business communication also shows certain stylistic features. These features on one hand can serve for the social role of business communication and on the other hand are also decided by the social role of business communication. Therefore stylistic features of language in business communication are consistent with the social role of it.
Sungur, A Özge; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus
Alterations in SHANK genes were repeatedly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction across multiple contexts, with restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior. To date, diagnostic criteria for ASD are purely behaviorally defined and reliable biomarkers have still not been identified. The validity of mouse models for ASD therefore strongly relies on their behavioral phenotype. Here, we studied communication by means of isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in the Shank1 mouse model for ASD by comparing Shank1(-/-) null mutant, Shank1(+/-) heterozygous, and Shank1(+/+) wildtype littermate controls. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Shank1 deletions on developmental aspects of communication in order to see whether ASD-related communication deficits are due to general impairment or delay in development. Second, we focused on social context effects on USV production. We show that Shank1(-/-) pups vocalized less and displayed a delay in the typical inverted U-shaped developmental USV emission pattern with USV rates peaking on postnatal day (PND) 9, resulting in a prominent genotype difference on PND6. Moreover, testing under social conditions revealed even more prominently genotype-dependent deficits regardless of the familiarity of the social context. As communication by definition serves a social function, introducing a social component to the typically nonsocial test environment could therefore help to reveal communication deficits in mouse models for ASD. Together, these results indicate that SHANK1 is involved in acoustic communication across species, with genetic alterations in SHANK1 resulting in social communication/interaction deficits. Autism Res 2016, 9: 696-709. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miritello, Giovanna; Moro, Esteban
Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.
Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban
Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.
In the process of social linguistic communication, due to the different circumstances and conditions, people can not express certain things clearly in a direct way when they come across something painful, unpleasant, disgusted and even embarrassing. Instead, they have to use some vague, implicit, mild and euphemistic expressions, so as to achieve the purpose of expressing feelings and exchanging ideas and thoughts in an appropriate and light atmosphere. This paper tries to deal with the application of euphemisms in various fields, thereby reveal some main functions of euphemism, I.e. Avoidance function, politeness function, gloss-over function and disguise function.
Simoncic, Milan [Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (Slovenia); Zurga, Gordana [Faculty of Organisation Studies in Novo Mesto (Slovenia)
Implications that nuclear technology brings to common physical and social environment, are on daily lists of questions that stakeholders address to owners and operators of nuclear power plants. In this respect, stakeholders expect and demand narrow and explicit answers to concrete questions set. We claim that the acceptability of the NPP in the society can be achieved and maintained also through active communication and trust building between NPP and its stakeholders. A research in this respect was conducted on case of the Krsko NPP, Slovenia. Some institutional and international implications are presented, as well as possible areas for further investigation and research.
Full Text Available A survey in 2013 of Division Market Research Group Rentrop Straton Romanian-German - "state services and private clinics. Comparative Analysis ", highlights the fact that into urban population in Romania, the internet is the most popular source of information on health services. According to the survey, 81.9% of respondents use the Internet to find out about the best doctors available to them. Preferences of respondents to the online environment as the main source of information translates into ease of access and the possibility of interaction, but also trust recommendations based on personal experiences, recommendations can be found through discussion forums, mostly or comments left on pages on social networking sites. In the present study we try to emphasize the specificity of communication physician - patient online through social networks.
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
is neither stable, controllable commodity nor a content that can be streamlined and circulated in strategically selected promotional mix channels. Borrowing a latourian term, information is a dynamic actant, a key source of structuration of cultural images of organisations and destinations. Marketers...... changed the marketing landscape beyond recognition. The exponential growth of social media platforms has led to weakened marketer control (and greater consumer sovereignty) over information about organisations and their products. In this new communications paradigm (Muniz & Schau 2007), information......-making in the interactions among community members as well as marketers, by tracking how single postings are weaved and developed into complex, collective stories. The empirical data collection will restrict itself on social media of performative festivals in Scandinavia, including blogs, fansites and other interactive...
Hester, Eva Jackson
The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication"…
Hester, Eva Jackson
The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…
Swain, Daniel T.; Couzin, Iain D.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich
We examine the spatial dynamics of individuals in small schools of banded killifish ( Fundulus diaphanus) that exhibit rhythmic, oscillating speed, typically with sustained, coordinated, out-of-phase speed oscillations as they move around a shallow water tank. We show that the relative motion among the fish yields a periodically time-varying network of social interactions that enriches visually driven social communication. The oscillations lead to the regular making and breaking of occlusions, which we term "switching." We show that the rate of convergence to consensus (biologically, the capacity for individuals in groups to achieve effective coordinated motion) governed by the switching outperforms static alternatives, and performs as well as the less practical case of every fish sensing every other fish. We show further that the oscillations in speed yield oscillations in relative bearing between fish over a range that includes the angles previously predicted to be optimal for a fish to detect changes in heading and speed of its neighbors. To investigate systematically, we derive and analyze a dynamic model of interacting agents that move with oscillatory speed. We show that coordinated circular motion of the school leads to systematic cycling of spatial ordering of agents and possibilities for enriched spatial density of measurements of the external environment. Our results highlight the potential benefits of dynamic communication topologies in collective animal behavior, and suggest new, useful control laws for the distributed coordination of mobile robotic networks.
Aleman, Melissa Wood; Aleman, Carlos Galvan
A basic premise of social approaches to studying communication is that theories of interpersonal communication and personal relationships are reflexively defined, socially constructed, and historically situated. In contrast to the tradition of psychological models of relational processes and message transmission, social approaches encourage…
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to definition of communicativeness structure of future social workers and highlighting its main components. Significant part of the article is played by the definition of the volunteerism role in elaborating communicativeness of students.
Wainer, Allison L; Berger, Natalie I; Ingersoll, Brooke R
Despite the expansion of early intervention approaches for young children with ASD, investigators have struggled to identify measures capable of assessing social communication change in response to these interventions. Addressing recent calls for efficient, sensitive, and reliable social communication measures, the current paper outlines the refinement and validation of the Social Communication Checklist (SCC). We discuss two small studies exploring the psychometric properties of the SCC and the SCC-R (revised Social Communication Checklist), including sensitivity to change, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability, in two samples of children with ASD and one sample of typically-developing children. Results indicate this measure is reliable, sensitive to change after a brief social communication intervention, and strongly related to well-established measures of social communicative functioning.
Children of school age with social communication problems form a growing population in need of speech-language intervention. These children have difficulty not just with interpersonal communication, which underpins peer relations, but also with oral and written aspects of the curriculum. The importance of intervention in the school years therefore cannot be underestimated. In this article, a framework and rationale for intervention based on a consideration of social communication as the interdependence of social interaction, social cognition, pragmatics, and language processing are presented. A method of intervention for children with social communication problems is described. The method is illustrated by reference to a study of children with pragmatic language impairments in the United Kingdom. Social communication impairments are not specific to one diagnostic group, and therefore the intervention framework given here is applicable to a range of children with interpersonal communication problems in the school years.
Töllinen, Aarne; Karjaluoto, Heikki
The objective of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of social media marketing communications. With recent advances in information and communications technology, especially in social collaboration technologies, both academics and practitioners rethink whether the existing marketing communications performance metrics are still valid in the changing communications landscape, or is it time to devise entirely new metrics for measuring mar...
Luisa Julieta Barboza; Rocío Belandria
This paper to search the principles for the culture of peace present in the Curriculum of the Schools of Social Communication of Zulia state. We studied the curriculum of two schools of social communication more Zulia state tuition. The study was descriptive, not experimental and transversal. A checklist was used to support a content analysis. The results showed a favorable trend for the consideration of the principles of culture of peace in the curriculum of schools of social communication i...
Pogodina A. V.
Full Text Available The article is concerned with the results of the study, subject of which is the submis- sion of the respondents of the different age groups about the social and bold personality. Required property of the respondents was the presence in the Internet environment and participation in various social networks. They assessed social and bold personal- ity in such contexts of communication, as real communication and Internet communication. Analyses were undertaken to determine the structural and content features of emotional and semantic representations of the phenomenon of the social and bold personality, depending on the context of communication, but also the detection of age-sensitive representations of the young respondents (19—35 years, middle-aged respondents (36-55 years and older respondents (from 56 to 70 years. The concept of the “social and bold personality in real communion” is shown to have a high semantic relevance, strongly marked positive emotional coloration and a similar factor structure for respondents of all age groups. The concept of the “social and bold personality in online communication” with a high semantic significance in the perception of the young respondents moves into a zone of moderate and semantic importance in representations of the middle-aged and older respondents. In representations of the respondents of all age groups, the attractiveness of the "social and bold personality in Internet communication" is less than in comparison with the "social and bold personality in the real communication". The age-specific of the social representations about social and bold personality in the real and virtual communication has been analysed in detail.
Full Text Available This article explores dynamics of pain communication in the social media platform Tumblr. As a device of health communication, the Tumblr platform brings together a network of behaviors, technologies, and media forms through which pain experience is reimaged through and against mainstream biomedical frameworks. The article develops an interpretative approach to analyze how, as social media platforms reorganize affective, emotional, physical, and temporal frames of experience, communication about chronic pain and illness is reimagined in its capacity to create social worlds. Drawing on ethnographic theory to reimagine the relation between politics and poetics in pain communication, the article explores the issue- and world-making capacities of social media.
Christmansson, M; Fridén, J; Sollerman, C
A company redesign was carried out to improve production efficiency and minimise the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and sick leave. The redesign was evaluated on the basis of studies of assembly workers before (17 workers) and after (12 workers) the redesign. The redesign resulted in more varied, less repetitive, and more autonomous assembly jobs. The psycho-social work climate was both improved and impaired. A medical examination showed that eight of 17 workers before and nine of 12 workers after the redesign suffered from upper extremity pain disorders. Neither the production goals nor the goals of the redesign were fulfilled. Our conclusion was that the increased task variation and impaired psycho-social work climate, combined with a lack of skill and competence, actually increased the physical stress, risk for disorders and difficulties in fulfilling the production goals.
Full Text Available Abstract Health communication discipline has gained importance and health communication studies and strategies have been emphasized in recent years in Turkey. Health promotion is one of the main topics in the field of health communication. Health promotion, which has grown in importance especially with the increase in prevalence of chronic diseases, requires interdisciplinary studies. Communication studies have a crucial role in planning and practising health promotion strategies. With the developments in new communication technologies, use of social media tools in heatlh communication has increased recently. Use of social media enables users active participation and offers new opportunities to improve public health outcomes. For this reason, it’s essential to carry out studies evaluating the effects of social media on society and the role of social media in health promotion practices. This paper examines the role of social media as an effective tool in health promotion practices and action plans, within the context of different countries and strategies.
Full Text Available This study presents the 2009 Romanian presidential elections and the way in which thecandidates interacted with the new communication technologies. After the first research conducted on the2004 online electoral campaigns, we noticed that, in Romania, the degree of alphabetization and politicalparticipation (the number of people knowing how to read and write, or the number of those effectivelyparticipating at the poll is just as small as it was after the mass internet was introduced and after thenumber of internet subscribers increased. We observed that the websites and blogs with the highest trafficare the entertainment dedicated ones, the tabloids, and not the cultural ones, not the quality online press.This research intends to clear up whether in Romania social media are rather helping the moderatecandidates or the extremist candidates – from an electoral point of view. This article will be incorporated inthe research called Electoral Communication in Romania after 1989. Old and New Technologies inPresidential Campaigns which is part of the post-doctoral program POSDRU/89/1.5/S/62259, Sociohumanand political applied sciences. Post-doctoral training program and post-doctoral researchscholarships in the field of the socio-human and political sciences.
Salley, Brenda; Miller, Angela; Bell, Martha Ann
Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of…
Mason, T.; Renfrow, S.
While science literacy rates in the U.S. have recently increased, overall levels remain remarkably low.There are opportunities for the public to learn about science and to engage directly with real-life practitioners. It is the responsibility of science education and communications professionals to provide these opportunities and to assess the effectiveness of each platform. At the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we utilize a diverse, well-tested approach to introduce science to the public and to give scientists access to the broadest possible audience. This poster will focus on NASA's MAVEN mission to Mars and the social media outlets we have incorporated into our Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program in order to introduce rather complex science concepts to the public. We'll examine several evaluation tools that are used to provide ongoing, immediate feedback regarding our strategies and to guide long-term efforts. MAVEN educators and scientists are capitalizing on the recent excitement surrounding Mars science and the public's fascination with the search for life to bring the science of the mission directly to a variety of audiences. Our EPO professionals are using cross-platform, transportable content to maximize exposure and create pathways for two-way interactions between our audience and mission experts. We are using social media tools to build a community that will join us in the MAVEN journey and its important scientific discoveries.
Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.
Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas
Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…
Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin
To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…
Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.
This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…
Hussein, Hisham Barakat
The study aims to determine the effectiveness of using social communications networks in mathematics teachers' professional development. The main research questions was: what is the effectiveness of using social communications networks in mathematics teachers' professional development. The sub questions were: (1) what are the standards of…
Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Harn, William E.
Among characteristics of children diagnosed with Asperger syndrome (AS) are difficulties in social communication. This study describes the social communicative competence of two middle school children with AS participating in conversations in three different situational contexts. The conversations were transcribed and submitted to three kinds of…
Hage, Maria; Wortmann, Johan; van Offenbeek, Marjolein; Boonstra, Albert
Purpose – In today’s aging world online communication is often viewed as a means to enhance social connectivity, and therefore well-being, of older adults. However, previous research on the influence of online communication on social connectivity largely disregards older adults, yields conflicting r
Caron, Jessica; Light, Janice
An online focus group was used to investigate the experiences of nine individuals with cerebral palsy who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and social media. Information was gathered related to (a) advantages of social media, (b) disadvantages of social media, (c) barriers to successful use, (d) supports to successful use, and (e) recommendations for other individuals using AAC, support personnel, policy makers, and technology developers. Participants primarily chose to focus on social media as a beneficial tool and viewed it as an important form of communication. The participants did describe barriers to social media use (e.g., technology). Despite barriers, all the participants in this study took an active role in learning to use social media. The results are discussed as they relate to themes and with reference to published literature.
Hart, Tom; Brewster, Christopher; Shaw, Duncan
Over the past two years there have been several large-scale disasters (Haitian earthquake, Australian floods, UK riots, and the Japanese earthquake) that have seen wide use of social media for disaster response, often in innovative ways. This paper provides an analysis of the ways in which social media has been used in public-to-public communication and public-to-government organisation communication. It discusses four ways in which disaster response has been changed by social media: 1. Socia...
Full Text Available Social media has made it possible for one person to communicate with hundreds or even thousands of other people about products and the companies that provide them. Social media applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, The purpose of this article is emphasize the importance of content management in social media marketing.
Chesick, Curtis W.
The digital revolution has created a new ways for society to interact. As technology continues to evolve so does the way culture begins to use it as a channel for communication. Social media has developed as a two way communication tool used by both corporate America as well as individuals. This research begins to look at how Missouri school…
Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.
Klemenhagen, Kristen C; O'Brien, Scott P; Brody, David L
The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.
Kristen C Klemenhagen
Full Text Available The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning following brain injury (rcTBI. rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.
Petranovich, Christine L; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Staat, Mary Allen; Chiu, Chung-Yiu Peter; Wade, Shari L
The objectives of this study were to examine the association of structural language and pragmatic communication with behavior problems and social competence in girls adopted internationally. Participants included girls between 6-12 years of age who were internationally adopted from China (n = 32) and Eastern-Europe (n = 25) and a control group of never-adopted girls (n = 25). Children completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Parents completed the Child Communication Checklist- second edition, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Home and Community Social Behavior Scales. Compared to the controls, parents in the Eastern European group reported more problems with social competence, externalizing behaviors, structural language, and pragmatic communication. The Chinese group evidenced more internalizing problems. Using generalized linear regression, interaction terms were examined to determine if the associations of pragmatic communication and structural language with behavior problems and social competence varied across groups. Controlling for general intellectual functioning, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more externalizing problems and poorer social competence. In the Chinese group, poorer pragmatic communication was associated with more internalizing problems. Post-adoption weaknesses in pragmatic communication are associated with behavior problems and social competence. Internationally adopted children may benefit from interventions that target pragmatic communication.
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D
Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first
Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.; Zhao, A.Y.
Social media have transformed social interactions and now look set to transform workplace communications. In this exploratory study, we investigate how employees use and get value from a variety of social networking technologies. The context of this research is 4 software firms located in China. Not
Vrocharidou, Anatoli; Efthymiou, Ilias
The present study approaches the Internet as a social space, where university students make use of computer mediated communication (CMC) applications, i.e. e-mail, instant messaging and social network sites, in order to satisfy social and academic needs. We focus on university students, because they represent one of the most avid groups of CMC…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…
Fauzilah Md Husain
Full Text Available Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers’ grievances on graduates’ lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015. This study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of a group of ten students at a tertiary institution in Malaysia to see how they utlise the theories and practice of effective communication skills beyond their course entitled “Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The study found that these students gained knowledge about effective communication for social and occupational purposes. The findings also indicate that students have benefitted in relation to communication in a formal way especially to higher authorities, and sharpening their communication and presentation skills. However, there were shortcomings that need to be addressed, particularly related to methods of teaching Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes, time constraint in preparing for the tutorial sessions and producing a good quality video. Keywords: Social and Occupational, Communication, Oral skills, Theories and Practice
New Media Consortium, 2007
The purpose of this white paper is to put forth a proposition that technology has not only mediated communication in numerous ways, but that the ways we communicate, including the ways we talk and think about communication, are changing as a result. Mediated by new tools and new technologies that have made the marginal cost of long distance…
Zachry, Mark, Ed.
Explores why researchers have been drawn to genre-based research. Notes that this approach to studying professional communication offers a way of understanding the role of texts in the social ordering of communication in organizations by drawing attention to patterns of repetition and variation in the habits of workplace professionals. (SC)
Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Record, Rachael A; Van Stee, Stephanie K
This study examines direct and indirect effects of interactive communication in an antismoking social media campaign. To that end, we pose a multitheoretical framework that integrates communication mediation models and the Theory of Planned Behavior. To test the theorized model, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. Participants (N = 201) were randomly assigned into two experimental conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and social interaction" as a treatment group, in which the participants contributed to the antismoking campaign by posting their own campaign ideas and information they found through mediated and interpersonal communication. The findings show that interactive communication catalyzes the participants' information searching behaviors through diverse communication channels. In turn, increased media use plays a crucial role in changing their attitudes and perceived social norms about smoking behaviors, and eventually reducing smoking intention. This study affirms that the theory of planned behavior is effective in predicting behavioral intention and demonstrates the usefulness of a multitheoretical approach in interactive campaign research on social media.
Luisa Julieta Barboza
Full Text Available This paper to search the principles for the culture of peace present in the Curriculum of the Schools of Social Communication of Zulia state. We studied the curriculum of two schools of social communication more Zulia state tuition. The study was descriptive, not experimental and transversal. A checklist was used to support a content analysis. The results showed a favorable trend for the consideration of the principles of culture of peace in the curriculum of schools of social communication in Zulia State.
Malissa Maria Mahmud
Full Text Available Demographic change is transforming the way we communicate. In many parts of the world, the society has become increasingly multicultural and multi-ethnic. In this context, intercultural cognizance is one of the pivotal facets for intercultural communication. The recent years has seen the emergence of the intercultural communicative competence (ICC concept permeating the education field thereby a large and growing body of literature has commenced to investigate the concept of intercultural communicative competence (ICC and its repercussion in the context of teaching and learning. The notion of ICC is incepted on the acquisition of several “savoirs” associated with attitudes and values, knowledge, skills of interpreting and relating, skills of discovery and interaction and critical cultural awareness. However, the process of acquiring and negotiating meaning in the context of intercultural communication lies a tremendous challenge and demands a continuous effort. Thus, the objective of this study is to probe on how students’ attitudes towards another culture affect their degree of cultural awareness and to deliberate how social and communication skills can foster intercultural competence that is influenced by the level of ICC acquisition. The findings indicate that the students possess intercultural competence in which they demonstrate positive attitudes towards individuals from other cultures; henceforth is reflected in the high cultural awareness amongst the students. Apart from this, the findings yielded also show that the students are able to exhibit and display significant competencies in both social and communication skills which are allied to the high level of ICC acquisition.
Hemsley, Bronwyn; Balandin, Susan; Palmer, Stuart; Dann, Stephen
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) social media research is relatively new, and is built on a foundation of research on use of the Internet and social media by people with communication disabilities. Although the field is expanding to include a range of people who use AAC, there are limitations and gaps in research that will need to be addressed in order to keep pace with the rapid evolution of social media connectivity in assistive communication technologies. In this paper, we consider the aims, scope, and methodologies of AAC social media research, with a focus on social network sites. Lack of detailed attention to specific social network sites and little use of social media data limits the extent to which findings can be confirmed. Increased use of social media data across a range of platforms, including Instagram and YouTube, would provide important insights into the lives of people who use AAC and the ways in which they and their supporters use social media. New directions for AAC social media research are presented in line with those discussed at the social media research symposium at the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Toronto, Canada, on August 12, 2016.
Marina M Doucerain
Full Text Available Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress. In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2 learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict communication-related acculturative stress. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N=100 support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in communication-related acculturative stress but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
Wieckowski, Andrea Trubanova; White, Susan W
Social communication impairment has been implicated in various mental health disorders. The primary aim of this review paper is to summarize the extant research on the development and application of technologies to address social communication deficits, conceptualized according to the four constructs outlined by the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), transdiagnostically in children and adolescents. An exhaustive and systematic search yielded 69 peer-reviewed articles meeting all inclusion criteria (i.e., used technology, applied the technology to target impairment in at least one of four constructs of social communication, included a child or adolescent samples). We found limited use of technology for exploration of impairment in reception of non-facial communication, compared to the other social communication constructs. In addition, there has been an overwhelming focus on social communication impairment in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), with relatively few studies evaluating technology application in other clinical populations. Implications for future directions for technological interventions to treat social communication impairments transdiagnostically are discussed.
Kathleen A. Alexander
Full Text Available An emerging Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC pathogen, M. mungi, infects wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. This MTC pathogen did not appear to be transmitted through a primary aerosol or oral route. We utilized histopathology, spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR, quantitative PCR (qPCR, and molecular markers (regions of difference [RDs] from various MTC members, including region of difference 1 [RD1] from M. bovis BCG [RD1BCG], M. microti [RD1mic], and M. pinnipedii [RD1seal], genes Rv1510 [RD4], Rv1970 [RD7], Rv3877/8 [RD1], and Rv3120 [RD12], insertion element IS1561, the 16S RNA gene, and gene Rv0577 [cfp32], including the newly characterized mongoose-specific deletion in RD1 (RD1mon, in order to demonstrate the presence of M. mungi DNA in infected mongooses and investigate pathogen invasion and exposure mechanisms. M. mungi DNA was identified in 29% of nasal planum samples (n = 52, 56% of nasal rinses and swabs (n = 9, 53% of oral swabs (n = 19, 22% of urine samples (n = 23, 33% of anal gland tissue (n = 18, and 39% of anal gland secretions (n = 44. The occurrence of extremely low cycle threshold values obtained with qPCR in anal gland and nasal planum samples indicates that high levels of M. mungi can be found in these tissue types. Histological data were consistent with these results, suggesting that pathogen invasion occurs through breaks in the nasal planum and/or skin of the mongoose host, which are in frequent contact with anal gland secretions and urine during olfactory communication behavior. Lesions in the lung, when present, occurred only with disseminated disease. No environmental sources of M. mungi DNA could be found. We report primary environmental transmission of an MTC pathogen that occurs in association with social communication behavior.
Nilsen, Elizabeth S; Bacso, Sarah A
Given the pivotal role that social interactions play for adolescents' well-being, understanding the factors that influence communication is key. The present study examined relations between adolescents' communicative perspective-taking, executive function skills, and ADHD traits and explored the role communicative perspective-taking plays in peer relations. Data was collected from a community sample of 15 to 19-years-olds (N = 46) in Waterloo, Canada. Two communicative perspective-taking tasks required participants to infer speakers' communicative intentions. A battery of tasks assessed adolescents' working memory and inhibitory control. Elevated ADHD traits were associated with weaker working memory, inhibitory control, and communicative perspective-taking. Working memory was the strongest predictor of communicative perspective-taking. Highlighting the importance of communicative perspective-taking for social interactions, adolescents with weaker skills in this area reported worse peer relations. Findings underscore the importance of communicative perspective-taking for adolescents' social relations and have relevance for understanding the social difficulties faced by adolescents with elevated ADHD traits.
Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan
Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative technology bound people networking which is becoming an acceptable domain of interaction. Though the traditional channels like TV, print media etc. are still active and prominent in marketing communication, the presences of the Internet and more specifically the Social Media Networking, has started influencing the way individuals and business enterprises communicate. It has become evident that more individuals and business enterprises are engaging the social media networking sites either to accelerate the sales of their pro...
the frame for understanding and exploring the enterprises’ communication in an organizational context. Hence, through a value-theoretical framework, the study seeks to identify the extent to which these enterprises manage to create alignment between their corporate identity values and their social...... responsibility values, or if they are working with two, or even more, different value systems. Accordingly, the assumption put forward by this paper is that a high degree of alignment between identity and social responsibility in the enterprise’s corporate communication will enable the enterprises to communicate......The aim of this paper is thus to investigate social businesses’ communication of identity in their corporate communication. Institutional theory (e.g. DiMaggio & Powel, 1983), and especially the notion of legitimacy (Deephouse and Carter, 2005; Meyer and Rowan, 1977; Suchman, 1995), provides...
Zhao, Dongjie; Jiang, Jian; Li, Deyi; Zhang, Haisu; Chen, Guisheng
Aiming at the problem of social communication network evolution, first, topology potential is introduced to measure the local influence among nodes in networks. Second, from the perspective of topology potential distribution the method of network evolution description based on topology potential distribution is presented, which takes the artificial intelligence with uncertainty as basic theory and local influence among nodes as essentiality. Then, a social communication network is constructed by enron email dataset, the method presented is used to analyze the characteristic of the social communication network evolution and some useful conclusions are got, implying that the method is effective, which shows that topology potential distribution can effectively describe the characteristic of sociology and detect the local changes in social communication network.
This article reflects the theoretical positions of infotech management by system analyzing social and economic impact of information and communication technologies that contributes to the development of ICT management.
D. Eberle (David); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); T. Li (Ting)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Companies increasingly communicate about corporate social responsibility (CSR) through interactive online media. We examine whether using such media is beneficial to a company's reputation. We conducted an online experiment to examine the impacts of interactivity in CSR
Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A
This study examines the social validity of a family-centred collaborative approach to developing Social Stories™ to support the behavioural and communicative functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)/Autism, PDD-Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Disorder (aged 4-12 years) participated in a multiple baseline design across behaviours with a 6-week follow-up. The effects of behaviour stories (to reduce problem behaviours) and communication stories (to facilitate communication) as assessed by parental subjective perceptions of child functioning were evaluated and compared. Using daily parental ratings, behaviour stories were deemed effective for 11 of 17 stories (64.7%), whereas communication stories were deemed effective for 10 of 19 stories (52.6%), with great variability in effect size for both. Results also indicated variability in performance across specific story targets, although parents' perceived effects of Social Stories™ were not linked to any known child characteristics. This study argues that intervention using Social Stories™ to address behavioural and communicative functioning can yield socially valid outcomes across a range of child characteristics and intervention targets. Implications for clinical practice and how present methodological limitations can be addressed in future research are considered.
This thesis looks into social media marketing, what relationship public relations has with social media marketing and brand equity. The challenge with utilizing social media marketing is identifying the right tools to use in measuring the success or effectiveness of it. In this thesis I investigate a set of tools a Finnish PR agency could utilize in measuring the effects of their social media marketing efforts on their client’s brand equity. This thesis topics include new media in specifi...
The purpose of this study was to investigate what kind of visual messages the Central Association of Scouts and Guides in Finland use in their social media, how the messages are perceived and how they could be optimized. The theoretical part explains the key concepts of social media and how it is used among Finnish youth. The chosen social media platforms, Instagram and Twitter are also looked into, fol-lowed by chapters explaining the science of studying social media monitoring, visual m...
Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter
Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors.
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related...
Castello, Itziar; Morsing, Mette; Schultz, Friederike
This paper develops a media theoretical extension of the communicative view on corporate social responsibility by elaborating on the characteristics of network societies, arguing that new media increase the speed and connectivity, and lead to higher plurality and the potential polarization...... of reality constructions. We discuss the implications for corporate social responsibility of becoming more polyphonic and sketch the contours of “communicative legitimacy.” Finally, we present this special issue and develop some questions for future research....
Mistry DR; Verma M; Vyas SN; Kantharia SL
Introduction: New digital media have dramatically altered the communication landscape, especially for youth. “Indian web users spend 26 minutes online each day”. This study is concerned with effect of social networking on youth regarding potential risk, safety, wellbeing & skill development because they are still maturing & forming the ability to attain & implement communication & conflict resolution skill on interpersonal level. Aim & objective: To explore the impact of social networking on ...
Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…
Owen, Jason E; Curran, Michaela; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Hanneman, Robert
Web and mobile (mHealth) interventions have promise for improving health outcomes, but engagement and attrition may be reducing effect sizes. Because social networks can improve engagement, which is a key mechanism of action, understanding the structure and potential impact of social networks could be key to improving mHealth effects. This study (a) evaluates social network characteristics of four distinct communication channels (discussion board, chat, e-mail, and blog) in a large social networking intervention, (b) predicts membership in online communities, and (c) evaluates whether community membership impacts engagement. Participants were 299 cancer survivors with significant distress using the 12-week health-space.net intervention. Social networking attributes (e.g., density and clustering) were identified separately for each type of network communication (i.e., discussion board, blog, web mail, and chat). Each channel demonstrated high levels of clustering, and being a community member in one communication channel was associated with being in the same community in each of the other channels (φ = 0.56-0.89, ps communication channels, suggesting that each channel reached distinct types of users. Finally, membership in a discussion board, chat, or blog community was strongly associated with time spent engaging with coping skills exercises (Ds = 1.08-1.84, ps communication allow participants to expand the number of individuals with whom they are communicating, create opportunities for communicating with different individuals in distinct channels, and likely enhance overall engagement.
van de Velde, Bob; Meijer, Albert; Homburg, Vincent
Social media are becoming increasingly important for communication between government organisations and citizens. Although research on this issue is expanding, the structure of these new communication patterns is still poorly understood. This study contributes to our understanding of these new commu
Mancil, G. Richmond; Lorah, Elizabeth R.; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of the iPod Touch™ as a Speech Generated Device (SGD) for Functional Communication Training (FCT). The evaluation of the effects on problem behavior, the effects on generalization and maintenance of the acquired communication repertoire, and the social initiations of peers between the new SGD (iPod…
Purpose - This paper aims at providing a theoretical perspective to study the effects of the communication management/public relations of organizations on the social cohesion of individuals, groups and societies. Design/methodology/approach - The possible connections between communication management
Hage, Maria Louisa
It is often assumed online communication can enhance older adults’ social connectivity. However, previous studies have indicated two obstacles. First, older adults tend to be late adopters, or laggards. This raises the question how online communication tools can be implemented among a population tha
Gross, Elisheva F.
A majority of U.S. adolescents at least occasionally communicate on the Internet with unknown peers. This study tested the hypothesis that online communication with an unknown peer facilitates recovery from the acute aversive effects of social exclusion and examined whether this benefit may be greater for adolescents compared with young adults. A…
The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…
Husain, Fauzilah Md; Ganapathy, Malini; Mohamed, Akmar
Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers' grievances on graduates' lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015). This study was undertaken to explore the…
Fauzilah Md Husain; Malini Ganapathy; Akmar Mohamad
Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers’ grievances on graduates’ lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015). This study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of a group of ten students at a tertiary institution in Malaysia to see how they utlise the theories and practice of effective communication skil...
Nair, T R GopalaKrishnan; Subramaniam, Kumarashvari
Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative te...
McConnell, Bonnie B
Drawing on ethnographic research with kanyeleng fertility society performers and health workers in The Gambia (2012-2013), this paper uses a social capital approach to analyze the relationship between musical performance and health communication. Health communication research has demonstrated the important role of social capital in mediating the impact of interventions. Music research has drawn attention to performance as a site in which social relationships and obligations are produced and negotiated. In this paper, I bring these two perspectives together in order to open up new ways of thinking about musical performance as a culturally appropriate strategy in health communication. Drawing on participant observation as well as individual and group interviews with performers and health workers (126 participants), I argue that kanyeleng performance facilitates health communication by building on existing social networks and forms of social capital. This research contributes to a paradigm shift in research on performance and health communication, moving away from individual-focused behaviour change communication, and toward a culture-centered approach that considers community participation in relation to broader social and structural issues. This research suggests that musical genres such as kanyeleng performance may help build trust between health professionals and target communities while also facilitating information dissemination and public debate on sensitive health topics.
Rocío Ortiz Galindo
Full Text Available This work aims to advance in the theoretical analysis of the field of communication and social movements. The article studies the new changes that have emerged in the social Web era. We will review some of the principal works of the literature to observe the communicative strategies in these collectives, which are able to influence in the social change. We will differentiate the area of interpersonal communication (the informal networks and the public communication (the repertoires of collective action. We will use this classification to analyze the communicative strategies which have born in the social cybermovements, in the ICT age.
Saramaki, J; Lopez, E; Roberts, S G B; Reed-Tsochas, F; Dunbar, R I M
The social brain hypothesis has suggested that social network size (and structure) is constrained by a combination of cognitive processes and the time required to service social relationships. We test this hypothesis in humans using a unique 18-month mobile phone dataset by examining changes in the structure of social networks across a major change in subjects' social and geographical circumstances. Our analysis reveals that the time allocation patterns of call frequency by participants to network members have a distinctive overall shape, where a small number of top-ranked network members received a disproportionately large fraction of calls, with some individual variation. However, importantly, whilst there was a large turnover of individual network members, these changes have little effect on the time allocation patterns of each individual: individuals thus displayed a distinctive "social signature" that was both persistent over time and independent of the identities of the network members. This provides th...
This paper discusses whether social network services, like Facebook and Twitter, may be used by elderly living in their own homes to enhance communication with their relatives and friends. It introduces a prototype solution based on the iRobot Roomba 560, iRobot, USA, robot vacuum cleaner, which...... has been enhanced with Facebook and Twitter communication capabilities. The paper points out a number of other relevant applications where the use of social network services may provide better communication for ambient assisted living solutions and intelligent environments....
Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lea, M
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is sometimes heralded for its power to break down social boundaries and to liberate individuals from social influence, group pressure, and status and power differentials that characterize much face-to-face interaction. We review research conducted within the fra
Social and interpersonal support has mostly been carried out face-to-face. However, the internet was able, in the last couple of decades, to facilitate social interactions through a range of computer-mediated communication (CMC) interfaces--from email applications, chat-rooms, forums, instant messages (IM), short text messages (SMS), social…
Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.
Objectives: Information and communications technology (ICT) has impacted almost all human service disciplines and currently is evolving in social work. This study provides a systematic review of ICT-enhanced social work interventions, with particular reference to their intervention fidelity (IF), validity, and the role of ICT in the helping…
Koo, Charles M.
Noting that China has undergone tremendous social change in its three decades under the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideology, this paper contends that such change has triggered tension that upsets the equilibrium of the entire social system. The paper uses Talcott Parson's cybernetic communication model to explain the societal level changes that have…
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have empowered non-state social actors, notably, social movements. They were quick to seize ICTs in the past (printing presses, television, fax machines), which was a major factor in their successes. Mass email campaigns, blogs, their audio- and video- variants (the podcasts and the videocasts),…
Jones, Joanna; Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth; Jones, Edward
This article presents a synthesis of existing ideas relating to the use of social network sites by faculty within higher education institutions (HEIs) to communicate with the student body. As previous research has been from a student-centric perspective, importantly this study explores the use of social networks for student-faculty communication…
Wu, Heping; Gao, Junde; Zhang, Weimin
The present study examines the professional growth of three Chinese English teachers by analyzing their interactional patterns and their social and cognitive presence in an online community. The data from social network analysis (SNA) and content analysis revealed that computer-mediated communication (CMC) created new opportunities for teachers to…
Cho, Hichang; Gay, Geri; Davidson, Barry; Ingraffea, Anthony
The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the relationships between communication styles, social networks, and learning performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community. Using social network analysis (SNA) and longitudinal survey data, we analyzed how 31 distributed learners developed collaborative learning…
Engelhardt, K-Alexander; Fuchs, Eberhard; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus
Communication is the act of information transfer between sender and receiver. In rats, vocal communication can be studied through ultrasonic vocalizations (USV). 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations, most notably juvenile play, likely expressing the sender׳s positive affective state. Such appetitive 50-kHz USV serve important pro-social communicative functions and elicit social exploratory and approach behavior in the receiver. Emission of 50-kHz USV can be induced pharmacologically by the administration of psychostimulant drugs, such as amphetamine. However, it is unknown whether amphetamine affects the pro-social communicative function of 50-kHz USV in the receiver. We therefore assessed dose-response effects of amphetamine (0.0mg/kg, 0.5mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg, 2.5mg/kg, 5.0mg/kg) on pro-social ultrasonic communication on both, sender and receiver, in juvenile rats. We found an inverted U-shaped effect of amphetamine on 50-kHz USV emission, with 50-kHz USV levels being strongly enhanced by moderate doses, yet less prominent effects were seen following the highest dose. Likewise, amphetamine exerted inverted U-shaped effects on social exploratory and approach behavior induced by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USV. Social approach was enhanced by moderate amphetamine doses, but completely abolished following the highest dose. Amphetamine further dose-dependently promoted the emission of 50-kHz USV following playback of appetitive 50-kHz USV, indicating more vigorous attempts to establish social proximity. Our results support an important role of dopamine in closing a perception-and-action-loop through linking mechanisms relevant for detection and production of social vocalizations. Moreover, our approach possibly provides a new means to study mania-like aberrant social interaction and communication in animal models for bipolar disorder.
Doucerain, Marina M; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants' L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants' L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants' L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants' L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning.
directive made specific mention of its primary applicability to social networking sites , information sharing websites, Wikis, blogs, and image and...According to iResearch, China’s top social networking sites , Qzone, RenRen, Pengyou, and Kaixin boast user populations of 190 million, 95 million, 80
It's easy to dismiss social media as a fascination of young people but to do so minimizes one of the fastest growing trends in technology. The Pew Internet and American Life Project recently found that over 71% of teens have a Facebook profile and 75% of adults have one too. Social media tools have become the way for a school or business to…
This study explores whether companies embracing a corporate social responsibility agenda have a strategic focus on adapting and aligning their value systems to reflect such commitment. The analysis is based on empirical data and a conceptual model juxtaposing corporate values, corporate social...... responsibility values, and implementation to capture how the different configurations of these aspects may impact the communication carried out by corporations. The findings indicate that the companies in the data sample operate with two markedly different value systems. The coexistence of two value systems...... is discussed in relation to the reported difficulties that companies experience when facing the new and complex challenge of communicating corporate social responsibility....
Catani, Marco; Bambini, Valentina
In humans, brain connectivity implements a system for language and communication that spans from basic pre-linguistic social abilities shared with non-human primates to syntactic and pragmatic functions particular to our species. The arcuate fasciculus is a central connection in this architecture, linking regions devoted to formal aspects of language with regions involved in intentional and social communication. Here, we outline a new anatomical model of communication that incorporates previous neurofunctional accounts of language with recent advances in tractography and neuropragmatics. The model consists of five levels, from the representation of informative actions and communicative intentions, to lexical/semantic processing, syntactic analysis, and pragmatic integration. The structure of the model is hierarchical in relation to developmental and evolutionary trajectories and it may help interpreting clinico-anatomical correlation in communication disorders.
Montesi, Jennifer L; Conner, Bradley T; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Fauber, Robert L; Kim, Kevin H; Heimberg, Richard G
This study was conducted to better understand why socially anxious individuals experience less sexual satisfaction in their intimate partnerships than nonanxious individuals, a relationship that has been well documented in previous research. Effective communication between partners is an important predictor of relationship satisfaction. Sexual communication, an important aspect of communication between romantic partners, is especially sensitive for couples given the vulnerability inherent in being open about sexual issues. Because socially anxious individuals characteristically report fear of evaluation or scrutiny by others, we hypothesized that the process of building intimacy by sharing personal information about oneself with one's partner, including when this information relates to one's sexuality and/or the sexual domain of the relationship, would be particularly difficult for socially anxious individuals. The present study examined fear of intimacy and sexual communication as potential mediators of the relationship between higher social anxiety and lower sexual satisfaction. Self-report data were collected from 115 undergraduate students and their partners in monogamous, heterosexual, committed relationships of at least 3 months duration. Multilevel path modeling revealed that higher social anxiety predicted higher fear of intimacy, which predicted lower satisfaction with open sexual communication, which, in turn, predicted lower sexual satisfaction. Additionally, there was evidence of mediation as there were significant indirect effects of the antecedent variables on sexual satisfaction. The path model had excellent fit. Implications for social anxiety, intimate relationships, and couples therapy are discussed.
Lassaad Ben Mahjoub
Full Text Available France is located at the crossroads of major European cultural currents, between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean, his attention to the preservation of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has evolved in recent years by taking several attempts and measures. Many studies were interested to evaluate the scope of social and environmental disclosure by using different measures; these criteria do not cover all features which can reflect all social and environmental concerns.We attempt to determine the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure in France by a new measure; it takes the form of an index; for this, we use a content analysis of annual reports in order to evaluate the items which describe the impact of firm activity on environment and community.Our findings show an acceptable level of social and environmental disclosure, in French companies, compared to others studies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1393
Orinstein, Alyssa J.; Suh, Joyce; Porter, Kaitlyn; De Yoe, Kaitlin A.; Tyson, Katherine E.; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.
Youth who lose their ASD diagnosis may have subtle social and communication difficulties. We examined social and communication functioning in 44 high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 optimal outcome (OO) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth. Results indicated that OO participants had no autism communication symptoms, no pragmatic language deficits,…
Thøis Madsen, V.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Internal social media (ISM) or social intranets provide organizations with a communication arena in which coworkers can actively contribute to organizational communication. Coworkers are, however, far from impulsive and spontaneous when they communicate on ISM. A case study in a Danish bank found th
Bonetti, Luigi; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Gilmore, Linda
Children and adolescents now communicate online to form and/or maintain relationships with friends, family, and strangers. Relationships in "real life" are important for children's and adolescents' psychosocial development; however, they can be difficult for those who experience feelings of loneliness and/or social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in usage of online communication patterns between children and adolescents with and without self-reported loneliness and social anxiety. Six hundred twenty-six students ages 10 to 16 years completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with, and their purposes for communicating over the Internet. Participants were administered a shortened version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and an abbreviated subscale of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A). Additionally, age and gender differences in usage of the online communication patterns were examined across the entire sample. Findings revealed that children and adolescents who self-reported being lonely communicated online significantly more frequently about personal and intimate topics than did those who did not self-report being lonely. The former were motivated to use online communication significantly more frequently to compensate for their weaker social skills to meet new people. Results suggest that Internet usage allows them to fulfill critical needs of social interactions, self-disclosure, and identity exploration. Future research, however, should explore whether or not the benefits derived from online communication may also facilitate lonely children's and adolescents' offline social relationships.
Full Text Available The political communication in media era performs on two dimensions: the horizontal dimension – between political actors and journalists – and on vertical dimension – the media product is decentralized to the consumer public. In Social Media Era, the horizontal dimension completely disappears and the communication is routed by the online opinion leaders in the social groups. Thus, in the new public space, the main communication actors are not journalists and politicians, but publicreceptor, which plays the role of opinion leaders. In Social Media, we can talk a lot about “the power of the receptor”, that is decentralizing, without intermediaries, the political message to discuss it in the social groups to which they belong.
LA REPITENCIA ESCOLAR EN ESCUELAS PRIMARIAS DE SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LAS REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES Y LAS RELACIONES ENTRE DOCENTES Y ESTUDIANTES REPITENTES (GRADE REPETITION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. AN APPROACH FROM TEACHER´S AND GRADE REPEATING PUPIL´S SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS
Villalonga Penna María Micaela
Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación sobre las representaciones sociales de docentes y estudiantes repitentes acerca de la repitencia, y sus implicaciones en las relaciones entre estos actores educativos. La metodología utilizada fue de tipo cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a docentes y a estudiantes repitentes de primer grado, y observaciones participantes en escuelas de San Miguel de Tucumán. El análisis de los datos se efectuó acorde a la teoría fundamentada. Se identificaron categorías y temas en las entrevistas y observaciones participantes, y se triangularon los datos para elaborar una teoría explicativa del fenómeno. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones docentes inciden en la conformación de las representaciones de los niños repitentes y en las relaciones áulicas. Las docentes, que definieron a la educación de manera unicausal, se manifestaron favorables a la repitencia. Los estudiantes repitentes se representaron negativamente a la repitencia y a los vínculos con docentes y pares. Las interacciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones unidireccionales y una aplicación desigual de normas. Esto permitía a las docentes mantener una autoimagen satisfactoria, pero influía negativamente en la de los niños repitentes. Las docentes que consideraron a la educación como un proceso complejo, definieron a la repitencia como una situación desfavorable. Las representaciones de los alumnos repitentes sobre la repitencia y las relaciones con docentes y pares aunaron aspectos negativos y positivos. Las relaciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones uni y multi-direccionales y una aplicación de normas más equitativa. La autoimagen de las docentes y de los niños repitentes contenía aspectos positivos y negativos.Abstract: This paper presents research results on teacher´s and grade repeating children’s representations of grade repetition, and its implications for the
Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai
Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.
Bakx, A.W.E.A.; Sijtsma, K.; van der Sanden, J.M.M.; Taconis, R.
Communication plays an important role in many professional contexts. This is especially true for students in the field of social work. The aim of this study was to develop formative, self-regulated multimedia self-assessment of social-communicative competencies for social work students. First, a pil
Weng, Lilian; Perra, Nicola; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro
Granovetter's weak tie theory of social networks is built around two central hypotheses. The first states that strong social ties carry the large majority of interaction events; the second maintains that weak social ties, although less active, are often relevant for the exchange of especially important information (e.g., about potential new jobs in Granovetter's work). While several empirical studies have provided support for the first hypothesis, the second has been the object of far less scrutiny. A possible reason is that it involves notions relative to the nature and importance of the information that are hard to quantify and measure, especially in large scale studies. Here, we search for empirical validation of both Granovetter's hypotheses. We find clear empirical support for the first. We also provide empirical evidence and a quantitative interpretation for the second. We show that attention, measured as the fraction of interactions devoted to a particular social connection, is high on weak ties --- po...
Leaf, Justin B.; Taubman, Mitchell; Milne, Christine; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Jeremy; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Tsuji, Kathleen; Kassardjian, Alyne; Alcalay, Aditt; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John
We utilized a cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing to teach social communication skills to three individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The cool versus not cool procedure plus role-playing consisted of the researcher randomly demonstrating the behavior correctly (cool) two times and the behavior incorrectly (not cool) two…
Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark
Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…
Mirel, Barbara; Olsen, Leslie A.
Designs a technical-communication course for software-engineering majors to take concurrently with their capstone project course in software design. Studies effects of writing on students' user-centered beliefs and design practices and on usability of their product. Suggests the synergy of this interdisciplinary approach sensitized students to…
Kayode, Bakare Kazeem; Zamzami, Ikhlas F.; Olowolayemo, Akeem
Purpose: As computer-mediated communication has diffused, successive technological variations raise new questions about interpersonal impressions and several standardized instruments have been advanced in literature to asses various aspect of interpersonal attraction phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to examine the claims for reliability and…
Myloslava M. Chernii
Full Text Available Today especially urgent problem is communication and the development of communication skills of future teachers as well as communicative culture is the main structural component of his professionalism. Schools and classes, both conventional and virtual, must have teachers, armed with technology resources and skills, and able to effectively teach the subject using information and communication technologies. It all comes down to the fact that the modern teacher has to be aware of the latest technologies that can help him to organize trainings and communication. Therefore, a special role is given to the training of future teachers and vector of application of social services in the organization of communication in the learning process.
Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M
This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use.
Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This paper aims to extend the scope of research in the field of social marketing by studying the Ohanian model in the online environment. The goal is to highlight the important theories and social models intrinsic to the online non-profit organizations’ communication. The results show that the efficiency of social programs depends on the level of incorporated elements of social theories in the design, content and structure of the website.
Finnerty, Ailbhe N.
The behaviour that we exhibit contributes to the message that is communicated to those that we are interacting with and can have an impact on how the message is conveyed and interpreted. Nonverbal behaviour is just as important to be aware of as well as what is being said, as the subtleties of behaviour can impact the outcome of interactions. Advancements in research technologies have allowed us the chance to investigate natural human behaviour is a variety of settings outside of the laborato...
Human society has entered the era of digit and internet, and the communication technology is one of the important factors which result in changes of social structure. Smart City is an active attempt to future urban development, to use the communication technology as an constitutive element of smart city from the economic base to the superstructure, production relation to exchange relation. Digitization and networking are committed to reflect the state of human's comprehensive development, which is an important stage of emancipation of humanity itself. Communication technology can bring people's initiative into full play and learning in development and establish the harmonious relationships during the interaction. This article is based on the example of smart city, which analyzed the impact of communication technologies on social structure from different aspects.
Takeuchi, Susumu; Teranishi, Yuuichi; Harumoto, Kaname; Shimojo, Shinji
Almost all companies are now utilizing computer networks to support speedier and more effective in-house information-sharing and communication. However, existing systems are designed to support communications only within the same department. Therefore, in our research, we propose an in-house communication support system which is based on the “Information Propagation Model (IPM).” The IPM is proposed to realize word-of-mouth communication in a social network, and to support information-sharing on the network. By applying the system in a real company, we found that information could be exchanged between different and unrelated departments, and such exchanges of information could help to build new relationships between the users who are apart on the social network.
Full Text Available Traditional performance monitoring techniques in project management are based on classical measures – costs, schedule and scope of work. But focusing our view on these indices and their derivatives we can overlook one of the most important elements of project management – project participants. Degrees of their coordination, cohesion and collaboration directly influence on the extent to which project goals could be achieved. Communications and relations between participants play a vital role of special glue holding project parts together. Besides, communication environment integrate within itself information about all aspects of a project – successes, failures and conflicts. Character of interpersonal relations and structure of communications between participants are proposed as indicators of successfulness or failures. In present report project participants are considered as a social network. Using social network analysis (SNA techniques provides opportunities to examine links between structural characteristics of interproject communication networks and project performance.
Full Text Available Social media tools are wide spread in web communication and are gaining popularity in the communication process between public institutions and citizens. This study conducts an analysis on how social media is used by Official Statistical Institutes to interact with citizens and disseminate information. A linear regression technique is performed to examine which social media platforms (Twitter or Facebook is a more effective tool in the communication process in the official statistics area. Our study suggests that Twitter is a more powerful tool than Facebook in enhancing the relationship between official statistics and citizens, complying with several other studies. Next, we performed an analysis on Twitter network characteristics discussing “official statistics” using NodeXL that revealed the unexploited potential of this network by official statistical agencies.
Ou, C.X.J.; Wong, L.H.M.; Davison, R.M.; Cheng, Z.; Kunifuji, S.; Papadopoulos, G.A.; Skulimowski, A.M.J.
Web 2.0 applications, such as instant messengers and other social media platforms, are fast becoming ubiquitous at work, yet their impact on performance is poorly understood. We investigate these impacts in the Chinese workplace, analyzing data from 179 organizational employees. We find that vertica
Frias, Rui Alberto Móia Praça
While there is extensive research regarding the way users in social networking sites (SNSs) connect and communicate with each other, literature on consumer-brand relationships in SNSs is scarce. This paper hypothesizes and tests the impact of varying the source of communication in Facebook brand pages on key characteristics of brand equity, examining whether this impact is conditioned by relationship closeness expectations. More specifically, two experiments assess how relationship closeness ...
Johansen, Kai Vegard; Hovland, Filip Lundberg
Consumer-generated product reviews have proliferated online. Driven by the notion that customers’ decision to purchase a product is influenced by the information they obtain from online customer reviews, this thesis examines the impact of online customer reviews on purchase intention. To do so, the research integrates traditional communication theories, in particular social communication by Hovland (1948), with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to build a theoretical model. Importantly, ...
Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu
Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed.
Josep-Lluís del OLMO-ARRIAGA
Full Text Available The study of social action through educational strategies inspires the weight of ethic factors to choose Communication studies. It allows aprioristic data about the ethics in the future journalists and mass media professionals. It also collaborates in the marketing strategies. In our study we analyze the impact of ethics and values in the students’ choice of Communication studies in the Spanish University. We analyze the impact degree of ethics and Christian values in the selection process. We observe a high influence of ethics (humanistic and holistic ethics in the training, religious orientation as a factor considered to select the Communication studies.
Ramos, Fernando; Mealha, Oscar; Lelis, Catarina
This paper aims at providing a contribution to the comprehensive review of the impact of information and communication, and their supporting technologies, in the current transformation of human life in the infosphere. The paper also offers an ex- ample of the power of new social approaches to the use of information and commu- nication technologies to foster new working models in organizations by presenting the main outcomes of a research project on social branding. A discussion about some tre...
Living in complex societies is thought to promote the development of sophisticated social, cognitive, and communicative skills. Investigating the extent of these skills across taxa is critical to understanding the evolution of the advanced abilities found in some species, including humans. Facial expressions are rich sources of social information for humans and some primates; however whether this is true for other animals is largely unknown. Horses are an ideal study species for these questio...
Carim, L.; Warwick, C.
Existing literature on the corporate use of social media did not appear to examine the activity of organisations that fund academic research, nor to explore the variety of implications for an organisation’s business functions of adopting these channels. This study sought to shed light on these areas through primary research involving a survey and focus groups. Findings showed that most UK-based research-funding organisations have adopted social media channels for corporate communications p...
Tibbetts, Elizabeth A
Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs such as social costs or physiological costs favor the accuracy of signals. Previous work has largely considered these costs separately, but we may be missing essential connections by studying costs in isolation. After all, social interactions produce rapid changes in hormone titers which can then affect individual behavior and physiology. As a result, social costs are likely to have widespread physiological consequences. Here, I present a new perspective on the factors that maintain honest signals by describing how the interplay between social costs and physiological costs may maintain an accurate link between an animal's abilities and ornament elaboration. I outline three specific mechanisms by which the interaction between social behavior and hormones could favor honest signals and present specific predictions for each of the three models. Then, I review how ornaments alter agonistic behavior, agonistic behavior influences hormones, and how these hormonal effects influence fitness. I also describe the few previous studies that have directly tested how ornaments influence hormones. Finally, opportunities for future work are discussed. Considering the interaction between social behavior and physiology may address some challenges associated with both social and physiological models of costs. Understanding the dynamic feedbacks between physiology and social costs has potential to transform our understanding of the stability of animals' communication systems.
Takashi Hashimoto; Susumu Egashira
This article deals with the process of formation of norms insocieties in which individuals act according to their own cognitive framework under communication. The individuals acquire information from others and interpret it. The way of individual's action is revised through changing the source of information and reforming the method of interpretation. Through the revising mechanisms, assemblages sharing cognitive frameworks are established. First individuals adopt the same source of information and then arrange the shared cognitive framework. The assemblages are considered as groups with common norms, since the same cognitive framework gives actions coherency. In the process of formation the two revising mechanisms function in turn. The intensity of interaction among individuals affects the period to build norms and the size of groups sharing the norms.The size develops under strong interaction but the period becomes long. The dependency of the average size of norms on the strength obeys a power law.
DeBar, L L; Schneider, M; Ford, E G; Hernandez, A E; Showell, B; Drews, K L; Moe, E L; Gillis, B; Jessup, A N; Stadler, D D; White, M
The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the
Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann
Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…
Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management.…
Irene García Medina
Full Text Available Hoje, as mídias sociais são a nova forma de ativismo em comunicação de marketing digital. As empresas não são mais os donos exclusivos da relação dos consumidores com seus produtos / serviços; em vez disso, a sobrevivência das organizações depende da utilização efetiva dos meios de comunicação social. Os consumidores confiam nas outras pessoas para fornecer recomendações sobre produtos e serviços de uma forma muito ativa, e é importante saber como e porque as mídias sociais influenciam as organizações. Este estudo analisa através de uma revisão da literatura a importância do ativismo através da mídia social para comunicação de marketing digital e propõe um modelo de negócio para as estratégias de marketing de sucesso.
Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.
Full Text Available Introduction: New digital media have dramatically altered the communication landscape, especially for youth. “Indian web users spend 26 minutes online each day”. This study is concerned with effect of social networking on youth regarding potential risk, safety, wellbeing & skill development because they are still maturing & forming the ability to attain & implement communication & conflict resolution skill on interpersonal level. Aim & objective: To explore the impact of social networking on communication & conflict resolution skills among first MBBS students. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 122 first year MBBS students using semi structured questionnaire after taking their consent. Data collection was based on purposive sampling. Data entry and analysis was done using excel and SPSS v16. Result: Mean age of participants was 17.7 + 0.62 years, All the participants 122 (100% have their own cell phone & 112 (91.8% were using internet. Majority of participants have their profile on Facebook 100 (81.9% and What’s app 105 (86.1%. Twenty seven percent (33 participants strongly agreed that “people who rely on social networking are losing the ability to talk with others”, while 50 (41% strongly disagreed to it. More than forty seven percent (58 of participants were of strong belief that “people cannot effectively solve problem using social networking”. More than half (52.4% of participants said that “it’s easy to take things the wrong way during social networking”. Conclusion: The study shows that participants have replaced traditional methods of communication with social networking on which they spend a fair amount of time. Use of social networking sites helped half of the adolescents to open up to the world but these sites did not help much in conflict resolution as responded by nearly half of participants.
Oosterling, Iris; Rommelse, Nanda; De Jonge, Maretha; Van Der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Swinkels, Sophie; Roos, Sascha; Visser, Janne; Buitelaar, Jan
Background: The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument with established validity against the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in children aged 4 years and older. Indices of diagnostic accuracy have been shown to be strong in school-aged samples; however, relatively little is known about the performance of the…
Ahmetoglu, Emine; Acar, Ibrahim H.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the associations between Turkish preschool pre-service teacher's personal and educational characteristics, and their social competence, empathy, and communication skills. A total of 385 state university Turkish pre-service teachers (age range 18 to 32 years) from the early childhood education field…
Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen
This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of…
Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Kuipers, A.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.
Abstract This article provides a method to assess the marketing potential of communicating corporate social responsibility of (agricultural) supply chains. The willingness of small firms in agricultural supply chains to make available information about certain dimensions of CSR is measured and combi
Lee, Joohi; Fox, Jill
This study is an investigation of children's communication skills and socialization by the types of their early education experiences (e.g., child care centers, private schools, public schools, home, or other). A total of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents participated in this study. According to the results of this study,…
Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.
Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…
Spears, R; Lea, M; Corneliussen, RA; Postmes, T; Ter Haar, W
In two studies, the authors tested predictions derived from the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) concerning the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to serve as a means to resist powerful out-groups. Earlier research using the SIDE model indicates that the anonym
This study investigated the boundaries of online learners' information disclosure, relationship building, interpersonal integration, and motivation by drawing upon the theoretical frameworks of the social information processing and communication privacy management theories and the hyperpersonal model. A total of 103 students from a higher…
Grzyb, Bernard Stanley
This study attempted to relate findings from social psychological research in the area of attitude change with communicator characteristics, and to apply conclusions drawn from this research to influence processes and persuasion within an educational context. Six basic hypotheses were tested employing three experimental groups and a control group.…
Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison
ABSTRACT Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique.
Jo, Il-Hyun; Kang, Stephanie; Yoon, Meehyun
Collaborative learning has become a dominant learning apparatus for higher level learning objectives. Much of the psychological and social mechanisms operating under this complex group activity, however, is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of college students' communication competence and…
Electronic communication and social networking are effective and useful tools in the process of teaching and learning and have increasingly improved the quality of students' learning outcomes in higher education in recent years. The system encourages and supports students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities and…
Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne
This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…
Carless, David; Douglas, Kitrina
In our research and educational practice we sometimes use songwriting as an alternative way to acquire and communicate insights about the social world. While this approach differs markedly from scientific ways of knowing, it offers valuable and perhaps unique opportunities, in keeping with turns towards narrative/performative methodologies in…
Consumers tend to be sceptical about companies' corporate social responsibility (CSR) communications. We tested the influence of fit and reputation on consumer scepticism when confronted with a cause-related marketing (CRM) advertisement. In a 2 (fit vs. no fit) by 3 (bad reputation, unknown reputat
Communication is of central importance for business and public authorities to make substantial progress on the sustainability ladder. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is about the contribution of business to sustainability, and stakeholder theory is an integral concept of CSR. The literature re
Zhou, P.; Su, X.; Leydesdorff, L.
We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas—political science and Marxism, library and information science, and economics—are compared with their counterpar
Jo, Il-Hyun; Kang, Stephanie; Yoon, Meehyun
Collaborative learning has become a dominant learning apparatus for higher level learning objectives. Much of the psychological and social mechanisms operating under this complex group activity, however, is not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of college students' communication competence and degree…
Full Text Available The evolution of marketing orientations, issues of company and market communication are submitted in the article. The role of social media and its using by companies and their customers are pointed. The author of this article has presented the results of the research conducted with young citizens of Silesia Voivodeship.
Scialfa, Charles; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen; Spadafora, Pat
An innovative gerontology education program was developed to advance research on aging that is interdisciplinary and promotes the translation of knowledge from lab to life. The program focuses on communication and social interaction in healthy aging. It brings together faculty mentors, graduate students, and post-doctoral fellows from six…
Troth, Ashlea C.; Jordan, Peter J.; Lawrence, Sandra A.
Students generally report poor experiences of group work in university settings. This study examines whether individual student perceptions of team social cohesion are determined by their level of emotional intelligence (EI) and whether this relationship is mediated by their communication skills. Business students (N = 273) completed the 16-item…
review) synthesising research evidence on overall effects of music therapy for individuals with ASD; (ii) a study protocol specifying the design of TIME-A, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills in children with ASD aged 4......In this book, a PhD study is presented that investigates if and how music therapy may help to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study examined several dimensions of this complex field, and includes four articles: (i) a systematic review (Cochrane...... ways to combine clinical relevance and rigorous research methodology without compromising either, and to integrate scientific findings in the clinical application of a highly individualised approach. Through enhancing communication and knowledge transfer between research and clinical practice in music...
Oleg Vladimir Sineokij
Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and development of a general model of rare sound records in the structure of institutions of a social communication. The author considers psychocomminicative features of the filophone communication as a special type of interaction in the field of entertainment. The author studied the causes and conditions of a tape subculture in the USSR. It is observed the dynamics of the disco-communication in limited information conditions from socialism till modern high-tech conditions.At the end of the article the author argues based achievements in the field of advanced technology systems, innovation revival in the industry of music-record. Hence, using innovative approaches in the study, the author sets out the basic concept of recording popular music as a special information and legal institution, in retrospect, the theory and practice of the future needs in the information society.
Full Text Available The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812. In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items related to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were measured using the Matson Questionnaire subscale and cyberbullying using the Victimization Scale via Internet. The results show that the group with high social skills and low levels of anxiety spend more time communicating online and use instant messages to talk to friends. In contrast, the online behaviour of the group with high levels of anxiety and low social skills are more motivated to communicate online by their desire to make new friends. Cybervictims spend more time online, use chat rooms and communicate more with strangers than those who do not suffer cyberbullying. These findings suggest that the Internet offers opportunities to maintain and extend social networks but also exposes young people to online risks.
Robinson, Elise B.; Munir, Kerim; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Santangelo, Susan L.
This is the first investigation of the relationship between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. The parents of 5,246 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC). The association between parental age…
Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R.; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi
Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was…
Boesch, Miriam C; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.
Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod
The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.
Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.
Babkirk, Sarah; Luehring-Jones, Peter; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A
The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as a form of social interaction has become increasingly prevalent, yet few studies examine individual differences that may shed light on implications of CMC for adjustment. The current study examined neurocognitive individual differences associated with preferences to use technology in relation to social-emotional outcomes. In Study 1 (N = 91), a self-report measure, the Social Media Communication Questionnaire (SMCQ), was evaluated as an assessment of preferences for communicating positive and negative emotions on a scale ranging from purely via CMC to purely face-to-face. In Study 2, SMCQ preferences were examined in relation to event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with early emotional attention capture and reactivity (the frontal N1) and later sustained emotional processing and regulation (the late positive potential (LPP)). Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while 22 participants passively viewed emotional and neutral pictures and completed an emotion regulation task with instructions to increase, decrease, or maintain their emotional responses. A greater preference for CMC was associated with reduced size of and satisfaction with social support, greater early (N1) attention capture by emotional stimuli, and reduced LPP amplitudes to unpleasant stimuli in the increase emotion regulatory task. These findings are discussed in the context of possible emotion- and social-regulatory functions of CMC.
Full Text Available Media communication systems have experienced a radical change in their functional mechanisms, at the same time with the development of the online social networks, where the online public has become an important factor for decentralization and influencing the message in its social groups (strong ties. The aims of this research are analyzing how the online message travels from transmitter to the weak links of the transmitter, by involving the strong links and also analyzing the degree to which the message of the transmitter is discussed in social groups of the strong links compared with the messages debated on the Facebook source-page. Following the analysis, we can clearly observe that the message published by the transmitter on the source-page reach the weak links, due to the strong ties involved. Also, we noticed that the Facebook page of the “Save a Heart” Association is used by strong ties (fans to a greater extent as a source to disseminate the message to their social groups and less as a space for debating the message of the transmitter.
Márcia Cristina Gomes Molina
Full Text Available This article presents reflections, through literature review, about the means of communication’s use, in special the internet in the transformation of social relations. From the perspective of Manuel Castells and John Thompson, the text presents an overview of the changes arising from the information technology and communication, highlighting the potential of the power of persuasion and dissemination of social networking sites such as Facebook and YouTube in the exercise of the self-masses, which transformed mass communication through speech, autonomy and interaction of its actors. The arguments presented in the text, is to highlight the role of information technologies in social interaction and the construction of a network society.
Ophir, Yaakov; Rosenberg, Hananel; Asterhan, Christa S C; Schwarz, Baruch B
Exposure to war is associated with psychological disturbances, but ongoing communication between adolescents and teachers may contribute to adolescents' resilience. This study examined the extent and nature of teacher-student communication on Social Network Sites (SNS) during the 2014 Israel-Gaza war. Israeli adolescents (N = 208, 13-18 yrs) completed information about SNS communication. A subset of these (N = 145) completed questionnaires on social rejection and distress sharing on SNS. More than a half (56%) of the respondents communicated with teachers via SNS. The main content category was 'emotional support'. Adolescents' perceived benefits from SNS communication with teachers were associated with distress sharing. Social rejection was negatively associated with emotional support and perceived benefits from SNS communication. We conclude that SNS communication between teachers and students may provide students with easy access to human connections and emotional support, which is likely to contribute to adolescents' resilience in times of war.
Shi, Jingyuan; Poorisat, Thanomwong; Salmon, Charles T
The past decade has witnessed a rapid increase in the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in health communication campaigns seeking to achieve an ambitious range of health-related impacts. This article provides a review of 40 studies and research protocols, with a focus on two key factors that differentiate SNSs from more traditional health communication approaches of the past. The first is the potential dualism between message sender and receiver, in which receivers become receiver-sources who forward and amplify the content and reach of health messages. The second is the potential dualism between message and message impact, in which the act of forwarding and modifying messages by receiver-sources itself becomes a measure of message impact. Each of these dualisms has implications for the design and evaluation of contemporary health communication campaigns. The review concludes with a series of observations and recommendations for future health communication research.
Lee, Hong Joo; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Jong Woo; Park, Sung Joo; Gloor, Peter
Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved.
Cochet, Hélène; Byrne, Richard W
We aimed to investigate developmental continuities between a range of early social and communicative abilities (including gestural communication) and language acquisition in children aged between 11 and 41 months. Initiation of joint attention and imitation were strongly correlated to language comprehension and production. Moreover, the analysis of different communicative gestures revealed significant relationships between language development and the production of symbolic gestures, declarative pointing (declarative informative pointing in particular), and head nodding. Other gestures such as imperative pointing, showing, and head shaking were not found to correlate with language level. Our results also suggest that distinct processes are involved in the development of language comprehension and production, and highlight the importance of considering various characteristics of children's early communicative skills.
Piñuel Raigada, José Luis
Depuis sa fondation il y a dix ans, le Groupe MDCS (Médiation Dialectique de la Communication Sociale) s’est engagé dans un Programme de recherche axé d’une part sur l’Épistémologie de la Communication, et d’autre part sur l’étude de l’enseignement et la recherche en Théorie de la Communication/Information dans les universités d’Europe et d’Amérique latine. Le Programme axé sur l’Épistémologie de la Communication s’appuie sur les travaux initiés les années 80 avec l’ouvrage collectif « Episte...
Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Biddlecom, Ann; Tanle, Augustine
This paper examines connectedness to, communication with and monitoring of unmarried adolescents in Ghana by parents, other adults, friends and key social institutions and the roles these groups play with respect to adolescent sexual activity. The paper draws on 2004 nationally-representative survey data and qualitative evidence from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with adolescents in 2003. Adolescents show high levels of connectedness to family, adults, friends, school and religious groups. High levels of adult monitoring are also observed, but communication with family about sex-related matters was not as high as with non-family members. The qualitative data highlight gender differences in communication. Multivariate analysis of survey data shows a strong negative relationship between parental monitoring and recent sexual activity for males and females, and limited effects of communication. Creating a supportive environment and showing interest in the welfare of adolescents appear to promote positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
Silvio Luiz Paula
Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to analyze how organizational communication tools are used to manage printing, from both internal and external audiences, in what regards social responsibility in three Higher Education Institutions from Pernambuco (UFPE, FAFIRE, ASCES. In order to build our theoretical framework, we have used concepts from Printing Management, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Theory, Organi-zational Communication, Organizational Culture and Organizational Structure. With respect to culture, a system of representations and shared values emerges, according to Fischer’s Model (1996. This system influences and is influenced by the organizational structure. We present an overview of Higher Education Institutions and their role on building society, according to the argument presented by Calderón (2010. In this work we discuss the creation of socially responsible printing, through communication with the interested audien-ces, as suggested by the model proposed by Mitchell, Agle and Wood (1997. The methodology chosen in this research work is a multiple case study. To this end, we have chosen three institutions, two located in Recife and one in Caruaru, cities in the state of Pernambuco. We have carried out a qualitative investigation. Thus, we have performed a field study with semi-structured interviews, document analysis, direct observations within the institutions in question, as well as indirect observation of photographs and videos. Amongst the results found, the actions performed were shown to be consistent with the management model and culture. The participants of the study have shown us that they are aware of the social role of Higher Education institutions, and have identified the students, professors, workers, students parents, associations, consumers and public service as the main stakeholders involved. Amongst the most commonly used strategies to build a socially responsible strategy, we can highlight
Johnson, B C
Though the benefits derived from verbal communication between practitioner and patient often are beyond the control of most health care marketers, this encounter includes nearly all of the personality and social appeals that are critical to the development of a successful and long-lasting marketing exchange. To enable marketers of health care to understand more fully the communication context in which practitioners operate, the author reviews the social implications of therapeutic communicator style.
Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.; Landgren, Jonas
-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive...... communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized...... in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism....
This dissertation focuses on the social psychological determinants of mobile communication technology use and adoption in an attempt to better understand people’s behavior for adopting and using innovative information and communication technologies. In particular, this study emphasizes the compariso
Krüger, Simone; Berberian, Ana Paula
Inclusion of people with special needs in the labor market has been increasing in some regions of Brazil as a result of the Articles 6 and 7 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and the Quota Law (No. 8.213/91, Art. 93) which entitle people with disabilities to work in order to improve their social condition. To support persons with complex communication needs in the workplace, 40 graphic symbols termed "symbols of industrial expressions" were developed within the framework of the COMMUNIS package. The symbols were developed for a company of the food sector in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Individual interviews were held with the human resources professionals, as well as with employees with complex communication needs in order to identify problems, assess requirements, and generate a list of specific symbols to develop. The symbols were then validated with regard to their ease of recognition. Only five symbols needed revision. The results suggest that it is possible to develop a set of symbols for the workplace that are judged to be iconic by human resources professionals and employees with complex communication needs.
King, Andrew J; Narraway, Claire; Hodgson, Lindsay; Weatherill, Aidan; Sommer, Volker; Sumner, Seirian
Early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment, and modern humans encounter equivalent spatial-temporal coordination problems on a daily basis. A fundamental, but untested assumption is that our evolved capacity for communication is integral to our success in such tasks, allowing information exchange and consensus decisions based on mutual consideration of pooled information. Here we examine whether communication enhances group performance in humans, and test the prediction that consensus decision-making underlies group success. We used bespoke radio-tagging methodology to monitor the incremental performance of communicating and non-communicating human groups (small group sizes of two to seven individuals), during a social foraging experiment. We found that communicating groups (n = 22) foraged more effectively than non-communicating groups (n = 21) and were able to reach consensus decisions (an 'agreement' on the most profitable foraging resource) significantly more often than non-communicating groups. Our data additionally suggest that gesticulations among group members played a vital role in the achievement of consensus decisions, and therefore highlight the importance of non-verbal signalling of intentions and desires for successful human cooperative behaviour.
Full Text Available Design is a social phenomenon and researchers suggest that social interaction, negotiations and communication between designers are essential to initiate creativity. Within the design studio environment, a number of factors affect the healthy social interaction and design negotiations, such as the teaching style of tutors and the culture that governs a design studio’s environment. This may in turn affect the utilization of the outcome of negotiations in the design project. Design studio students from the third to fifth years at the College of Architecture, University of Dammam (UD, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, were surveyed to find out how far the design studio’s culture and communication would impact the production of innovative design projects. The results show that frequent communication and the establishment’s shared grounds are essential to develop knowledge and positively influence the design outcome. On the other hand, the research found that negative qualities on a personal level and on that of a design studio environment would hinder a student’s creativity. However, to develop students’ design/innovative abilities, the researcher recommends that certain measures should be considered. These would include transforming the design studio into an interactive and friendly learning environment, adjusting the teaching methodology, and developing interactive communication abilities of students and tutors.
The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)
Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.
A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…
Full Text Available Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000, this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.
Mann, M. E.
I will share insights that I have accumulated in my own communications and outreach efforts using different types of internet-based communication including blogs (i.e. the 'RealClimate' blog that I co-founded with other climate scientists), and social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter. I will discuss the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the different communication tools, and possible ways of exploiting them collectively as part of a more coordinated communication strategy.
The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.
Wegmann, Elisa; Brand, Matthias
Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety) as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability) on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016). As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders.
Wegmann, Elisa; Brand, Matthias
Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder (ICD). The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness) and specific cognitions. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety) as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability) on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016). As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders. PMID:27891107
Luis David Castiel
Full Text Available The author analyzes the underlying theoretical aspects in the construction of the molecular watershed of epidemiology and the concept of genetic risk, focusing on issues raised by contemporary reality: new technologies, globalization, proliferation of communications strategies, and the dilution of identity matrices. He discusses problems pertaining to the establishment of such new interdisciplinary fields as molecular epidemiology and molecular genetics. Finally, he analyzes the repercussions of the social communication of genetic content, especially as related to predictive genetic tests and cloning of animals, based on triumphal, deterministic metaphors sustaining beliefs relating to the existence and supremacy of concepts such as 'purity', 'essence', and 'unification' of rational, integrated 'I's/egos'.
Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita
Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed.
MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A
Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.
Drew P. Cingel
Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive com-munication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.
Drew P. Cingel
Full Text Available Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive communication practices on Facebook compared to males. Additionally, adolescents who own smartphones engage in more constructive online communication practices than those who share regular cell phones or those who do not have access to a cell phone. Overall, results imply that ownership of mobile technologies, such as smartphones and iPads, may be more predictive of social networking site use and online communication practices than general ownership of technology.
Full Text Available On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where they control the content. They decide on their own what they want to see and share with others. Thus, in order to manage marketing communications effectively, marketers must know the consumers’ opinions towards their presence in social networks.
Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet
We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas -- political science and marxism, library and information science, and economics -- are compared with their counterparts internationally. Like their colleagues in the natural and life sciences, Chinese scholars in the social sciences provide fewer references to journal publications than their international counterparts; like their international colleagues, social scientists provide fewer references than natural sciences. The resulting citation networks, therefore, are sparse. Nevertheless, the citation structures clearly suggest that the Chinese social sciences are far less specialized in terms of disciplinary delineations than their international counterparts. Marxism studies are more established than political science in China. In terms of the impact of the Chinese political system on academic fields, disciplines closely r...
Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Full Text Available On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where they control the content. They decide on their own what they want to see and share with others. Thus, in order to manage marketing communications effectively, marketers must know the consumers’ opinions towards their presence in social networks.
Thompson, Sharon H.; Lougheed, Eric
Although a majority of young adults are members of at least one social networking site, peer reviewed research examining gender differences in social networking communication is sparse. This study examined gender differences in social networking, particularly for Facebook use, among undergraduates. A survey was distributed to 268 college students…
Nash, Robert J., Ed.; Johnson, Richard Greggory, III, Ed.; Murray, Michele C., Ed.
The book deals concretely with the most effective ways for educators to be social justice advocates, with questions about what it means to be a social justice advocate, and with the best communication strategies to advocate for a particular social justice view that might start and sustain an open dialogue. The book presents a number of practical…
Chalik, Lisa; Rhodes, Marjorie
Three studies examined the communication of naïve theories of social groups in conversations between parents and their 4-year-old children (N = 48). Parent-child dyads read and discussed a storybook in which they either explained why past social interactions had occurred (Study 1) or evaluated whether future social interactions should occur…
Carla Regina Silva
Full Text Available The present study analyzes of the use of media and interactive resources for the empowerment of individuals in vulnerable situations to expand their possibilities of communication and social participation, starting from the report of the experience of a university extension program, which proposed the development and use of a blog among other media resources, in workshops activities, Dynamics and Projects that integrate an intervention of social occupational therapy with the poor youth. This experience allowed the expansion of the repertoire of activities of the youth, promoting awareness of concepts, techniques and equipment, previously little available, accessible and used. The records of the contents of the blog were done in a participatory manner, generating reflection on roles and identities. Being and doing in virtual space allowed actions and real productions of adolescents and youths to be empowered when “virtualized”, providing a dimension that is not always possible to achieve in the “real” context. The blog posts resulted in a self-valorization of the population, creating places of belonging for particular social subjects, with the right to culture, communication and technology. Consequently, there was the empowerment of subjects, from the increasing social participation and achievement of the new media, which expanded their sociocultural boundaries. Moreover, it offered an expansion of the scope of resources for action on social occupational therapy, opening spaces, real and virtual, for collective experiences, for sociability and the understanding and transformation of meanings about life and about the reality in which we live.
Persson, Mia E.; Wright, Dominic; Roth, Lina S. V.; Batakis, Petros; Jensen, Per
Unlike their wolf ancestors, dogs have unique social skills for communicating and cooperating with humans. Previously, significant heritabilities for human-directed social behaviors have been found in laboratory beagles. Here, a Genome-Wide Association Study identified two genomic regions associated with dog’s human-directed social behaviors. We recorded the propensity of laboratory beagles, bred, kept and handled under standardized conditions, to initiate physical interactions with a human during an unsolvable problem-task, and 190 individuals were genotyped with an HD Canine SNP-chip. One genetic marker on chromosome 26 within the SEZ6L gene was significantly associated with time spent close to, and in physical contact with, the human. Two suggestive markers on chromosome 26, located within the ARVCF gene, were also associated with human contact seeking. Strikingly, four additional genes present in the same linkage blocks affect social abilities in humans, e.g., SEZ6L has been associated with autism and COMT affects aggression in adolescents with ADHD. This is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide study presenting candidate genomic regions for dog sociability and inter-species communication. These results advance our understanding of dog domestication and raise the use of the dog as a novel model system for human social disorders. PMID:27685260
Persson, Mia E; Wright, Dominic; Roth, Lina S V; Batakis, Petros; Jensen, Per
Unlike their wolf ancestors, dogs have unique social skills for communicating and cooperating with humans. Previously, significant heritabilities for human-directed social behaviors have been found in laboratory beagles. Here, a Genome-Wide Association Study identified two genomic regions associated with dog's human-directed social behaviors. We recorded the propensity of laboratory beagles, bred, kept and handled under standardized conditions, to initiate physical interactions with a human during an unsolvable problem-task, and 190 individuals were genotyped with an HD Canine SNP-chip. One genetic marker on chromosome 26 within the SEZ6L gene was significantly associated with time spent close to, and in physical contact with, the human. Two suggestive markers on chromosome 26, located within the ARVCF gene, were also associated with human contact seeking. Strikingly, four additional genes present in the same linkage blocks affect social abilities in humans, e.g., SEZ6L has been associated with autism and COMT affects aggression in adolescents with ADHD. This is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide study presenting candidate genomic regions for dog sociability and inter-species communication. These results advance our understanding of dog domestication and raise the use of the dog as a novel model system for human social disorders.
Full Text Available This research cross-employs the information communication distribution transaction and analytic network process models to effectively institute the hierarchical evaluated model and utilizes, in specific, fuzzy theory and the grey relation analysis approaches of multiple criteria decision-making methodology into the weight measurements of expert’s questionnaires from three analytical perspectives (user’s satisfaction, corporate commitment, and social trust of relationship quality in order to explore the niche determinants of the social media websites in the contemporarily hypercompetitive and dynamic online era. Consequently, as for the measured consequences after a series of complicated and systematical calculations, the most valuable findings in this research are (1 the technological interfaces of social media websites is a positive niche in the dynamically mobile hypercompetitive communication era and (2 the “social media websites” is in a position of becoming one of the social media mainstreams in the online technology field based on the measured weights from the detailed survey data collected from experts in this research.
Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.
technologically-driven extensions of the relationships, interactions, and alliances that people establish as part of their everyday lives. However...communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network. Recent Successful Online Social Network Events Though a relatively... Millon de Voces Marchan en Contra de las FARC,” http://www.eltiempo.com, (accessed April 21, 2009). 11 The Washington Post, “Young Voters Find Voice
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the adoption, use, perceived impact of, and barriers to using social networking tools for scholarly communication at two universities. Design – Cross-institutional quantitative study using an online survey. Setting – Academics working in the disciplines of the humanities and social sciences at two universities: one in Europe and one in the Middle East. Methods – An online survey was devised based on a previous survey (Al-Aufi, 2007 and informed by relevant research. The survey was piloted by 10 academics at the 2 participating universities. Post pilot it was revised and then circulated to all academics from similar faculties at two universities. Three follow up emails were sent to both sets of academics. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using ANOVA tests. Main Results – The survey achieved a 34% response rate (n=130. The majority of participants were from the university based in the Middle East and were male (70.8%. Most of the responses were from academics under 40 years of age. The use of notebooks was prevalent at both universities. “Notebooks” is used as a term to describe laptops, netbooks, or ultra-book computers. The majority reported use of social networking tools for informal scholarly communication (70.1%, valuing this type of use. 29.9% of respondents reported they do not use social networking tools for this purpose. Barriers were identified as lack of incentive, digital literacy, training, and concerns over Internet security. Among the non-users, barriers included low interest in their use and a perceived lack of relevancy of such tools for scholarly communication. The types of tools used the most were those with social connection functions, such as Facebook and Twitter. The tools used the least were social bookmarking tools. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test indicated that
Ord, Terry J; Garcia-Porta, Joan
Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups--ants, frogs, lizards and birds--and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups.
Full Text Available The quality and the efficiency of all the activities developed in the field of the social dialog management are dependent, in great measure by the quality of the communications relations between the involved actors. The increase of the importance of the social dialog is reflected at the level of hundreds of multicultural companies that try to develop a new type of management - the one that has the capacity and the ability of orqestrating the productive combination of individuals and of the efficient functioning within these new cultures. In planning a communications process which is destined to a international auditorium we must analyze every component of this with the purpose of pushing away every barrier of background noise that would alter the desired results.
Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy
Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time.
Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Dindo, Haris
Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right) or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the maximization of information
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is spreading fast in Africa in spite of the various efforts and resources put in place to prevent it. In Kenya, reproductive health programs have used the mass media and other communication interventions to inform and educate the public about the disease and to promote behavior change and healthy sexual practices. This effort has led to a discrepancy between awareness and behavioral change among people of reproductive age. In this article I examine the discrepancy in Kenya from a communications perspective addressing social cultural and related factors contributing to the lack of change in behavior and sexual practices. I draw on the theoretical framework of Grunig's model of excellence in communication, the importance of understanding and relationship building between programs and their stakeholders. Data were gathered qualitatively using focus groups and in-depth interviews among men and women in rural Kenya. Key findings indicate that although awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is high in Kenya, a majority of the population, particularly those in the rural communities, lack understanding of the communicated messages. They also lack the knowledge of other ways of transmitting HIV particularly among those not sexually involved. Cultural beliefs, values, norms, and myths have played a role in the rapidly increasing epidemic in the rural communities and yet HIV/AIDS communication programs have not addressed these factors adequately. I conclude that successful behavior change communication must include strategies that focus on increasing understanding of the communicated messages and understanding of the audience through application of appropriate methodologies. Building a relationship with the audience or stakeholders through dialogues and two-way symmetrical communication contributes toward this understanding and the maintenance of the newly
Benton, David; Ferguson, Stephanie
Social network analysis examines the way individuals are connected within groups or networks, and the role they play in these groups. In terms of its application to issues related to nurse leaders, much of the research focuses on the structure of their networks, the roles they play, and whether the networks can be changed to improve communication flows. This article reports results of a study that aimed to deepen understanding of how a particular trait - communication apprehension - can affect the roles that nurse leaders play within network structures. It also shows how the research expands understanding of the factors that influence connections between senior nurse leaders internationally, and describes the communication apprehension instrument used, which provides a practical tool to assist aspirant nurse leaders to identify areas for personal development.
Alisson DIAS GOMES
Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.
The goal of the thesis is to assume and recommend certain improvements that are based on the Facebook competing brands analysis and the outputs from the questionnaires to the selected company which is active in the babyfood sector. According to these new recommendations the Facebook marketing communication should be improved towards fans and the target group in general. The theoretical part describes the social networks with a focus the Facebook and the possibility of its use for business. Th...
Fletcher-Watson, Susan; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; Mcconachie, Helen
This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years old with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of developmental level, and was rated highly by parents. There were no significant group differences in parent-report measures post-intervention, nor in a me...
Pereira, Clara Gil Leite
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this research is to analyze and compare the efficiency of two digital media – a social network and an advergame – and gather which is the most efficient regarding communication with children. The efficiency of both media was measured by comparing the impact on brand awareness, purchase intention and brand preference. W...
Bourjade, Marie; Canteloup, Charlotte; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Vauclair, Jacques; Gaunet, Florence
Gaze behaviour, notably the alternation of gaze between distal objects and social partners that accompanies primates' gestural communication is considered a standard indicator of intentionality. However, the developmental precursors of gaze behaviour in primates' communication are not well understood. Here, we capitalized on the training in gestures dispensed to olive baboons (Papio anubis) as a way of manipulating individual communicative experience with humans. We aimed to delineate the effects of such a training experience on gaze behaviour displayed by the monkeys in relation with gestural requests. Using a food-requesting paradigm, we compared subjects trained in requesting gestures (i.e. trained subjects) to naïve subjects (i.e. control subjects) for their occurrences of (1) gaze behaviour, (2) requesting gestures and (3) temporal combination of gaze alternation with gestures. We found that training did not affect the frequencies of looking at the human's face, looking at food or alternating gaze. Hence, social gaze behaviour occurs independently from the amount of communicative experience with humans. However, trained baboons-gesturing more than control subjects-exhibited most gaze alternation combined with gestures, whereas control baboons did not. By reinforcing the display of gaze alternation along with gestures, we suggest that training may have served to enhance the communicative function of hand gestures. Finally, this study brings the first quantitative report of monkeys producing requesting gestures without explicit training by humans (controls). These results may open a window on the developmental mechanisms (i.e. incidental learning vs. training) underpinning gestural intentional communication in primates.
Sćepanović, Sanja; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Hui, Pan
People are observed to assortitavely connect on a set of traits. Uncovering the reasons for people exhibiting this strong assortative mixing in social networks is of great interest to researchers and in practice. A popular case application exploiting the insights about social correlation in social networks is in marketing and product promotion. Suggested tendencies to induce observed social correlation are homophily and social influence. However, clearly identifying the causal relationship between these tendencies has proven to be a hard task. In this study we present the interplay between communication happening on Twitter (represented by user mentions) and different semantical aspects of user communication content (tweets). As a semantic relatedness metric we employ a database built from the English Wikipedia corpus according to the Explicit Semantic Analysis method. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to offer an in-depth analysis on semantic homophily on communication in social networks. ...
Matsaganis, Matthew D; Wilkin, Holley A
This article contributes to the burgeoning literature on the social determinants of health disparities. The authors investigate how communication resources and collective efficacy, independently and in combination, shape residents' access to health enhancing resources (including healthcare services, sources of healthier food options, and public recreation spaces) in their communities. Using random digit dial telephone survey data from 833 residents of South Los Angeles communities the authors show that communicative social capital-that is, an information and problem-solving resource that accrues to residents as they become more integrated into their local communication network of neighbors, community organizations, and local media-plays a significant role in access to health resources. This relationship is complicated by individuals' health insurance and health status, as communicative social capital magnifies the sense of absence of resources for those who are in worse health and lack insurance. Communicative social capital builds collective efficacy, which is positively related to access to health-enhancing resources, but it also mediates the negative relationship between communicative social capital and access to health resources. Residents with richer stores of communicative social capital and collective efficacy report better access to health resources. The authors conclude with a discussion of implications of these findings and suggestions for future research.
Oberg, Antoinette; And Others
This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)
Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.
Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the
在复杂社会网络框架中，能够改变其他人观念和决定的属性才是测量意见领袖身份的重要维度。基于社会化媒体内部的耦合关系，个体、信息间的联结关系，以及社会化媒体在信息传播结构方面的改变，一对一话语传播系统成为意见领袖产生影响的重要路径。在社会化媒体的话语传播中，意见领袖主要有三种话语策略组合类型，即由暗示和象征构成的暗示性话语组合，由肯定、重复和模仿构成的陈述性话语组合，以及由简化、强化和同化构成的夸张性话语组合。它们不仅维系着内部的联结关系，而且也是研究社会化媒体舆论爆发的逻辑起点。%In the complex social networks,the ability to influence other individuals'ideas and decisions is the important dimension measuring an opinion leader's identity.Based on coupling relationship within social media and link relation among individuals or messages,and combined with the changes that take place in information communication structure in social media,the article points out that the one-to-one discourse communication system is an important way for opinion leaders to affect other individuals'ideas and decisions. In discourse communication in social media,there are three major types of strategy combination,that is,the suggestive discourse combination consisting of implication and symbolizationthe declarative discourse combination consisting of certainty,repetition and imitationand the exaggerated discourse combination consisting of simplification,intensification and assimilation.They not only maintain inner link relations,but also are the logical starting points which trigger the outbreak of public opinion in social media.
Saxton, Gregory D; Chiu, I-Hsuan; Feng, Bo
In this study, we examine the social networking practices of the 100 largest nonprofit organizations in the United States. More specifically, we develop a comprehensive classification scheme to delineate these organizations' use of Facebook as a stakeholder engagement tool. We find that there are 5 primary categories of Facebook "statuses", which can be aggregated into three key dimensions - "information", "community", and "action". Our analysis reveals that, though the "informational" use of Facebook is still significant, nonprofit organizations are better at using Facebook to strategically engage their stakeholders via "dialogic" and "community-building" practices than they have been with traditional websites. The adoption of social media seems to have engendered new paradigms of public engagement.
Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo
Big Data has become the primary source of understanding the structure and dynamics of the society at large scale. The network of social interactions can be considered as a multiplex, where each layer corresponds to one communication channel and the aggregate of all them constitutes the entire social network. However, usually one has information only about one of the channels, which should be considered as a sample of the whole. Here we show by simulations and analytical methods that this sampling may lead to bias. For example, while it is expected that the degree distribution of the whole social network has a maximum at a value larger than one, we get with reasonable assumptions about the sampling process a monotonously decreasing distribution as observed in empirical studies of single channel data. Also we find, that assortativity may occur or get strengthened due to the sampling process. We analyze the far-reaching consequences of our findings.
Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit.
Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren
Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.
Cuming, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M
People with higher social anxiety tend to reveal less information about themselves in interactions with strangers, and this appears to be part of a self-protective strategy adopted in situations in which the risk of negative evaluation is judged to be particularly high. This research examined whether a similar style of communication may be adopted by people with higher social anxiety in their close relationships, and whether it may be associated with decrements in the quality (support, depth, conflict) of these relationships. Over 300 people from the community completed a series of online questionnaires measuring social anxiety and depression, and disclosure in and quality of their close friendships and romantic relationships. After controlling for levels of depression, social anxiety was associated with a paucity of disclosure in both romantic relationships and close friendships in females, but not males. There was an indirect association between higher social anxiety and lower relationship quality (lower support, with a trend towards greater conflict) via lower self-disclosure in women's romantic relationships, but not their close friendships. Addressing disclosure in the context of close relationships may assist socially anxious women to develop more fulfilling and harmonious close relationships.
It is necessary to communicate social responsibility in advertising. The social responsibility of advertising is the central manifestation of social res-ponsibility of corporation, advertising agencies and media. The social responsibility of advertising can be divided into three levels, namely, basic level, middle level and advanced level. The social responsibility of advertising in different levels is embodied in the different actual content. We found that the sense of social responsibility in ad- vertising is lack according to the research to the commercials in the prime hours of the evening of CCTV- 1. Most of the com- mercials just communicate social responsibilities in basic level, and the social responsibilities in advanced level are rarely seen. Advertising should undertake more social responsibilities, especially the social responsibility in advanced level. It will take active functions to the audience, advertiser and media.%社会责任是广告传播的题中应有之义，是广告主、广告公司和媒介社会责任的集中反映。广告的社会责任可以划分为三个层面，即基础层面、中级层面和高级层面，每个层面广告的社会责任又体现在不同的具体内容上。通过对央视一套节目黄金时段88则广告的分析，我们发现我国广告的社会责任意识总体来说比较淡漠，多数广告传播的社会责任只停留在基础层面，体现高级层面社会责任的广告并不多见。广告应该而且能够承担起更多的社会责任，尤其是高级层面的社会责任，这无论对受众、对广告主、对广告发布的媒介都能产生积极的作用。
St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V; Sullivan, B B; Maller, J; Golding, J; Skuse, D; Ring, S; Evans, D M; Zammit, S; Fisher, S E; Neale, B M; Anney, R J L; Ripke, S; Hollegaard, M V; Werge, T; Ronald, A; Grove, J; Hougaard, D M; Børglum, A D; Mortensen, P B; Daly, M J; Davey Smith, G
Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia do not appear before early adulthood. We investigated whether overlap in common genetic influences between these clinical conditions and impairments in social communication depends on the developmental stage of the assessed trait. Social communication difficulties were measured in typically-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34 241 cases, 45 604 controls, 1235 trios) were either obtained through the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) or the Danish iPSYCH project. Overlap in genetic influences between ASD and social communication difficulties during development decreased with age, both in the PGC-ASD and the iPSYCH-ASD sample. Genetic overlap between schizophrenia and social communication difficulties, by contrast, persisted across age, as observed within two independent PGC-SCZ2 subsamples, and showed an increase in magnitude for traits assessed during later adolescence. ASD- and schizophrenia-related polygenic effects were unrelated to each other and changes in trait-disorder links reflect the heterogeneity of genetic factors influencing social communication difficulties during childhood versus later adolescence. Thus, both clinical ASD and schizophrenia share some genetic influences with impairments in social communication, but reveal distinct developmental profiles in their genetic links, consistent with the onset of clinical symptoms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online
Moorhead, S Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska
Background There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. Objective To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for...
Fernando Manuel Santos Ramos
Full Text Available Abstract:This paper aims at providing a contribution to the comprehensive review of the impact of information and communication, and their supporting technologies, in the current transformation of human life in the infosphere. The paper also offers an example of the power of new social approaches to the use of information and communication technologies to foster new working models in organizations by presenting the main outcomes of a research project on social branding. A discussion about some trends of the future impact of new information and communication technologies in the infosphere is also included.Resumen:Este artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar una contribución a la revisión global del impacto de la información y la comunicación, y sus tecnologías de apoyo, en la actual transformación de la vida humana en la infosfera. El artículo también ofrece un ejemplo del poder de los nuevos enfoques sociales sobre el uso de las tecnologías de información y comunicación para fomentar nuevos modelos de trabajo en las organizaciones mediante la presentación de los principales resultados de un proyecto de investigación sobre desarrollo social de marca. Una discusión sobre algunas de las tendencias del futuro impacto de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en la infosfera también se incluye.
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
Roy, P; Chiat, S
This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development.
Morales Camarena, Francisco [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
The actions for the energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energies are multiple and dispersed, in each one of the energy consumption points of the country. For this reason, two important factors to foment these actions are to promote the social participation and the effective government communication towards the society: energy saving and social participation. One of the main faculties of the National Commission of Energy Saving (CONAE) is to foment the efficiency in the energy use, through actions coordinated with the different agencies and organizations of the Federal Public Administration, with the governments of the federal entities and the municipalities and, through coordinated operations, with the private and social sectors. The CONAE has established mechanisms of coordination and cooperation with the private and social sectors, having fomented programs, projects and actions whose purpose is the energy efficiency, outstanding: 1) Committees and work groups; 2) Cooperation Agreements; 3) the Advisory Council for the Foment of Renewable Energy. [Spanish] Las acciones para la eficiencia energetica y el aprovechamiento de las energias renovables son multiples y dispersas, en cada uno de los puntos de consumo de energia del pais. Por ello, dos factores importantes para fomentar estas acciones son promover la participacion social y la comunicacion gubernamental eficaz hacia la sociedad: Ahorro de energia y participacion social. Una de las principales facultades de la Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia es fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de energia, a traves de acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal, con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y de los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. La CONAE ha establecido mecanismos de coordinacion y de cooperacion con los sectores privado y social, fomentando programas, proyectos y acciones cuyo
Lemke, Ulrike; Scherpiet, Sigrid
Traditionally, audiology research has focused primarily on hearing and related disorders. In recent years, however, growing interest and insight has developed into the interaction of hearing and cognition. This applies to a person's listening and speech comprehension ability and the neural realization thereof. The present perspective extends this view to oral communication, when two or more people interact in social context. Specifically, the impact of hearing impairment and cognitive changes with age is discussed. In focus are executive functions, a group of top-down processes that guide attention, thought and action according to goals and intentions. The strategic allocation of the limited cognitive processing capacity among concurrent tasks is often effortful, especially under adverse communication conditions and in old age. Working memory, a sub-function extensively discussed in cognitive hearing science, is here put into the context of other executive and cognitive functions required for oral communication and speech comprehension. Finally, taking an ecological view on hearing impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions are discussed regarding their psycho-social impact and third-party disability.
Full Text Available Traditionally, audiology research has focused primarily on hearing and related disorders. In recent years, however, growing interest and insight has developed into the interaction of hearing and cognition. This applies to a person’s listening and speech comprehension ability and the neural realization thereof. The present perspective extends this view to oral communication, when two or more people interact in social context. Specifically, the impact of hearing impairment and cognitive changes with age is discussed.In focus are executive functions, a group of top-down processes that guide attention, thought and action according to goals and intentions. The strategic allocation of the limited cognitive processing capacity among concurrent tasks is often effortful, especially under adverse communication conditions and in old age. Working memory, a sub-function extensively discussed in cognitive hearing science, is here put into the context of other executive and cognitive functions required for oral communication and speech comprehension. Finally, taking an ecological view on hearing impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions are discussed regarding their psycho-social impact and third-party disability.
Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K
Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed.
Gray, Jennifer B
Pregnancy is a time of uncertainty and stress for many women, and these aspects are compounded for those facing unplanned pregnancies. Social support communication is considered a vital part of healthy outcomes in pregnancy but is largely unexplored in the unplanned pregnancy context, particularly for college-aged young women. The present study aimed to identify various dimensions of social support in unplanned pregnancy for this population, including support types desired and enacted, sources of support, support types helpful in various stages of this health experience, and message strategies used in helpful support communication. Results of an online semi-structured survey exploring message content and these other elements were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative content analysis as well as statistical analysis. Nurturing support, specifically network support, was found to be most desired in this health context, and the message strategies found in the most helpful support messages differed according to support type. Source and timing of support were also factors in the most helpful types of support in this context. Implications of these results will be discussed in terms of future research in social support in the unplanned pregnancy context.
Török, János; Murase, Yohsuke; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo
Big Data has become the primary source of understanding the structure and dynamics of the society at large scale. The network of social interactions can be considered as a multiplex, where each layer corresponds to one communication channel and the aggregate of all of them constitutes the entire social network. However, usually one has information only about one of the channels or even a part of it, which should be considered as a subset or sample of the whole. Here we introduce a model based on a natural bilateral communication channel selection mechanism, which for one channel leads to consistent changes in the network properties. For example, while it is expected that the degree distribution of the whole social network has a maximum at a value larger than one, we get a monotonically decreasing distribution as observed in empirical studies of single-channel data. We also find that assortativity may occur or get strengthened due to the sampling method. We analyze the far-reaching consequences of our findings.
This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.
Full Text Available Increasingly faster communicational streams - that ease interactions and allow agents to considerably enhance their own informational assets - characterize the era in which we live. The research about new media, mobile and social technologies is the driver of this changes that implements a revolution of the content management, of the information accessibility and of the relationships interactivity. These characteristics don’t leave the agents unresponsive and it is interesting and fitting to understand the tools available to firms and institutions and the communicational and marketing policies that organizations put to use to achieve their goals. In this context we want to find strategic and operational models to support organizations decisions about markets and territories. The purpose of this article is to understand how small organizations can utilize networks that characterize new trends in marketing. We conclude by providing some thoughts on the future evolution of the research in this field also with reference to the smart city that can exploit social mobile marketing for promotion of the territory and social participation.I
Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.......The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture...
Dr. Nilu Choudhary
Full Text Available In many communities, two or more varieties of the same language are used by some speakers in different conditions. Perhaps the most familiar example is the use of the standard language and regional dialect when many speakers speak their local dialect at home or among family or friend of the same dialect area but use the standard language in communicating with speakers of other dialects on public occasions. Charles A. Ferguson (1964 in his famous work on ‘Diglossia’finds that in all the defining languages the speakers regard superposed variety as superior to regional dialects in number of respects. Sometimes the feeling is so strong that the superposed variety alone is regarded as real and the regional dialect is reported ‘not to exist’. This attitude cannot be called deliberate attempt to deceive the questioner, but seems almost a self-deception. Even the feeling of the reality and superiority of the superposed variety is not so strong there is usually a belief that this variety is somehow more beautiful, more logical, better able to express important thoughts, and the like. And this belief is held also by speakers whose command of the said variety is quite limited.
Dozier, Jessica Addison
This research places disaster management into a geographic context in order to understand how people communicate during disasters and how to increase local community resilience to foster sustainability and lessen vulnerability. Analyzing communication that occurred over Twitter networks during the 2014 San Diego wildfires and the 2015 Nepal earthquake enabled temporal trends, spatiotemporal patterns, social network structures, socially disconnected communities, and hyperlocal relationships to be identified and measured. The temporal trends examined daily communication by day and by hour to see how well Twitter activity correlated to real world events. In both case studies, there were strong relationships between Twitter activity and real world events; their major peaks and falls reflected occurrences recorded in the After Action Reports provided by the County of San Diego and the Government of Nepal. The spatiotemporal analysis showed the spatial distribution of tweets, and measured changes in communication and movement patterns. The results from the two case studies were similar in that their data produced major hotspots not only in highly populated regions, but also areas who were either directly affected or nearby affected areas. The differential maps showed that when each disaster event occurred, there would be a spike in Twitter activity in or around the disaster. Methods in social network analysis were performed on the datasets to analyze the structure of the online communities from each case study and to identify their socially disconnected communities. Both San Diego and Nepal's online Twitter networks had similar structures and measurements of modularity, the measurement that forms online communities and indicates the connectedness of a network. The similar measurements are a sign that there are dense connections between people, but fewer connections between communities. This information suggests that methods to improve communication between communities
Lee, Ki Jung
Online social networks (OSNs), while serving as an emerging means of communication, promote various issues of privacy. Users of OSNs encounter diverse occasions that lead to invasion of their privacy, e.g., published conversation, public revelation of their personally identifiable information, and open boundary of distinct social groups within…
van Zoonen, W.; van der Meer, T.
Social media are invaluable sources of information during organizational crises. Although recent research confirms this fundamental role in crisis communication, this article is aimed at deepening the understanding about the role of the source of information in this socially mediated era by comparin
Baim, Susan A.
Routine correspondence with the author's business technology students indicated the need for increased skill and professionalism in social media communications as a key driver of successful career development strategies. A new course designed to assist students in transitioning from typical, casual social media use to the more rigorous and…
Joost M. Vervoort
Full Text Available To take on the current and future challenges of global environmental change, fostering a widespread societal understanding of and engagement with the complex dynamics that characterize interacting human and natural systems is essential. Current science communication methods struggle with a number of specific challenges associated with communicating about complex systems. In this study we report on two collaborative processes, a short workshop and longer course, that aimed to harness the insights of interactive media designers and artists to overcome these challenges. The two processes resulted in 86 new interactive media concepts which were selected by the participants and organizers using set criteria and then evaluated using the same criteria by a panel of communication and media design experts and a panel of complex systems scientists using the same criteria. The top eight concepts are discussed in this paper. These concepts fell into the categories of serious games, group interaction concepts, and social media storytelling. The serious games focused directly on complex systems characteristics and were evaluated to be intuitive and engaging designs that combined transparency and complexity well. The group interaction concepts focused mostly on feedbacks and nonlinearity but were fully developed and tested in the workshops, and evaluated as engaging, accessible, and easy to implement in workshops and educational settings. The social media storytelling concepts involved less direct interactions with system dynamics but were seen as highly accessible to large scale audiences. The results of this study show the potential of interdisciplinary collaboration between complex systems scientists, designers, and artists. The results and process discussed in this paper show the value of more structural engagement of interactive media designers and artist communities in the development of communication tools about human and natural systems change.
Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd
Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted.
Full Text Available In this introductory article we want to outline the current situation around the field of Communication for Development and Social Change in Spain, both in its practical and academic approaches. This summary serves to contextualize the different articles that compose the present monographic issue of OBETS. In it we collect a selection of 12 articles, mainly focused on the description and analysis of a series of case studies, often related to the wake of 15M. It also includes other actors from the structured civil society, contributions from Latin American scenarios and conceptual and theoretical studies, such as those serving for opening and closing volume.
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice
A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Results showed that the consumption of relatively unhealthy food was common among respondents. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the government...... publicity, teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. Respondents considered news and fear appeals for communicating healthy eating the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered less effective...
As health marketers seek new models to design campaigns, the advertising discipline of account planning offers an approach that can improve campaign development. The underlying principle of account planning is to bring the consumer perspective to all phases of campaign development, primarily through qualitative formative research. Account planners design the overall communication strategy and contribute to creative development of individual executions. The creative brief, a primary tool of account planning, is especially useful in conceptualizing campaigns. This report discusses the history and approach of account planning, followed by an example of account planning in the design of a social marketing campaign.
Specialization in medicine changes the kind of communication between doctor and patient. The direct personal communication is quite often complemented by the indirect communication via interactive media. A clinical investigation still demands a broad bio-psycho-social anamnesis which should encompass the history of the illness, the patient, and his/her ailment. The bio-psycho-social anamnesis is subdivided into nine steps: Joining, "map", actual disease, former illnesses, family history, personal development, social anamnesis, overview of the functioning of the systems, finalization of the anamnesis. The different steps are explained, and adequate techniques of exploration are described. How to conduct a professional doctor-patient conversation and exploration can similarly be learnt as the techniques of a physical investigation. These communication skills should be continuously taught during the education of medical students as well as during the further training of physicians.
Key, Alexandra P; Corbett, Blythe A
This study examined whether individual differences in social motivation affect the extent of processing of social versus nonsocial information. Event-related potentials were recorded in 13 children with autism spectrum disorder and 11 typically developing children during passive viewing of unfamiliar faces and houses. One image in each category was presented repeatedly, the rest were shown once. Analyses indicated no group differences in the early perceptual responses. Only typical children evidenced larger P600 for the repeated faces. These results were replicated during a retest session. Individual differences in memory for the repeated faces correlated with standardized behavioral assessments of social skills.
Oh, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byoungkwan
In the context of diabetes, this study tested a mechanism through which Korean diabetes patients' exchange of computer-mediated social support (CMSS) in diabetes online communities influences their sense of empowerment and intention to actively communicate with the doctor. Analysis of data from 464 Korean diabetes patients indicates significant relationships among diabetes patients' online community activities, perceived CMSS, sense of empowerment, and their intention to actively communicate with the doctor. Diabetes patients who have engaged more in online community activities perceived greater social support from other members of the community. Perceived CMSS significantly predicted their intention to actively communicate with the doctor through sense of empowerment. Sense of empowerment was a valid underlying mechanism that explains how patients' perceived CMSS influences their intention to actively communicate with the doctor. The implications for health communication research and practice are discussed.
Lisa Tam and Rajiv Khosla
Full Text Available In view of the shortage of healthcare workers and a growing aging population, it is worthwhile to explore the applicability of new technologies in improving the quality of healthcare and reducing its cost. However, it remains a challenge to deploy such technologies in environments where individuals have limited knowledge about how to use them. Thus, this paper explores how the social robots designed for use in health settings in Australia have sought to overcome some of the limitations through personalization. Deployed in aged care and home-based care facilities, the social robots are person-centered, emphasizing the personalization of care with human-like attributes (e.g., human appearances to engage in reciprocal communication with users. While there have been debates over the advantages and disadvantages of personalization, this paper discusses the implications of personalization on the design of the robots for enhancing engagement, empowerment and enablement in health settings.
Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard
This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.
Full Text Available Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome, a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, this study aimed to better define those social-communicative phenotypes that overlap in these two conditions by comparing pragmatic language ability and theory of mind in children with idiopathic autism and children with FXS, with and without autism, as well as children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls. We further examined correlations between these cognitive-behavioral phenotypes and molecular genetic variation related to FMR1 in the FXS group. Results indicated that children with idiopathic autism and those with FXS and autism performed comparably on direct-assessment measures of pragmatic language and theory of mind, whereas those with FXS only did not differ from controls. Theory of mind was related to pragmatic language ability in all groups. Pragmatic language and theory of mind also correlated with genetic variation at the FMR1 locus (CGG repeats and percent methylation. These results point towards substantial overlap in the social and language phenotypes in autism and FXS and suggest a molecular genetic basis to these phenotypic profiles.
Full Text Available Of the many opportunities and affordances that mobile technologies bring to our day-to-day lives, the ability to cheat physical separation and remain accessible to each other—in an instant—also brings pressure to bear on well-established social conventions as to how we should act when we are engaged with others in shared spaces. In this paper we explore some ethical dimensions of mobile communication by considering the manner in which individuals in everyday contexts balance interpretations of emergent social conventions with personal desires to connect in the moment. As we later discuss, the decisions made in response to a ringing mobile phone or flashing text message emerge from consequential versus deontological ethical frames used to determine what to do versus what we ought to do. This is particularly true in western and North American cultural contexts from which our data are collected. Using Goffman's dramaturgy, we suggest that these conflicts occurring on an individual level provide evidence of social structure, and are simultaneously entwined with our less obvious ruminations on the maintenance of social order.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1760
Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity.
Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E; Klusek, Jessica; Hogan-Brown, Abigail L; Sideris, John
Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, this study aimed to better define those social-communicative phenotypes that overlap in these two conditions by comparing pragmatic language ability and theory of mind in children with idiopathic autism and children with FXS, with and without autism, as well as children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls. We further examined correlations between these cognitive-behavioral phenotypes and molecular genetic variation related to the Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 gene (FMR1) in the FXS group. Results indicated that children with idiopathic autism and those with FXS and autism performed comparably on direct-assessment measures of pragmatic language and theory of mind, whereas those with FXS only did not differ from controls. Theory of mind was related to pragmatic language ability in all groups. Pragmatic language and theory of mind also correlated with genetic variation at the FMR1 locus (Cytosine-Guanine-Guanine repeats and percent methylation). These results point toward substantial overlap in the social and language phenotypes in autism and FXS and suggest a molecular genetic basis to these phenotypic profiles.
Nonneman Dan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.
Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim
Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…
Full Text Available Opinion leaders play an important role in mitigating health issues and are able to influence attitudes and health behaviors to a certain extent. However, in the world we are living today, individual health decision making no longer rely fully on doctor’s advice, but often persuaded by people or organisations deemed reliable and trustworthy. Interestingly, one does not have to have a medical degree to be seen as “reliable” or “trustworthy” in giving out medical advices. Computer-mediated-communication changes the way opinion leaders emerge in virtual communities, specifically in the context of health. Through increased access to both traditional and online media, people have a fair access to communication technology and therefore, our definition of opinion leaders have shifted from how we used to understand it through Lazarsfeld’s two-steps flow theory. In fact, the way opinion leaders operate via social media platform is very different from how it used to be through the traditional mass media. This paper will discuss on the characteristics of new media opinion leaders, particularly in the context of health, in hopes to learn new ways to promote health in future communication campaigns.
Nicola J. Christofides
Full Text Available Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC, combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south–south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south.
Full Text Available In home environments, the customization of applications according to inhabitant's information requires the integration of heterogenous event sources and services. To do that, the events have to be collected and processed, and the volatile services identified and used. The information collection and service access have to be done considering the identity of users in order to avoid unexpected behaviors in the customized applications or unauthorized accesses. However, although the event flow, service mobility and user identity are key issues in the customization of applications, existing solutions fail to deal with them in a simple and flexible way. Therefore, in this paper we propose to face these issues by combining the SCA (Service Component Architecture standard, micro-blogging services and discovery technologies. In particular, we benefit from the SCA extensibility to introduce support for social communications enabling asynchronous event exchange (via Twitter, and for pervasive communications to deal with mobility (by means of standard discovery protocols such as UPnP. Furthermore, we exploit the intents from SCA in order to allow user identification in home environments. We bring the new communications and user identity support into the FraSCAti, a platform for SCA applications. We illustrate our work with a smart home scenario requiring the integration of heterogeneous technologies.
Full Text Available Humankind being reshaped in the form of network society due to the unlimited opportunities that new media presents, witnesses to the change of new communication order. It is a progress from the mass communication explications in the context of impact, to a flattened communication that interactivity is at the forefront. At this point, it is impossible to think that public communication will be independent from this change. At this new public-management relationship in which parasocial interaction is being redefined and transformed from monologic structure of mass communication to dialogic communication, the role of public also is being evolved from a passive element to active. In this process, through social networks appeared as public spheres of network society, the relationship between public and management is reinterpreted and public can reapproach to its accessibility and accountability right even it’s limited.
Carpenter, M; Nagell, K; Tomasello, M
At around 1 year of age, human infants display a number of new behaviors that seem to indicate a newly emerging understanding of other persons as intentional beings whose attention to outside objects may be shared, followed into, and directed in various ways. These behaviors have mostly been studied separately. In the current study, we investigated the most important of these behaviors together as they emerged in a single group of 24 infants between 9 and 15 months of age. At each of seven monthly visits, we measured joint attentional engagement, gaze and point following, imitation of two different kinds of actions on objects, imperative and declarative gestures, and comprehension and production of language. We also measured several nonsocial-cognitive skills as a point of comparison. We report two studies. The focus of the first study was the initial emergence of infants' social-cognitive skills and how these skills are related to one another developmentally. We found a reliable pattern of emergence: Infants progressed from sharing to following to directing others' attention and behavior. The nonsocial skills did not emerge predictably in this developmental sequence. Furthermore, correlational analyses showed that the ages of emergence of all pairs of the social-cognitive skills or their components were inter-related. The focus of the second study was the social interaction of infants and their mothers, especially with regard to their skills of joint attentional engagement (including mothers' use of language to follow into or direct infants' attention) and how these skills related to infants' early communicative competence. Our measures of communicative competence included not only language production, as in previous studies, but also language comprehension and gesture production. It was found that two measures--the amount of time infants spent in joint engagement with their mothers and the degree to which mothers used language that followed into their infant
Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL
Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...
Full Text Available Background: The resurgence of civil society has largely been attributed to the sector’s ability to exploit new interactive technologies and its ability to adapt its communication and mobilisation strategies.Objectives: This study focuses on how South African civil society organisations (CSOs deploy Web 2.0 services and technologies for social advocacy and the context of this technology use.Whilst the literature points to many studies relating to the use of the Internet for advocacy, it also suggests that the role and impact of emerging technologies have not been studied in any detail in CSOs. Such studies have the potential to provide new perspectives to current theoretical frameworks and also to add to the discourse around the use of emerging technologies for advocacy.Method: A survey of South African CSOs explored the level of knowledge of social media services and revealed which services in particular were being adopted.Results: The key findings that emerged were that the sector has a low level of knowledge of social media services and an accompanying low level of adoption. These are partly explained by factors such as macro-economic policies and low levels of Internet penetration and ICT readiness.Conclusion: Further research to determine why certain social media services have been embraced more willingly than others and an analysis of the patterns of adoption to determine any underlying significance or relationships is necessary. An analysis of how CSOs build their advocacy capabilities by appropriating social media and how they thus provide alternate discourses and agendas would be instructive.
Full Text Available Background: The resurgence of civil society has largely been attributed to the sector’s ability to exploit new interactive technologies and its ability to adapt its communication and mobilisation strategies. Objectives: This study focuses on how South African civil society organisations (CSOs deploy Web 2.0 services and technologies for social advocacy and the context of this technology use. Whilst the literature points to many studies relating to the use of the Internet for advocacy, it also suggests that the role and impact of emerging technologies have not been studied in any detail in CSOs. Such studies have the potential to provide new perspectives to current theoretical frameworks and also to add to the discourse around the use of emerging technologies for advocacy. Method: A survey of South African CSOs explored the level of knowledge of social media services and revealed which services in particular were being adopted. Results: The key findings that emerged were that the sector has a low level of knowledge of social media services and an accompanying low level of adoption. These are partly explained by factors such as macro-economic policies and low levels of Internet penetration and ICT readiness. Conclusion: Further research to determine why certain social media services have been embraced more willingly than others and an analysis of the patterns of adoption to determine any underlying significance or relationships is necessary. An analysis of how CSOs build their advocacy capabilities by appropriating social media and how they thus provide alternate discourses and agendas would be instructive.
Malissa Maria Mahmud; Shiau Foong Wong
Demographic change is transforming the way we communicate. In many parts of the world, the society has become increasingly multicultural and multi-ethnic. In this context, intercultural cognizance is one of the pivotal facets for intercultural communication. The recent years has seen the emergence of the intercultural communicative competence (ICC) concept permeating the education field thereby a large and growing body of literature has commenced to investigate the concept of intercultural co...
Research Summary The main focus of this research is on the study of stakeholders' naturally occurring reactions to corporate crisis and crisis communication. The literature review aimed to combine situational crisis communication framework (SCCT) with the strategic public relations management theory to establish an idea of strategic two-way crisis communication. The case study evidence is drawn from the Toyota USA Facebook site in relation to the Toyota recall crisis in 2009-2011 and studi...
Viktor Nikolaevich Pustovoytov
Full Text Available Experience in the sphere of independent cognitive activity - cognitive competence - and the experience of communication and awareness of the significance of its activity in some field - social-communicative competence are important quality of modern man. Article considers the problem of forming the informative and social-communicative competences of students. It is shown that these competencies are key personal meta- and cross-competencies. Psycho-pedagogical strategies supporting their formation can be designed and implemented as a unified process. Effective medium formation of experience in the field of self-regulated learning, communicative experience and awareness of the personal importance of cognitive activity is learning academic subjects, and the condition and means - interactive forms of learning. The implementation of group-differentiated form of organization of students is analyzed in this context. Results of the study outlined in this article, have contributed to the problems of implementing competence-based approach to learning.
Full Text Available Rats are highly social animals and social play during adolescence has an important role for social development, hence post-weaning social isolation is widely used to study the adverse effects of juvenile social deprivation and to induce behavioral phenotypes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia. Communication is an important component of the rat’s social behavior repertoire, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USV serving as situation-dependent affective signals. High-frequency 50-kHz USV occur in appetitive situations and induce approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls; however, post-weaning isolation effects on the behavioral changes displayed by the receiver in response to USV have yet to be studied. We therefore investigated the impact of post-weaning isolation on socio-affective information processing as assessed by means of our established 50-kHz USV radial maze playback paradigm. We showed that post-weaning social isolation specifically affected the behavioral response to playback of pro-social 50-kHz but not alarm 22-kHz USV. While group-housed rats showed the expected preference, i.e. approach, towards 50-kHz USV, the response was even stronger in short-term isolated rats (i.e. 1 day, possibly due to a higher level of social motivation. In contrast, no approach was observed in long-term isolated rats (i.e. 4 weeks. Importantly, deficits in approach were reversed by peer-mediated re-socialization and could not be observed after post-adolescent social isolation, indicating a critical period for social development during adolescence. Together, these results highlight the importance of social experience for affiliative behavior, suggesting a critical involvement of play behavior on socio-affective information processing in rats.
Klein, Evelyn R; Armstrong, Sharon Lee; Skira, Kathryn; Gordon, Janice
This research assessed the feasibility of Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) developed by Elisa Shipon-Blum, a brief multimodal approach, to increase social communication in 40 children aged 5-12 years with selective mutism (SM). SM is a disorder in which children consistently fail to speak in specific situations although they have the ability to do so. Key features of this approach are the SM-Social Communication Comfort Scale (SCCS), transfer of control (ToC), a nonchalant therapeutic style, and cognitive-behavioral strategies over a brief time frame. Following 9 weeks of treatment, children showed significant gains in speaking frequency on all 17 items from the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a standardized measure of SM severity. Children also showed decreased levels of anxiety and withdrawal as reported by parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). SM initial symptom severity and family therapy compliance, but not duration of SM, contributed to treatment outcomes.
Goske, Marilyn J; Applegate, Kimberly E; Boylan, Jennifer; Butler, Priscilla F; Callahan, Michael J; Coley, Brian D; Farley, Shawn; Frush, Donald P; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Jaramillo, Diego; Johnson, Neil D; Kaste, Sue C; Morrison, Gregory; Strauss, Keith J
Communication campaigns are an accepted method for altering societal attitudes, increasing knowledge, and achieving social and behavioral change particularly within public health and the social sciences. The Image Gently(SM) campaign is a national education and awareness campaign in radiology designed to promote the need for and opportunities to decrease radiation to children when CT scans are indicated. In this article, the relatively new science of social marketing is reviewed and the theoretical basis for an effective communication campaign in radiology is discussed. Communication strategies are considered and the type of outcomes that should be measured are reviewed. This methodology has demonstrated that simple, straightforward safety messages on radiation protection targeted to medical professionals throughout the radiology community, utilizing multiple media, can affect awareness potentially leading to change in practice.
Varotto, Alessandra; Gamberini, Luciano; Spagnolli, Anna; Martino, Francesco; Giovannardi, Isabella
This study focuses on social feedback, namely on information on the outcome of users' online activity indirectly generated by other users, and investigates in a real setting whether it can affect subsequent activity and, if so, whether participants are aware of that. SkyPas, an application that calculates, transmits, and displays social feedback, was embedded in a common instant messaging service (Skype(™)) and used during a 7-week trial by 24 office workers at a large business organization. The trial followed an ABA scheme in which the B phase was the feedback provision phase. Results show that social feedback affects users' communication activity (participation, inward communication, outward communication, and reciprocity), sometimes even after the feedback provision phase. At the same time, users were poorly aware of this effect, showing a discrepancy between self-reported and observational measures. These results are then discussed in terms of design transparency and task compatibility.
Rybski, Diego; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Makse, Hernan A
The timing patterns of human communication in social networks is not random. On the contrary, communication is dominated by emergent statistical laws such as non-trivial correlations and clustering. Recently, we found long-term correlations in the user's activity in social communities. Here, we extend this work to study collective behavior of the whole community. The goal is to understand the origin of clustering and long-term persistence. At the individual level, we find that the correlations in activity are a byproduct of the clustering expressed in the power-law distribution of inter-event times of single users. On the contrary, the activity of the whole community presents long-term correlations that are a true emergent property of the system, i.e. they are not related to the distribution of inter-event times. This result suggests the existence of collective behavior, possible arising from nontrivial communication patterns through the embedding social network.
Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B
This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.
Human mentality is in constant change as new ideas emerge, are challenged, become concrete and are compared to existing concepts in the societal discourse. The theory of social representations is an attempt to explain this process. The study contributes to this field of enquiry by discussing how changes in communication technologies influence the process. New digital communication technologies, such as broadband Internet connections, smartphones, sophisticated Web search engines and similar d...
Meyliana -; Henry Antonius E.W.; Stephen W. Santoso
Application of viral marketing through social networking sites will greatly help companies in saving high marketing costs since companies do not have to give financial incentive to internet users or customers who voluntarily forward the information about the companies. Good marketing communication strategy will increase the company's branding and enable good interaction between customers and companies. This research to look if the customer communication behavior has a relationship and a signi...
Twynstra, Jasna; Dworatzek, Paula
Social media has become a popular platform for reputable health organizations to disseminate health information to the public. However, future health professionals may receive little training in social media communication. To train future dietetic professionals, we incorporated a social media assignment into a Communications course curriculum to facilitate effective use of social media for the profession. For the assignment, students were instructed to make 2 posts on Facebook. The posts were due 3 weeks apart so that students received feedback on their first post before making their second post. To demonstrate the type of social media communication commonly used by reputable health organizations, the first post raised awareness or provided nutrition education. The second post used Facebook's "comment" feature, to respond to another student's first post, demonstrating the use of social media for community engagement. Both posts included a hyperlink that the user could click to get more information. Students were evaluated on the hook, main points, professionalism, credibility, and effectiveness of inviting the reader to the hyperlinked website and its ease of navigation. Dietetics educators should be encouraged to incorporate social media education into their curriculums for the benefit of future dietitians and their clients.
Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai
E-mail allows individuals to deliberate on their communication before sending it off. For instance, communication partners can easily take their time to ponder how best to frame a request before they actually send a message. Individuals at times strategically exploit this opportunity to deliberate in order to tailor messages to their communication partner, such as when communicating with a relatively more powerful person. As social power reduces concerns about impression management, we predicted that individuals deliberate more while composing e-mail messages under low (vs. high) power. This assumption was tested with well-established power priming. As such, we expected that experienced power in one context would diminish deliberation times during a subsequent e-mail communication. An experiment manipulating the experience of (low vs. high) power and measuring deliberation times during e-mail composition supported this hypothesis. The findings thus indicate how social power alters deliberation times. More importantly, the results show that individuals not only strategically deliberate during e-mail communication in line with their current situation, but also in line with their social standing in a previous situation (here, their experience of power).
Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura
The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.
St Pourcain, B; Robinson, E B; Anttila, V
Difficulties in social communication are part of the phenotypic overlap between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Both conditions follow, however, distinct developmental patterns. Symptoms of ASD typically occur during early childhood, whereas most symptoms characteristic......-developing youth (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, N⩽5553, longitudinal assessments at 8, 11, 14 and 17 years) using the Social Communication Disorder Checklist. Data on clinical ASD (PGC-ASD: 5305 cases, 5305 pseudo-controls; iPSYCH-ASD: 7783 cases, 11 359 controls) and schizophrenia (PGC-SCZ2: 34...
Paek, Hye-Jin; Lee, Byoungkwan; Salmon, Charles T; Witte, Kim
This study hypothesized a multilevel model to examine the contextual effects of gender norms, exposure to health-related radio programs, interpersonal communication, and social capital on family planning behavior in Uganda. The results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that all of the four variables were significant predictors of family planning behavior. The authors found that gender norms as a contextual factor significantly interacted with the individual-level perceived benefit. The significant cross-level interaction effect was also observed between individuals' interpersonal communication and contextual variation in listening to a health-related radio program. Practical implications for family planning communication campaigns are discussed.
Courbet, Didier; Fourquet-Courbet, Marie-Pierre
International audience; La question de l'efficacité des actions de communication est au coeur des préoccupations des praticiens de la communication et du marketing. Pour concevoir des modèles d'aide à la décision, les chercheurs mobilisent souvent la psychologie sociale. L'objectif de l'article est de montrer comment de récentes recherches dans les domaines de la socio-cognition implicite et de la psychologie cognitive et linguistique ont été appliquées aux communications publicitaire et poli...
Vela, Lori E.
Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…
Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne
Background In Global Software Development (GSD) the lack of face-to-face communication is a major challenge and effective computer-mediated practices are necessary to mitigate the effect of physical distance. Communication through Social Software (SoSo) supports team coordination, helping to deal...... with geographical distance; however, in Software Engineering literature, there is a lack of suitable theoretical concepts to analyze and describe everyday practices of globally-distributed software development teams and to study the role of communication through SoSo. Objective The paper proposes a theoretical...... framework for analyzing how communicative and coordinative practices are constituted and maintained in globally-distributed teams. Method The framework is based on the concepts of communicative genres and coordination mechanisms; it is motivated and explicated through examples from two qualitative empirical...
Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James; Wessely, Simon; Krieger, Kristian
The public's understanding of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) related issues and their likely actions following a CBRN incident is an issue of great concern, as public psychological and behavioural responses will help determine subsequent morbidity and mortality rates. This paper explores the role of effective government communication with the public and its role in mediating the social and psychological impact of terrorist attacks. We examine the importance of effective communication in reducing morbidity and mortality in the event of a terrorist attack and explore the impact of risk perceptions in determining the success or failure of risk communication strategies. This includes the examination of the role of fear as a health risk, and the identification of factors relevant to public trust in risk communication. Finally, an investigation of the type of information desired by members of the public leads the authors to make risk communication recommendations targeted at the promotion of more adaptive behaviours in response to CBRN attacks.
Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Gaul, Isabell; Bölte, Sven
This study examined the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) to identify autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 151 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Germany. Sensitivities and specificities for ASD were 98/47% for the SCQ-current version and 92/22% for the SCQ-lifetime version. Sensitivities and specificities were increased to 89/66% and 78/48% by adjusting the recommended cut-points. The SCQ-current score correlated with the Scale for Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Mentally Retarded Persons and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, whereas the SCQ-lifetime score correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Our findings support the use of the SCQ-current version for ASD screening in adults with ID, although the SCQ-lifetime version should be used with caution in this population.
Albrecht, T L; Bryant, C
Large-scale communication campaigns for health promotion and disease prevention involve analysis of audience demographic and psychographic factors for effective message targeting. A variety of segmentation modeling techniques, including tree-based methods such as Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection and logistic regression, are used to identify meaningful target groups within a large sample or population (N = 750-1,000+). Such groups are based on statistically significant combinations of factors (e.g., gender, marital status, and personality predispositions). The identification of groups or clusters facilitates message design in order to address the particular needs, attention patterns, and concerns of audience members within each group. We review current segmentation techniques, their contributions to conceptual development, and cost-effective decision making. Examples from a major study in which these strategies were used are provided from the Texas Women, Infants and Children Program's Comprehensive Social Marketing Program.
Chung, Yun-Ching; Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G
The purpose of this study was to explore the naturally occurring social interactions for students with disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general education classrooms. We observed 16 students who used AAC and received services under the categories of autism or intellectual disability. Participants primarily interacted with their support personnel and infrequently conversed with peers despite often being in close proximity. Few interaction episodes were initiated by students who used AAC, and initiations to peers and adults appeared to serve somewhat different functions. Students with disabilities relied more heavily on facial expressions and gestures than on the use of their AAC devices. Recommendations for promoting interaction opportunities among students are offered, and future research directions are suggested.
Full Text Available The community of Las Calles, located in Traslasierra Valley, in the westof CórdobaProvince, Argentina, is characterised by a unique combination of rural and touristiclife anda largeurban to rural migration movement. In this sense, a diversity of cultural groups and identities coexist in thiscommunity. These cultural groups are part of “culture” as a strategic arena for the understanding of the tensions that tear apart and reconcile the “being together”continuum.This paper analyses social representations and interactions among actors from emergingand existing cultures (hippies and paisas, respectively in this rural community, as well as the emergence of newcodesand citizenshippractices. Citizenship interactions and practices demand the review and redesign of the “current” sociocultural integration and management policies. Here is where strategic communication can and must contribute to the promotion of this community’s territorial and local development.
Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J
Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.
Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex
Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…
Adilen Carpio Camacho
Full Text Available The present investigation describes the intervention made in an organization in S.Spiritus territory by means of taking into account the identification and priority of the main problems that affected the development of managers. The incidence on communicative competences as the main difficulty to be solved is based on the development of a Psycho- social training, where it is combined the use of diagnostic and formative methods, as well as techniques that lead to the acquisition of abilities and the behavior modification, all of them supported by the different working session recordings and helped by the assessment of the participants to show and make conscious the behaviors tendencies. The main results, showed modification in the manager communicative competences before and after the training was applied, so it contributed to a better management of the contradiction among the orientation in itself, on the other person and in the problem as such, which made possible a correct guidance of the conflict situations.
Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén
The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation.
Murphy, Suzanne M; Faulkner, Dorothy M; Farley, Laura R
Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N = 112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved.
Koehly, Laura M; Peterson, Susan K; Watts, Beatty G; Kempf, Kari K G; Vernon, Sally W; Gritz, Ellen R
Hereditary cancers are relational diseases. A primary focus of research in the past has been the biological relations that exist within the families and how genes are passed along family lines. However, hereditary cancers are relational in a psychosocial sense, as well. They can impact communication relationships within a family, as well as support relationships among family members. Furthermore, the familial culture can affect an individual's participation in genetic counseling and testing endeavors. Our aims are (a) to describe the composition of familial networks, (b) to characterize the patterns of family functioning within families, (c) to analyze how these patterns relate to communications about genetic counseling and testing among family members, and (d) to identify influential family members. Specifically, we asked how the relationship between mutation status, kinship ties, and family functioning constructs, e.g., communication, cohesion, affective involvement, leadership, and conflict, was associated with discussions about genetic counseling and testing. We used social network analysis and random graph techniques to examine 783 dyadic relationships in 36 members of 5 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families interviewed from 1999-2000. Results suggest that in these five HNPCC families, two family members are more likely to discuss genetic counseling and testing if either one carries the mutation, if either one is a spouse or a first-degree relative of the other, or if the relationship is defined by positive cohesion, leadership, or lack of conflict. Furthermore, the family functioning patterns suggest that mothers tend to be the most influential persons in the family network. Results of this study suggest encouraging family members who act in the mother role to take a "team approach" with the family proband when discussing HNPCC risks and management with family members.
Chen, Liang; Li, Haigang; Chen, Zhong; Li, Li; He, Da-Ren
In this article, we propose a firm-growing model, and then collect empirical data to test model validity. The simulation results agree well with the empirical data. We next explore the effect of communication patterns on the growth and structure of firm’s social network and find that the extents to which employees reluctantly interact within or across departments significantly influence the structure of firm’s social network.
Abstract Objective: This thesis seeks to provide insight into the integration of social media marketing communications and brand strategy from the perspective of the destination marketing organization. Method: Qualitative case study methodology generated understanding of the approach to DMOs’ marketing. Interview allows exploration of how online marketing strategies with the practice of social media used in destination branding processes and content analysis to analyze audience engageme...
Ivette Soto Velez
Full Text Available Companies around the globe are embracing and adapting social media for many differentintentions: customer service, marketing, internal communications, public relations orcorporate social responsibility, etc. It is now a reality that social media is channging the waystakeholders and companies communicate daily, providing opportunities for collaboration,participation, interactivity, and engagement. Therefore, social media is conceived today inthe corporate world as a strategic communication partner, driving new and uniquepossibilities for organizations to engage stakeholders in conversations. We are witnesses of anew digital era where consumers are becoming active users rather than passive individuals,changing dramatically how society operates. But these useful technological tools areemployed widely and precisely by corporations in order to facilitate and improvecommunications? This research aims to discover the usage of different social mediaplatforms by Puerto Rican companies. A content analysis was performed to the Facebookand Twitter official profiles of the top 400 locally owned Puerto Rican companies of 2009.The principal objective was to find if social media sites were mainly used as a strategic toolfor corporate communication that can enhance stakeholder participation and engagement.Results showed that Puerto Rican companies are not employing social media platforms forimproving communications with different stakeholders, failing to take advantage of theenormous possibilities that social media has for communication./Compañías alrededor del mundo están utilizando los medios sociales para diferentespropósitos: servicio al cliente, mercadeo, comunicaciones internas, relaciones públicas oresponsabilidad social corporativa, etc. Hoy en día es una realidad que los medios socialesestán cambiando la manera en que se comunican las compañías con los distintos públicos deinterés, trayendo consigo oportunidades para la colaboración, el
Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane
Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…
This essay mainly attempts to analyze the gender difference in language communication and its cultural and social ori⁃gins by reviewing and critiquing a published essay Sex Stereotype and Its Representations in Linguistic Communicative Competence. Firstly, a brief introduction is made to overview the present studies on gender difference in language. Then the body respectively an⁃alyzes the cultural and social origins of gender difference in language and their concrete manifestations in language communication with an empirical review and critique of Sex Stereotype and Its Representations in Linguistic Communicative Competence. Finally, the conclusion part renders the reflection on gender difference in language communication.
Frank, Lauren B; Chatterjee, Joyee S; Chaudhuri, Sonal T; Lapsansky, Charlotte; Bhanot, Anurudra; Murphy, Sheila T
This study explores the role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in a public health campaign, the BBC Condom Normalization Campaign, designed to promote conversation and change the public perception of condom use in India. Drawing upon the integrative model of behavioral prediction, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and descriptive norms were predicted to relate to behavioral intentions to use condoms. It is important to note that the valence of discussion was hypothesized to relate to each of these more proximal predictors. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the model on 3 separate samples of Indian men between the ages of 15 and 49 years: (a) high-risk men who had sex with nonspouses; (b) low-risk, sexually inactive, unmarried men; and (c) low-risk, monogamous, married men. Results were similar for low- and high-risk audiences, with valence of discussion about condoms predicting condom-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective and descriptive social norms with respect to condom use, which, in turn, predicted behavioral intent to use condoms. These findings underscore the need to take not only the frequency but also the valence of interpersonal discussion into account when assessing the effect of health campaigns. Implications for theory and design of future public communication campaigns are explored.
Arturo Vallejos Romero
Full Text Available The study's objective, in general, is to offer a conceptual discussion on the perception and construction of risk and, in particular, on the observation and criticism of interventions that are implemented in relation to environmental risk expressed in Chile and Latin America. The proposal, framed in the perspective of social theory and the sociology of risk, suggests some theoretical-methodological lines to approach socioenvironmental problems, particular to modernity, that are expressed through constructions and perceptions that local actors (common and key develop and which studies evidence as a negative externality for the health and quality of life of the population. Specifically, this articles attempts to observe, from a different perspective, the problematization of social perception of risk and to work with two variables that the literature shows as relevant at the time of explaining risks in our localities: trust and risk communication, which we believe are also necessary to take into account when thinking of models of environmental intervention which can improve public policies and instruments of management regarding socioenvironmental risks.
Full Text Available In order to solve the complicated multimodal problems, this paper presents a variant of particle swarm optimizer (PSO based on the simulation of the human social communication behavior (HSCPSO. In HSCPSO, each particle initially joins a default number of social circles (SC that consist of some particles, and its learning exemplars include three parts, namely, its own best experience, the experience of the best performing particle in all SCs, and the experiences of the particles of all SCs it is a member of. The learning strategy takes full advantage of the excellent information of each particle to improve the diversity of the swarm to discourage premature convergence. To weight the effects of the particles on the SCs, the worst performing particles will join more SCs to learn from other particles and the best performing particles will leave SCs to reduce their strong influence on other members. Additionally, to insure the effectiveness of solving multimodal problems, the novel parallel hybrid mutation is proposed to improve the particle’s ability to escape from the local optima. Experiments were conducted on a set of classical benchmark functions, and the results demonstrate the good performance of HSCPSO in escaping from the local optima and solving the complex multimodal problems compared with the other PSO variants.
Erika de Azevedo Leitão Mássimo
Full Text Available The dimension of choice and adherence to healthy lifestyles is in the area of social constructions made in representations of individuals and had not yet been included in the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL analysis systems. This article aims to understand, in individual narratives, representations contained in the trajectories of people's lives selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. It is a qualitative study based on Social Representation Theory. Thirty in-depth and open interviews with subjects selected from the 2010 VIGITEL sample were conducted in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais. The Structural Analysis of Narrative technique was used to reveal the content of speeches. Age and heredity representations related to NCDs are part of the spectrum of current scientific information. Learning from childhood onwards is the basis of care. The lack of comprehension of the pathophysiology of NCDs, and the depth of representations of illness and death related to communicable diseases, is partly responsible for the difficulty of preventing NCDs.
Marcelo Mendes de Souza
Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.
Christian H. Meyer
Full Text Available Although much effort is made to prevent risks arising from food, food-borne diseases are an ever-present threat to the consumers’ health. The consumption of fresh food that is contaminated with pathogens like fungi, viruses or bacteria can cause food poisoning that leads to severe health damages or even death. The outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC in Germany and neighbouring countries in 2011 has shown this dramatically. Nearly 4.000 people were reported of being affected and more than 50 people died during the so called EHEC-crisis. As a result the consumers’ trust in the safety of fruits and vegetables decreased sharply.In situations like that quick decisions and reaction from public authorities as well as from privately owned companies are important: Food crisis managers have to identify and track back contaminated products and they have to withdraw them from the market. At the same time they have to inform the stakeholders about potential threats and recent developments. This is a particularly challenging task, because when an outbreak is just detected, information about the actual scope is sparse and the demand for information is high. Thus, ineffective communication among crisis managers and towards the public can result in inefficient crisis management, health damages and a major loss of trust in the food system. This is why crisis communication is a crucial part of successful crisis management, whereas the quality of crisis communication largely depends on the availability of and the access to relevant information.In order to improve the availability of information, we have explored how information from public accessible internet sources like Twitter or Wikipedia can be harnessed for food crisis communication. In this paper we are going to report on some initial insight from a web mining and social media analysis approach to monitor health and food related issues that can develop into a potential
The paper analyzes the main social factors which affect the way of our speech, such as region, special class, age, sex and ethnicity. Because of these factors, people will adopt different ways of speech, formal or informal. Thus, we can communicate with other better.
Hall, Jeffrey A
This article explores the relationships between communication and social support of parents of children with cancer (N = 44), and the importance of gender-role conflict in fathers. Structural equation modeling and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model were used to test the expected relationships between communication, social support, gender-role conflict, and anxiety, and to control for sample nonindependence. Results suggest communication increases perceived emotional and instrumental social support between parents, and instrumental support from fathers results in less anxiety for mothers. When fathers experienced more conflict about their role as financial supporter for the family (i.e., career achievement gender-role conflict), fathers perceived less instrumental and emotional support from their wives. However, fathers who experienced more conflict about career achievement were also less anxious. A second measure of fathers' gender-role conflict (i.e., emotional expression) was unrelated to either mothers' or fathers' outcomes. The role of gender, communication, and social support in the context of pediatric oncology is discussed.
Kamalova, Lera A.; Vasilyeva, Nadezda N.
The urgency of the problem under investigation due to the provisions of the new federal state educational standards of preschool education in the Russian Federation, according to which at the present stage of priority education is to implement a high level of social and communicative potential of the child's personality as a prerequisite for its…
Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J.
Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the children's…
Jahromi, Laudan B.; Kasari, Connie L.; McCracken, James T.; Lee, Lisa S-Y.; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Witwer, Andrea; Kustan, Erin; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Posey, David J.
This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of…
Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.
Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…
This paper examines the different social categories that are made relevant when geographically dispersed speakers of English as an additional language communicate in chat rooms. Although the literature characterizes these interactions as English as a lingua franca, this paper explores to what extent interactants see themselves as lingua franca…
Full Text Available Online communication applications such as Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter are some of the most frequently used Internet applications. There is a growing amount of individuals suffering diminished control over their use of online communication applications which leads to diverse negative consequences in offline life. This could be referred to as Internet-communication disorder. The current study investigates the role of individual characteristics (e.g., psychopathological symptoms, feelings of loneliness and specific cognitions assessing the contribution of an Internet-communication disorder (ICD. In a sample of 485 participants a structural equation model was tested to investigate predictors and mediators which may predict an excessive use. The results emphasize that a higher level of social loneliness and less perceived social support enhance the risk of a pathological use. The effects of psychopathological symptoms (depression and social anxiety as well as individual characteristics (self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress vulnerability on ICD symptoms are mediated by Internet-use expectancies and dysfunctional coping mechanisms. The results illustrate mediation effects which are in line with the theoretical model by Brand et al. (2016. As suggested in the model social aspects seem to be key predictors of ICD symptoms. Further research should investigate convergent and divergent factors of other types of specific Internet-use disorders.
Ward, Sandra C.; Whalon, Kelly; Rusnak, Katrina; Wendell, Kimberly; Paschall, Nancy
This study investigated the association between therapeutic riding (TR) and the social communication and sensory processing skills of 21 elementary students with autism attending TR as part of a school group. An interrupted treatment design was employed to determine whether children were able to maintain treatment effects following the removal of…
Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.
Baharav, Eva; Darling, Rieko
A minimally verbal child with autism was exposed to short daily sessions of watching his parents on video in conjunction with an FM auditory trainer for a period of 4 weeks. Baseline measures of verbal and social behaviors were taken pre-treatment and repeated post treatment. Results indicate substantial gains in word productions, social orienting, and increased eye contact. Results are discussed in terms of the contributions of auditory-visual processing to establishing communication and socialization in autism and early intervention effectiveness.
Real, Kevin; Rimal, Rajiv N
Peer communication represents 1 mechanism through which norms are disseminated in social groups. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) posits that group identity, outcome expectations, and injunctive norms moderate the relation between descriptive norms and behaviors. This article extends the purview of the TNSB by conceptualizing peer communication as another moderator in the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors. A survey was conducted among college students (N = 675) to measure their normative perceptions, peer communication, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and intention to drink alcohol. As hypothesized, descriptive norms, peer communication, and the interaction between these two variables were significantly associated with consumption, even after controlling for known predictors of both consumption and various mechanisms of normative influences. Controlling for prior consumption, peer communication was also a significant predictor of intention to consume alcohol in the future. This model explained approximately 63% of the variance in intention. This study found a significant relationship between peer communication and alcohol drinking behaviors and intentions after controlling for perceived norms.
Harrop, Clare; Shire, Stephanie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Chang, Ya-Chih; Ishijima, Eric; Lawton, Kathy; Kasari, Connie
Due to the predominance of boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently. Research specifically focusing on play and social-communication in girls with ASD is extremely varied. We were interested in whether girls with ASD demonstrated equivalent social-communication and play skills in early childhood…
Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, K
During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10, the vaccination behavior of parents played a critical role in preventing and containing the spread of the disease and the subsequent health outcomes among children. Several studies have examined the relationship between parents' health communication behaviors and vaccinations for children in general. Little is known, however, about the link between parents' health communication behaviors and the vaccination of their children against the H1N1 virus, and their level of vaccine-related knowledge. We drew on a national survey among parents with at least one child less than 18 years of age (n=639) to investigate Parents' H1N1-related health communication behaviors including sources of information, media exposure, information-seeking behaviors, H1N1-related knowledge, and neighborhood social capital, as well as the H1N1 vaccination rates of their children. Findings showed that there is a significant association between the degree at which parents obtained H1N1 vaccination for their children and health communication variables: watching the national television news and actively seeking H1N1 information. And this association was moderated by the extent of the parents' H1N1-related knowledge. In addition, the parents' degree of neighborhood social capital mediated the association between H1N1 knowledge of the parents and H1N1 vaccination acceptance for their children. We found, compared to those with a low-level of neighborhood social capital, parents who have a high-level of neighborhood social capital are more likely to vaccinate their children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to design a strategic health communication campaign segmented by parent health communication behaviors.
Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.
A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.
Ng, Kwan-Hoong; Lean, Mei-Li
The potential of social media has expanded far beyond the initial function of social communication among a network of friends. It has become an increasingly important tool in risk communication to allow the dissemination of timely and accurate information to global citizens to make more informed choices regarding a particular crisis. The Fukushima nuclear crisis is an example where the potential of social media was not fully tapped. This caused undue stress and distrust of authorities. While the use of social media in this crisis could have altered significantly the level of trust in authorities and others, two additional points should be considered. One point is the use of plain language versus scientific language in order to reach a wider audience. The other is an urgent need to improve public information especially in the event of a nuclear emergency and to enhance educational efforts and action by improving radiological protection communication from regulatory bodies and international agencies. These are points that also play a large role in the use of social media.
Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of social robots by focusing on the emotional relations people establish with media and information and communication technology (ICTs in their everyday life. It examines human-technology-relation from a social studies point of view, seeking to raise questions that enable us to make a connection between the research on human relationships and the topic of human-technology relation, especially human-humanoid-relation. In order to explore the human-technology-relations, theoretical ideas of a mediatization of communication and of a ritual interaction order are applied. Ritual theory is particularly used to enable a focus on emotion as a significant dimension in analyzing social technologies. This explorative article refers to empirical findings regarding media communication practices in close relationships. It argues that following the developed approach regarding mediatized and ritualized relational practices, useful insights for a conceptualization of the human-social robot relation can be achieved. The article concludes with remarks regarding the challenge of an empirical approach to human-social robot-relations.
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Massagli, Angelo
Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular augmentative communication system frequently used with "nonverbal" children with autism. Several studies suggested that PECS could represent an effective tool for promoting improvement of several social-communicative skills. Only sparse evidence is instead…
Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments, we know considerably less about why children engage in RRBs and if and how to intervene with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention targeting social-communication behaviors and if caregiver training changed how they responded to their child's RRBs. Eighty-six toddlers with ASD and their caregivers received one of two interventions: caregivers were either actively coached while playing with their child (JASPER) or attended information sessions about ASD. On three different occasions (when they entered the study, following 10 weeks of intervention and 6-months after) caregivers were filmed playing with their child. From these recordings, we coded child RRBs and caregiver responses to these behaviors. Child RRBs remained relatively stable following intervention in both groups, but increased when the children returned at 6-months. Caregivers who received one-on-one coaching (JASPER) responded to a greater number of their child's RRBs and their responses were rated as more successful. Our study showed that a short-term social-communication intervention delivered through caregivers had "spillover effects" on how they also responded to their child's RRBs. Interventions targeting social-communication behaviors should also examine how these treatments affect child RRBs and how caregiver responses to these behaviors may change following training. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.
Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.
L. Taylor and D. Barney
CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...
The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...
Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.
This study investigates the influence of interpersonal communication and intergroup identification on members' evaluations of computer-mediated groups. Participants (N= 256) in 64 four-person groups interacted through synchronous computer chat. Subgroup assignments to minimal groups instilled significantly greater in-group versus out-group…
In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.
Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa
The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention.
This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.
Veuillotte, Isabelle; Morel, Gilles; Pitois, Stephane; Haler, Renaud; Mercier, Patricia; Aubry, Catherine; Cannet, Didier
The popularity of social networks and the huge number of exchanges have made them immensely important for the communication of information. This French study explored prevention in hereditary breast cancer using a social Internet network to communicate information. The principal objective was to inform French women aged from 20 to 50 years, using the social network Facebook, about the warning signs of breast cancer in cases of a predisposition to the disease due to a genetic mutation. The secondary objectives were to inform people about screening. An information page entitled "hereditary breast cancer: and if I was concerned?" was distributed in 3 different ways: from friend to friend, via groups of persons, and by targeted advertising. Four articles and 11 messages were distributed over 27 days. The total number of visits for this period amounted to 1019. A total of 81 percent of the Internauts were women and 55 percent of the visitors were aged between 25 and 44 years. Other information campaigns concerning public health issues could be conducted using this tool. A legal framework is necessary to preserve the quality of the medical information provided. This new means of communication, used for prevention purposes, will add to other frequently used methods of communication.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians who hold medical disability assessment interviews (social insurance physicians are probably influenced by stereotypes of claimants, especially because they have limited time available and they have to make complicated decisions. Because little is known about the influences of stereotyping on assessment interviews, the objectives of this paper were to qualitatively investigate: (1 the content of stereotypes used to classify claimants with regard to the way in which they communicate; (2 the origins of such stereotypes; (3 the advantages and disadvantages of stereotyping in assessment interviews; and (4 how social insurance physicians minimise the undesirable influences of negative stereotyping. Methods Data were collected during three focus group meetings with social insurance physicians who hold medical disability assessment interviews with sick-listed employees (i.e. claimants. The participants also completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics. The data were qualitatively analysed in Atlas.ti in four steps, according to the grounded theory and the principle of constant comparison. Results A total of 22 social insurance physicians participated. Based on their responses, a claimant's communication was classified with regard to the degree of respect and acceptance in the physician-claimant relationship, and the degree of dominance. Most of the social insurance physicians reported that they classify claimants in general groups, and use these classifications to adapt their own communication behaviour. Moreover, the social insurance physicians revealed that their stereotypes originate from information in the claimants' files and first impressions. The main advantages of stereotyping were that this provides a framework for the assessment interview, it can save time, and it is interesting to check whether the stereotype is correct. Disadvantages of stereotyping were that the stereotypes often prove incorrect
This study presents an evaluation of the Lego® Therapy intervention (LeGoff, 2004) for six children, aged six to ten, with varying social communication difficulties. Lego® Therapy is a small-group, child-led and peer-based social development programme. Relevant theory and existing literature is explored firstly, before a systematic review of social communication intervention evaluations is presented. This is followed by a review of current Lego® Therapy studies, highlighting the limited evide...
Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Chen, Yu-Jen; Lo, Yu-Chun; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac
Previous studies using neural activity recording and neuroimaging techniques have reported functional deficits in the mirror neuron system (MNS) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, a few studies focusing on gray and white matter structures of the MNS have yielded inconsistent results. The current study recruited adolescents and young adults with ASD (aged 15-26 years) and age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (aged 14-25 years). The cortical thickness (CT) and microstructural integrity of the tracts connecting the regions forming the classical MNS were investigated. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging were performed to quantify the CT and tract integrity, respectively. The structural covariance of the CT of the MNS regions revealed a weaker coordination of the MNS network in ASD. A strong correlation was found between the integrity of the right frontoparietal tracts and the social communication subscores measured by the Chinese version of the Social Communication Questionnaire. The results showed that there were no significant mean differences in the CTs and tract integrity between the ASD and TD groups, but revealed a moderate or even reverse age effect on the frontal MNS structures in ASD. In conclusion, aberrant structural coordination may be an underlying factor affecting the function of the MNS in ASD patients. The association between the right frontoparietal tracts and social communication performance implies a neural correlate of communication processing in the autistic brain. This study provides evidence of abnormal MNS structures and their influence on social communication in individuals with ASD.