WorldWideScience

Sample records for social bookmarking systems

  1. Identifying Experts and Authoritative Documents in Social Bookmarking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Social bookmarking systems allow people to create pointers to Web resources in a shared, Web-based environment. These services allow users to add free-text labels, or "tags", to their bookmarks as a way to organize resources for later recall. Ease-of-use, low cognitive barriers, and a lack of controlled vocabulary have allowed social…

  2. Fusing Recommendations for Social Bookmarking Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; van den Bosch, Antal

    2011-01-01

    Social bookmarking websites are rapidly growing in popularity. Recommender systems, a promising remedy to the information overload accompanying the explosive growth in content, are designed to identify which unseen content might be of interest to a particular user, based on his or her past...... that use tag overlap and metadata provide better results for social bookmarking data sets than the transaction patterns that are used traditionally in recommender systems research. In addition, we investigate how to fuse different recommendation approaches to further improve recommendation accuracy. We...... preferences. Most previous work in recommendation for social bookmarking suffers from a lack of comparisons between the different available approaches. In this article, we address this issue by comparing and evaluating eight recommendation approaches on four data sets from two domains. We find that approaches...

  3. Awareness and use of social bookmarking services by final year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social computing is one of the renascent features of the web that has made it highly interactive. One of such social tools in the web is the social bookmarking services. It has been reported that social bookmarking services may be the least known social media network by students. Given that social media has been predicted ...

  4. Distributed Social Bookmarking Web Service Architecture. SOAP vs. iCamp FeedBack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    Social bookmarking services became very popular recently. Easy of use, possibility to share and discover in addition to accessibility though the Internet, turns social bookmarking systems into powerful repository of shared knowledge. Obviously this attracts attention of educational institutions and recently such systems started to appear under…

  5. Awareness and Use of Social Bookmarking Services by Final Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Web is now more interactive than ever before. So many ... To assess the use of social bookmarking services by the final year students of Afe .... Delicious, developed in 2003 is perhaps the best known currently of all such tools (Lund et al,.

  6. How Social Bookmarking Can Help the 21st Century Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Kathleen A.; McDermott, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Social bookmarking, as an important tool for connecting, organizing and retaining online information, is presented in this article. The authors demonstrate how they use diigo to communicate with others in their professional communities and groups as well as how they use this tool for developing their online libraries. Suggestions are offered for…

  7. A Hybrid Model Ranking Search Result for Research Paper Searching on Social Bookmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pijitra jomsri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social bookmarking and publication sharing systems are essential tools for web resource discovery. The performance and capabilities of search results from research paper bookmarking system are vital. Many researchers use social bookmarking for searching papers related to their topics of interest. This paper proposes a combination of similarity based indexing “tag title and abstract” and static ranking to improve search results. In this particular study, the year of the published paper and type of research paper publication are combined with similarity ranking called (HybridRank. Different weighting scores are employed. The retrieval performance of these weighted combination rankings are evaluated using mean values of NDCG. The results suggest that HybridRank and similarity rank with weight 75:25 has the highest NDCG scores. From the preliminary result of experiment, the combination ranking technique provide more relevant research paper search results. Furthermore the chosen heuristic ranking can improve the efficiency of research paper searching on social bookmarking websites.

  8. Analyzing Hidden Semantics in Social Bookmarking of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, Julià

    Web 2.0 services such as social bookmarking allow users to manage and share the links they find interesting, adding their own tags for describing them. This is especially interesting in the field of open educational resources, as delicious is a simple way to bridge the institutional point of view (i.e. learning object repositories) with the individual one (i.e. personal collections), thus promoting the discovering and sharing of such resources by other users. In this paper we propose a methodology for analyzing such tags in order to discover hidden semantics (i.e. taxonomies and vocabularies) that can be used to improve descriptions of learning objects and make learning object repositories more visible and discoverable. We propose the use of a simple statistical analysis tool such as principal component analysis to discover which tags create clusters that can be semantically interpreted. We will compare the obtained results with a collection of resources related to open educational resources, in order to better understand the real needs of people searching for open educational resources.

  9. Exploring How Secondary Pre-Service Teachers' Use Online Social Bookmarking to Envision Literacy in the Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Jamie; Gregory, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    This study considers how pre-service teachers envision disciplinary literacy through an online social bookmarking project. Thirty secondary pre-service teachers participated in the project through an undergraduate literacy course. Online bookmarks and post-project reflections were collected and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to…

  10. Tags Help Make Libraries Del.icio.us: Social Bookmarking and Tagging Boost Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional library web products, whether online public access catalogs, library databases, or even library web sites, have long been rigidly controlled and difficult to use. Patrons regularly prefer Google's simple interface. Now social bookmarking and tagging tools help librarians bridge the gap between the library's need to offer authoritative,…

  11. Investigating User Interfaces of Non-Iranian Digital Libraries based on Social Bookmarking Capabilities and Characteristics to Use by Iranian Digital Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Naseri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to investigate the status of user interfaces of non-Iranian digital libraries’ based on social bookmarking capabilities and characteristics to use by Iranian digital libraries. This research studies the characteristics and capabilities of top digital libraries’ user interfaces in the world based on social bookmarking used by library users. This capability facilitates producing, identifying, organizing, and sharing contents using tags. Survey method was used with descriptive-analytical approach in this study. Populations include non-Iranian digital libraries interfaces. Top ten digital libraries’ interfaces were selected as the sample. A researcher-made checklist prepared based on literature review and investigating four distinguished websites (Library Thing, Delicious, Amazon, and Google Book. Faced validity evaluated by 10 experts’ viewpoints, then reliability calculated 0.87.Findings of this study are important because of two reasons: first, it provides a comprehensive and an unambiguous vision for recognizing user interfaces’ basic capabilities and characteristics based on social bookmarking. Second, it can provide a base for designing digital libraries in Iran. The results showed that the majority of digital libraries around the world had not used web 2.0 characteristics such as producing, identifying, organizing, and sharing contents except two digital libraries (Google Books, and Ibiblio.

  12. GaMuSo: Graph base music recommendation in a social bookmarking service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijf, de J.; Liekens, A.M.L.; Gama, J.; Bradley, E.; Hollmén, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we describe a recommendation system based upon user-generated description (tags) of content. In particular, we describe an experimental system (GaMuSo) that consists of more than 140.000 user-defined tags for over 400.000 artists. From this data we constructed a bipartite graph, linking

  13. Social Bookmarking on a Company's Intranet: A Study of Technology Adoption and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Nina D.; White, Kerry-Ann

    Until recent developments in digital-based innovation, companies were defined by how they made use of resources which were tangible things such as equipment, land, raw materials and human talent for the purpose of supplying goods and services to the economy [37]. Such companies had a clearly defined central management structure which was responsible for the general policies under which the company's hierarchy operated with well delineated reporting relationships and job responsibilities [47]. Within this rigid hierarchical organizational structure, decision making was bureaucratic and an anti-innovation bias was prevalent [55]. Even with the development of electronic communications and computing systems, innovation was relegated to the purview of professional R&D departments [22] within a highly structured corporate environment [51]. Indeed, in 1992, when managers were surveyed about the structure of their companies, most answered that their companies were still structured in a very traditional way, that is, with standardized jobs, procedures and policies and a hierarchical organization which emphasized a top-down chain of command [6].

  14. Exploring Visual Bookmarks and Layered Visualizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Teuben (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCultural heritage experts are confronted with a difficult information gathering task while conducting comparison searches. Saving searches and re-examining previous work could help them to do their work. In this paper we propose a solution in which we combine visual bookmarks for saving

  15. A Personalized Tag-Based Recommendation in Social Web Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2009-01-01

    -based recommender system which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags from a Web 2.0 tagging application. The proposed approach extends the basic similarity calculus with external factors such as tag popularity, tag representativeness and the affinity between user and tag. In order...... to study and evaluate the recommender system, we have conducted an experiment involving 38 people from 12 countries using data from Del.icio.us , a social bookmarking web system on which users can share their personal bookmarks......Tagging activity has been recently identified as a potential source of knowledge about personal interests, preferences, goals, and other attributes known from user models. Tags themselves can be therefore used for finding personalized recommendations of items. In this paper, we present a tag...

  16. The Art of Memory: "Social Bookmarking Hamburg"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Stiassny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of November 2016, a unique and intruding art project took place in the city of Hamburg, Germany, a result of collaboration between German artists and a Chinese artist, who all seek to commemorate the Chinese victims who lived in the city pre- World War II but had to suffer the injustices of the Nazi regime. The project lasted three days and was presented in various locations throughout the city, while including many artistic mediums alongside scholarly work. By referring to the main events of that weekend, the paper traces after a “forgotten” past that many people refuse to look at, not to say to take responsibility for it, while in contrast, the art continues to extract it from the depths of oblivion and forced amnesia – to the dismay of many.

  17. A Lead Provided by Bookmarks - Intelligent Browsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Balanescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Browsers are applications that allow Internet access. A defining characteristic is their unidirectionality: Navigator-> Internet. The purpose of this article is to support the idea of Intelligent Browsers that is defined by bidirectional: Navigator-> Internet and Internet-> Navigator. The fundamental idea is that the Internet contains huge resources of knowledge, but they are “passive”. The purpose of this article is to propose the “activation” of this knowledge so that they, through “Intelligent Browsers”, to become from Sitting Ducks to Active Mentors. Following this idea, the present article proposes changes to Bookmarks function, from the current status of Favorites to Recommendations. The article presents an analysis of the utility of this function (by presenting a research of web browsing behaviors and in particular finds that the significance of this utility has decreased lately (to the point of becoming almost useless, as will be shown, in terms data-information-knowledge. Finally, it presents the idea of a project which aims to be an applied approach that anticipates the findings of this study and the concept of Intelligent Browsers (or Active Browsers required in the context of the Big Data concept.

  18. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Trattner

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i shed light on these relations and (ii establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  19. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Christoph; Parra, Denis; Elsweiler, David

    2017-01-01

    Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i) shed light on these relations and (ii) establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  20. Facilitating Navigation in Quality Manuals by Providing Bookmarks or Similar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharum bin Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia level quality manuals need to be shared with all divisions. A manual is usually distributed in the form of an electronic document that contains all procedures. Navigation from one heading or procedure to another should be facilitated by providing bookmarks or similar. This paper shows how to do it for Microsoft Word and PDF documents. (author)

  1. The Effects of Target Audience on Social Tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarhan, Hesham

    2013-01-01

    Online social bookmarking systems allow users to assign tags (i.e., keywords) to represent the content of resources. Research on the effects of target audience on social tagging suggests that taggers select different tags for themselves, their community (e.g., family, friends, colleagues), and the general public (Panke & Gaiser, 2009; Pu &…

  2. A Generalizability Theory Approach to Standard Error Estimates for Bookmark Standard Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Lewis, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    The bookmark standard-setting procedure is an item response theory-based method that is widely implemented in state testing programs. This study estimates standard errors for cut scores resulting from bookmark standard settings under a generalizability theory model and investigates the effects of different universes of generalization and error…

  3. The Social Commerce System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.; Ortynska Valentyna V.

    2017-01-01

    The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to creat...

  4. Promoters active in interphase are bookmarked during mitosis by ubiquitination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mansi; Zhang, Jie; Heine, George F.; Ozer, Gulcin; Liu, Hui-wen; Huang, Kun; Parvin, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed modification of chromatin by ubiquitination in human cells and whether this mark changes through the cell cycle. HeLa cells were synchronized at different stages and regions of the genome with ubiquitinated chromatin were identified by affinity purification coupled with next-generation sequencing. During interphase, ubiquitin marked the chromatin on the transcribed regions of ∼70% of highly active genes and deposition of this mark was sensitive to transcriptional inhibition. Promoters of nearly half of the active genes were highly ubiquitinated specifically during mitosis. The ubiquitination at the coding regions in interphase but not at promoters during mitosis was enriched for ubH2B and dependent on the presence of RNF20. Ubiquitin labeling of both promoters during mitosis and transcribed regions during interphase, correlated with active histone marks H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 but not a repressive histone modification, H3K27me3. The high level of ubiquitination at the promoter chromatin during mitosis was transient and was removed within 2 h after the cells exited mitosis and entered the next cell cycle. These results reveal that the ubiquitination of promoter chromatin during mitosis is a bookmark identifying active genes during chromosomal condensation in mitosis, and we suggest that this process facilitates transcriptional reactivation post-mitosis. PMID:22941662

  5. Social architects in social systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Sommerlund, Charlotte

    -based knowledge and on building knowledge on equal terms (Härnsten, 1994). The idea is that research circles support knowledge creation as a joint venture where joint venture focuses on both the development of theory and the development of practice (Mørck & Huniche, 2006). Purpose and Design The overall purpose......, conclusions and implications for practice/ future research The findings suggest two major foci of change in future guidance practices. Firstly, future guidance practitioners should be seen more like social architects who are capable of instigating social practices in which young people can exchange...... their experiences, get proper and relevant advice rather than being looked at as expert professionals who provide information in 1-to-1 relationships with the young people. Secondly, the guidance practitioner should be given more credit for and responsibility as a kind of organizational catalyst in social systems...

  6. An Utilization Method Cooperating ISO drawings and Bookmarks for NDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun-Ju; Cho, Chan-Hee; Lee, Tae-Hun [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The inspection of weld parts are performed with various non-destructive test methods such as AUT, VT, PT, ECT, etc. The results have been published in the report booklets. Moreover, huge amount of non-destructive inspection data and reports, which are produced from the '78 Kori 1 to newly constructed power plant, are stored in the management department and DDCC of each power plant. Because the data are not classified, it takes much time to find the corresponding non-destructive test results report of a specific unit of a power plant for a particular year. In addition, it is possibility to make human error because the report is written and submitted after finding manually the non-destructive test results for the concerning weld. When there is a dispute of the results of non-destructive inspection of a particular weld, analyzes the control center, a result of the power plant and the corresponding non-destructive inspection of a particular weld of ISO drawing in many places such as control center, corresponding power plant and CRI was discussed together will be to derive the final conclusion. For discussion, the person in charge of each site, looking for ISO drawings there is a result of the weld, in the past results history report of non-destructive testing for this, by searching the results of the welding site, telephone and E-mail disadvantage of complicated procedures if necessary to the discussion together in -mail is performed I have. In this paper, we describe the contents introduced the ISO drawings and Bookmark function is trying to complement these drawbacks. By applying the present invention utilization, find the ISO drawings manually when querying the results of the non-destructive inspection of past weld, which reduces the time to grasp the content of the non-destructive test results report.

  7. The Social Commerce System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to create content through the media via forums, ratings, reviews, and recommendations on different platforms. Enterprises are advised to use social tools to perform social interaction with consumers in social networks, create a social climate in view of the social support on the Web. The authors have proposed the concept of «social commerce system», structure of which contains the following elements: individuality of consumer, social communications, social communities, e-commerce; defined the multidimensional attributes that are naturally associated with all four elements of the social commerce. They cover the quality of information, system quality, quality of service, convenience and ease-of-use, payment mechanism.

  8. Performance systems and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Performance systems and social capital are considered mutually exclusive. Contemporary studies show that social capital is essential in generating performance improvement. This raises an important question: “How do performance systems and social capital correspond?” This study draws on findings...... from a study on implementation of a performance system in Danish construction. The results show causalities between implementing the performance system and the emergence of social capital in construction projects. Results indicate that performance systems and social capital is not mutually exclusive...

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF THE INFORMATION BEHAVIOUR BY USING BOOKMARKING TOOLS OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO INFORMACIONAL MEDIANTE EL USO DE HERRAMIENTAS DE BOOKMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ferran Ferrer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The current knowledge society and the new education policies in the EU require a new approach to educational resources. The use of a closed and monolithic form such as the textbook has to be replaced by the creation and continuous updating of repositories of resources that facilitate and are part of the learning process. This paper presents an approach to this new paradigm through an analysis of three elements: the research of the information behavior of students in the use of educational resources available on the Net, the functional and usability analysis of the tools that support management and use of information resources, and the pilot of a bookmarking tool in a virtual classroom course on Human-Computer Interaction as practice to improve students' information behavior. Considered together these three elements is key to improving students' information behavior and therefore allow better acquisition of information competencies essential in the current context.La actual sociedad del conocimiento así como las nuevas políticas educativas de la Unión Europea requieren una nueva aproximación a los recursos educativos. El uso de un formato cerrado y monolítico como puede ser el libro de texto tiene que ser substituido por la creación y actualización constante de colecciones o repositorios de recursos que faciliten y formen parte del proceso de aprendizaje. El presente trabajo introduce una aproximación a este nuevo paradigma a través del análisis de tres niveles: la investigación del comportamiento informacional de estudiantes en el uso de recursos educativos disponibles en la Red; el análisis funcional y de usabilidad de las herramientas que dan soporte a la gestión y uso de los recursos de información; y  la prueba piloto de una herramienta de bookmarking en las aulas virtuales de la asignatura de Interacción Persona-Ordenador como práctica para mejorar el comportamiento informacional de los estudiantes. Considerar conjuntamente

  10. Psychometric aspects of item mapping for criterion-referenced interpretation and bookmark standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Huynh

    2010-01-01

    Locating an item on an achievement continuum (item mapping) is well-established in technical work for educational/psychological assessment. Applications of item mapping may be found in criterion-referenced (CR) testing (or scale anchoring, Beaton and Allen, 1992; Huynh, 1994, 1998a, 2000a, 2000b, 2006), computer-assisted testing, test form assembly, and in standard setting methods based on ordered test booklets. These methods include the bookmark standard setting originally used for the CTB/TerraNova tests (Lewis, Mitzel, Green, and Patz, 1999), the item descriptor process (Ferrara, Perie, and Johnson, 2002) and a similar process described by Wang (2003) for multiple-choice licensure and certification examinations. While item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch and two-parameter logistic (2PL) models traditionally place a binary item at its location, Huynh has argued in the cited papers that such mapping may not be appropriate in selecting items for CR interpretation and scale anchoring.

  11. RECOMMENDER SYSTEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Valois Batista Jr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The continued and diversified growth of social networks has changed the way in which users interact with them. With these changes, what once was limited to social contact is now used for exchanging ideas and opinions, creating the need for new features. Users have so much information at their fingertips that they are unable to process it by themselves; hence, the need to develop new tools. Recommender systems were developed to address this need and many techniques were used for different approaches to the problem. To make relevant recommendations, these systems use large sets of data, not taking the social network of the user into consideration. Developing a recommender system that takes into account the social network of the user is another way of tackling the problem. The purpose of this project is to use the theory of six degrees of separation (Watts 2003 amongst users of a social network to enhance existing recommender systems.

  12. Social software in global software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    variety of tools such as: instant messaging, internet forums, mailing lists, blogs, wikis, social network sites, social bookmarking, social libraries, virtual worlds. Though normally rather belonging to the private realm, the use of social software in corporate context has been reported, e.g. as a way...

  13. Medium Theory and Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

      the  possibility  for  observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next  section  the paper  frames  the macro  level by  a  tentative  synthesis of  the medium  theory  and  the  sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......-evolutionary process where new media alter  the societal capacity to handle complexity  in  time and space.  In  this section it becomes probable  that  by  means  of  different  media,  social  systems  give  different  possibilities  for  actual  social  performance.  In a way,  social  systems  themselves can be......  seen as medium  for  formation. Finally  the  paper  takes  the micro  level  perspective  by  applying  the  theory  to  newsgroups,  interpreting  them as self-organizing interactive systems giving a differentiated and diversified scope for social  inclusion.  ...

  14. OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO INFORMACIONAL MEDIANTE EL USO DE HERRAMIENTAS DE BOOKMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Ferran Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La actual sociedad del conocimiento así como las nuevas políticas educativas de la Unión Europea requieren una nueva aproximación a los recursos educativos. El uso de un formato cerrado y monolítico como puede ser el libro de texto tiene que ser substituido por la creación y actualización constante de colecciones o repositorios de recursos que faciliten y formen parte del proceso de aprendizaje. El presente trabajo introduce una aproximación a este nuevo paradigma a través del análisis de tres niveles: la investigación del comportamiento informacional de estudiantes en el uso de recursos educativos disponibles en la Red; el análisis funcional y de usabilidad de las herramientas que dan soporte a la gestión y uso de los recursos de información; y  la prueba piloto de una herramienta de bookmarking en las aulas virtuales de la asignatura de Interacción Persona-Ordenador como práctica para mejorar el comportamiento informacional de los estudiantes. Considerar conjuntamente estos tres niveles es clave para mejorar el comportamiento informacional de los estudiantes y, en consecuencia, permitir una mejor adquisición de las competencias informacionales esenciales en el contexto actual.

  15. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  16. Expert Students in Social Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogadro, Paolo; Calegari, Silvia; Dominoni, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A social learning management system (social LMS) is a tool which favors social interactions and allows scholastic institutions to supervise and guide the learning process. The inclusion of the social feature to a "normal" LMS leads to the creation of educational social networks (EduSN), where the students interact and learn. The…

  17. Mapping Social Ecological Systems Archetypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J. C.; Malmborg, K.; Gordon, L.

    2016-12-01

    Achieving sustainable development goals requires targeting and monitoring sustainable solutions tailored to different social and ecological contexts. Elinor Ostrom stressed that there is no panaceas or universal solutions to environmental problems, and developed a social-ecological systems' (SES) framework -a nested multi tier set of variables- to help diagnose problems, identify complex interactions, and solutions tailored to each SES arena. However, to our knowledge, the SES framework has only been applied to over a hundred cases, and typically reflect the analysis of local case studies with relatively small coverage in space and time. While case studies are context rich and necessary, their conclusions might not reach policy making instances. Here we develop a data driven method for upscaling Ostrom's SES framework and applied to a context where we expect data is scarce, incomplete, but also where sustainable solutions are badly needed. The purpose of upscaling the framework is to create a tool that facilitates decision making on data scarce environments such as developing countries. We mapped SES by applying the SES framework to poverty alleviation and food security issues in the Volta River basin in Ghana and Burkina Faso. We found archetypical configurations of SES in space given data availability, we study their change over time, and discuss where agricultural innovations such as water reservoirs might have a stronger impact at increasing food security and therefore alleviating poverty and hunger. We conclude outlining how the method can be used in other SES comparative studies.

  18. Behavioural Profiling in Cyber-Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perno, Jason; Probst, Christian W.

    2017-01-01

    Computer systems have evolved from standalone systems, over networked systems, to cyber-physical systems. In all stages, human operators have been essential for the functioning of the system and for understanding system messages. Recent trends make human actors an even more central part of computer...... systems, resulting in what we call "cyber-social systems". In cyber-social systems, human actors and their interaction with a system are essential for the state of the system and its functioning. Both the system's operation and the human's operating it are based on an assumption of each other's behaviour...

  19. Social systems: unearthing the big picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Open peer commentary on the article “Social Autopoiesis?” by Hugo Urrestarazu. Upshot: Although accepting Urrestarazu’s view of how autopoietic dynamics can be sought in the domain of the non-living, we see no reason to trace the social to autonomy. Rather, we stress that social systems happen all...

  20. Social Identity Simulation System (SISTEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Report Individuation Individuation refers to when an individual attempts to preserve self-esteem by psychologically separating oneself from a...its expected costs. The following subsections describe various strategies of social identity entrepreneurship in more detail. Calling for...Haslam, S. A., & Reicher, S. (2007). Identity Entrepreneurship and the consequences of identity failure: the dynamics of leadership in the BBC prison

  1. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  2. Systemic humiliation as daily social suffering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothbart, Daniel; Poder, Poul

    2017-01-01

    and capacities of these people. Drawing upon recent developments in social identity theory, moral philosophy, sociological theory, and clinical psychology, we argue that systemic humiliation generates social pain that is experienced as annulment of one’s inherent value; it is an affront to suffering persons...

  3. From Management Systems to Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) seems to have great potential for innovating business practices with a positive impact on People, Planet and Profit. In this article the differences between the management systems approach of the nineties, and Corporate Social

  4. Organisational dynamics, social norms and information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, R.K.; Liu, Kecheng; Liu, Kecheng; Nunamaker, Jay F.; Sprague, Ralph H.

    1994-01-01

    An organisation is defined as a system of social norms. The concept of a norm is the social analogue of the concept of an affordance which Gibson (1968) introduced to account for perception of the physical world. Their conjunction is a logic of Norms and Affordances, Norma, which serves as a

  5. Vietnam: expanding the social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzin, D

    1996-01-01

    Viet Nam's shift toward a market-oriented economy has been associated with annual gross domestic product growth of more than 8% over the past 5 years. At the same time, the emergence of private-sector enterprises and subsequent closure of many state-run enterprises have had profound implications for Viet Nam's social protection systems. At present, only 5.6 million of the country's 33 million workers are covered under the state-run social insurance system. In 1995, the government moved to include private enterprises with 10 or more employees in its state benefits system. The International Labor Organization (ILO) has been working with the Vietnamese Government to design and implement a social security system that would extend coverage progressively to excluded sectors and provide support to workers who have become unemployed as a result of the economic transition process. At its Eighth National Congress, the Vietnamese Communist Party approved a 5-year social and economic plan calling for such an expansion of the social insurance system as well as for a guaranteed standard of living for pensioners. To facilitate anticipated changes, activities that were previously divided between the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs and the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor have been assigned to the newly formed Vietnam Social Insurance (VSI) Organization. Under consideration is a plan to combine some VSI activities with those of the Vietnam Health Insurance Organization. The ILO will assist with training, computerization, and social security fund investing. Noncompliance is a major obstacle to planned expansion of the social security system; about 90% of private firms are still not paying into the system.

  6. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine how businesses with social responsibility as part of their core strategy use related management control systems within the business strategy control model set forth...

  7. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    ...) to balance business strategy. The authors examine how management control systems for social responsibility apply to each control lever both in theory and through the application of case examples...

  8. Recommender Systems for the Social Web

    CERN Document Server

    Pazos Arias, José J; Díaz Redondo, Rebeca P

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation of products, content and services cannot be considered newly born, although its widespread application is still in full swing. While its growing success in numerous sectors, the progress of the  Social Web has revolutionized the architecture of participation and relationship in the Web, making it necessary to restate recommendation and reconciling it with Collaborative Tagging, as the popularization of authoring in the Web, and  Social Networking, as the translation of personal relationships to the Web. Precisely, the convergence of recommendation with the above Social Web pillars is what motivates this book, which has collected contributions from well-known experts in the academy and the industry to provide a broader view of the problems that Social Recommenders might face with.  If recommender systems have proven their key role in facilitating the user access to resources on the Web, when sharing resources has become social, it is natural for recommendation strategies in the Social Web...

  9. Social Network Supported Process Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanming Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  10. Social network supported process recommender system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanming; Yin, Jianwei; Xu, Yueshen

    2014-01-01

    Process recommendation technologies have gained more and more attention in the field of intelligent business process modeling to assist the process modeling. However, most of the existing technologies only use the process structure analysis and do not take the social features of processes into account, while the process modeling is complex and comprehensive in most situations. This paper studies the feasibility of social network research technologies on process recommendation and builds a social network system of processes based on the features similarities. Then, three process matching degree measurements are presented and the system implementation is discussed subsequently. Finally, experimental evaluations and future works are introduced.

  11. Integrating Social Studies and Ethnobotany: A Multicultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Forney, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of four lessons that integrate social studies, language arts, and life science for high school students. Explains that students participate in a wildflower collection activity, interview a person from another culture to collect interesting facts and wild stories, research a flowering plant, and make wildflower bookmarks. (CMK)

  12. Enhancing Access to Land Remote Sensing Data through Mainstream Social Media Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohre, T.; Maiersperger, T.

    2011-12-01

    Social media tools are changing the way that people discover information, communicate, and collaborate. Government agencies supporting the Land Remote Sensing user community have begun taking advantage of standard social media tools and capabilities. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) data centers have started providing outreach utilizing services including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube videos. Really Simple Syndication (RSS) Feeds have become more standard means of sharing information, and a DataCasting tool was created as a NASA Technology Infusion effort to make RSS-based technology for accessing Earth Science information available. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has also started using social media to allow the community access to news feeds and real-time earthquake alerts; listen to podcasts; get updates on new USGS publications, videos, and photographs; and more. Twitter feeds have been implemented in 2011 for the USGS Land Cover and Landsat user communities. In early 2011, the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) user working group suggested the investigation of concepts for creating and distributing "bundles" of data, which would aggregate theme-based data sets from multiple sources. The LP DAAC is planning to explore the use of standard social bookmarking tools to support community developed bundles through the use of tools such as Delicious, Digg, or StumbleUpon. This concept would allow science users to organize and discover common links to data resources based on community developed tags, or a folksonomy. There are challenges that will need to be addressed such as maintaining the quality of tags but a social bookmarking system may have advantages over traditional search engines or formal ontologies for identifying and labeling various data sets relevant to a theme. As classification is done by the community of scientists who understand the data, the tagged data sets

  13. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  14. Social partners debate collective agreement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van het Kaar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Worries about levels of union membership have prompted debates on the collective bargaining system in the Netherlands. Governments have supported collective bargaining but the current Minister for Employment has stressed the need to enlarge the social base of the system and has sought advice from

  15. Social responsibility as a management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Arimany-Serrat

    2018-02-01

    Originality/value: The study identifies a business management system that continuously organises and improves the performances of a company in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility, through audited certification that enhances the competitivity of companies that hold the international standard. The study also demonstrates the need for a management system to integrate into business models.

  16. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  17. Learning Companion Systems, Social Learning Systems, and the Global Social Learning Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak-Wai

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of learning companion systems and their contributions to the class of social learning systems that integrate artificial intelligence agents and use machine learning to tutor and interact with students. Outlines initial social learning projects, their programming languages, and weakness. Future improvements will include…

  18. Social Constructionist Family Systems Research: Conceptual Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Ana; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Echevarria-Doan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how theory and particularly the theoretical perspective of social constructionism can influence the ways in which scholars conduct qualitative research studies in the area of family systems. The authors argue for the importance of theory in qualitative research projects and promote researchers' clear…

  19. Changing Social and Environmental Reporting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mia; Riise Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Based on a case study of a large multinational group, this paper addresses the way in which social and environmental reporting (SER) systems were changed and the consequences and controversies associated with this change. Drawing on Power's work on the processes by which things are made auditable...... via underlying systems, we focus on how and why a specific programme with auditability as its ultimate aim changed the basis on which the external social and environmental report was prepared. Our analysis demonstrates that the perceived alignment with the financial report preparation and the explicit...... pursuit of auditability legitimized SER and paved the way for data systems to be changed. The programme borrowed authority from financial accounting technologies not only to make a system change but also to push SER internally, as we suggest that an intraorganizational group used the programme to ensure...

  20. Social security systems in Tanzania: Phase I Overview of social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper starts by examining the concept of social security in Tanzania, showing that there are three key issues in social security which have not been adequately addressed by existing social security schemes and need immediate attention. The paper then examines the nature and forms of social security in Tanzania in a ...

  1. Social Innovation Systems for Building Resilient Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Horgan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social innovation—while not a new practice in itself—has re-emerged since the global financial crisis in 2008 as an approach to solving our collective intractable global challenges. Despite its renewed popularity, there is no common definition for the phenomenon, not least in the context of its application when planning the built environment or civic infrastructures. This paper seeks to position the practice of social innovation as a means for holistic collaboration between disciplines to develop sustainable social ecologies and systems that provide for resilient communities. It tests a hypothesis that social innovation develops over phases (feedback loops—that of the network, framework and architecture phase—to design for social, environmental and economic resilience. It looks to theories emerging in other subject areas like sociology and technology, that can inform its application in a planning context, such as Actor-Network and Adaptive Complexity theories. It explores the mechanisms that provide for resilience through action research and engagement with a number of international case studies and scenarios. Lastly, the paper identifies further avenues of research pertaining to networks, frameworks and architectures to develop models of best practice for inclusive, sustainable and iterative community development.

  2. Toward robotic socially believable behaving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research studies on the modeling of emotions in complex autonomous systems. Several experts in the field are reporting their efforts and reviewing the literature in order to shed lights on how the processes of coding and decoding emotional states took place in humans, which are the physiological, physical, and psychological variables involved, invent new mathematical models and algorithms to describe them, and motivate these investigations in the light of observable societal changes and needs, such as the aging population and the cost of health care services. The consequences are the implementation of emotionally and socially believable machines, acting as helpers into domestic spheres, where emotions drive behaviors and actions. The contents of the book are highly multidisciplinary since the modeling of emotions in robotic socially believable systems requires a holistic perspective on topics coming from different research domains such as computer science, engineering, sociology...

  3. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  4. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Aguilar-Raab

    Full Text Available Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537, a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558 confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317, an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons.

  5. Youths navigating social networks and social support systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth-headed households in Rwanda live in a context of chronic crisis, where poverty, disease and uncertainty are not exceptional but characterise people's daily lived reality. Struggling under the pressures of economic deprivation, social isolation, abuse and exploitation, these youths experience social suffering and feel ...

  6. The Institutional System of Economic Agents’ Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Elena, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was made an attempt to analyse the main characteristics of the institutional system of economic agents social responsibility. The institutional system can be described as a complex of norms, rules, regulations and enforcement mechanisms in the context of interactions and communications of economic agents. The institutional nature of social responsibility allow to solve social dilemmas through the internalization of social responsibility norms and creating social value orientations, which are determine the prosocial behaviour of economic agents. The institutional system of social responsibility was described from the methodological institutionalism point of view. Analysing this phenomenon we are required to develop research on the objects of this system (norms, regulations, behaviour, on the subjects of this system (persons, business, government and on the institutional mechanisms (internalization of social responsibility norms, promoting prosocial behaviour, adaptation and transformation of the social responsibility norms aimed to ensure the understanding of origin and significance of social responsibility for modern society.

  7. Quelles mnémotechniques pour l'Internet ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Deuff , Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that the memory techniques of Internet can be defined as hypomnemata. Bernard Stiegler describes them as externalized memories. We have studied social bookmarking systems with the example of Diigo. We conducted an online survey of users from Diigo to measure the uses and demonstrate the potentials of social bookmarking. Social bookmarking systems have both individual and collective interests as "self writing". They often require technical knowledge and previou...

  8. Theories and simulations of complex social systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mago, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Research into social systems is challenging due to their complex nature. Traditional methods of analysis are often difficult to apply effectively as theories evolve over time. This can be due to a lack of appropriate data, or too much uncertainty. It can also be the result of problems which are not yet understood well enough in the general sense so that they can be classified, and an appropriate solution quickly identified. Simulation is one tool that deals well with these challenges, fits in well with the deductive process, and is useful for testing theory. This field is still relatively new, and much of the work is necessarily innovative, although it builds upon a rich and varied foundation. There are a number of existing modelling paradigms being applied to complex social systems research. Additionally, new methods and measures are being devised through the process of conducting research. We expect that readers will enjoy the collection of high quality research works from new and accomplished researchers. ...

  9. A Social Learning Management System Supporting Feedback for Incorrect Answers Based on Social Network Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we propose a Social Learning Management System (SLMS) enabling real-time and reliable feedback for incorrect answers by learners using a social network service (SNS). The proposed system increases the accuracy of learners' assessment results by using a confidence scale and a variety of social feedback that is created and shared…

  10. African Social Security Systems: An Ordinal Evaluation | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to rank the social security systems in 45 African countries using a comparative evaluation methodology that enables an assess ment to be ma(le of a country's statutory social security intention. The conclusion drawn is that the spread of African social security system design standards are ...

  11. Which recommender system can best fit social learning platforms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we present a study that aims to develop a recommender system for social learning platforms that combine traditional learning management systems with commercial social networks like Facebook. We therefore take into account social interactions of users to make recommendations on

  12. Which Recommender System Can Best Fit Social Learning Platforms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to develop a recommender system for social learning platforms that combine traditional learning management systems with commercial social networks like Facebook. We therefore take into account social interactions of users to make recommendations on learning resources. We propose to

  13. A manifesto for conscientious design of hybrid online social systems

    OpenAIRE

    Noriega, Pablo; Verhagen, Harko; d’Inverno, Mark; Padget, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    Online Social Systems such as community forums, social media, e-commerce and gaming are having an increasingly significant impact on our lives. They affect the way we accomplish all sorts of collective activities, the way we relate to others, and the way we construct are own self-image. These systems often have both human and artificial agency creating what we call online hybrid social systems. However, when systems are designed and constructed, the psychological and sociological impact of su...

  14. Balancing the Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Social Network Analysis to Study Complex Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Danny; Spekkink, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) can be used to investigate complex social systems. SNA is typically applied as a quantitative method, which has important limitations. First, quantitative methods are capable of capturing the form of relationships (e.g. strength and frequency), but they are less suitable for capturing the content of relationships (e.g. interests and motivations). Second, while complex social systems are highly dynamic, the representations that SNA creates of such systems are ofte...

  15. Social capital and the Danish system of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the concept of social capital and applies it to the Danish national system of innovation. It is argued that social capital is important to the working of the national system of innovation, and that the way in which the concept of social capital informs the study of national...... systems of innovation is in accordance with fundamental contributions in the field. Reviewing a number of approaches to social capital, the paper shows that even though different views exist there seem to be a number of common features that will facilitate research both within individual fields and cross......-disciplinary. Regarding the Danish national system of innovation, social capital plays an important role, and a number of features facilitating social capital prevail. However, a number of challenges are present and calling for political action and future research. The main argument of the paper is that social capital...

  16. Role-based Rights in Artificial Social Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract In this paper we use normative systems to introduce roles and rights in the game-theoretic artificial social systems developed by Shoham and Tennenholtz. We model normative systems as socially constructed agents whose behavior is determined by a set of role playing agents. Roles are

  17. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Animal Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in todayapos;s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the ru...

  18. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Food and Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in today’s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the rules and ...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERIC RECOMMENDER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Munteanu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available his paper presents a recommender system for textual documents taken from web (given as bookmarks. The system uses for classification a combination of content, event and collaborative filters and for recommendation a modified Pearson-r algorithm. It uses implicit and explicit feedback for evaluating documents.

  20. Development of Social Systems in the Context of Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvesko Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on the prognosis of the social systems development. The prognostic analysis is based on the systemic approach to the issue; it shows that the conditions of the transference to the knowledge society determine the formation of the brand new features in social prognoses. The paper states the specific features and conditions of social prognosis, which ensure the validity of control actions. Besides, the current analysis provides recommendations on how to devise social prognostic strategies (within the frame of a transference to the knowledge society and b environmental instability. Finally, the functional load of social prognosis in the contemporary conditions is outlined.

  1. Virtual Social Networks Online and Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytham Safar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Location-based applications are one of the most anticipated new segments of the mobile industry. These new applications are enabled by GPS-equipped phones (e.g., emergency applications, buddy finders, games, location-based advertising, etc.. These services are designed to give consumers instant access to personalized, local content of their immediate location. Some applications couple LBS with notification services, automatically alerting users when they are close to a pre-selected destination. With the advances in the Internet and communications/mobile technology, it became vital to analyze the effect of such technologies on human communications. This work studies how humans can construct social networks as a method for group communications using the available technologies. We constructed and analyzed a friends network using different parameters. The parameters that were calculated to analyze the network are the distribution sequence, characteristic path length, clustering coefficient and centrality measures. In addition, we built a PDA application that implements the concept of LBS using two system modules. In the first module, we have developed an application for entertainment purpose; an application program which enables end users to send their birth year and get their horoscope in return. The second part of the project was, to build an application, which helps people to stay in touch with their friends and family members (Find Friend. It helps users to find which of their buddies are within the same area they are in.

  2. Guia de marcadors socials, setembre 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gené Pujols, Esteve

    2012-01-01

    Los marcadores sociales son una forma sencilla y popular de almacenar, clasificar y compartir enlaces web. Aquí se explican en detalle: Delicious, Mister Wong y Diigo. Els marcadors socials són una forma senzilla i popular d'emmagatzemar, classificar i compartir enllaços web. Aquí s'expliquen en detall: Delicious, Mister Wong i Diigo. Social bookmarking is an easy and popular way to store, sort and share web links. Here are explained in detail: Delicious, Mister Wong and Diigo.

  3. Cyber-physical-social System in Intelligent Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xiong; Fenghua Zhu; Xiwei Liu; Xisong Dong; Wuling Huang; Songhang Chen; Kai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A cyber-physical system(CPS) is composed of a physical system and its corresponding cyber systems that are tightly fused at all scales and levels.CPS is helpful to improve the controllability,efficiency and reliability of a physical system,such as vehicle collision avoidance and zero-net energy buildings systems.It has become a hot R&D and practical area from US to EU and other countries.In fact,most of physical systems and their cyber systems are designed,built and used by human beings in the social and natural environments.So,social systems must be of the same importance as their CPSs.The indivisible cyber,physical and social parts constitute the cyber-physical-social system(CPSS),a typical complex system and it’s a challengeable problem to control and manage it under traditional theories and methods.An artificial systems,computational experiments and parallel execution(ACP) methodology is introduced based on which data-driven models are applied to social system.Artificial systems,i.e.,cyber systems,are applied for the equivalent description of physical-social system(PSS).Computational experiments are applied for control plan validation.And parallel execution finally realizes the stepwise control and management of CPSS.Finally,a CPSS-based intelligent transportation system(ITS) is discussed as a case study,and its architecture,three parts,and application are described in detail.

  4. Review of Recommender Systems Algorithms Utilized in Social Networks based e-Learning Systems & Neutrosophic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [21, 22, 23] and Salama et al. in [24-66].The purpose of this paper is to utilize a neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.

  5. Protected areas as social-ecological systems: perspectives from resilience and social-ecological systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Allen, Craig R

    2017-09-01

    Conservation biology and applied ecology increasingly recognize that natural resource management is both an outcome and a driver of social, economic, and ecological dynamics. Protected areas offer a fundamental approach to conserving ecosystems, but they are also social-ecological systems whose ecological management and sustainability are heavily influenced by people. This editorial, and the papers in the invited feature that it introduces, discuss three emerging themes in social-ecological systems approaches to understanding protected areas: (1) the resilience and sustainability of protected areas, including analyses of their internal dynamics, their effectiveness, and the resilience of the landscapes within which they occur; (2) the relevance of spatial context and scale for protected areas, including such factors as geographic connectivity, context, exchanges between protected areas and their surrounding landscapes, and scale dependency in the provision of ecosystem services; and (3) efforts to reframe what protected areas are and how they both define and are defined by the relationships of people and nature. These emerging themes have the potential to transform management and policy approaches for protected areas and have important implications for conservation, in both theory and practice. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Protected areas as social-ecological systems: perspectives from resilience and social-ecological systems theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S.; Allen, Craig R.

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biology and applied ecology increasingly recognize that natural resource management is both an outcome and a driver of social, economic, and ecological dynamics. Protected areas offer a fundamental approach to conserving ecosystems, but they are also social-ecological systems whose ecological management and sustainability are heavily influenced by people. This editorial, and the papers in the invited feature that it introduces, discuss three emerging themes in social-ecological systems approaches to understanding protected areas: (1) the resilience and sustainability of protected areas, including analyses of their internal dynamics, their effectiveness, and the resilience of the landscapes within which they occur; (2) the relevance of spatial context and scale for protected areas, including such factors as geographic connectivity, context, exchanges between protected areas and their surrounding landscapes, and scale dependency in the provision of ecosystem services; and (3) efforts to reframe what protected areas are and how they both define and are defined by the relationships of people and nature. These emerging themes have the potential to transform management and policy approaches for protected areas and have important implications for conservation, in both theory and practice.

  7. Looking beyond - socialization tactics : The role of human resource systems in the socialization process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research questions whether the association between socialization tactics and human resource systems has been properly explored. Based on theory, we present a framework that links socialization tactics and human resource systems for various groups of newcomers. In doing so, we contribute to

  8. Standardization of Social Credit System Initiated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The current government advances that the order of market economy should be standardized and the social credit system of market economy in modern times should be established and completed. The social credit system should be formed on the basis of property right, supported by moral and high consciousness of social credit. Therefore, the basic framework and operation mechanism of the standards system for social credit will be established in 5 years in China in order to make standards play an important role in a regular market and the aspect of credit management, to improve administration's compliance with the regulation, and to facilitate the market economic order.

  9. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya Banerjee

    2018-01-01

    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation systems, cities, e...

  10. Which Recommender System Can Best Fit Social Learning Platforms?

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Soude; Loni, Babak; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we present a study that aims to develop a recommender system for social learning platforms that combine traditional learning management systems with commercial social networks like Facebook. We therefore take into account social interactions of users to make recommendations on learning resources. We propose to make use of graph-walking methods for improving performance of the well-known baseline algorithms. We evaluate the proposed graph-based approach in terms of their ...

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility Management System: A Beverage Industry Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Rita; David, Fátima; Abreu, Rute

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to analyse policies inherent to the Corporate Social Responsibility Management System (CSRMS) of a company that produce diet and light beverage, iced teas, juice drinks and bottled waters. This management system is based on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as “concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis” (EC, Green paper – Promotin...

  12. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  13. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    This Handbook is intended to be a practical guide to help companies in the crop production industry develop and implement an environmental and social management system, which should help to improve overall operations. If a company has existing management systems for quality or health and safety, this Handbook will help to expand them to include environmental and social performance. Sectio...

  14. Encouraging Autonomy through the Use of a Social Networking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networking systems has enabled communication to occur around the globe almost instantly, with news about various events being spread around the world as they happen. There has also been much interest in the benefits and disadvantages the use of such social networking systems may bring for education. This paper reports on the use…

  15. TERESA: a socially intelligent semi-autonomous telepresence system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiarlis, Kyriacos; Messias, Joao; van Someren, Maarten; Whiteson, Shimon; Kim, Jaebok; Vroon, Jered Hendrik; Englebienne, Gwenn; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Pérez-Higueras, Noé; Pérez-Hurtado, Ignacio; Ramon-Vigo, Rafael; Caballero, Fernando; Merino, Luis; Shen, Jie; Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja; Hedman, Lasse; Scherlund, Marten; Koster, Raphaël; Michel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    TERESA is a socially intelligent semi-autonomous telepresence system that is currently being developed as part of an FP7-STREP project funded by the European Union. The ultimate goal of the project is to deploy this system in an elderly day centre to allow elderly people to participate in social

  16. The Social System in Outdoor Adventure Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Jostad, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many components of the social system interact with one another to produce group-level behavior that determines the functionality of the small group in outdoor adventure education (OAE). This article synthesizes the contemporary literature and theory regarding eight aspects of the OAE social system: (a) Macro Contextual Factors, (b) Student…

  17. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: innovative experiences ... Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition ... the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action).

  18. Framing futures: visualizing on social-ecological systems change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    An appreciation of the complexity and uncertainty that characterizes linked human and natural systems - or social-ecological systems - has proliferated throughout the sciences in recent decades. However, dominant societal images, mental models and discourses frame the complexity of

  19. Social Analysis Systems (SAS2) - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling Up the International Impact of Action Research : Social Analysis ... up the international impact of action research : SAS phase 3; final technical report ... 000 Canadians abroad to work at the local level on various development issues.

  20. On ethical, social and environmental management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    There are three types of solutions to the problems deriving from companies' ethical, social and environmental responsibilities: those based on regulation by an authority or agency; those designed to create market incentives; and those that rely on self-regulation by companies themselves. In the specific field we are concerned with here, regulation has significant costs and drawbacks that make it particularly desirable that companies should set up their own ethical, social and environmental ma...

  1. The CRF system and social behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI) test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social behaviors.

  2. The CRF System and Social Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Hostetler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social

  3. Inequality in Social Capital: Social Capital, Social Risk and Drop-out in the Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemalcilar, Zeynep; Göksen, Fatos

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of social capital on the likelihood of dropping out from the compulsory education system (Grades One through Eight) in Turkey. It focuses on the question of whether school-related social capital can provide the means to stay in school in the presence of risk factors such as socioeconomic status, race, or gender…

  4. [Social Security Needs Social Medicine: Self-image of Physicians Practicing Social Medicine in Statutory Health Insurances and Social Security Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, E; Bahemann, A; Egdmann, W; van Essen, J; Gostomzyk, J; Hemmrich, K; Manegold, B; Müller, B; Robra, B P; Röder, M; Schmidt, L; Zobel, A; von Mittelstaedt, G

    2015-09-01

    In January, 2014, the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" of the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention established a working group on the self-image of the physicians active in the field of social medicine (medical expertise and counseling). The result of this work is the contribution presented here after consensus was achieved by specialists of social medicine from different fields and institutions (social security etc.) and in good cooperation with Prof. Dr. Gostomzyk and Prof. Dr. Robra. Based on the importance of an up to date social medicine for claimants and recipients of benefits on the one hand and the social security system on the other, and also on a description of the subjects, objectives and methods the following aspects are presented: · The perspective of social medicine. · Qualification in social medicine, concerning specialist training and continuing medical education. · The fields of duty of experts in social medicine. · The proceedings in social medicine. The working group identified challenges for the specialists in social medicine by a narrowed perception of social medicine by physicians in hospitals and practice, accompanied by an enlarged importance of expertise in social medicine, by the demand for more "patient orientation" and gain of transparency, and concerning the scientific foundation of social medicine. The working group postulates: · The perspective of social medicine should be spread more widely.. · Confidence in experts of social medicine and their independency should be strengthened.. · The not case-related consulting of the staff and executives should be expanded.. · Social medicine in practice needs support by politics and society, and especially by research and teaching.. · Good cooperation and transfer of experiences of the different branches of social security are essential for the impact of social medicine.. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. What determines social capital in a social-ecological system? Insights from a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  6. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun

    2015-02-01

    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  7. Social software: E-learning beyond learning management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The article argues that it is necessary to move e-learning beyond learning management systems and engage students in an active use of the web as a resource for their self-governed, problem-based and collaborative activities. The purpose of the article is to discuss the potential of social software...... to move e-learning beyond learning management systems. An approach to use of social software in support of a social constructivist approach to e-learning is presented, and it is argued that learning management systems do not support a social constructivist approach which emphasizes self-governed learning...... activities of students. The article suggests a limitation of the use of learning management systems to cover only administrative issues. Further, it is argued that students' self-governed learning processes are supported by providing students with personal tools and engaging them in different kinds of social...

  8. Social media and online attention as an early measure of the impact of research in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon R

    2014-09-15

    Traditional measures of the impact of published research, such as citation counts, are limited to measuring academic impact. The use of social media and other online tools as alternative measures of research impact is gaining popularity and used by leading medical journals. MEDLINE was searched for articles published with subject headings relating to solid organ transplantation between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012. Citation data were retrieved from SCOPUS, and statistics regarding mentions in social media, social bookmarking sites, news outlets, and expert recommendation sites were retrieved from the data at www.altmetric.com. Data were analyzed for associations between alternative metric data and citation rates. The search retrieved 6,981 publications. Sixty-six percent of the articles had at least one citation. Mentions in social media were 19.3%, 13.1% had social bookmarks, 0.9% had expert recommendations, and online news outlets picked up eight articles. Significantly higher citation rates were associated with mention in social media, expert recommendation, social bookmarking, and for articles identified as meta-analyses, multicenter studies, randomized controlled trials, and reviews (all Psocial media (odds ratio, 2.58; Psocial media are more likely to relate to the more controversial and emotive areas of transplantation. Social media and online attention act as early predictors of the impact of transplant research as measured by later citation rate. Blogging and expert recommendation, in particular, are associated with higher citation rates.

  9. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  10. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  11. Renewing the Future: Social Innovation Systems, Sector Shift, and Innoweave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Huddart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of various “occupy” movements signifying civic dissatisfaction with the social contract, and in an era of fiscal restraint affecting governments and communities in many parts of the world, we need new and more effective ways to address complex social challenges. While continuous innovation is commonly understood to be a source of growth, productivity improvement, and competitive advantage in the technology and manufacturing sectors, the author’s focus is on social innovation systems, designed to replace maladaptive institutions and obsolete policy frameworks with novel and disruptive means for improving outcomes on issues such as population health and climate change. This article proposes a definition of such systems, and examines how system-level tools including impact investing, open data platforms, and “change labs” are fostering collaboration among the private, public, and community sectors. We argue that a key priority at this time is to make these and other tools and processes for social innovation available to community organizations and their government and business partners everywhere, in a manner that allows for continuous cycles of implementation and learning. The author describes one such project currently being developed in Canada by Social Innovation Generation and other partners, called Innoweave. Innoweave is a technology-enabled social innovation system for sharing the tools and processes of social innovation with the community sector. The article concludes with a call for multi-sectoral participation in social innovation systems as an investment in society’s adaptive capacity and future wellbeing.

  12. Socially sustainable work organizations and systems thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    This Research Note seeks to add to the body of knowledge concerning social sustainability in work organizations, especially within the context of new challenges and threats in contemporary, post-industrial working life. Moreover, the intention is to explore the added value of the complexity lens in

  13. LE SYSTEME ALGERIEN DE PROTECTION SOCIALE : ENTRE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Son plan de sécurité sociale s'inscrivait dans une politique d'ensemble à dominante ..... article, le non payement des cotisations par les entreprises et les ..... la stratégie de développement17 suivie par l'Etat après l'indépendance. Mais ce ...

  14. Using social media technologies for teaching and research

    OpenAIRE

    Minocha, Shailey

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this workshop is to examine and discuss how educators and researchers can adopt and use social media tools such as blogs, wikis, micro-blogging (e.g. Twitter), social bookmarking tools, photo-sharing sites (e.g. Flickr), or social networking tools (e.g. Facebook) in the service of their teaching and research, and, particularly, in engaging with students and other researchers. \\ud \\ud We will cover the following topics in the workshop:\\ud a. A catalogue of social media tools that c...

  15. Social capital calculations in economic systems: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurov, E. G.; Berg, D. B.; Zvereva, O. M.; Nazarova, Yu. Yu.; Chekmarev, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper describes the social capital study for a system where actors are engaged in an economic activity. The focus is on the analysis of communications structural parameters (transactions) between the actors. Comparison between transaction network graph structure and the structure of a random Bernoulli graph of the same dimension and density allows revealing specific structural features of the economic system under study. Structural analysis is based on SNA-methodology (SNA - Social Network Analysis). It is shown that structural parameter values of the graph formed by agent relationship links may well characterize different aspects of the social capital structure. The research advocates that it is useful to distinguish the difference between each agent social capital and the whole system social capital.

  16. Autopoiesis of the techno-social systems as a factor of social risks proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E Orlov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of the unpredictable proliferation and complication of techno-social systems (such as Internet and financial markets. The authors try to explicate the social risks generated by these systems with the theoretical resources of the system theory of communication (N. Luhmann, which is based on the concepts of ‘recursion’, ‘process’ (‘operation’, ‘operationally closed system’, ‘autopoiesis’, etc. The authors believe that the autopoietic system response to external stimuli cannot be predicted by classical means of sociology and cybernetics. Turbulence and continuous complication of techno-social objects let the authors suggest that the dynamics of the systems under consideration contains some features of autopoiesis. Thus, the analysis of the financial market as a complex techno-social object based on the ideas of G. Akerlof (theory of irrational economic behavior and K. Knorr Cetina (object-centric sociology allows to better understand the phenomenon of unpredictable market dynamics (the risk of proliferation of market expectations, inability to capture the control level by any of the participants, etc. The authors believe that such a conceptualization helps to bring together sociological practices of the techno-social objects research and perspective methods of applied mathematics (fractal geometry, theory of reflexive relations, ‘soft’ models, etc., as well as contributes to the search of effective tools for modeling complex techno-social objects, and, thus, social risks accompanying them.

  17. A gossip-based distributed social networking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.M.A.; Pouwelse, J.A.; Epema, D.H.J.; Sips, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Social networking Web sites, which allow users to create identities and link them to friends who have also created identities, are highly popular. Systems such as Facebook and MySpace utilize a traditional client-server approach to achieve this, which means that all identities and their social links

  18. Advanced social features in a recommendation system for process modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koschmider, A.; Song, M.S.; Reijers, H.A.; Abramowicz, W.

    2009-01-01

    Social software is known to stimulate the exchange and sharing of information among peers. This paper describes how an existing system that supports process builders in completing a business process can be enhanced with various social features. In that way, it is easier for process modeler to become

  19. Rapid Prototyping of Social Group Dynamics in Multiagent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Endrass, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present an engineering approach for the integration of social group dynamics in the behavior modeling of multiagent systems. To this end, a toolbox was created that brings together several theories from the social sciences, each focusing on different aspects of group dynamics. ...

  20. Social-ecological systems, social diversity, and power: insights from anthropology and political ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fabinyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A social-ecological system (SES framework increasingly underpins the "resilience paradigm." As with all models, the SES comes with particular biases. We explore these key biases. We critically examine how the SES resilience literature has attempted to define and analyze the social arena. We argue that much SES literature defines people's interests and livelihoods as concerned primarily with the environment, and thereby underplays the role of other motivations and social institutions. We also highlight the SES resilience literature's focus on institutions and organized social units, which misses key aspects of social diversity and power. Our key premise is the importance of inter- and multi-disciplinary perspectives. To illustrate this, we draw attention to the critique of earlier ecological anthropology that remains relevant for current conceptualizations of SESs, focusing on the concepts of social diversity and power. And we discuss insights from social anthropology and political ecology that have responded to this critique to develop different ways of incorporating social diversity and power into human-environment relations. Finally, we discuss how these social science perspectives can help improve the understanding of the "social" in SES resilience research.

  1. Feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Caplow, Susan C.; Leslie, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Robust ways to meet objectives of environmental conservation and social and economic development remain elusive. This struggle may in part be related to insufficient understanding of the feedbacks between conservation initiatives and social-ecological systems, specifically, the ways in which conservation initiatives result in social changes that have secondary effects on the environments targeted by conservation. To explore this idea we sampled peer-reviewed articles addressing the social and environmental dimensions of conservation and coded each paper according to its research focus and characterization of these feedbacks. The majority of articles in our sample focused either on the effect of conservation initiatives on people (e.g., relocation, employment) or the effect of people on the environment (e.g., fragmentation, conservation efficacy of traditional management systems). Few studies in our sample empirically addressed both the social dynamics resulting from conservation initiatives and subsequent environmental effects. In many cases, one was measured and the other was discussed anecdotally. Among the studies that describe feedbacks between social and environmental variables, there was more evidence of positive (amplifying) feedbacks between social and environmental outcomes (i.e., undesirable social outcomes yielded undesirable environmental effects, and desirable social outcomes yielded desirable environmental effects). The major themes within the sampled literature include conflict between humans and wild animals, social movements, adaptive comanagement, loss of traditional management systems, traditional ecological knowledge, human displacement and risks to livelihoods, and conservation and development. The narratives associated with each theme can serve as hypotheses for facilitating further discussion about conservation issues and for catalyzing future studies of the feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems. PMID:22443128

  2. Transformative governance of urban social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central aspect of adaptive governance is a learning process that can help communities achieve environmental objectives. Adaptive governance is a framework for managing social-ecological systems, and is the precursor to transformative governance. Adaptive governance accounts for...

  3. Social network based dynamic transit service through the OMITS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Open Mode Integrated Transportation System (OMITS) forms a sustainable information infrastructure for communication within and between the mobile/Internet network, the roadway : network, and the users social network. It manipulates the speed g...

  4. Critical Incident Reporting Systems: Perceived Competing Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safe operation of complex socio-technical systems is dependent upon the reporting of safety critical incidents by operators within a system. Through the action of reporting, systems develop the capability as a learning organisation to improve human and organisational performance. The aim of the study is therefore to ...

  5. Group Recommendation Systems Based on External Social-Trust Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks and online mobile communities, group recommendation systems support users’ interaction with similar interests or purposes with others. We often provide some advices to the close friends, such as listening to favorite music and sharing favorite dishes. However, users’ personalities have been ignored by the traditional group recommendation systems while the majority is satisfied. In this paper, a method of group recommendation based on external social-trust networks is proposed, which builds a group profile by analyzing not only users’ preferences, but also the social relationships between members inside and outside of the group. We employ the users’ degree of disagreement to adjust group preference rating by external information of social-trust network. Moreover, having a discussion about different social network utilization ratio, we proposed a method to work for smaller group size. The experimental results show that the proposed method has consistently higher precision and leads to satisfactory recommendations for groups.

  6. Evaluating pay-as-you-go social security systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Andreas; Wüthrich, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for welfare analysis of unfunded social security systems. Based on an overlapping generations model with endogenous labor supply, we derive a formula for the evaluation of existing pay-as-you-go social security systems that depends on impulse response functions and projected growth rates only. We propose an implementation strategy based on reduced form estimates of a VAR model that is valid under weak assumptions about the deep structure of the model. Our meth...

  7. Future cooperative communication systems driven by social mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blázovics, L.; Varga, C.; Bamford, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we are underlining the importance of social mobile networks for upcoming cooperative communication systems. The assumption of this work is that future mobile communication systems will incorporate user cooperation, i.e. a combination of cellular access in parallel with ongoing short...... cases. By the example of the Gedda-Headz gaming community, possible links between cooperative mobile communication and social mobile networks are shown....

  8. System justification: A motivational process with implications for social conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jost, J. T.; Liviatan, I.; van der Toorn, J.; Ledgerwood, A.; Mandisodza, A.; Nosek, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    According to system justification theory, people are motivated to defend and legitimize the social systems that affect them. In this chapter, we review 15 years of theory and empirical research demonstrating the motivational underpinnings of system justification processes. We begin by explaining why

  9. Predicting the behavior of techno-social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-07-24

    We live in an increasingly interconnected world of techno-social systems, in which infrastructures composed of different technological layers are interoperating within the social component that drives their use and development. Examples are provided by the Internet, the World Wide Web, WiFi communication technologies, and transportation and mobility infrastructures. The multiscale nature and complexity of these networks are crucial features in understanding and managing the networks. The accessibility of new data and the advances in the theory and modeling of complex networks are providing an integrated framework that brings us closer to achieving true predictive power of the behavior of techno-social systems.

  10. weHelp: A Reference Architecture for Social Recommender Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Swapneel; Arora, Nipun; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Recommender systems have become increasingly popular. Most of the research on recommender systems has focused on recommendation algorithms. There has been relatively little research, however, in the area of generalized system architectures for recommendation systems. In this paper, we introduce weHelp : a reference architecture for social recommender systems - systems where recommendations are derived automatically from the aggregate of logged activities conducted by the system's users. Our architecture is designed to be application and domain agnostic. We feel that a good reference architecture will make designing a recommendation system easier; in particular, weHelp aims to provide a practical design template to help developers design their own well-modularized systems.

  11. The social structural foundations of adaptation and transformation in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are frequently cited as vital for facilitating successful adaptation and transformation in linked social-ecological systems to overcome pressing resource management challenges. Yet confusion remains over the precise nature of adaptation vs. transformation and the specific social network structures that facilitate these processes. Here, we adopt a network perspective to theorize a continuum of structural capacities in social-ecological systems that set the stage for effective adaptation and transformation. We begin by drawing on the resilience literature and the multilayered action situation to link processes of change in social-ecological systems to decision making across multiple layers of rules underpinning societal organization. We then present a framework that hypothesizes seven specific social-ecological network configurations that lay the structural foundation necessary for facilitating adaptation and transformation, given the type and magnitude of human action required. A key contribution of the framework is explicit consideration of how social networks relate to ecological structures and the particular environmental problem at hand. Of the seven configurations identified, three are linked to capacities conducive to adaptation and three to transformation, and one is hypothesized to be important for facilitating both processes. We discuss how our theoretical framework can be applied in practice by highlighting existing empirical examples from related environmental governance contexts. Further extension of our hypotheses, particularly as more data become available, can ultimately help guide the design of institutional arrangements to be more effective at dealing with change.

  12. Social Intelligence in a Human-Machine Collaboration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Morishima, Yasunori; Yamada, Ryota; Brave, Scott; Maldonado, Heidy; Nass, Clifford; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    In this information society of today, it is often argued that it is necessary to create a new way of human-machine interaction. In this paper, an agent with social response capabilities has been developed to achieve this goal. There are two kinds of information that is exchanged by two entities: objective and functional information (e.g., facts, requests, states of matters, etc.) and subjective information (e.g., feelings, sense of relationship, etc.). Traditional interactive systems have been designed to handle the former kind of information. In contrast, in this study social agents handling the latter type of information are presented. The current study focuses on sociality of the agent from the view point of Media Equation theory. This article discusses the definition, importance, and benefits of social intelligence as agent technology and argues that social intelligence has a potential to enhance the user's perception of the system, which in turn can lead to improvements of the system's performance. In order to implement social intelligence in the agent, a mind model has been developed to render affective expressions and personality of the agent. The mind model has been implemented in a human-machine collaborative learning system. One differentiating feature of the collaborative learning system is that it has an agent that performs as a co-learner with which the user interacts during the learning session. The mind model controls the social behaviors of the agent, thus making it possible for the user to have more social interactions with the agent. The experiment with the system suggested that a greater degree of learning was achieved when the students worked with the co-learner agent and that the co-learner agent with the mind model that expressed emotions resulted in a more positive attitude toward the system.

  13. Social interaction recruits mentalizing and reward systems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Diana; Levitas, Daniel; Warnell, Katherine Rice; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2018-06-08

    Social cognition develops in the context of reciprocal social interaction. However, most neuroimaging studies of mentalizing have used noninteractive tasks that may fail to capture important aspects of real-world mentalizing. In adults, social-interactive context modulates activity in regions linked to social cognition and reward, but few interactive studies have been done with children. The current fMRI study examines children aged 8-12 using a novel paradigm in which children believed they were interacting online with a peer. We compared mental and non-mental state reasoning about a live partner (Peer) versus a story character (Character), testing the effects of mentalizing and social interaction in a 2 × 2 design. Mental versus Non-Mental reasoning engaged regions identified in prior mentalizing studies, including the temporoparietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, peer interaction, even in conditions without explicit mentalizing demands, activated many of the same mentalizing regions. Peer interaction also activated areas outside the traditional mentalizing network, including the reward system. Our results demonstrate that social interaction engages multiple neural systems during middle childhood and contribute further evidence that social-interactive paradigms are needed to fully capture how the brain supports social processing in the real world. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Composite Socio-Technical Systems: A Method for Social Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); He, Fulin [Huazhong University of Science & Technology; Hao, Jun [University of Denver; Dai, Xiaoxiao [University of Denver; Zhang, Jun Jason [University of Denver; Wei, Jiaolong [Huazhong University of Science & Technology

    2017-12-01

    In order to model and study the interactions between social on technical systems, a systemic method, namely the composite socio-technical systems (CSTS), is proposed to incorporate social systems, technical systems and the interaction mechanism between them. A case study on University of Denver (DU) campus grid is presented in paper to demonstrate the application of the proposed method. In the case study, the social system, technical system, and the interaction mechanism are defined and modelled within the framework of CSTS. Distributed and centralized control and management schemes are investigated, respectively, and numerical results verifies the feasibility and performance of the proposed composite system method.

  15. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL; Brecke, Peter K [ORNL; Carmichael, Theodore D [ORNL; Eichelberger, Christopher N [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Hadzikadic, Mirsad [ORNL; Jiao, Yu [ORNL; Khouja, Moutaz J [ORNL; McLean, Angus L [ORNL; Middleton, Erin J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Saric, Amar [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Sun, Min [University of North Carolina, Charlotte; Whitmeyer, Joseph M [ORNL; Gilman, Paul [ORNL; O' Maonaigh, Heather C [ORNL

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  16. PAYROLL SYSTEM AND SOCIAL PROTECTION IN GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Any payment system must establish a connection between the entity and the revenue performance of employees between the financial balance of the entity and needs to satisfy some needs of the individuals. A goal is not always easy to follow is to establish fairness in the workplace in relation to the report results. Even if the system is a fair wage, it is necessary that employees perceive and understand this. German economic success was achieved thanks to a competent management and an effort from employees, which is characterized by more order, competent and highly skilled, resulting in a competition between the management and the german economy. German management uses the tools of the pay system and the welfare system.

  17. Guía de marcadores sociales, setiembre 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gené Pujols, Esteve

    2012-01-01

    Los marcadores sociales son una forma sencilla y popular de almacenar, clasificar y compartir enlaces web. Aquí se explican en detalle: Delicious, Mister Wong y Diigo. Els marcadors socials són una forma senzilla i popular d'emmagatzemar, classificar i compartir enllaços web. Aquí s'expliquen en detall: Delicious, Mister Wong i Diigo. Social bookmarking is an easy and popular way to store, sort and share web links. Here are explained in detail: Delicious, Mister Wong and Diigo.

  18. The role of social learning for social-ecological systems in Korean village groves restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunju Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, social learning has been recognized as a means to foster adaptation to changing conditions, and more broadly, social-ecological systems resilience. However, the discussion of social learning and social-ecological resilience in different cultural contexts is limited. In this study we introduce the Korean Village Groves Restoration Project (VGRP through the lens of social learning, and discuss implications of the VGRP for resilience in villages impacted by industrialization and decline of traditional forest resources. We conducted open-ended interviews with VGRP leaders, government and NGO officials, and residents in four villages in South Korea, and found that villages responded to ecosystem change in ways that could be explained by the characteristics of social learning including interaction, integration, systems orientation, and reflection. However, the processes of learning varied among the four villages, and were associated with different levels of learning and different learning outcomes related to changes in village grove management and governance. The cultural and historical context can be used to help understand social learning processes and their outcomes in the Korean cases.

  19. Resilient Social Relationships and Collaboration in the Management of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham B. Nkhata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and articulates a social relationships perspective of collaboration in the management of social-ecological systems (SESs. It provides a conceptual premise for understanding the dynamics of long-term social relationships that underlie collaborative processes. We argue that a resilience approach offers a better perspective for the study of change in long-term relationships. A conceptual framework based on the theories of resilience and social relationships is developed for analyzing the evolution of collaborative schemes. The essence of the framework is to facilitate understanding and building of resilient social relationships for effective collaboration through interpreting and managing relational change. We suggest that an analysis of resilient social relationships requires an understanding of the complexity and extent of relational change. The elements of a behavioral approach to relationships theory are discussed as a foundation for resilient social relationships. By incorporating the models of Holling (1995 and Cousins (2002 into a behavioral approach to relationships theory, the framework we propose can be used to determine the potential for change based on the amount of relational capital and the degree of relational connectedness in long-term social relationships.

  20. Social Ecology and Worksite Training and Development: Introducing the Social in Instructional System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Marc G.; Shuck, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) is recognized as an interdisciplinary field covering the breadth of behavioral and social sciences. However, since its inception, instructional systems design (ISD), a methodology widely used in the HRD field, has been based on a narrow range of behavioral science. Grounded in general system's theory, the ISD…

  1. Social Policies in Contemporary Latin America: Families and Poverty in the Social Protection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    González, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance ...

  2. Factors influencing intentions to use social recommender systems: a social exchange perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsung-Sheng; Hsiao, Wei-Hung

    2013-05-01

    This study employs the perspective of social exchange theory and seeks to understand users' intentions to use social recommender systems (SRS) through three psychological factors: trust, shared values, and reputation. We use structural equation modeling to analyze 221 valid questionnaires. The results show that trust has a direct positive influence on the intention to use SRS, followed by shared values, whereas reputation has an indirect influence on SRS use. We further discuss specific recommendations concerning these factors for developing SRS.

  3. Hybrid attacks on model-based social recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junliang; Gao, Min; Rong, Wenge; Li, Wentao; Xiong, Qingyu; Wen, Junhao

    2017-10-01

    With the growing popularity of the online social platform, the social network based approaches to recommendation emerged. However, because of the open nature of rating systems and social networks, the social recommender systems are susceptible to malicious attacks. In this paper, we present a certain novel attack, which inherits characteristics of the rating attack and the relation attack, and term it hybrid attack. Furtherly, we explore the impact of the hybrid attack on model-based social recommender systems in multiple aspects. The experimental results show that, the hybrid attack is more destructive than the rating attack in most cases. In addition, users and items with fewer ratings will be influenced more when attacked. Last but not the least, the findings suggest that spammers do not depend on the feedback links from normal users to become more powerful, the unilateral links can make the hybrid attack effective enough. Since unilateral links are much cheaper, the hybrid attack will be a great threat to model-based social recommender systems.

  4. Collaborative User Network Embedding for Social Recommender Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu

    2017-06-09

    To address the issue of data sparsity and cold-start in recommender system, social information (e.g., user-user trust links) has been introduced to complement rating data for improving the performances of traditional model-based recommendation techniques such as matrix factorization (MF) and Bayesian personalized ranking (BPR). Although effective, the utilization of the explicit user-user relationships extracted directly from such social information has three main limitations. First, it is difficult to obtain explicit and reliable social links. Only a small portion of users indicate explicitly their trusted friends in recommender systems. Second, the “cold-start” users are “cold” not only on rating but also on socializing. There is no significant amount of explicit social information that can be useful for “cold-start” users. Third, an active user can be socially connected with others who have different taste/preference. Direct usage of explicit social links may mislead recommendation. To address these issues, we propose to extract implicit and reliable social information from user feedbacks and identify top-k semantic friends for each user. We incorporate the top-k semantic friends information into MF and BPR frameworks to solve the problems of ratings prediction and items ranking, respectively. The experimental results on three real-world datasets show that our proposed approaches achieve better results than the state-of-the-art MF with explicit social links (with 3.0% improvement on RMSE), and social BPR (with 9.1% improvement on AUC).

  5. A Study on Recommendation Systems in Location Based Social Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart devices in the hands of people are revolutionizing the social lifestyle of one's self. Everyone across the world are using smart devices linked to their social networking activities one such activity is to share location data by uploading the tagged media content like photos, videos. The data is of surroundings, events attended/attending and travel experiences. Users share their experiences at a given location through localization techniques. Using such data from social networks an attempt is made to analyse tagged media content to acquire information on user context, individual’s interests, tastes, behaviours and derive meaningful relationships amongst them are referred to as Location Based Social Networks (LBSNs. The resulting information can be used to market a product and to improve business, as well recommend a travel and plan an itinerary. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recommended systems for LBSNs covering the concepts of LBSNs, terminologies of LBSN and various recommendation systems.

  6. SUPERCOMPUTER SIMULATION OF CRITICAL PHENOMENA IN COMPLEX SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus M.A. Sloot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a problem of computer simulation of critical phenomena in complex social systems on a petascale computing systems in frames of complex networks approach. The three-layer system of nested models of complex networks is proposed including aggregated analytical model to identify critical phenomena, detailed model of individualized network dynamics and model to adjust a topological structure of a complex network. The scalable parallel algorithm covering all layers of complex networks simulation is proposed. Performance of the algorithm is studied on different supercomputing systems. The issues of software and information infrastructure of complex networks simulation are discussed including organization of distributed calculations, crawling the data in social networks and results visualization. The applications of developed methods and technologies are considered including simulation of criminal networks disruption, fast rumors spreading in social networks, evolution of financial networks and epidemics spreading.

  7. A Social Systems Approach to Evaluation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olien, C. N.; And Others

    An information-control systems model for evaluation of adult education programs is offered and illustrated. The model is based upon identifying principal subsystems, such as source, channel and audience, which are involved in initiation, production, delivery and reception of educational messages. These subsystems are seen as separate but…

  8. Chat as a technically mediated social system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of chat as a technical media for communication. This is realized using the strategy for analyzing that I have called Media Sociography (Tække 2006). The Media Sociography is a synthesis of Medium Theory and the Systems Theoretical Sociology of Niklas Luhmann. The aim...

  9. Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of targets is foundational in conservation. Although progress has been made in setting targets, the diverse linkages among ecological and social components make target setting for coupled social-ecological systems extremely challenging. Developing integrated social-ecological targets is difficult because it forces policy makers to consider how management actions propagate throughout social-ecological systems, and because ultimately it is society, not scientists, that defines targets. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for identifying management targets and illustrate this approach using an example motivated by Puget Sound, USA. Our approach blends ecological modeling with empirical social science to articulate trade-offs and reveal societal preferences for different social-ecological states. The framework aims to place information in the hands of decision makers and promote discussion in the appropriate forums. Our ultimate objective is to encourage the informed participation of citizens in the development of social-ecological targets that reflect their values while also protecting key ecosystem attributes.

  10. Spontaneous emergence of social influence in online systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-26

    Social influence drives both offline and online human behavior. It pervades cultural markets, and manifests itself in the adoption of scientific and technical innovations as well as the spread of social practices. Prior empirical work on the diffusion of innovations in spatial regions or social networks has largely focused on the spread of one particular technology among a subset of all potential adopters. Here we choose an online context that allows us to study social influence processes by tracking the popularity of a complete set of applications installed by the user population of a social networking site, thus capturing the behavior of all individuals who can influence each other in this context. By extending standard fluctuation scaling methods, we analyze the collective behavior induced by 100 million application installations, and show that two distinct regimes of behavior emerge in the system. Once applications cross a particular threshold of popularity, social influence processes induce highly correlated adoption behavior among the users, which propels some of the applications to extraordinary levels of popularity. Below this threshold, the collective effect of social influence appears to vanish almost entirely, in a manner that has not been observed in the offline world. Our results demonstrate that even when external signals are absent, social influence can spontaneously assume an on-off nature in a digital environment. It remains to be seen whether a similar outcome could be observed in the offline world if equivalent experimental conditions could be replicated.

  11. Is there contextuality in behavioural and social systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, E N; Zhang, Ru; Kujala, Janne

    2016-01-13

    Most behavioural and social experiments aimed at revealing contextuality are confined to cyclic systems with binary outcomes. In quantum physics, this broad class of systems includes as special cases Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky-type, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell-type and Suppes-Zanotti-Leggett-Garg-type systems. The theory of contextuality known as contextuality-by-default allows one to define and measure contextuality in all such systems, even if there are context-dependent errors in measurements, or if something in the contexts directly interacts with the measurements. This makes the theory especially suitable for behavioural and social systems, where direct interactions of 'everything with everything' are ubiquitous. For cyclic systems with binary outcomes, the theory provides necessary and sufficient conditions for non-contextuality, and these conditions are known to be breached in certain quantum systems. We review several behavioural and social datasets (from polls of public opinion to visual illusions to conjoint choices to word combinations to psychophysical matching), and none of these data provides any evidence for contextuality. Our working hypothesis is that this may be a broadly applicable rule: behavioural and social systems are non-contextual, i.e. all 'contextual effects' in them result from the ubiquitous dependence of response distributions on the elements of contexts other than the ones to which the response is presumably or normatively directed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Design implications for a community-based social recipe system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, V.; Yalvac, F.; Funk, M.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, L.

    2014-01-01

    We introduced the concept of a community-based social recipe system which suggests recipes to groups of users based on available ingredients from these users (i.e. who can be from the same household or different households). In this paper we discuss the relevance and desirability of such a system

  13. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PAY SYSTEM AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Andreea Nastasie

    2012-01-01

    In the current context of economic crisis which manifests the world can see a very important role of the pay systems and social security in economic and social life. Staff wages means establishing a salary entitlements owed to employees and their payment, as established at the end of collective or individual employment contracts. In Spain there are various collective agreements according to geographical areas and activities. A fair and balanced wage was and will remain a core area of human re...

  14. Individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance depends on a functional circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, L; Weinert, D

    2016-11-01

    In a natural environment, social abilities of an animal are important for its survival. Particularly, it must recognize its own social rank and the social rank of a conspecific and have a good social memory. While the role of the circadian system for object and spatial recognition and memory is well known, the impact of the social rank and circadian disruptions on social recognition and memory were not investigated so far. In the present study, individual recognition of social rank and social memory performance of Djungarian hamsters revealing different circadian phenotypes were investigated. Wild type (WT) animals show a clear and well-synchronized daily activity rhythm, whereas in arrhythmic (AR) hamsters, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) do not generate a circadian signal. The aim of the study was to investigate putative consequences of these deteriorations in the circadian system for animalś cognitive abilities. Hamsters were bred and kept under standardized housing conditions with food and water ad libitum and a 14l/10 D lighting regimen. Experimental animals were assigned to different groups (WT and AR) according to their activity pattern obtained by means of infrared motion sensors. Before the experiments, the animals were given to develop a dominant-subordinate relationship in a dyadic encounter. Experiment 1 dealt with individual recognition of social rank. Subordinate and dominant hamsters were tested in an open arena for their behavioral responses towards a familiar (known from the agonistic encounters) or an unfamiliar hamster (from another agonistic encounter) which had the same or an opposite social rank. The investigation time depended on the social rank of the WT subject hamster and its familiarity with the stimulus animal. Both subordinate and dominant WT hamsters preferred an unfamiliar subordinate stimulus animal. In contrast, neither subordinate nor dominant AR hamsters preferred any of the stimulus animals. Thus, disruptions in circadian

  15. Lack of consensus in social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2008-05-01

    We propose an exactly solvable model for the dynamics of voters in a two-party system. The opinion formation process is modeled on a random network of agents. The dynamical nature of interpersonal relations is also reflected in the model, as the connections in the network evolve with the dynamics of the voters. In the infinite time limit, an exact solution predicts the emergence of consensus, for arbitrary initial conditions. However, before consensus is reached, two different metastable states can persist for exponentially long times. One state reflects a perfect balancing of opinions, the other reflects a completely static situation. An estimate of the associated lifetimes suggests that lack of consensus is typical for large systems.

  16. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Soo [Myongji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Pyung [Korea Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Eun [Chungbuk Nat. Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices.

  17. A study on the social risk comparison for various power systems: focusing on the social acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Soo; Kim, Young Pyung; Lee, Jae Eun

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study is to develop measurement indices for social risk acceptance of various power systems(nuclear, coal, oil, LNG, hydro, wind, solar) and compare them empirically. In order to measure social risk acceptance of various power systems, four measurement fields and twelve measurement indices were developed. Measurement areas contains rationality, emotion, trust, communication. Each measurement field has two or three measurement indices. Rationality field has indices of amount of knowledge, recognition of technological utility, risk controllability. Emotion field has indices of experiences, risk recognition. Trust field has indices of openness, sincerity, willingness of sharing knowledge and experiences. Communication field has indices of scientist's roll, media's roll, public relations. Based on these measurement field and indices, this study made questionnaire and surveyed citizens to compare deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems. Questionnaire respondents were sampled from six different groups, including power system specialists, highschool students, university students, general citizen, professors and environmental NGOs. The methodologies used to analyze the deciding factors of social acceptance on risk of various power systems were frequency analysis, cross-tab analysis, t-test and ANOVA analysis. AHP method was used to analyze power system specialists' perception on relative severance and priority among measurement fields and indices

  18. Social Policies in Contemporary Latin America: Families and Poverty in the Social Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance of social programs aimed at families and stressing the role of women as chief caregivers and administrators. And finally, the third policy trend is defined by an expansion of more universal social programs targeting children and the elderly. Despite the recent emergence of programs with gender specific goals, social policies continue to put a great burden on female workers. For example, many subsidies to poor families deliver money directly to women, improving their intra-family bargaining power, but this translates also into an increase of responsibilities and the ensuing overload of work. Consequently, social policies in Latin America need to aim at encouraging a more egalitarian distribution of housework and care work within the family, especially given how well-established androcentrism is in the region.

  19. Private personalized social recommendations in an IPTV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmisery, Ahmed M.

    2014-04-01

    In our connected world, recommender systems have become widely known for their ability to provide expert and personalize referrals to end-users in different domains. The rapid growth of social networks and new kinds of systems so called "social recommender systems" are rising, where recommender systems can be utilized to find a suitable content according to end-users' personal preferences. However, preserving end-users' privacy in social recommender systems is a very challenging problem that might prevent end-users from releasing their own data, which detains the accuracy of extracted referrals. In order to gain accurate referrals, social recommender systems should have the ability to preserve the privacy of end-users registered in this system. In this paper, we present a middleware that runs on end-users' Set-top boxes to conceal their profile data when released for generating referrals, such that computation of recommendation proceeds over the concealed data. The proposed middleware is equipped with two concealment protocols to give users a complete control on the privacy level of their profiles. We present an IPTV network scenario and perform a number of different experiments to test the efficiency and accuracy of our protocols. As supported by the experiments, our protocols maintain the recommendations accuracy with acceptable privacy level.

  20. Online Social Systems, Social Actions, and Politics: A Narrative Analysis of the Role of Social Media in Revolutionary Political Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Rozan Omar

    2017-01-01

    One of the demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution tweeted "We use Facebook to schedule the protests, Twitter to coordinate, and YouTube to tell the world," thus acknowledging and establishing the fundamental role of social media in the political unrest and revolution against the regime in Egypt. Information Systems (IS) have…

  1. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, F.; Pedreschi, D.; Pentland, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Kossmann, D.; Crowley, J.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level. Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across the various social dimensions by data mining, machine learning and social network analysis. Trusted networks and privacy-aware social mining is aimed at creating a new deal around the questions of privacy and data ownership empowering individual persons with full awareness and control on own personal data, so that users may allow access and use of their data for their own good and the common good. The PNS will provide a goal-oriented knowledge discovery framework, made of technology and people, able to configure itself to the aim of answering questions about the pulse of global society. Given an analytical request, the PNS activates a process composed by a variety of interconnected tasks exploiting the social sensing and mining methods within the transparent ecosystem provided by the trusted network. The PNS we foresee is the key tool for individual and collective awareness for the knowledge society. We need such a tool for everyone to become fully aware of how

  2. Distributed Online Learning in Social Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Cem; Zhang, Simpson; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider decentralized sequential decision making in distributed online recommender systems, where items are recommended to users based on their search query as well as their specific background including history of bought items, gender and age, all of which comprise the context information of the user. In contrast to centralized recommender systems, in which there is a single centralized seller who has access to the complete inventory of items as well as the complete record of sales and user information, in decentralized recommender systems each seller/learner only has access to the inventory of items and user information for its own products and not the products and user information of other sellers, but can get commission if it sells an item of another seller. Therefore the sellers must distributedly find out for an incoming user which items to recommend (from the set of own items or items of another seller), in order to maximize the revenue from own sales and commissions. We formulate this problem as a cooperative contextual bandit problem, analytically bound the performance of the sellers compared to the best recommendation strategy given the complete realization of user arrivals and the inventory of items, as well as the context-dependent purchase probabilities of each item, and verify our results via numerical examples on a distributed data set adapted based on Amazon data. We evaluate the dependence of the performance of a seller on the inventory of items the seller has, the number of connections it has with the other sellers, and the commissions which the seller gets by selling items of other sellers to its users.

  3. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.

    2017-01-01

    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  4. Social Security System in India: An International Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rupak Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Surajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines selected components of social security system in India and compares them with their OECD counterparts. Historically, the Indian policy makers have viewed the pension system as a welfare measure and therefore, it lacks in financial professionalism, diversification, and in the belief that pension funds can also be treated as an asset. The Indian system is biased towards the organized formal sector as workers in this sector are benefitted with the provisions under various lab...

  5. Coordination dynamics in a socially situated nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coey, Charles A.; Varlet, Manuel; Richardson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional theories of cognitive science have typically accounted for the organization of human behavior by detailing requisite computational/representational functions and identifying neurological mechanisms that might perform these functions. Put simply, such approaches hold that neural activity causes behavior. This same general framework has been extended to accounts of human social behavior via concepts such as “common-coding” and “co-representation” and much recent neurological research has been devoted to brain structures that might execute these social-cognitive functions. Although these neural processes are unquestionably involved in the organization and control of human social interactions, there is good reason to question whether they should be accorded explanatory primacy. Alternatively, we propose that a full appreciation of the role of neural processes in social interactions requires appropriately situating them in their context of embodied-embedded constraints. To this end, we introduce concepts from dynamical systems theory and review research demonstrating that the organization of human behavior, including social behavior, can be accounted for in terms of self-organizing processes and lawful dynamics of animal-environment systems. Ultimately, we hope that these alternative concepts can complement the recent advances in cognitive neuroscience and thereby provide opportunities to develop a complete and coherent account of human social interaction. PMID:22701413

  6. Recommender systems for location-based social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Symeonidis, Panagiotis; Manolopoulos, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks collect information from users' social contacts and their daily interactions (co-tagging of photos, co-rating of products etc.) to provide them with recommendations of new products or friends. Lately, technological progressions in mobile devices (i.e. smart phones) enabled the incorporation of geo-location data in the traditional web-based online social networks, bringing the new era of Social and Mobile Web. The goal of this book is to bring together important research in a new family of recommender systems aimed at serving Location-based Social Networks (LBSNs). The chapters introduce a wide variety of recent approaches, from the most basic to the state-of-the-art, for providing recommendations in LBSNs. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 provides introductory material on recommender systems, online social networks and LBSNs. Part 2 presents a wide variety of recommendation algorithms, ranging from basic to cutting edge, as well as a comparison of the characteristics of t...

  7. Crawling Big Data in a New Frontier for Socioeconomic Research: Testing with social tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Borrero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tags, keywords freely chosen by users for annotating resources, offers a new way for organizing and retrieving web resources that closely reflect the users’ interests and preferences, and also automatically generate folksonomies. Social tagging systems have gained increasing popularity as a method for annotating and categorizing a wide range of different web resources. They also attract researchers in social sciences because they offer a huge quantity of user-generated annotations that reveal the interests of millions of people. To date, the study using digital trace data methods continues to lack a theoretical framework, particularly in social science research. This paper presents a methodology to use big data from Web 2.0 in social research. At the same time, it applies a method to extract data from a particular social bookmarking site (Delicious and shows the sort of results that this type of analysis can offer to social scientists. The illustration is made around the topic globalization of agriculture Using data crawled from a large social tagging system, can have an important impact in the discovering of latent patterns, which is basic in order to provide effective recommendations to different actors. In this paper a sample of 851 users, 526 URLs and 1,700 tags from the Delicious classification system on the subject of globalization were retrieved and analysed. Through the analysis main users and websites around globalization issues in Delicious emerged, and also the most important tags that were applied by users to describe the globalization of agriculture were discovered. The implications of these methodology and findings for further research are discussed.

  8. E-health, health systems and social innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Sliwa, Sophie Isabel; Agarwal, Nivedita

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores telecare as one of the practical applications in the field of e-health. Using 11 expert interviews the study evaluates development of cross-national analogies between the different institutional contexts of health systems in Germany, Austria, and Denmark. Telecare is treated a...... to be driving socially innovative solutions. Implications for research and practice, as well as future research directions, are elaborated....... as a set of ideas regarding future processes in health and home care services, involving technological solutions, starting to change stakeholders' behaviour, work practices, and social roles. A system-centric framework is proposed to evaluate the interdependencies between telecare, the changing...

  9. A Social Representations Perspective on Information Systems Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to advocate a "social representations" approach to the study of socio-cognitive processes during information systems (IS) implementation as an alternative to the technological frames framework. Design/methodology/approach - The paper demonstrates how......, it may lead to symptomatic explanations of IS implementation. Alternatively, using the theory of social representations can offer more fundamental causal explanations of IS implementation processes. Research limitations/implications - IS researchers are encouraged to use a social representations approach...... social representations theory can improve research outcomes by applying it to three recent studies that employed the technological frames framework. Findings - It is found that because the technological frames framework is overly technologically centered, temporally bounded, and individually focused...

  10. Study on role structure in social planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata, Noboru

    1984-01-01

    New proposals are attended with a new set of role-expectation. If we lack attention to this aspect of any proposal, we face a serious difficulty in its implementation stage. The system called as Public Hearring shows us this fact. In this paper, introducing ABC model of communication by Westley and Maclean, we try to describe a set of role-expectation for particitants in social planning systems. And also introducing analytical concepts of role enactment process, we reveal two important problems for any proposal as a subsystem of social planning systems: (i) importance of role negotiation process for role-consensus, and (ii) necessity of supporting systems for role-adaptation. Especially for role-adaptation to Channel-Roles, we indicate the potential of VISMS as its supporting system. (author)

  11. Identification and impact of discoverers in online social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medo, Matúš; Mariani, Manuel S.; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the behavior of users in online systems is of essential importance for sociology, system design, e-commerce, and beyond. Most existing models assume that individuals in diverse systems, ranging from social networks to e-commerce platforms, tend to what is already popular. We propose a statistical time-aware framework to identify the users who differ from the usual behavior by being repeatedly and persistently among the first to collect the items that later become hugely popular. Since these users effectively discover future hits, we refer them as discoverers. We use the proposed framework to demonstrate that discoverers are present in a wide range of real systems. Once identified, discoverers can be used to predict the future success of new items. We finally introduce a simple network model which reproduces the discovery patterns observed in the real data. Our results open the door to quantitative study of detailed temporal patterns in social systems.

  12. Charting the neglected West: The social system of Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julia; Kopp, Gisela H; Dal Pesco, Federica; Goffe, Adeelia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Kalbitzer, Urs; Klapproth, Matthias; Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Patzelt, Annika; Zinner, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio). Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi-level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one "primary" male, one to several females, young, and occasionally "secondary" males at the base of the society. Three to five units form "parties," which team up with other parties to form a "gang." Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female-biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons (P. hamadryas), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi-level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high-degree of male-male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  13. Ubiquitous Supervisory System Based on Social Contexts Using Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Izumi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As described in this paper, we propose a supervisory system that considers actual situations and social aspects of users in a ubiquitous computing environment. To realize gentle and safe supervision while providing efficient supervisory services, the system must recognize the situations of a watched person, such as the person's physical condition. To achieve this, we have proposed a ubiquitous supervisory system "uEyes", which introduces Social Context Awareness: a distinguishing feature for supervision. Using this feature, the system can combine environmental information acquired from sensors in the real world and common-sense knowledge related to human activities in daily life. As described in this paper, we specifically examine design of Social Context Awareness using ontology technologies. Based on this advanced feature, a live video streaming system is configured autonomously depending on the users' circumstances in runtime. We implemented a uEyes prototype for supervising elderly people and performed some experiments based on several scenarios. Based on those experimental results, we confirmed that the social contexts are handled effectively to support the supervision.

  14. The behavioural immune system and the psychology of human sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark

    2011-12-12

    Because immunological defence against pathogens is costly and merely reactive, human anti-pathogen defence is also characterized by proactive behavioural mechanisms that inhibit contact with pathogens in the first place. This behavioural immune system comprises psychological processes that infer infection risk from perceptual cues, and that respond to these perceptual cues through the activation of aversive emotions, cognitions and behavioural impulses. These processes are engaged flexibly, producing context-contingent variation in the nature and magnitude of aversive responses. These processes have important implications for human social cognition and social behaviour-including implications for social gregariousness, person perception, intergroup prejudice, mate preferences, sexual behaviour and conformity. Empirical evidence bearing on these many implications is reviewed and discussed. This review also identifies important directions for future research on the human behavioural immune system--including the need for enquiry into underlying mechanisms, additional behavioural consequences and implications for human health and well-being.

  15. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  16. Incorporating Social System Dynamics into the Food-Energy-Water System Resilience-Sustainability Modeling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, J.; Padowski, J.; Malek, K.; Guzman, C.; Boll, J.; Adam, J. C.; Witinok-Huber, R.

    2017-12-01

    In the face of climate change and multi-scalar governance objectives, achieving resilience of food-energy-water (FEW) systems requires interdisciplinary approaches. Through coordinated modeling and management efforts, we study "Innovations in the Food-Energy-Water Nexus (INFEWS)" through a case-study in the Columbia River Basin. Previous research on FEW system management and resilience includes some attention to social dynamics (e.g., economic, governance); however, more research is needed to better address social science perspectives. Decisions ultimately taken in this river basin would occur among stakeholders encompassing various institutional power structures including multiple U.S. states, tribal lands, and sovereign nations. The social science lens draws attention to the incompatibility between the engineering definition of resilience (i.e., return to equilibrium or a singular stable state) and the ecological and social system realities, more explicit in the ecological interpretation of resilience (i.e., the ability of a system to move into a different, possibly more resilient state). Social science perspectives include but are not limited to differing views on resilience as normative, system persistence versus transformation, and system boundary issues. To expand understanding of resilience and objectives for complex and dynamic systems, concepts related to inequality, heterogeneity, power, agency, trust, values, culture, history, conflict, and system feedbacks must be more tightly integrated into FEW research. We identify gaps in knowledge and data, and the value and complexity of incorporating social components and processes into systems models. We posit that socio-biophysical system resilience modeling would address important complex, dynamic social relationships, including non-linear dynamics of social interactions, to offer an improved understanding of sustainable management in FEW systems. Conceptual modeling that is presented in our study, represents

  17. Social capital and systems of care: some contrasting evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No abstract available for this article... Keywords: social capital, systems. Research Review Supplement 16 (2004: 1-15). AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  18. Possible modulatory effects of male cues and social system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the response of the pituitary to an exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge in two mole-rat species with induced ovulation but contrasting mating and social systems. Females were either kept in isolation, allowed only olfactory and auditory contact or ...

  19. Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sereno, Bertrand; Boursinou, Eleni; Maxwell, Katrina; Angehrn, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Sereno, B., Boursinou, E., Maxwell, K., & Angehrn, A. A. (2007). Supporting Social Interaction in Intelligent Competence Development Systems. In D. Griffiths, R. Koper & O. Liber (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop (pp. 29-35). January, 11-12, 2007, Manchester, United Kingdom.

  20. Collaborative User Network Embedding for Social Recommender Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chuxu; Yu, Lu; Wang, Yan; Shah, Chirag; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    To address the issue of data sparsity and cold-start in recommender system, social information (e.g., user-user trust links) has been introduced to complement rating data for improving the performances of traditional model-based recommendation

  1. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  2. Human Dimensions of Coral Reef Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are among the most diverse ecosystems on the planet but are declining because of human activities. Despite general recognition of the human role in the plight of coral reefs, the vast majority of research focuses on the ecological rather than the human dimensions of reef ecosystems, limiting our understanding of social relationships with these environments as well as potential solutions for reef recovery. General frameworks for social-ecological systems (SESs have been advanced, but system-specific approaches are needed to develop a more nuanced view of human-environmental interactions for specific contexts and resource systems, and at specific scales. We synthesize existing concepts related to SESs and present a human dimensions framework that explores the linkages between social system structural traits, human activities, ecosystem services, and human well-being in coral reef SESs. Key features of the framework include social-ecological reciprocity, proximate and underlying dimensions, and the directionality of key relationships and feedback loops. Such frameworks are needed if human dimensions research is to be more fully integrated into studies of ecosystem change and the sustainability of linked SESs.

  3. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  4. History of Family Psychiatry: From the Social Reform Era to the Primate Social Organ System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Douglas A

    2015-07-01

    From early twentieth century social reform movements emerged the ingredients for both child and family psychiatry. Both psychiatries that involve children, parents, and families began in child guidance clinics. Post-World War II intellectual creativity provided the epistemological framework for treating families. Eleven founders (1950-1969) led the development of family psychiatry. Child and family psychiatrists disagreed over the issues of individual and family group dynamics. Over the past 25 years the emerging sciences of interaction, in the context of the Primate Social Organ System (PSOS), have produced the evidence for the family being the entity of treatment in psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systems change for the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Crammond, Brad

    2015-07-14

    Inequalities in the distribution of the social determinants of health are now a widely recognised problem, seen as requiring immediate and significant action (CSDH. Closing the Gap in a Generation. Geneva: WHO; 2008; Marmot M. Fair Society, Healthy Lives: The Marmot Review. Strategic Review of Health Inequalitites in England Post-2010. London; 2010). Despite recommendations for action on the social determinants of health dating back to the 1980s, inequalities in many countries continue to grow. In this paper we provide an analysis of recommendations from major social determinants of health reports using the concept of 'system leverage points'. Increasingly, powerful and effective action on the social determinants of health is conceptualised as that which targets government action on the non-health issues which drive health outcomes. Recommendations for action from 6 major national reports on the social determinants of health were sourced. Recommendations from each report were coded against two frameworks: Johnston et al's recently developed Intervention Level Framework (ILF) and Meadow's seminal '12 places to intervene in a system' (Johnston LM, Matteson CL, Finegood DT. Systems Science and Obesity Policy: A Novel Framework for Analyzing and Rethinking Population-Level Planning. American journal of public health. 2014;(0):e1-e9; Meadows D. Thinking in Systems. USA: Sustainability Institute; 1999) (N = 166). Our analysis found several major changes over time to the types of recommendations being made, including a shift towards paradigmatic change and away from individual interventions. Results from Meadow's framework revealed a number of potentially powerful system intervention points that are currently underutilised in public health thinking regarding action on the social determinants of health. When viewed through a systems lens, it is evident that the power of an intervention comes not from where it is targeted, but rather how it works to create change within the

  6. Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C

    2012-02-01

    The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Recent trends in social systems quantitative theories and quantitative models

    CERN Document Server

    Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka; Soitu, Daniela-Tatiana; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    The papers collected in this volume focus on new perspectives on individuals, society, and science, specifically in the field of socio-economic systems. The book is the result of a scientific collaboration among experts from “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi (Romania), “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara (Italy), "University of Defence" of Brno (Czech Republic), and "Pablo de Olavide" University of Sevilla (Spain). The heterogeneity of the contributions presented in this volume reflects the variety and complexity of social phenomena. The book is divided in four Sections as follows. The first Section deals with recent trends in social decisions. Specifically, it aims to understand which are the driving forces of social decisions. The second Section focuses on the social and public sphere. Indeed, it is oriented on recent developments in social systems and control. Trends in quantitative theories and models are described in Section 3, where many new formal, mathematical-statistical to...

  8. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase) space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  9. DINAMICAL PROCESSES, ENTROPY AND INFORMATION IN NATURAL AND SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Katargin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible to describe complicate as natural as social systems as objects consisted of nonlinearly dependent elements at the multi-dimension (phase space contained as real as information components. The system movement is defined by natural growth of entropy and its decrease as a result of using of external energy sources and other resources. Examined the аssociation of entropy with the value of objects, as well as with humanitarian concepts: God's Providence, morality, and happiness.

  10. Dialectics of Rational Change Management in Regional Social Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Tatarkin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the attention is paid to a role of service-producing industries rendering social services, promoting human development in the modern state. Theoretical positions of scientists considering meaning of the social benefits and need of active state support of the social sphere are generalized. The condition of the Russian service-producing industries is considered, the comparative analysis of indicators of their activity with indicators of service-producing industries of other countries is carried out. In view of indicators of the efficiency ratings of national education systems, world countries on the health systems efficiency, world countries on the level of social development of 2014, the author’s conceptual approach is offered; it considers interconditionality and interdependence of level of public financing of the social sphere and dynamics of a contribution of service-producing industries to the human capital development providing a gain of gross domestic product of the country. Need of innovative changes in socio-economic systems of service-producing industries for the efficiency increase of their activity, taking into account the received results — first of all in health care is proved. Theoretical approaches to management of changes in socio-economic systems are investigated. On the basis of the conducted research, the created theoretical basis of the level increase of change management in open socioeconomic systems for the purpose of the theoretical and methodological approaches to development to change management in relation to health sector, the optimization model of management of health care organizations ranging controlled and uncontrollable changes is offered. The use possibilities of management optimization by ranging controlled and uncontrollable changes in health sector of different management levels are confirmed by the high rates of performance efficiency on micro-, meso- and macrolevel in industry on the

  11. Social Hackers: Integration in the Host Chemical Recognition System by a Paper Wasp Social Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, S.; Sledge, M. F.; Dani, F. R.; Cervo, R.; Massolo, A.; Fondelli, L.

    Obligate social parasites in the social insects have lost the worker caste and the ability to establish nests. As a result, parasites must usurp a host nest, overcome the host recognition system, and depend on the host workers to rear their offspring. We analysed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of live parasite females of the paper wasp social parasite Polistes sulcifer before and after usurpation of host nests, using the non-destructive technique of solid-phase micro-extraction. Our results reveal that hydrocarbon profiles of parasites change after usurpation of host nests to match the cuticular profile of the host species. Chemical evidence further shows that the parasite queen changes the odour of the nest by the addition of a parasite-specific hydrocarbon. We discuss the possible role of this in the recognition and acceptance of the parasite and its offspring in the host colony.

  12. Mirror Neuron System and Mentalizing System connect during online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Guionnet, Sophie; Fossati, Philippe; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2014-08-01

    Two sets of brain areas are repeatedly reported in neuroimaging studies on social cognition: the Mirror Neuron System and the Mentalizing System. The Mirror System is involved in goal understanding and has been associated with several emotional and cognitive functions central to social interaction, ranging from empathy to gestural communication and imitation. The Mentalizing System is recruited in tasks requiring cognitive processes such as self-reference and understanding of other's intentions. Although theoretical accounts for an interaction between the two systems have been proposed, little is known about their synergy during social exchanges. In order to explore this question, we have recorded brain activity by means of functional MRI during live social exchanges based on reciprocal imitation of hand gestures. Here, we investigate, using the method of psychophysiological interaction, the changes in functional connectivity of the Mirror System due to the conditions of interest (being imitated, imitating) compared with passive observation of hand gestures. We report a strong coupling between the Mirror System and the Mentalizing System during the imitative exchanges. Our findings suggest a complementary role of the two networks during social encounters. The Mirror System would engage in the preparation of own actions and the simulation of other's actions, while the Mentalizing System would engage in the anticipation of the other's intention and thus would participate to the co-regulation of reciprocal actions. Beyond a specific effect of imitation, the design used offers the opportunity to tackle the role of role-switching in an interpersonal account of social cognition.

  13. Social roles and performance of social-ecological systems: evidence from behavioral lab experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Perez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social roles are thought to play an important role in determining the capacity for collective action in a community regarding the use of shared resources. Here we report on the results of a study using a behavioral experimental approach regarding the relationship between social roles and the performance of social-ecological systems. The computer-based irrigation experiment that was the basis of this study mimics the decisions faced by farmers in small-scale irrigation systems. In each of 20 rounds, which are analogous to growing seasons, participants face a two-stage commons dilemma. First they must decide how much to invest in the public infrastructure, e.g., canals and water diversion structures. Second, they must decide how much to extract from the water made available by that public infrastructure. Each round begins with a 60-second communication period before the players make their investment and extraction decisions. By analyzing the chat messages exchanged among participants during the communication stage of the experiment, we coded up to three roles per participant using the scheme of seven roles known to be important in the literature: leader, knowledge generator, connector, follower, moralist, enforcer, and observer. Our study supports the importance of certain social roles (e.g., connector previously highlighted by several case study analyses. However, using qualitative comparative analysis we found that none of the individual roles was sufficient for groups to succeed, i.e., to reach a certain level of group production. Instead, we found that a combination of at least five roles was necessary for success. In addition, in the context of upstream-downstream asymmetry, we observed a pattern in which social roles assumed by participants tended to differ by their positions. Although our work generated some interesting insights, further research is needed to determine how robust our findings are to different action situations, such as

  14. Social sensing building reliable systems on unreliable data

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Kaplan, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, human beings are sensors engaging directly with the mobile Internet. Individuals can now share real-time experiences at an unprecedented scale. Social Sensing: Building Reliable Systems on Unreliable Data looks at recent advances in the emerging field of social sensing, emphasizing the key problem faced by application designers: how to extract reliable information from data collected from largely unknown and possibly unreliable sources. The book explains how a myriad of societal applications can be derived from this massive amount of data collected and shared by average individu

  15. Socializing the human factors analysis and classification system: incorporating social psychological phenomena into a human factors error classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Bearman, Christopher; Orasanu, Judith; Holbrook, Jon

    2009-08-01

    The presence of social psychological pressures on pilot decision making was assessed using qualitative analyses of critical incident interviews. Social psychological phenomena have long been known to influence attitudes and behavior but have not been highlighted in accident investigation models. Using a critical incident method, 28 pilots who flew in Alaska were interviewed. The participants were asked to describe a situation involving weather when they were pilot in command and found their skills challenged. They were asked to describe the incident in detail but were not explicitly asked to identify social pressures. Pressures were extracted from transcripts in a bottom-up manner and then clustered into themes. Of the 28 pilots, 16 described social psychological pressures on their decision making, specifically, informational social influence, the foot-in-the-door persuasion technique, normalization of deviance, and impression management and self-consistency motives. We believe accident and incident investigations can benefit from explicit inclusion of common social psychological pressures. We recommend specific ways of incorporating these pressures into theHuman Factors Analysis and Classification System.

  16. ECONOMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola BAREJA-WAWRYSZUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that quality of mass produced and highly processed food forces consumers to change their consumption habits and become more interested in locally available food products. Consumers are becoming aware of negative consequences of global food systems. As an alternative, Local Food Systems are gaining on popularity because short food supply chains offer fresh, healthy and not modified products. The popularity of Local Food Systems is reflected in the need for analysing impact and significance of those systems. Thus, this paper presents main benefits of acting locally. Local Food Systems has been reviewed in case of positive economic, environmental and social influence on the region. What is more, the paper presents consumers’ attitude to Local Food Systems. As a conclusion authors justify significance of development and investment in Local Food Systems as an alternative to agriculture networks.

  17. Operationalizing safe operating space for regional social-ecological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sarwar; Dearing, John A; Eigenbrod, Felix; Johnson, Fiifi Amoako

    2017-04-15

    This study makes a first attempt to operationalize the safe operating space concept at a regional scale by considering the complex dynamics (e.g. non-linearity, feedbacks, and interactions) within a systems dynamic model (SD). We employ the model to explore eight 'what if' scenarios based on well-known challenges (e.g. climate change) and current policy debates (e.g. subsidy withdrawal). The findings show that the social-ecological system in the Bangladesh delta may move beyond a safe operating space when a withdrawal of a 50% subsidy for agriculture is combined with the effects of a 2°C temperature increase and sea level rise. Further reductions in upstream river discharge in the Ganges would push the system towards a dangerous zone once a 3.5°C temperature increase was reached. The social-ecological system in Bangladesh delta may be operated within a safe space by: 1) managing feedback (e.g. by reducing production costs) and the slow biophysical variables (e.g. temperature, rainfall) to increase the long-term resilience, 2) negotiating for transboundary water resources, and 3) revising global policies (e.g. withdrawal of subsidy) that negatively impact at regional scales. This study demonstrates how the concepts of tipping points, limits to adaptations, and boundaries for sustainable development may be defined in real world social-ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SOCIAL AUDIT OF THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zerchaninova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theory and practice of social audit of the municipal system of general education. The authors have developed a conceptual model of social audit to accurately identify both the short- and long-term development prospects of the given system. The paper describes the social audit procedures in Berezovsky municipal district of Sverdlovsk region including four stages: the content analysis of municipal documents concerning the development strategy of the general education system, diagnosis of the current conditions and problems, effectiveness evaluation of the municipal system of general education, and practical  recommendations for improving the education quality. The above mentioned audit demonstrates that the indices of education development are unsystematically tracked, obstructing therefore the adjustment process. To solve the given problems the following measures are recommended: personnel policy development, creating the regional managerial reserve and organizing management workshops, informing the teachers about the modern educational tools, and updating the municipal program of the «Educational System Development of Berezovsky Municipal District for 20011–20015». However, the above suggestions target only the current problems disregarding the challenges of tomorrow which require the advancing strategy. In authors’ opinion, the main emphasis should be re-placed on the quality improvement of the municipal educational services instead of the infrastructure reinforcement. 

  19. SOCIAL AUDIT OF THE MUNICIPAL SYSTEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zerchaninova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theory and practice of social audit of the municipal system of general education. The authors have developed a conceptual model of social audit to accurately identify both the short- and long-term development prospects of the given system. The paper describes the social audit procedures in Berezovsky municipal district of Sverdlovsk region including four stages: the content analysis of municipal documents concerning the development strategy of the general education system, diagnosis of the current conditions and problems, effectiveness evaluation of the municipal system of general education, and practical  recommendations for improving the education quality. The above mentioned audit demonstrates that the indices of education development are unsystematically tracked, obstructing therefore the adjustment process. To solve the given problems the following measures are recommended: personnel policy development, creating the regional managerial reserve and organizing management workshops, informing the teachers about the modern educational tools, and updating the municipal program of the «Educational System Development of Berezovsky Municipal District for 20011–20015». However, the above suggestions target only the current problems disregarding the challenges of tomorrow which require the advancing strategy. In authors’ opinion, the main emphasis should be re-placed on the quality improvement of the municipal educational services instead of the infrastructure reinforcement. 

  20. 78 FR 2709 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Insurance or Pension System-- Romania AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--Romania. FINDING: Section 202(t)(1) of the Social... has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and...

  1. 78 FR 28698 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Insurance or Pension System-- Kosovo AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--Kosovo. Finding: Section 202(t)(1) of the Social... has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and...

  2. Two classes of bipartite networks: nested biological and social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Enrique; Ceva, Horacio; Hernández, Laura; Perazzo, R P J; Devoto, Mariano; Medan, Diego

    2008-10-01

    Bipartite graphs have received some attention in the study of social networks and of biological mutualistic systems. A generalization of a previous model is presented, that evolves the topology of the graph in order to optimally account for a given contact preference rule between the two guilds of the network. As a result, social and biological graphs are classified as belonging to two clearly different classes. Projected graphs, linking the agents of only one guild, are obtained from the original bipartite graph. The corresponding evolution of its statistical properties is also studied. An example of a biological mutualistic network is analyzed in detail, and it is found that the model provides a very good fitting of all the main statistical features. The model also provides a proper qualitative description of the same features observed in social webs, suggesting the possible reasons underlying the difference in the organization of these two kinds of bipartite networks.

  3. Recommender systems and the social web leveraging tagging data for recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gedikli, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for recommender systems due to the information overload users are facing on the Web. The goal of a recommender system is to provide personalized recommendations of products or services to users. With the advent of the Social Web, user-generated content has enriched the social dimension of the Web. As user-provided content data also tells us something about the user, one can learn the user's individual preferences from the Social Web. This opens up completely new opportunities and challenges for recommender systems research. Fatih Gedikli deals with the question of

  4. Social Validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E.; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System--Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings…

  5. Coordination dynamics in a socially situated nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Coey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories of cognitive science have typically accounted for the organization of human behavior by detailing the requisite computational or representational functions and identifying neurological mechanisms that might perform these functions. Put simply, such approaches hold that neural activity causes behavior. This same general framework has been extended to accounts of human social behavior via explanatory concepts such as common-coding and co-representation, and much recent neurological research has been devoted to brain structures that might execute these social-cognitive functions. Although these neural processes are unquestionably involved in the organization of human social interactions, there is good reason to question whether they should be accorded causal primacy. Specifically, research on interpersonal rhythmic motor coordination suggests that the organization of human behavior, including social behavior, can result from self-organizing processes and the lawful dynamics of animal-environment systems. Here we review this research, and in doing so propose that the role of the nervous system in joint action and interpersonal coordination be recast from the sole cause of behavior to one of many interdependent processes.

  6. Coarse cluster enhancing collaborative recommendation for social network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao-Dong; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Shang, Min-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Traditional collaborative filtering based recommender systems for social network systems bring very high demands on time complexity due to computing similarities of all pairs of users via resource usages and annotation actions, which thus strongly suppresses recommending speed. In this paper, to overcome this drawback, we propose a novel approach, namely coarse cluster that partitions similar users and associated items at a high speed to enhance user-based collaborative filtering, and then develop a fast collaborative user model for the social tagging systems. The experimental results based on Delicious dataset show that the proposed model is able to dramatically reduce the processing time cost greater than 90 % and relatively improve the accuracy in comparison with the ordinary user-based collaborative filtering, and is robust for the initial parameter. Most importantly, the proposed model can be conveniently extended by introducing more users' information (e.g., profiles) and practically applied for the large-scale social network systems to enhance the recommending speed without accuracy loss.

  7. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  8. The importance of social entrepreneurship in national systems of innovation - An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surie, Gita; Groen, Aard

    This special issue links "National Systems of Innovation" with "Social Entrepreneurship" to showcase how social entrepreneurship enables the diffusion of new technologies to make a social impact and engender "creative destruction" through the value generating activities of economic actors ranging

  9. Experimental platforms for behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in using behavioral experiments to study hypotheses on the governance of social-ecological systems. A diversity of software tools are used to implement such experiments. We evaluated various publicly available platforms that could be used in research and education on the governance of social-ecological systems. The aims of the various platforms are distinct, and this is noticeable in the differences in their user-friendliness and their adaptability to novel research questions. The more easily accessible platforms are useful for prototyping experiments and for educational purposes to illustrate theoretical concepts. To advance novel research aims, more elaborate programming experience is required to either implement an experiment from scratch or adjust existing experimental software. There is no ideal platform best suited for all possible use cases, but we have provided a menu of options and their associated trade-offs.

  10. Social environment, bases social markers and health care system in Shida Kartli region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raminashvili, D; Gvanceladze, T; Kajrishvili, M; Zarnadze, I; Zarnadze, Sh

    2009-10-01

    Difficult social conditions are accompanied by poor health status and limited access to quality social services. Accessibility to the health care is one of the important patient right universally. Although formally in place, health services are deprived of any means to assist the population. From 1600 respondents 58,8% paid for medical bills on their own, and 8.7% of respondents had health insurance that covered medical and health expenses. Almost every fifth respondent (18.5%) had access to supplemental financial support from friends and relatives. The vast majority of respondents considered the care received from medical services providers as being positive. 17.8% of respondents evaluated it as having been "very good", and every second out of five respondents (42.7%) evaluated it as having been "good". Every twentieth patient (5.2%) evaluated it as "poor" and 3.7% -"very bad", 29% of respondents are affiliated with various governmental programs. Social-economic situation influenced on the accessibility to the medical care. An effective of social policy is the system of prevention of risk factors.

  11. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  12. A Motion System for Social and Animated Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Saldien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative motion system that is used to control the motions and animations of a social robot. The social robot Probo is used to study Human-Robot Interactions (HRI, with a special focus on Robot Assisted Therapy (RAT. When used for therapy it is important that a social robot is able to create an “illusion of life” so as to become a believable character that can communicate with humans. The design of the motion system in this paper is based on insights from the animation industry. It combines operator-controlled animations with low-level autonomous reactions such as attention and emotional state. The motion system has a Combination Engine, which combines motion commands that are triggered by a human operator with motions that originate from different units of the cognitive control architecture of the robot. This results in an interactive robot that seems alive and has a certain degree of “likeability”. The Godspeed Questionnaire Series is used to evaluate the animacy and likeability of the robot in China, Romania and Belgium.

  13. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and organize the key factors in complex social-ecological systems, but can be overwhelming to generate and lead to key concepts being overlooked if development is unstructured. Using a DPSIR approach (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses), conceptual models can be developed to link decision scenarios and stressors to impacts on ecosystem services. These impacts on priority ecosystem services can then be linked to changes in human health and well-being through benefit functions. Expert input and contributions across disciplines provides appropriate temporal and spatial scales for determination of targets, project implementation, and monitoring strategies. This approach is being applied to create descriptive SES models of two wetland restoration projects. The first, the dredging of a degraded estuarine channel and restoration of mangrove forests in Caño Martìn Peña in San Juan, Puerto Rico is in the planning stage. The second, the restoration of a former cranberry farm in Plymouth, Massachusetts has completed a large restoration of freshwater wetland, and is gearing up for a second phase. Through the development of conceptual models, we are connecting driving forces wi

  14. Designing for Social Infrastructures in Complex Service Systems: A Human-Centered and Social Systems Perspective on Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Service design is one of the keys to improving how we target today’s complex societal problems. The predominant view of service systems is mechanistic and linear. A service infrastructure—which includes solutions like service blueprints, scripts, and protocols—is, in some ways, designed to control the behavior of service professionals at the service interface. This view undermines the intrinsic motivation, expertise, and creativity of service professionals. This article presents a different perspective on service design. Using theories of social systems and complex responsive processes, I define service organizations as ongoing iterated patterns of relationships between people, and identify them as complex social service systems. I go on to show how the human-centeredness of design practices contributes to designing for such service systems. In particular, I show how a deep understanding of the needs and aspirations of service professionals through phenomenological themes contributes to designing for social infrastructures that support continuous improvement and adaptation of the practices executed by service professionals at the service interface.

  15. Hierarchically sinergistical integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Business Intelligence and with the Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Круковський, Ігор Анатолійович; Хомів, Богдан Арсенович; Гаврилюк, Всеволод Леонідович

    2014-01-01

    The actuality of integration of Social Media Analytics/Social CRM with Decision Support Systems on the basis of Business Intelligence 2.0 (DSS/BI 2.0) and with the Geographic Information System is presented. On the basis of their integration a new type of DSS is offered - Social Media Spatial DSS/BI. The variant is shown of this system realization on the programmatic platform of Social Media Analytics of the SemanticForce Company, which has its own semantic analyzer Blueberry. The suitability...

  16. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  17. Care of the elderly persons in the system of social protection in the Republic of Srpska

    OpenAIRE

    Lepir Ljubo

    2010-01-01

    The number of the elderly in the overall population is increasing, which poses a need to seek an adequate model of organizing social care of the elderly. Most of them get social safety through the social welfare system. A functional and sustainable social welfare system requires application of efficient management and technique models based on the theoretical premises of contemporary management. The role and the importance of old people's protection in a social welfare system is becoming a to...

  18. Study on Construction of Forestry Socialized Service Systems Based on Barnard's Organizational Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Can-fu; CHENG Xiao-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Construction of forestry socialized service systems is the important content for reform of collective forestry tenure systems.Based on the necessity, possibility and problem of construction of forestry socialized service system, according to Barnard's Organizational Structure theory, the path and countermeasure of forestry socialized service system in China are discussed.

  19. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Griparić

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera, are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  20. A robotic system for researching social integration in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griparić, Karlo; Haus, Tomislav; Miklić, Damjan; Polić, Marsela; Bogdan, Stjepan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel robotic system developed for researching collective social mechanisms in a biohybrid society of robots and honeybees. The potential for distributed coordination, as observed in nature in many different animal species, has caused an increased interest in collective behaviour research in recent years because of its applicability to a broad spectrum of technical systems requiring robust multi-agent control. One of the main problems is understanding the mechanisms driving the emergence of collective behaviour of social animals. With the aim of deepening the knowledge in this field, we have designed a multi-robot system capable of interacting with honeybees within an experimental arena. The final product, stationary autonomous robot units, designed by specificaly considering the physical, sensorimotor and behavioral characteristics of the honeybees (lat. Apis mallifera), are equipped with sensing, actuating, computation, and communication capabilities that enable the measurement of relevant environmental states, such as honeybee presence, and adequate response to the measurements by generating heat, vibration and airflow. The coordination among robots in the developed system is established using distributed controllers. The cooperation between the two different types of collective systems is realized by means of a consensus algorithm, enabling the honeybees and the robots to achieve a common objective. Presented results, obtained within ASSISIbf project, show successful cooperation indicating its potential for future applications.

  1. Interactions in multiagent systems fairness, social optimality and individual rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Jianye

    2016-01-01

    This book mainly aims at solving the problems in both cooperative and competitive multi-agent systems (MASs), exploring aspects such as how agents can effectively learn to achieve the shared optimal solution based on their local information and how they can learn to increase their individual utility by exploiting the weakness of their opponents. The book describes fundamental and advanced techniques of how multi-agent systems can be engineered towards the goal of ensuring fairness, social optimality, and individual rationality; a wide range of further relevant topics are also covered both theoretically and experimentally. The book will be beneficial to researchers in the fields of multi-agent systems, game theory and artificial intelligence in general, as well as practitioners developing practical multi-agent systems.

  2. A practical procedure for assessing resilience of social-ecological system using the System Dynamics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Paulo Bueno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While growing attention has been paid to the idea of resilience of social-ecological systems, it seems that there still are a number of gaps to bridge before we could really use this concept for practical purposes. The main problem is that the most of the works in the field are unclear on how to unequivocally measure the degree of resilience of particular social-ecological systems. In this paper, we suggest to be possible identifying the loss of resilience of social-ecological systems as a process of loop dominance shift. In order to illustrate the argument, we use a very stylized system dynamics model for irrigation systems developed by scholars associated to the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University.

  3. EMPLOYMENT OF YOUTH: PROBLEMS, PLACE IN SYSTEM OF SOCIAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Gostev

    2016-01-01

    The study found that good employment – the main purpose of life of the general population. For the mechanism of the strategic management of the employment of human productive capacity is essential willingness to work professional graduate school, which has a complex structure, including cognitive, motivational, volitional, and other elements, each of which is able to destroy the whole system. Employed – the foundation of all social and moral values of young people, the condition is stable order, civic responsibility and political activity, patriotism, national unity, national security. This social phenomenon in terms of increase of the number of threats to national security is becoming a priority in government policy. Employed young people and their moral values are in direct relation.

  4. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to Conceptualize and Model Wetlands Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and orga...

  5. Understanding large social-ecological systems: introducing the SESMAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cox

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Social-ecological systems meta-analysis database (SESMAD project, which is the project behind the case studies and synthetic articles contained in this special issue of the International Journal of the Commons. SESMAD is an internationally collaborative meta-analysis project that builds on previous seminally synthetic work on small-scale common-pool resource systems conducted at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University. This project is guided by the following research question: can the variables found to be important in explaining outcomes on small-scale systems be scaled up to explain outcomes in large-scale environmental governance? In this special issue we report on our findings thus far through a set of case studies of large-scale environmental governance, a paper that describes our conceptual advances, and a paper that compares these five case studies to further examine our central research question.

  6. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  7. 76 FR 50283 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Insurance or Pension System-- Bulgaria AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of finding regarding foreign social insurance or pension system--Bulgaria. Finding: Section 202(t)(1) of the... has in effect a social insurance or pension system which is of general application in such country and...

  8. Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, W. F.; Rifkin, Stan; Sofge, Donald; Hobbs, Stephen H.; Angjellari-Dajci, F.; Chaudron, Laurent; Wood, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A broad appeal for a new theory of interdependence, 'iota', has been requested for the science of complexity in a special issue of Science, for social network analysis by the National Academy of Sciences, for effects-based operations by the US military, and for modernizing the fields of law and economics. We have proposed a new theory of 'iota' for organizations and systems that already appears to exhibit some validity. It is expressed in a physics of 'iota' (e.g., bistability) that includes ...

  9. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  10. Smart Cities as Cyber-Physical Social Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos G. Cassandras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging prototype for a Smart City is one of an urban environment with a new generation of innovative services for transportation, energy distribution, healthcare, environmental monitoring, business, commerce, emergency response, and social activities. Enabling the technology for such a setting requires a viewpoint of Smart Cities as cyber-physical systems (CPSs that include new software platforms and strict requirements for mobility, security, safety, privacy, and the processing of massive amounts of information. This paper identifies some key defining characteristics of a Smart City, discusses some lessons learned from viewing them as CPSs, and outlines some fundamental research issues that remain largely open.

  11. Reforming the South African social security adjudication system: innovative experiences from South African non-social security jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Nyenti, MAT

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s) and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibi...

  12. Enhancing promotional strategies within social marketing programs: use of Web 2.0 social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L; McKenzie, James F

    2008-10-01

    The second generation of Internet-based applications (i.e., Web 2.0), in which users control communication, holds promise to significantly enhance promotional efforts within social marketing campaigns. Web 2.0 applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, and syndication. Web 2.0 can also enhance the power of viral marketing by increasing the speed at which consumers share experiences and opinions with progressively larger audiences. Because of the novelty and potential effectiveness of Web 2.0, social marketers may be enticed to prematurely incorporate related applications into promotional plans. However, as strategic issues such as priority audience preferences, selection of appropriate applications, tracking and evaluation, and related costs are carefully considered, Web 2.0 will expand to allow health promotion practitioners more direct access to consumers with less dependency on traditional communication channels.

  13. Social values and political realities in the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Social values, which represent our visions, determine the decisions made in the energy sector more than their technical feasibility. The present energy system is based on 80 % fossil fuels. This situation will continue at least for the coming 20 years, since there are no innovations and no radical change of lifestyle to be expected within this time frame. The absolute level of energy consumption will raise. The rural - urban migration will continue. Scenarios of feasible energy developments may be characterized by fossil-, renewable and nuclear driven energy technologies. The worldwide energy resources are plentiful available and are sufficient even for a growing population. The conflicting objectives of the decision makers in the energy sector drive the energy dichotomies, the sustainability, and the effects of energy competition to an even more severe situation. System Engineering is an approach, which combines systems analysis and technology know-how and by which realistic and optimal energy solutions may be developed. Verbundplan uses System Engineering to plan and erect complex power systems, especially hydro power plants, to evaluate decisions in the energy and environmental field and to optimize investments and the operation of energy systems. (author)

  14. Social Empowerment of Intellectually Impaired through a Cloud Mobile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Freina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is not a unique definition of “empowerment”, nevertheless the idea that it involves, on the one hand, people having control over their own lives and, on the other, some social aspects seems to be a common characteristic. Most authors recognize three levels of empowerment: individual, group, and community level, which are interconnected and changes at one level influence the others. Enhancing individual competence and self-esteem has a direct effect on the control of one’s own life and, in turn, on the social components of empowerment. In this paper we present Smart Angel, a project that aims at creating a network involving families, caregivers, experts, and tutors, as well as the final users and their friends, based on a mobile cloud system in support of both everyday living and urban mobility for people with medium-mild intellectual disabilities, with particular attention to the Down syndrome. The system can be seen as a tool to empower its users to be more independent and therefore increasing their possibility to have an active role in their life and an active participation to the community.

  15. Which Social Values Are Considered in Iranian Health System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammadreza; Ashtarian, Koimars; Mostafavi, Hakimeh

    2018-05-01

    Health systems have a set of limited resources for meeting the needs of communities. Health priority setting based on criteria and values is inevitable in such situation. This paper aims to identify the social values that are considered in Iranian health system. This qualitative study was conducted in 3 steps including collecting national documents and literature review, interviewing key informants, and a 2 round Delphi. Interviews and documents were analyzed through thematic framework analysis. Statistical guidance was applied for determining consensus cut-off in Delphi technique. Five social values including freedom of choice, equity, solidarity, severity of disease(s), and burden of disease(s) were considered more important than other values in the health priority setting decisions. Moreover, 2 non-value based factors including conflict of interest and lobbying had a high effect on decision making. Most health policy makers decide based on Egalitarian school, but restriction of resources in the country decreases the outcome. Moreover, personal judgments and preferences sometimes affect their decisions. It seems that developing a value-based framework and making it as a national guidance could have affirmative effect on health administers decisions. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  16. Social-ecological system framework: initial changes and continuing challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. McGinnis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological system (SES framework investigated in this special issue enables researchers from diverse disciplinary backgrounds working on different resource sectors in disparate geographic areas, biophysical conditions, and temporal domains to share a common vocabulary for the construction and testing of alternative theories and models that determine which influences on processes and outcomes are especially critical in specific empirical settings. We summarize changes that have been made to this framework and discuss a few remaining ambiguities in its formulation. Specifically, we offer a tentative rearrangement of the list of relevant attributes of governance systems and discuss other ways to make this framework applicable to policy settings beyond natural resource settings. The SES framework will continue to change as more researchers apply it to additional contexts; the main purpose of this article is to delineate the version that served as the basis for the theoretical innovations and empirical analyses detailed in other contributions to this special issue.

  17. Modulation of the mirror system by social relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, James M; Marchant, Jennifer L; Frith, Chris D

    2006-09-01

    When we observe the actions of others, certain areas of the brain are activated in a similar manner as to when we perform the same actions ourselves. This 'mirror system' includes areas in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. Experimental studies suggest that action observation automatically elicits activity in the observer, which precisely mirrors the activity observed. In this case we would expect this activity to be independent of observer's viewpoint. Here we use whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record cortical activity of human subjects whilst they watched a series of videos of an actor making a movement recorded from different viewpoints. We show that one cortical response to action observation (oscillatory activity in the 7-12 Hz frequency range) is modulated by the relationship between the observer and the actor. We suggest that this modulation reflects a mechanism that filters information into the 'mirror system', allowing only socially relevant information to pass.

  18. A systemic approach in teaching the students social competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontni, Randi Kristine; Jensen, Ellen Bye

    Our education aims to qualify students to improve health in all strata of the Danish population. A systemic approach in teaching the students social competence has proved itself efficient. In this approach we discuss four orders of knowledge: Knowledge categories: Knowledge Forms: Designation...... in nursing: 1st order: Qualifications Factual Nursing knowledge as topics 2nd order: Competences Situated Nursing knowledge as practice 3rd order: Creativity Systemic Nursing knowledge as perspectives 4th order: World knowledge Metasystemic Nursing culture as a condition for nursing Model inspired...... different health approaches to become critical analytic and get their own visions about health promotion and prevention. After the theoretical education the students are clinically educated in primary health care to become experienced with action in primary health care....

  19. A Generic Framework for Extraction of Knowledge from Social Web Sources (Social Networking Websites) for an Online Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathick, Javubar; Venkat, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Mining social web data is a challenging task and finding user interest for personalized and non-personalized recommendation systems is another important task. Knowledge sharing among web users has become crucial in determining usage of web data and personalizing content in various social websites as per the user's wish. This paper aims to design a…

  20. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A NEXT STEP IN DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEMIC BEHAVIOR TOWARD SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS OF SYSTEMIC PROBLEMS OF TODAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matja(z) Mulej; Zdenka (Z)enko; Viktor (Z)akelj

    2017-01-01

    Data are clear:humankind is facing a global socio-economic crisis.Global bodies search for solution in ending the neoliberal monopolistic,rather than free market,economy,and in introduction of systemic behavior under the label of social responsibility.To support this effort,the research that is reported about in this contribution,suggests systemic perception of social responsibility to cause the end of abuse,strategy of promotion of social responsibility,and of suitable economic preconditions,supported by several lines of action,which everybody can trigger.

  1. Etoile Project : Social Intelligent ICT-System for very large scale education in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgine, P.; Johnson, J.

    2009-04-01

    The project will devise new theory and implement new ICT-based methods of delivering high-quality low-cost postgraduate education to many thousands of people in a scalable way, with the cost of each extra student being negligible (Socially Intelligent Resource Mining system to gather large volumes of high quality educational resources from the internet; new methods to deconstruct these to produce a semantically tagged Learning Object Database; a Living Course Ecology to support the creation and maintenance of evolving course materials; systems to deliver courses; and a ‘socially intelligent assessment system'. The system will be tested on one to ten thousand postgraduate students in Europe working towards the Complex System Society's title of European PhD in Complex Systems. Étoile will have a very high impact both scientifically and socially by (i) the provision of new scalable ICT-based methods for providing very low cost scientific education, (ii) the creation of new mathematical and statistical theory for the multiscale dynamics of complex systems, (iii) the provision of a working example of adaptation and emergence in complex socio-technical systems, and (iv) making a major educational contribution to European complex systems science and its applications.

  2. Towards ontology personalization to enrich social conversations on AAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla V., Daniela; Sastoque H., Sebastian; Iregui G., Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Communication is one of the essential needs of human beings. Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems (AAC) seek to help in the generation of oral and written language to people with physical disorders that limit their natural communication. These systems present significant challenges such as: the composition of consistent messages according to syntactic and semantic rules, the improvement of message production times, the application to social contexts and, consequently, the incorporation of user-specific information. This work presents an original ontology personalization approach for an AAC instant messaging system incorporating personalized information to improve the efficacy and efficiency of the message production. This proposal is based on a projection of a general ontology into a more specific one, avoiding storage redundancy and data coupling, representing a big opportunity to enrich communication capabilities of current AAC systems. The evaluation was performed for a study case based on an AAC system for assistance in composing messages. The results show that adding user-specific information allows generation of enriched phrases, so improving the accuracy of the message, facilitating the communication process.

  3. Teaching the System of Social Policy in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talyigas, Katalin

    2008-01-01

    Provides an inside perspective on the development of social work education in Hungary during the final years of communism and after the country regained its independence, when there was a strong focus on re-introducing social work and social sciences which had been repressed by the socialist regime in its denial of social problems and thus, its…

  4. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A social-ecological systems framework for food systems research: accommodating transformation systems and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R. Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems (SES framework was developed to support communication across the multiple disciplines concerned with sustainable provision and/or appropriation of common-pool resources (CPRs. Transformation activities (e.g. processing, distribution, retailing in which value is added to resource units appropriated from CPRs were assumed in developing the framework to be exogenous to the SES of focal concern. However, provision and appropriation of CPRs are nowadays often closely integrated with the market economy, so significant interdependence exists between many CPR provision/appropriation activities and the activities in which appropriated resource units are transformed into the products ultimately marketed. This paper presents a modified version of the SES framework designed to better account for transformation activities in order to be more suitable for diagnosing those sustainability problems where it is inappropriate to define all such activities as exogenous to the SES of focal concern. The need for such modification was identified in a research project examining the challenges faced by Cambodian cattle-owning smallholders in accessing value chains for premium-priced beef. Hence the immediate focus was on strengthening the SES framework’s value for facilitating a multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach to food system research projects of this kind. The modified SES framework’s potential in this respect was illustrated by a preliminary application that drew on literature reviewed for the Cambodian project. Significant further potential exists in using the modified framework as a foundation from which to develop a version that is suitable for application to SESs in which transformation systems are appropriately represented as endogenous. Maintaining consistency with the standard SES framework will enable communication to occur more effectively between food system researchers and CPR scholars more generally.

  6. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  7. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  8. Development and optimization of the financial mechanism’s social insurance system in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Telychko, N.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical principles of the improvement of determining of the financial mechanism’s social security system are analyzed. Was investigated the model of the financial mechanism’s social security. According to the planned objectives was proposed effective organizational structure of the financial mechanism’s social insurance system in Ukraine.

  9. Mere Exposure to Money Increases Endorsement of Free-Market Systems and Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baxter, Brittani; Waytz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The present research tested whether incidental exposure to money affects people's endorsement of social systems that legitimize social inequality. We found that subtle reminders of the concept of money, relative to nonmoney concepts, led participants to endorse more strongly the existing social system in the United States in general (Experiment 1)…

  10. Understanding the links between ecosystem health and social system well-being: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue; [Compilers].

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography focuses on the links between social system well-being and ecosystem health. It is intended for public land managers and scientists and students of social and natural sciences. Multidisciplinary science that addresses the interconnections between the social system and the ecosystem is presented. Some of the themes and strategies presented are policy...

  11. The commons from a critical social systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hofkirchner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false IT JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:DE; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} When developing the so-called Salzburg Approach to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs and Society in the years 2004 to 2010, the sociology of technology the then working group of mine at the University of Salzburg used was based upon a combination of critical thinking and systems thinking – of Critical Theory and Systems Theory. Criticism and systemism both include what I’m used to calling the Logic of the Third. The Logic of the Third is the foundation of a critical social systems theory.  

  12. Group Discovery in a CollaborativeTagging System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zijian

    2007-01-01

    Tagging refers to the process of adding metadata to describe things by usingone or several words. Collaborative Tagging systems, which allow different webusers to tag web content like weblogs, pictures, and bookmarks and so on, haverecently gained great popularity on internet. There are already a greatvariety of debates on internet of the advantages and disadvantages ofcollaborative tagging systems from the aspect of information organizing. Inthis paper, we primarily focus on a collaborative ...

  13. Folksonomies and clustering in the collaborative system CiteULike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocci, Andrea; Caldarelli, Guido

    2008-06-01

    We analyze CiteULike, an online collaborative tagging system where users bookmark and annotate scientific papers. Such a system can be naturally represented as a tri-partite graph whose nodes represent papers, users and tags connected by individual tag assignments. The semantics of tags is studied here, in order to uncover the hidden relationships between tags. We find that the clustering coefficient can be used to analyze the semantical patterns among tags.

  14. Folksonomies and clustering in the collaborative system CiteULike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capocci, Andrea; Caldarelli, Guido

    2008-01-01

    We analyze CiteULike, an online collaborative tagging system where users bookmark and annotate scientific papers. Such a system can be naturally represented as a tri-partite graph whose nodes represent papers, users and tags connected by individual tag assignments. The semantics of tags is studied here, in order to uncover the hidden relationships between tags. We find that the clustering coefficient can be used to analyze the semantical patterns among tags

  15. Folksonomies and clustering in the collaborative system CiteULike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capocci, Andrea [Dip. di Informatica e Sistemistica Universita ' Sapienza' , via Ariosto, 25 00185 Rome (Italy); Caldarelli, Guido [SMC Centre, CNR-INFM, Dip. di Fisica, Universita ' Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 5, 00185-Rome (Italy)

    2008-06-06

    We analyze CiteULike, an online collaborative tagging system where users bookmark and annotate scientific papers. Such a system can be naturally represented as a tri-partite graph whose nodes represent papers, users and tags connected by individual tag assignments. The semantics of tags is studied here, in order to uncover the hidden relationships between tags. We find that the clustering coefficient can be used to analyze the semantical patterns among tags.

  16. The Financing Mechanism of the Social Health Insurance System in Romania and in other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin AFANASE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The social insurance system is part of the social security system and it works based on the payment of a contribution through which risks and services defined by the law are insured. The social security system, independent of the structure or political and economical order of a state, has the attribution of giving help to those in conditions of social helplessness, as well as preventing such circumstances. In this paper we made a comparative analysis of the financing mechanism of the social health insurance system in Romania with other European countries.

  17. SOCIAL AND ETHIC INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON GENERAL SOCIAL STATE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of intercommunication of social and ethical aspects of the use of information networks is conducted and their influence on social development of the state is determined.

  18. Climate impact on social systems. The risk assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svirezhev, Y.M.; Schellnhuber, H.-J.

    1993-01-01

    A novel approach to the problem of estimating climate impact on social systems is suggested. This approach is based on a risk concept, where the notion of critical events is introduced and the probability of such event is estimated. The estimation considers both the real stochasticity of climatic processes and the artificial stochasticity of climate predictions due to scientific uncertainties. The method is worked out in some detail for the regional problem of crop production and the risks associated with global climate change, and illustrated by a case study (Kursk region of the FSU). In order to get local climatic characteristics (weather) a so-called 'statistical weather generator' is used. One interesting finding is that the 3%-risk level remains constant up to 1- -1.1 deg. C rise of mean seasonal temperature, if the variance does not change. On the other hand, the risk grows rapidly with increasing variance (even if the mean temperature rises very slowly). The risk approach allows to separate two problems: (i) assessment of Global Change impact and (ii) decision-making. The main task for the scientific community is to provide the politicians with different options; the choice of admissible (from the social point of view) critical events and the corresponding risk levels is the business of decision makers. (au)

  19. 75 FR 64389 - Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0066] Proposed Recommendation to the Social Security Administration for Occupational Information System (OIS) Development Planning; Request for Comment...) to provide independent advice and recommendations on plans and activities to create an occupational...

  20. Precautionary principle, economic and energy systems and social equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Joaquim Francisco de; Mercedes, Sonia Seger P.; Sauer, Ildo L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the precautionary principle is reviewed alongside the process of international implementation. Adoption of the precautionary principle is advocated to deal with energy choices as a mechanism to account for potential climate change impacts, notwithstanding the debate on scientific uncertainty on the links between solar activity, greenhouse gas concentration and climate. However, it is also recognized that the widespread application of the precautionary principle to energy choices does not seem to be taking place in the real world. Relevant concrete barriers are identified stemming from the intrinsic logic governing the hegemonic economic system, driving the energy choices by economic surplus and rent generation potential, the existence of social asymmetries inside and among societies as well as by the absence of democratic global governance mechanisms, capable of dealing with climate change issues. Such perception seems to have been reinforced by the outcome of the United Nations Climate Change Conference, held in Copenhagen in December 2009.

  1. A model integrating social-cultural concepts of nature into frameworks of interaction between social and natural systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhar, Andreas; Raymond, Christopher M.; van den Born, Riyan J.G.

    2018-01-01

    relationship at both individual and collective levels. We highlight the relevance of individual and collective understandings of the human-nature relationship as influencing factors for environmental behaviour, which may be reflected in natural resource management conflicts, and review the diversity......Existing frameworks for analysing interactions between social and natural systems (e.g. Social-Ecological Systems framework, Ecosystem Services concept) do not sufficiently consider and operationalize the dynamic interactions between people's values, attitudes and understandings of the human-nature....... Integrating this model into existing frameworks provides a tool for the exploration of how social-cultural concepts of nature interact with existing contexts to influence governance of social-ecological systems....

  2. Evaluating the Sustainability of the Spanish Social Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social security has remarkable relevance in the general context of Spanish economy. This system is viable if the volume of active population increases at a higher rate than the number of pensioners does and if, in addition, active population is employed by the productive system. The reports of the National Institute of Statistics about Spanish demography demonstrate how these conditions are not met as of today, because our society has one of the highest aging rates and also a remarkable increase in the dependency rate. Through various techniques of time series analysis, this paper reveals the current economic trends in Spain to demonstrate the need for structural reforms of the system so as to make it more sustainable in the long term. To achieve this, it is necessary to change the financing model to a mixed one where the capitalization method plays a significant role, and also to implement urgent measures in order to reduce the barriers to business and employment development.

  3. A Comparison of Social Dominance Theory and System Justification: The Role of Social Status in 19 Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Salfate, Salvador; Paez, Dario; Liu, James H; Pratto, Felicia; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero

    2018-07-01

    This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal nations than among better-off people and countries. A cross-national survey was carried out in 19 nations from the Americas, Western and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Oceania using representative online samples ( N = 14,936, 50.15% women, M age = 41.61 years). At the individual level, system justification beliefs, right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, national identification, sociopolitical conservatism, sex, age, and social status were measured. At the national level, the human development index and the Gini index were used. Multilevel analyses performed indicated that results fit better with the social dominance/RCT approach, as system justification was higher in high-status and developed nations; further, associations between legitimizing ideologies and system justification were stronger among high-status people.

  4. Reforming the South African Social Security Adjudication System: Innovative Experiences from South African Non-Social Security Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Ashu Tako Nyenti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no uniform social security dispute resolution system in South Africa due to the piecemeal fashion in which schemes were established or protection against individual risks regulated. The result is that each statute provides for its own dispute resolution institution(s and processes. There are also various gaps and challenges in the current social security dispute resolution systems, some of these relating to the uncoordinated and fragmented nature of the system; inaccessibility of some social security institutions; inappropriateness of some current appeal institutions; the lack of a systematic approach in establishing appeal institutions; a limited scope of jurisdiction and powers of adjudication institutions; inconsistencies in review and/or appeal provisions in various laws; an unavailability of alternative dispute resolution procedures; and an absence of institutional independence of adjudication institutions or forums. The system is therefore in need of reform. In developing an appropriate system, much can be learned from innovative experiences in comparative South African non-social security jurisdictions on the establishment of effective and efficient dispute resolution frameworks. Dispute resolution systems in the labour relations, business competition regulation and consumer protection jurisdictions have been established to realise the constitutional rights of their users (especially the rights of access to justice, to a fair trial and to just administrative action. They thus provide a benchmark for the development of the South African social security dispute resolution system.

  5. Transitions of social-ecological subsistence systems in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Fauchald

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitions of social-ecological systems (SES expose governance systems to new challenges. This is particularly so in the Arctic where resource systems are increasingly subjected to global warming, industrial development and globalization which subsequently alter the local SES dynamics. Based on common-pool resource theory, we developed a dynamic conceptual model explaining how exogenous drivers might alter a traditional subsistence system from a provisioning to an appropriation actions situation. In a provisioning action situation the resource users do not control the resource level but adapt to the fluctuating availability of resources, and the collective challenge revolve around securing the subsistence in the community. An increased harvest pressure enabled by exogenous drivers could transform the SES to an appropriation action situation where the collective challenge has changed to avoid overuse of a common-pool resource. The model was used as a focal lens to investigate the premises for broad-scale transitions of subsistence-oriented SESs in Arctic Alaska, Canada and Greenland. We synthesized data from documents, official statistics and grey and scientific literature to explore the different components of our model. Our synthesis suggests that the traditional Arctic subsistence SESs mostly comply with a provisioning action situation. Despite population growth and available technology; urbanization, increased wage labor and importation of food have reduced the resource demand, and we find no evidence for a broad-scale transition to an appropriation action situation throughout the Western Arctic. However, appropriation ­challenges have emerged in some cases either as a consequence of commercialization of the resource or by severely reduced resource stocks due to various exogenous drivers. Future transitions of SESs could be triggered by the emergence of commercial local food markets and Arctic warming. In particular, Arctic warming is an

  6. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  7. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING SOCIAL INSURANCE IN THE ROMANIAN PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracsia-Magdalena Benţia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze the issue of social health insurance in Romania and to provide legislative solutions in combating them. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: 1 establish a 2020-2030 Strategy to prevent disease by launching national campaigns for healthy eating, reducing smoking and alcohol consumption, and introducing the color scheme for food; 2 decentralizing the system, establishing a public-private partnership, increasing the patient's freedom in choosing doctors and services; 3 limiting the cost of medical care by introducing caps, as well as co-payments; 4 institutional reform of the public sector in this area. In some opinions, "Experience in other countries consistently suggests that introducing a private funding system would create more problems than it would solve. That is why efforts should be focused rather on institutional reform of the public sector"; 5 developing legislation to make differentiated payments for medical services; 6 closure of non-accredited hospitals and their privatization; 7 establishment of private health insurance houses.

  8. Parent emotion socialization and pre-adolescent's social and emotional adjustment: Moderating effects of autonomic nervous system reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2017-12-01

    This study examined whether measures of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to social stress moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's social and emotional adjustment. Sixty-one children (9-13 years) completed a peer rejection task while their respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) and skin conductance level reactivity (SCL-R) were assessed. Parents' report of supportive and non-supportive reactions to their child's negative emotions served as measures of emotion socialization. Measures of children's social and emotional adjustment included: teacher-rated peer rejection, aggression, and prosocial behavior and parent-rated aggressive/dysregulated behavior and emotion regulation skills. Measures of children's ANS reactivity moderated the effect of parent emotion socialization on children's adjustment. Supportive responses were more protective for children evidencing RSA augmentation whereas non-supportive responses were more detrimental for children evidencing low SCL-R. Thus children's ANS reactivity during social stress may represent a biological vulnerability that influences sensitivity to parent emotion socialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Method: Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work…

  10. Social brains in context: lesions targeted to the song control system in female cowbirds affect their social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sarah E; Schmidt, Marc F; White, David J

    2013-01-01

    Social experiences can organize physiological, neural, and reproductive function, but there are few experimental preparations that allow one to study the effect individuals have in structuring their social environment. We examined the connections between mechanisms underlying individual behavior and social dynamics in flocks of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We conducted targeted inactivations of the neural song control system in female subjects. Playback tests revealed that the lesions affected females' song preferences: lesioned females were no longer selective for high quality conspecific song. Instead, they reacted to all cowbird songs vigorously. When lesioned females were introduced into mixed-sex captive flocks, they were less likely to form strong pair-bonds, and they no longer showed preferences for dominant males. This in turn created a cascade of effects through the groups. Social network analyses showed that the introduction of the lesioned females created instabilities in the social structure: males in the groups changed their dominance status and their courtship patterns, and even the competitive behavior of other female group-mates was affected. These results reveal that inactivation of the song control system in female cowbirds not only affects individual behavior, but also exerts widespread effects on the stability of the entire social system.

  11. Extreme climatic events: reducing ecological and social systems vulnerabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decamps, H.; Amatore, C.; Bach, J.F.; Baccelli, F.; Balian, R.; Carpentier, A.; Charnay, P.; Cuzin, F.; Davier, M.; Dercourt, J.; Dumas, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Jeannerod, M.; Kahane, J.P.; Meunier, B.; Rebut, P.H.; Salencon, J.; Spitz, E.; Suquet, P.; Taquet, P.; Valleron, A.J.; Yoccoz, J.C.; Chapron, J.Y.; Fanon, J.; Andre, J.C.; Auger, P.; Bourrelier, P.H.; Combes, C.; Derrida, B.; Laubier, L.; Laval, K.; Le Maho, Y.; Marsily, G. De; Petit, M.; Schmidt-Laine, C.; Birot, Y.; Peyron, J.L.; Seguin, B.; Barles, S.; Besancenot, J.P.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Hallegatte, S.; Dumas, P.; Ancey, V.; Requier-Desjardins, M.; Ducharnes, A.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Kaniewski, D.; Van Campo, E.; Planton, S.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Le Bars, Y.; Lagadec, P.; Kessler, D.; Pontikis, C.; Nussbaum, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth has to face more and more devastating extreme events. Between 1970 and 2009, at the worldwide scale, the 25 most costly catastrophes all took place after 1987, and for more than half of them after 2001. Among these 25 catastrophes, 23 were linked to climate conditions. France was not spared: the December 1999 storms led to 88 deaths, deprived 3.5 million households of electricity and costed more than 9 billion euros. The 2003 heat wave led to about 15000 supernumerary deaths between August 1 and August 20. The recent Xynthia storm, with its flood barrier ruptures, provoked 53 deaths in addition to many other tragedies that took place in areas liable to flooding. In the present day context of climate change, we know that we must be prepared to even more dangerous events, sometimes unexpected before. These events can have amplified effects because of the urban development, the overpopulation of coastal areas and the anthropization of natural environments. They represent real 'poverty traps' for the poorest countries of the Earth. The anticipation need is real but is our country ready to answer it? Does it have a sufficient contribution to international actions aiming at reducing risks? Is his scientific information suitable? France is not less vulnerable than other countries. It must reinforce its prevention, its response and resilience capacities in the framework of integrated policies of catastrophes risk management as well as in the framework of climate change adaptation plans. This reinforcement supposes the development of vigilance systems with a better risk coverage and benefiting by the advances gained in the meteorology and health domains. It supposes a town and country planning allowing to improve the viability of ecological and social systems - in particular by protecting their diversity. Finally, this reinforcement requires inciting financial coverage solutions for catastrophes prevention and for their management once they have taken place. A

  12. Environmental and Social Management System Toolkit and Case Studies : Food and Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in today's global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system helps companies to integrate the rules and obj...

  13. The importance of social entrepreneurship in national systems of innovation : An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surie, Gita; Groen, Aard

    2017-01-01

    This special issue links “National Systems of Innovation” with “Social Entrepreneurship” to showcase how social entrepreneurship enables the diffusion of new technologies to make a social impact and engender “creative destruction” through the value generating activities of economic actors ranging

  14. Social engineering attacks: an augmentation of the socio-technical systems framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shozi, A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available or organisation’s information. We analyse social engineering attacks as a Socio-technical System because it recognises the interaction between people and technology in a work environment. In the case of social engineering attacks, the social subsystem would...

  15. Social Reform Groups and the Legal System: Enforcement Problems. Discussion Paper No. 209-74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Joel F.

    During the last two decades, there has been a great increase in the use of litigation by social reform groups. This activity has been stimulated by the hospitality of the courts to the demands of social reform groups and the availability of subsidized young, activist lawyers. The paper examines the uses of the legal system by social reform groups…

  16. A dynamic systems perspective on social cognition, problematic behaviour, and intervention in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; van Geert, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In this article we discussed a dynamic systems view on social behaviour in adolescence. Social behaviour is defined as a self-organizing attractor landscape, based on a network of proximal (i.e., direct) causes. In some cases, social development is disturbed, leading to problematic behaviour in

  17. Functions, communication, and perception of emotions in Luhmannian theory: Emotions as reflection resources of social systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riese, J.

    2011-01-01

    To integrate the social effects of emotions which have been described in the literature into Niklas Luhmann’s theory of autopoietic social systems, it is necessary to explain how emotions, which according to Luhmann are psychic phenomena, can become relevant in the social sphere even if no

  18. Efficacy of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) Primary Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Bellinger, Jillian; Cheng, Weiyi

    2015-01-01

    A multisite cluster randomized trial was conducted to examine the effects of the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007) on students' classroom social behavior. The final sample included 432 students across 38 second grade classrooms. Social skills and problem behaviors were measured…

  19. Enhancing Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with Social Network-based Concepts and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of enhancing the social dimension of lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with social network-based concepts and tools. Our premise is that through a combination of social network visualization tools, simulations, stimulus agents and management

  20. A Study on Social Software Preferences in Secundary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lozano Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a pilot study about the implementation of informatics tools of social use HIUS (known as social software perform on students of fourth grade on high school on a public school. We explored four dimensions: frequency of use, handling level, usage and type of interaction. The tools are grouped into 12 types. The population said they did not know/use many of the tools. We found that there is a high frequency of use and high skills in handling social networks, video sharing and chat services, while there is very little use and handling of tools like blogs and social bookmarking. The most commonly used mode was "chat/enjoy" followed by "to learn" and "to study". The use of tools comes from own accounts and in general they add and remove content more or less in the same proportion.

  1. ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF SYSTEMIC DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SOCIAL PEDAGOGISTS’ INFORMATIONAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr A. Ratsul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of foreign experience of systemic development of future social pedagogists’ informational culture. A number of cultural universals are identified, each of them is treated as the core of culture. A list of components of future social pedagogists’ information culture is given. Personality traits that enable future social pedagogists to participate effectively in all kinds of work with information are characterized. Two structural levels (contents and functions in future social pedagogists’ information culture are singled out. Main functions of future social pedagogists’ information culture are defined. The structural organization of future social pedagogists’ information culture is analyzed.

  2. Social Media: New Spaces for Contention In Authoritarian Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    restrictions and controls. Social media became the manner in which protesters used to mobilize as opposed to the traditional manner of word of mouth or...distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) What role has social media played in Bahraini political movements...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SOCIAL MEDIA : NEW

  3. Social media as an information system: improving the technological agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Vindaya; Warren, Matthew; Leitch, Shona

    2017-04-01

    There is an increased focus on research involving social media. This research however has failed to catch up with the pace of the technology development and may prove disadvantageous for both practice and theory. The longitudinal study presented in the paper was conducted over a 3-year period involving Australian banks and popular social media technologies. The paper empirically tests the Honeycomb model as a tool that enhances the technological agility of social media. The paper fills a key research gap and provides dynamism to social media strategy formation, continuous improvement of strategy development in support of greater business agility.

  4. Of Models and Meanings: Cultural Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Crane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling has emerged as a key technology in analysis of social-ecological systems. However, the tendency for modeling to focus on the mechanistic materiality of biophysical systems obscures the diversity of performative social behaviors and normative cultural positions of actors within the modeled system. The fact that changes in the biophysical system can be culturally constructed in different ways means that the perception and pursuit of adaptive pathways can be highly variable. Furthermore, the adoption of biophysically resilient livelihoods can occur under conditions that are subjectively experienced as the radical transformation of cultural systems. The objectives of this work are to: (1 highlight the importance of understanding the place of culture within social-ecological systems, (2 explore the tensions between empirical and normative positions in the analysis of social-ecological resilience, and (3 suggest how empirical modeling of social-ecological systems can synergistically interact with normative aspects of livelihoods and lifeways.

  5. Human comment dynamics in on-line social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Zhou, Changsong; Chen, Maoying; Xiao, Jinghua; Kurths, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    Human comment is studied using data from ‘tianya’ which is one of the most popular on-line social systems in China. We found that the time interval between two consecutive comments on the same topic, called inter-event time, follows a power-law distribution. This result shows that there is no characteristic decay time on a topic. It allows for very long periods without comments that separate bursts of intensive comments. Furthermore, the frequency of a different ID commenting on a topic also follows a power-law distribution. It indicates that there are some “hubs” in the topic who lead the direction of the public opinion. Based on the personal comments habit, a model is introduced to explain these phenomena. The numerical simulations of the model fit well with the empirical results. Our findings are helpful for discovering regular patterns of human behavior in on-line society and the evolution of the public opinion on the virtual as well as real society.

  6. Arctic System Science: Meeting Earth System and Social Impact Challenges through Integrative Approaches and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.; Rawlins, M. A.; Serreze, M. C.; Francis, J. A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; McDonald, K. C.; Piasecki, M.; Rich, R. H.; Holland, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an integral part of the Earth system where multiple interactions unite its natural and human elements. Recent observations show the Arctic to be experiencing rapid and amplified signatures of global climate change. At the same time, the Arctic system's response to this broader forcing has itself become a central research topic, given its potential role as a critical throttle on future planetary dynamics. Changes are already impacting life systems and economic prosperity and continued change is expected to bear major implications far outside the region. We also have entered an era when environmental management, traditionally local in scope, must confront regional, whole biome, and pan-Arctic biogeophysical challenges. While challenges may appear to operate in isolation, they emerge within the context of an evolving, integrated Arctic system defined by interactions among natural and social sub-systems. Clearly, new efforts aimed at community planning, industrial development, and infrastructure construction must consider this multiplicity of interacting processes. We recently organized an "Arctic System Synthesis Workshop Series" supported by the Arctic Systems Science Program of NSF and devoted to exploring approaches capable of uncovering the systems-level behavior in both the natural and social sciences domains. The series featured two topical meetings. The first identified the sources responsible for extreme climate events in the Arctic. The second focused on multiple "currencies" within the system (i.e., water, energy, carbon, nutrients) and how they interact to produce systems-level behaviors. More than 40 experts participated, drawn from the ranks of Arctic natural and social sciences. We report here on the workshop series consensus report, which identifies a broad array of topics. Principal among these are a consideration of why study the Arctic as a system, as well as an articulation of the major systems-level approaches to support basic as well

  7. I design of the system of social accounting for the agricultural cooperative companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamira Mirabal González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of different instruments of evaluation of the social administration has demonstrated the theoretical and methodological inadequacies in its conception, lacking all as regularity of a specific countable system that allows the registration, the evaluation and the foundation of the process of taking of decisions in the environment of the social administration of the cooperative companies.  The scientific problem of the present work consists in that: "The current countable system of the cooperatives doesn't respond to its dual character, as economic company with high social purpose, when presenting an exclusively economic-financial focus that doesn't include the contabilization of its social acting."   The general objective, it is directed to: "To design a System of Social Accounting (SCS for the agricultural cooperative companies that it allows their integration to the current countable system, starting from the contabilization of their social acting, constituting a tool for the administration process and the taking of decisions."   The specific objectives of the investigation that allow the execution of the general objective are:  1. To define the elements that conform the System of Social Accounting in the cooperative companies.   2. To establish the relationships among the elements that conform the System of Social Accounting.  3. To schematize the designed System of Social Accounting.  The main results of the investigation are centered in: Determination of the elements that conform the System of Social Accounting, definition of the relationships that settle down among this elements and they guarantee their operation and graphic representation of this system.   System of Social Accounting, contabilization, social operations.

  8. The Power of Implicit Social Relation in Rating Prediction of Social Recommender Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reafee, Waleed; Salim, Naomie; Khan, Atif

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of social networks in recent times has presented a powerful source of information to be utilized as an extra source for assisting in the social recommendation problems. The social recommendation methods that are based on probabilistic matrix factorization improved the recommendation accuracy and partly solved the cold-start and data sparsity problems. However, these methods only exploited the explicit social relations and almost completely ignored the implicit social relations. In this article, we firstly propose an algorithm to extract the implicit relation in the undirected graphs of social networks by exploiting the link prediction techniques. Furthermore, we propose a new probabilistic matrix factorization method to alleviate the data sparsity problem through incorporating explicit friendship and implicit friendship. We evaluate our proposed approach on two real datasets, Last.Fm and Douban. The experimental results show that our method performs much better than the state-of-the-art approaches, which indicates the importance of incorporating implicit social relations in the recommendation process to address the poor prediction accuracy.

  9. Beyond individual-centric privacy : Information technology in social systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.

    2017-01-01

    In the public debate, social implications of information technology are mainly seen through the privacy lens. Impact assessments of information technology are also often limited to privacy impact assessments, which are focused on individual rights and well-being, as opposed to the social

  10. THE LEGITIMACY OF INCLUDING THE SOCIAL PARAMETERS IN EVALUATING THE HEALTH STATUS IN THE SOCIAL ASSURANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.

  11. [Changes in workers' rehabilitation procedures under the Brazilian social security system: modernization or undermining of social protection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Iguti, Aparecida Mari

    2008-11-01

    This article describes the changes in workers' rehabilitation practices under the Brazilian National Social Security Institute (INSS) in the 1990s, in the context of neoliberal economic adjustment measures, based on an analysis of INSS documents from 1992 to 1997. The INSS plan for "modernization" of workers' rehabilitation led to: (1) dismantling of multidisciplinary teams; (2) induction of workers to accept proportional retirement pensions and voluntary layoffs; (3) under-utilization of the remaining INSS professional staff; (4) elimination of treatment programs for workers' rehabilitation; and (5) dismantling of INSS rehabilitation centers and clinics. The changes in the Brazilian social security system undermined the county's social security project and hegemony and reduced social security reform to a mere management and fiscal issue. Current "rehabilitation" falls far short of the institution's original purpose of social protection for workers, while aiming at economic regulation of the system to contain costs of workers' benefits. Workers that suffer work-related accidents are denied occupational rehabilitation, which aggravates their social disadvantage when they return to work.

  12. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Wang, Shen; Li, Jianhua

    2017-07-30

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on "friend" relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  13. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  14. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Li, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on “friend” relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems. PMID:28758943

  15. A Semantic Social Recommender System Using Ontologies Based Approach For Tunisian Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed FRIKHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunisia is well placed in terms of medical tourism and has highly qualified and specialized medical and surgical teams. Integrating social networks in Tunisian medical tourism recommender systems can result in much more accurate recommendations. That is to say, information, interests, and recommendations retrieved from social networks can improve the prediction accuracy. This paper aims to improve traditional recommender systems by incorporating information in social network; including user preferences and influences from social friends. Accordingly, a user interest ontology is developed to make personalized recommendations out of such information. In this paper, we present a semantic social recommender system employing a user interest ontology and a Tunisian Medical Tourism ontology. Our system can improve the quality of recommendation for Tunisian tourism domain. Finally, our social recommendation algorithm is implemented in order to be used in a Tunisia tourism Website to assist users interested in visiting Tunisia for medical purposes.

  16. Policy options and system supplies on socialization standard management of city agricultural laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yujuan

    2007-01-01

    It is a social system engineering to solve problems of city agricultural laborers, inevitably concerning series of social phenomenon and the social issues of the city and countryside relations, the government function, the city management, the fair efficiency, the population flows, the labor employment, the social security, and so on. Furthermore, it also involves the profoundly political and economic system reforms, the transformation of government functions, the system perfection, legal administration, the social stability in China. The city government, as the direct superintendent of the agricultural laborers, should adopt the conception of the system engineering to construct anew mechanism of the city agricultural laborers socialization standard management, which has a profound theoretical and practical significance.

  17. A Study of the Social Effects in a Comparative Assessment among the Electricity Generating Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    A comparative assessment among 7 electricity generating systems by considering their environmental impacts, risks, health effects, and social effects was studied last year. The compared electricity generating systems are nuclear, coal, LNG, hydro, oil, wind, photovoltaic (=solar) ones. In last year's work, the social effects were handled by a public acceptance based on an aversion. However, in this paper, the social effects were also studied by a preference in view of the 'willingness to pay' (WTP). With the new social effects study, a comparative analysis of the 7 electricity generation systems was performed in this paper

  18. STUDY OF THE PRESENCE OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CHIEF OFFICER IN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAELA DUMITRASCU

    2014-01-01

    We present a study regarding the banking system from Romania with the aim to identify corporations that have a position of „Corporate Social Responsibility Cheif Officer” or „Corporate Social Responsibility Synonym: Citizenship/ Sustainability” included in the position title. To achieve this objective, we present some preliminary findings. Our first hypothesis was that there are a number of positions of Chief Officers of Corporate Social Responsibility in banking system. After...

  19. A Systems Thinking Model for Open Source Software Development in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaquim, Moyen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a social media model, based on systems thinking methodology is proposed to understand the behavior of the open source software development community working in social media.The proposed model is focused on relational influences of two different systems- social media and the open source community. This model can be useful for taking decisions which are complicated and where solutions are not apparent.Based on the proposed model, an efficient way of working in open source developm...

  20. 76 FR 29811 - Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System-St. Vincent and the Grenadines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Insurance or Pension System--St. Vincent and the Grenadines AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of Finding Regarding Foreign Social Insurance or Pension System--St. Vincent and the... country which the Commissioner of Social Security finds has in effect a social insurance or pension system...

  1. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  2. 22 CFR 308.7 - Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved] 308.7 Section 308.7 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.7 Use of social security account number in records systems. [Reserved] ...

  3. On China’s Social Security System and Traditional Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢浙

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelation between China’s social security system and traditional Chinese culture, pointing out the meaning of the study, and that China’s social security system is a carrier and representation of traditional Chinese culture and

  4. Cyber-physical-social systems and constructs in electric power engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Roche, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cyber-physical-social systems (CPSS) integrate computing, physical assets and human networks. Divided into four application areas to the electric grid, this book describes state-of-the-art CPSS in electric power systems, including detailed approaches on social constructs which are a critical aspect of the end-user realm.

  5. Division III Student-Athletes' Experiences of Institutional Social and Academic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becht, Louis A., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to expand the literature on Division III student-athletes by examining their integration into the social and academic systems at one institution located in northeastern United States. This study examined participants' experiences within institutional social and academic systems designed for…

  6. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M; Gerlinger, K; Herrmann, N; Klein, R J.T.; Schneider, M; Sterr, H; Schellnhuber, H J

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  7. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  8. Social work at the Chinese Medicine system in Hong Kong: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-fong; Ng, Yat-nam; Bian, Zhao-xiang; Shi, Yan; Lee, Siu-ping; Ng, Ka-ying

    2008-01-01

    Dealing with health and disease is an area of concern for social workers. The establishment of medical social service in a health setting has more than 100 years of history in the USA and more than 60 years in Hong Kong. Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese Medicine (CM) used by the Hong Kong people, there has been no medical social service presence in the CM system. A pilot project demonstrated a successful interdisciplinary collaboration model between social work and CM irrespective of different social work methods, that is, individual work, groupwork, and community-based services. In this article, we will relate the opportunities and difficulties that we encountered in setting up the first medical social service in the CM system. Drawing on our experience, we found that both professions benefited from the interdisciplinary collaboration. CM was able to expand its scope of service to increase the service quality and promote primary health care in the community with the support of social work. Conversely, social workers found that CM is a good resource for providing innovative services to meet the various needs of the people in the community. There was also a ripple effect of incorporating CM elements into social service. The interface between the disciplines of social work and CM can widen the scope of their contributions on health. Implications for CM social service in social work will also be examined.

  9. A Markov chain model for image ranking system in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Thi Thi; Tin, Pyke; Toriu, Takashi; Hama, Hiromitsu

    2014-03-01

    In today world, different kinds of networks such as social, technological, business and etc. exist. All of the networks are similar in terms of distributions, continuously growing and expanding in large scale. Among them, many social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and many others provides a powerful abstraction of the structure and dynamics of diverse kinds of inter personal connection and interaction. Generally, the social network contents are created and consumed by the influences of all different social navigation paths that lead to the contents. Therefore, identifying important and user relevant refined structures such as visual information or communities become major factors in modern decision making world. Moreover, the traditional method of information ranking systems cannot be successful due to their lack of taking into account the properties of navigation paths driven by social connections. In this paper, we propose a novel image ranking system in social networks by using the social data relational graphs from social media platform jointly with visual data to improve the relevance between returned images and user intentions (i.e., social relevance). Specifically, we propose a Markov chain based Social-Visual Ranking algorithm by taking social relevance into account. By using some extensive experiments, we demonstrated the significant and effectiveness of the proposed social-visual ranking method.

  10. The Success and Failure of Social Risk Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarup Esbensen, Jacob

    stakeholders, not directly related to the business, who can raise issues that can have a significant impact on operations. Potentially threatening the MNCs ability to maintain its social license to operate and thereby initiating a stop of mining operation at a significant cost to the company. This paper...... is based on the case example of Teghout coppermolybdenum mine in North-Eastern Armenia, supplemented with evidence from other mining MNCs in the country, using interviews with key stakeholders, onsite fieldwork and public available information. It is found that MNCs in Armenia adopt a standards based...... social risk management strategy and that this strategy is based on the adoption of an international Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) standard promoted by the World Bank. However, the fieldwork reveal that local and regional stakeholders, from whom social risk rise, feel disengaged from the process...

  11. Using the social security system to deliver housing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Louise, Gee Wing

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the interaction between housing policy and the social security benefits that support housing costs. Analysis concerns the extent and type of State intervention in housing, thus explaining the dynamic between State and individual responsibility in housing policy. This thesis involves an exploration of the different treatment of the owner-occupied and the rented housing sectors, with reference to the social security benefits which fund ongoing housing costs. This thesis see...

  12. The Usage of Social Areas in University Campus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm ERÇEVİK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Universities aim to help students gain occupational skills through academic training and practice; to produce knowledge by carrying out applications and investigations which have scientific, social and economic bases, to prepare young people for com munity life by giving them duties and responsibilities; and finally, to make contributions to the social and educational level of the community. Moreover social and cultural activity areas in uni versities in which, apart from lecture halls, students spend most of their time during their educational, lives, are of great impor tance for social interaction. Social spaces, whose educational and awareness-raising role of preparing the youth for community life, are taken into account and of these areas, about their use of student assessment analysis is aimed. During this analysis, student views were investigated and compared at different university campus locations. Bahçeşehir University Beşiktaş Campus as a town university, Yıldız Teknik University Yıldız Merkez Campus as an in-town campus, Koç University Sarıyer Campus as a out-oftown campus were chosen as locations for the study. Statistical analysis is applied to the data obtained from the questionaries completed by students in the chosen universities. Following such investigations, findings relating to the sufficiency of social and cultural activity areas in campuses, their occupancy and reachability; and the user profile of the activity areas and town usage as a cultural area are obtained and evaluated.

  13. Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Etienne

    The concept of community of practice was not born in the systems theory tradition. It has its roots in attempts to develop accounts of the social nature of human learning inspired by anthropology and social theory (Lave, 1988; Bourdieu, 1977; Giddens, 1984; Foucault, 1980; Vygotsky, 1978). But the concept of community of practice is well aligned with the perspective of systems traditions. A community of practice itself can be viewed as a simple social system. And a complex social system can be viewed as constituted by interrelated communities of practice. In this essay I first explore the systemic nature of the concept at these two levels. Then I use this foundation to look at the applications of the concept, some of its main critiques, and its potential for developing a social discipline of learning.

  14. School Systems' Practices of Controlling Socialization during Principal Succession: Looking through the Lens of an Organizational Socialization Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Ed; Zepeda, Sally J.; Parylo, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of effective school leadership is well known. The inevitable changing of school leaders raises concerns over the successfulness of the succession process. Directly linked to leader succession is socialization; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the processes and practices of school systems that control the…

  15. Using the forest, people, fire agent-based social network model to investigate interactions in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige Fischer; Adam Korejwa; Jennifer Koch; Thomas Spies; Christine Olsen; Eric White; Derric Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire links social and ecological systems in dry-forest landscapes of the United States. The management of these landscapes, however, is bifurcated by two institutional cultures that have different sets of beliefs about wildfire, motivations for managing wildfire risk, and approaches to administering policy. Fire protection, preparedness, and response agencies often...

  16. [Social representations of municipal counselors regarding social control in health in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Pereira, Marcio Florentino; Cardoso, Antonio José Costa; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Claudia Dias

    2013-08-01

    This study seeks to analyze the social representations of municipal health counselors regarding social control in health. Sixty interviews were conducted with counselors of nineteen counties within the Integrated Federal District Region and Surrounding Areas (RIDE-DF). Data analysis was conducted with the use of French Alceste software, which included two thematic groups. The first dealt with the weaknesses of health councils, consisting of four categories: limitations in decision-making powers, bureaucratization of everyday practices, weaknesses in social participation and limitations in the practice of representation. The second dealt with the health system in RIDE-DF, consisting of only one category that expresses the precarious organization of health care in RIDE-DF. Social representation of social control, with a focus on social participation appears to be constrained by a ritual, namely the bureaucratization of policies and practices in the councils. This form of hierarchical and bureaucratic organization and operation of the council, based on a centralizing management model, has distanced the counselors from discussing health needs geared to the construction of public Health Projects.

  17. Social media use and educational preferences among first-year pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Kevin A; Singh-Franco, Devada; Sircar-Ramsewak, Feroza; Joseph, Shine; Sandars, John

    2013-01-01

    Social media may offer a means to engage students, facilitate collaborative learning, and tailor educational delivery for diverse learning styles. The purpose of this study is to characterize social media awareness among pharmacy students and determine perceptions toward integrating these tools in education. A 23-item survey was administered to 1st-year students at a multicampus college of pharmacy. Students (95% response rate; N = 196) most commonly used wikis (97%), social networking (91%), and videosharing (84%). Tools reported as never used or unknown included social bookmarking (89%), collaborative writing (84%), and RSS readers (73%). Respondents indicated that educational integration of social media would impact their ability to learn in a positive/very positive manner (75%) and make them feel connected/very connected (68%). Selectively targeting social media for educational integration and instructing pharmacy students how to employ a subset of these tools may be useful in engaging them and encouraging lifelong learning.

  18. Social work in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) System: rewards, challenges, roles and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beder, Joan; Postiglione, Paul

    2013-01-01

    For the social worker in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) System, numerous challenges are faced and met while serving the nation's Veterans. As part of the multidisciplinary team, social workers perform a variety of tasks and function in diverse roles. The qualitative survey research reported in this article sought to detail what social workers identified about the impact and rewards of their work and what they saw as the challenges and frustrations. In addition the social workers were asked to clarify their role with the patient and the family. Intervention strategies used in the course of the social workers interaction with the Veterans was also ascertained.

  19. Innovación en la promoción turística en medios y redes sociales: Un estudio comparativo entre destinos turísticos

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes Thomaz, Guilherme; Biz, Alexandre Augusto; Gândara, José Manoel G

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar las innovaciones en la promoción turística en los medios y redes sociales (Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Flickr, Tripadvisor, Blog y Social Bookmarking) de los sitios de Internet de gestión pública de los destinos turísticos nacionales e internacionales. Para elegir los sitios Web se definieron los siguientes criterios: 1º) sitio web de gestión pública del Estado de origen de los investigadores, y 2º) compararlo con los sitios web de gestión pública ...

  20. Social instability and immunity in rhesus monkeys: the role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, John P; Cole, Steven W

    2015-05-26

    Social instability can adversely affect endocrine, immune and health outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might mediate these effects. We conducted two studies with adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to understand how social conditions affect measures of SNS activity and immune function. In Experiment 1, animals were socialized in stable social conditions, then were switched to unstable (stressful) social conditions, then were returned to stable conditions. Analysis revealed quadratic effects for measures of behaviour, urinary metabolites of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and expression of immune response genes: as expected, social instability adversely impacted most measures, and the effects remediated upon re-imposition of stable conditions. Cortisol levels were unaffected. In Experiment 2, we used the sympathomimetic drug methamphetamine to challenge the SNS; animals also underwent socialization in stable or unstable groups. Surprisingly, while methamphetamine elevated plasma catecholamines, responses in lymph nodes tracked the social, and not the drug, condition: social instability upregulated the density of SNS fibres in lymph nodes and downregulated Type I interferon gene expression. Together, these results indicate that the SNS is extremely sensitive to social conditions; full understanding of the adverse effects of social instability on health should therefore incorporate measures of this health-relevant system. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil's social security system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Patrick Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.

  2. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil's social security system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Patrick Alves da; Puty, Claudio Alberto Castelo Branco; Silva, Marcelino Silva da; Carvalho, Solon Venâncio de; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2017-01-01

    Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government's proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts.

  3. Financial forecasts accuracy in Brazil’s social security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Long-term social security statistical forecasts produced and disseminated by the Brazilian government aim to provide accurate results that would serve as background information for optimal policy decisions. These forecasts are being used as support for the government’s proposed pension reform that plans to radically change the Brazilian Constitution insofar as Social Security is concerned. However, the reliability of official results is uncertain since no systematic evaluation of these forecasts has ever been published by the Brazilian government or anyone else. This paper aims to present a study of the accuracy and methodology of the instruments used by the Brazilian government to carry out long-term actuarial forecasts. We base our research on an empirical and probabilistic analysis of the official models. Our empirical analysis shows that the long-term Social Security forecasts are systematically biased in the short term and have significant errors that render them meaningless in the long run. Moreover, the low level of transparency in the methods impaired the replication of results published by the Brazilian Government and the use of outdated data compromises forecast results. In the theoretical analysis, based on a mathematical modeling approach, we discuss the complexity and limitations of the macroeconomic forecast through the computation of confidence intervals. We demonstrate the problems related to error measurement inherent to any forecasting process. We then extend this exercise to the computation of confidence intervals for Social Security forecasts. This mathematical exercise raises questions about the degree of reliability of the Social Security forecasts. PMID:28859172

  4. Social Novelty Investigation in the Juvenile Rat: Modulation by the μ-Opioid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C J W; Wilkins, K B; Mogavero, J N; Veenema, A H

    2015-10-01

    The drive to approach and explore novel conspecifics is inherent to social animals and may promote optimal social functioning. Juvenile animals seek out interactions with novel peers more frequently and find these interactions to be more rewarding than their adult counterparts. In the present study, we aimed to establish a behavioural paradigm to measure social novelty-seeking in juvenile rats and to determine the involvement of the opioid, dopamine, oxytocin and vasopressin systems in this behaviour. To this end, we developed the social novelty preference test to assess the preference of a juvenile rat to investigate a novel over a familiar (cage mate) conspecific. We show that across the juvenile period both male and female rats spend more time investigating a novel conspecific than a cage mate, independent of subject sex or repeated exposure to the test. We hypothesised that brain systems subserving social information processing and social motivation/reward (i.e. the opioid, dopamine, oxytocin, vasopressin systems) might support social novelty preference. To test this, receptor antagonists of each of these systems were administered i.c.v. prior to exposure to the social novelty preference test and, subsequently, to the social preference test, to examine the specificity of these effects. We find that μ-opioid receptor antagonism reduces novel social investigation in both the social novelty preference and social preference tests while leaving the investigation of a cage mate (social novelty preference test) or an object (social preference test) unaffected. In contrast, central blockade of dopamine D2 receptors (with eticlopride), oxytocin receptors (with des-Gly-NH2,d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]OVT) or vasopressin V1a receptors [with (CH2)5Tyr(Me2)AVP] failed to alter social novelty preference or social preference. Overall, we have established a new behavioural test to study social novelty-seeking behaviour in the juvenile rat and show that the μ-opioid system

  5. Social Shaping of CAPM/CIM and the Social System of the Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian

    1997-01-01

    This chapter deals with the transformation of production technology (CAPM and CIM) from general visions operating in discussions at the societal level or among consultants, unions etc. through to its implementation at the company level. The shaping of technology through political and social...

  6. Social deviance activates the brain's error-monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Rin; Liss, Alison; Rao, Monica; Singer, Zachary; Compton, Rebecca J

    2012-03-01

    Social psychologists have long noted the tendency for human behavior to conform to social group norms. This study examined whether feedback indicating that participants had deviated from group norms would elicit a neural signal previously shown to be elicited by errors and monetary losses. While electroencephalograms were recorded, participants (N = 30) rated the attractiveness of 120 faces and received feedback giving the purported average rating made by a group of peers. The feedback was manipulated so that group ratings either were the same as a participant's rating or deviated by 1, 2, or 3 points. Feedback indicating deviance from the group norm elicited a feedback-related negativity, a brainwave signal known to be elicited by objective performance errors and losses. The results imply that the brain treats deviance from social norms as an error.

  7. Semantically-enhanced advertisement recommender systems in social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pazahr, Ali

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la investigación es estudiar y diseñar un entorno de recomendación publicitaria en las redes sociales que puede ser enriquecido mediante tecnologías semánticas. A pesar de que existen muchas aplicaciones y soluciones para los sistemas de recomendación, en este estudio se diseña un framework robusto con un rendimiento adecuado para poder ser implementado en las redes sociales con el objetivo de ampliar los propósitos de negocio. De este objetivo principal se pueden ...

  8. Brain mechanisms of social comparison and their influence on the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2014-11-12

    Whenever we interact with others, we judge them and whenever we make such judgments, we compare them with ourselves, other people, or internalized standards. Countless social psychological experiments have shown that comparative thinking plays a ubiquitous role in person perception and social cognition as a whole. The topic of social comparison has recently aroused the interest of social neuroscientists, who have begun to investigate its neural underpinnings. The present article provides an overview of these neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies. We discuss recent findings on the consequences of social comparison on the brain processing of outcomes and highlight the role of the brain's reward system. Moreover, we analyze the relationship between the brain networks involved in social comparisons and those active during other forms of cognitive and perceptual comparison. Finally, we discuss potential future questions that research on the neural correlates of social comparison could address.

  9. Social touch modulates endogenous μ-opioid system activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri; Dunbar, Robin; Hirvonen, Jussi; Manninen, Sandra; Arponen, Eveliina; Machin, Anna; Hari, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    In non-human primates, opioid-receptor blockade increases social grooming, and the endogenous opioid system has therefore been hypothesized to support maintenance of long-term relationships in humans as well. Here we tested whether social touch modulates opioidergic activation in humans using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). Eighteen male participants underwent two PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a ligand specific to μ-opioid receptors (MOR). During the social touch scan, the participants lay in the scanner while their partners caressed their bodies in a non-sexual fashion. In the baseline scan, participants lay alone in the scanner. Social touch triggered pleasurable sensations and increased MOR availability in the thalamus, striatum, and frontal, cingulate, and insular cortices. Modulation of activity of the opioid system by social touching might provide a neurochemical mechanism reinforcing social bonds between humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Social Stratification of the German VET System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsch, Paula; Solga, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Germany is widely known for its vocational education and training (VET) system and its dual apprenticeship system in particular. What is often overlooked, however, is the vertical stratification within the German VET system. This is the focus of this study. Our analysis shows that the VET system, like the German school system, is highly…

  11. The Evolution of Confusion: soft systems methodology and social theory revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Houghton

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft Systems Methodology (SSM is a potentially powerful tool for improving the management of the complex social systems aspect of Information Systems. Yet if it is to be employed effectively IS managers need to understand the theory of social systems that makes SSM a meaningful practical approach. However finding out about that social theory is not straightforward. It is 20 years since the first discussions of the social reality implied by Soft Systems Methodology (SSM and the area has been given little attention since. Yet SSM itself has progressed dramatically since those first critiques of its underpinning social theory were first developed. This paper revisits the area in order to provide a contemporary perspective and foundation for future development. It reveals apparent weaknesses in the research debate about SSM and social theory, and shows how the evolution of SSM has apparently been affected by that debate. SSM is introduced and examined according to the primary literature and re-evaluated using Burrell and Morgan's four-paradigm matrix of social theory paradigms in order to understand the social reality implied by SSM. The paper examines criticisms of SSM, the recent evolution of SSM, and suggests future directions for development.

  12. The Structuring Principle: Political Socialization and Belief Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searing, Donald D.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Assesses the significance of data on childhood political learning to political theory by testing the structuring principle,'' considered one of the central assumptions of political socialization research. This principle asserts that basic orientations acquired during childhood structure the later learning of specific issue beliefs.'' The…

  13. A tabletop interactive storytelling system: designing for social interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alofs, Thijs; Theune, Mariet; Swartjes, I.M.T.

    This paper presents the Interactive Storyteller, a multi-user interface for AI-based interactive storytelling, where stories emerge from the interaction of human players with intelligent characters in a simulated story world. To support face-to-face contact and social interaction, we position users

  14. A Proposed Systems Model for Socializing the Graduate Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Although researchers chorus the need to support graduate students toward higher levels of writing proficiency, their findings lack a holistic model for doing so. A model emerges upon scrutiny of the factors that have been implicated in supporting writing proficiency. In the proposed model, a socialization theory fits as a proximal process into the…

  15. An integrated management systems approach to corporate social responsibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asif, M.; Searcy, C.; Zutshi, A.; Fisscher, O.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A great deal of research has emphasized the strategic management of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, gaps remain on how CSR can be effectively integrated with existing business processes. One key question remaining is how to design business processes so that they accommodate

  16. Workable Social Health Insurance Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the private sector in Africa is embracing joint health insurance schemes for their ... the unemployed, the under-employed and the unemployable (who ...... Agyepong, A.I. and Adjei, S., 2008, 'Public Social Policy Development and Implementation: .... Johannesburg, South Africa', WBI Learning Resource Series: World Bank.

  17. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems: Case Studies and Vignettes from Recent Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation sys...

  18. A DESIGN OF SOCIAL MEDIA ANALYSIS SYSTEM BASED ON MOBILE PLATFORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Yavuz, Levent

    2017-01-01

    Alongwith the developing technology, social media technologies have becomewidespread and the number of internet users has increased rapidly. In addition,social media platforms have become very popular and the number of active socialmedia users has increased considerably. As a result of the increased use ofsocial media, there has been a trend towards mobile platforms. In this paper, adesign of a social media analysis system is developed using mobile platformsbased on Android. By this way, impo...

  19. The Social Form of Wealth as a Dominant in the Development Potential of Modern Macroeconomic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silantiev Oleh I.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at researching the role of the social form of wealth and its constituents in the development potential of modern macroeconomic systems. The essence of social wealth has been disclosed and the concept of «social form of wealth» has been defined. The ability of social capital to promote materialization of the potential reserves of development of society is characterized, that is caused by its productive value when it develops itself and develops possibilities of increase of other forms of wealth in certain combinations. The ability of social capital to be integrated into a reproduced process at almost any stage of the latter has been determined. Presence of a controversy between the traditional capitalist way of production of wealth (with a focus on the growth of private wealth corporations and post-industrial (which in practice is manifested in the asymmetry of information has been proved. It has been determined that the social capital is considered as an individual property of everyone, which, however, can become a public (collective resource in whole or in part. The importance of the carried out research is an improvement of theoretical approaches to understanding how the volume of social wealth, accumulated by macroeconomic systems, impacts economic-social development. Prospects for further research are an in-depth study of the relationship between the social wealth of macroeconomic systems and the volume of their wealth.

  20. Applying Structural Systems Thinking to Frame Perspectives on Social Work Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erin J

    2017-03-01

    Innovation will be key to the success of the Grand Challenges Initiative in social work. A structural systems framework based in system dynamics could be useful for considering how to advance innovation. Diagrams using system dynamics conventions were developed to link common themes across concept papers written by social work faculty members and graduate students ( N = 19). Transdisciplinary teams and ethical partnerships with communities and practitioners will be needed to responsibly develop high-quality innovative solutions. A useful next step would be to clarify to what extent factors that could "make or break" these partnerships arise from within versus outside of the field of social work and how this has changed over time. Advancing innovation in social work will mean making decisions in a complex, ever-changing system. Principles and tools from methods that account for complexity, such as system dynamics, can help improve this decision-making process.

  1. Design of an Autonomous Social Orienting Training System (ASOTS) for Young Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Fu, Qiang; Zhao, Huan; Swanson, Amy R; Weitlauf, Amy S; Warren, Zachary E; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2017-06-01

    Social communication is among the core areas of impairment for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The training of social orientation is important for improving social communication of children with ASD. In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention had gained momentum due to its potential advantages in terms of precision, sustainability, flexibility and cost. In this paper, we propose a closed-loop autonomous computer system, named ASOTS, for training social orientation skills to young children with ASD. This system is designed to detect and track a child's attention in response to social orientation bids and help the child towards appropriate social orientation when needed. Response to name, an important social orientation skill, was used to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed system. Ten toddlers with ASD participated in a pilot user study to show whether the system could be used on young children who have been diagnosed with ASD. Another pilot user study with 10 TD infants tested whether this system has a potential to be applied for early detection for infants who were younger than the age when ASD diagnoses can be done. This was done intentionally to separately demonstrate utility and functionality for the clinical population of interest and to demonstrate functionality beyond current clinical identification capacity (i.e., infants). The results showed that the proposed system and the protocol were well tolerated by both groups, successfully captured young children's attention, and elicited the desired behavior.

  2. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  3. Social acceptance of negotiation support systems : Scenario-based exploration with focus groups and online survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommeranz, A.; Wiggers, P.; Brinkman, W.P.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate people’s attitudes toward the possible use of negotiation support systems (NSS) in different social contexts and the consequences for their design. To explore functional requirements and social acceptance in different use contexts, we followed a threestep approach. In the first step,

  4. Using a social-ecological systems perspective to understand tourism and landscape interactions in coastal areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heslinga, Jasper; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to look at the potential synergies between tourism and landscapes and examine the potential contribution of tourism to build social-ecological resilience in the Dutch Wadden. Design/methodology/approach The authors reveal how a social-ecological systems

  5. SecondLife as an Evaluation Platform for Multiagent Systems Featuring Social Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Rosina, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose to use SecondLife as an evaluation environment for multiagent systems that model social group dynamics and social interactions. To this end we developed a control interface for NPCs in SecondLife that allows for running supervised or unsupervised long-term evaluations. Thus...

  6. Comparisons of Social Competence in Young Children with and without Hearing Loss: A Dynamic Systems Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael F.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Cejas, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    This study compared levels of social competence and language development in 74 young children with hearing loss and 38 hearing peers aged 2.5-5.3 years. This study was the first to examine the relationship between oral language and social competence using a dynamic systems framework in children with and without hearing loss. We hypothesized that,…

  7. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  8. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  9. Toward social system theory: implications for older people with developmental disabilities and service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, P A

    1990-01-01

    The literature refers to older people with developmental disabilities as the "new service population." How and why this population emerged as a special category is discussed conceptually with reference to social systems theory. A brief review of social systems theory and some basic systemic tenets are presented. Systemic tenets are employed in examining the historical development of social gerontology and present trends in the service-delivery system. I show that the systemic variable of the economic model of human development has significantly impacted on the making of older people with developmental disabilities a dependent population. In the conclusion the systems perspective is explored in relation to recognizing the liminal, in-between parts between components. It is argued that such a perception minimizes the dichotomy between older people with developmental disabilities and the non-disabled population, paving the way for a genuine encounter.

  10. A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances R. Westley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling's adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado's model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent in complex adaptive systems, we propose a more coherent theory of strategic agency, which links particular strategies, on the part of transformative agents, to phases of system change.

  11. A Social Accountable Model for Medical Education System in Iran: A Grounded-Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Abdolmaleki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Social accountability has been increasingly discussed over the past three decades in various fields providing service to the community and has been expressed as a goal for various areas. In medical education system, like other social accountability areas, it is considered as one of the main objectives globally. The aim of this study was to seek a social accountability theory in the medical education system that is capable of identifying all the standards, norms, and conditions within the country related to the study subject and recognize their relationship. In this study, a total of eight experts in the field of social accountability in medical education system with executive or study experience were interviewedpersonally. After analysis of interviews, 379 codes, 59 secondary categories, 16 subcategories, and 9 main categories were obtained. The resulting data was collected and analyzed at three levels of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding in the form of grounded theory study of “Accountability model of medical education in Iran”, which can be used in education system’s policies and planning for social accountability, given that almost all effective components of social accountability in highereducation health system with causal and facilitator associations were determined.Keywords: SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY, COMMUNITY–ORIENTED MEDICINE, COMMUNITY MEDICINE, EDUCATION SYSTEM, GROUNDED THEORY

  12. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  13. Host social organization and mating system shape parasite transmission opportunities in three European bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J; Kerth, G

    2017-02-01

    For non-mobile parasites living on social hosts, infection dynamics are strongly influenced by host life history and social system. We explore the impact of host social systems on parasite population dynamics by comparing the infection intensity and transmission opportunities of three mite species of the genus Spinturnix across their three European bat hosts (Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, Myotis nattereri) during the bats' autumn mating season. Mites mainly reproduce in host maternity colonies in summer, but as these colonies are closed, opportunities for inter-colony transmission are limited to host interactions during the autumn mating season. The three investigated hosts differ considerably in their social system, most notably in maternity colony size, mating system, and degree of male summer aggregation. We observed marked differences in parasite infection during the autumn mating period between the species, closely mirroring the predictions made based on the social systems of the hosts. Increased host aggregation sizes in summer yielded higher overall parasite prevalence and intensity, both in male and female hosts. Moreover, parasite levels in male hosts differentially increased throughout the autumn mating season in concordance with the degree of contact with female hosts afforded by the different mating systems of the hosts. Critically, the observed host-specific differences have important consequences for parasite population structure and will thus affect the coevolutionary dynamics between the interacting species. Therefore, in order to accurately characterize host-parasite dynamics in hosts with complex social systems, a holistic approach that investigates parasite infection and transmission across all periods is warranted.

  14. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  15. Social Support System in Learning Network for lifelong learners: A Conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadeem, Danish; Stoyanov, Slavi; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Nadeem, D., Stoyanov, S., & Koper, R. (2009). Social support system in learning network for lifelong learners: A Conceptual framework [Special issue]. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning, 19(4/5/6), 337-351.

  16. Cloud-Based Social Media Visual Analytics Disaster Response System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a next-generation cloud-based social media visual analytics disaster response system that will enable decision-makers and first-responders to obtain...

  17. DEMOGRAPHIC AND LABOUR FORCE AGEING – RISK FACTORS FOR THE SOCIAL PROTECTION SYSTEM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria POENARU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Population ageing is one of the main challenges to the economic and social development in the next decades. This article examines the main implications of demographic and labour force ageing on the future of social protection in Romania. The first part presents the mechanisms which define or govern the relationships between social protection and demographic ageing. The second highlights the main risks for the future of the Romanian social protection system and of the people’s social protection derived from increasing dependence rates, including that of older people; also, derived from labour force distribution changing, by gender. The final part focuses on the employment situation of older persons and on trends of paid jobs (employees, both of them having an important impact on social protection.

  18. Symmetry in Social Construction during ERP Implementation: A Systems Security Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Njenga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of symmetry in enterprise resource planning (ERP systems implementation holds that the researcher should deploy impartial explanation in cases of success as in cases of failure. This article examines the symmetry intrinsic in social construction within the various stages of the ERP development life cycle, from initiation to implementation. Discourse on symmetry focuses on whether social constructs are able to influence ERP implementation positively (success or negatively (failure and whether this exposes ERP systems to information security risk. The theoretical lens of social construction of technology (SCOT theory, a theory premised on social interaction between agents and technology artefacts, is applied for this purpose. The research was quantitative with a survey having been conducted on information technology (IT and information security (IS practitioners. Results of the study highlight the significant role social construction plays because of the direct linkage it has with the implementation of information security controls in ERP systems.  The research delineated five social constructs, namely positional influence, reward influence, coercive influence, expert influence and referent influence. For purposes of this research and on the sampling criteria applied, the construct ‘expert influence’, a typology of social construction, is shown to be more domineering than other typologies of social construction and is seen as providing symmetrical balance between governing ERP security (success and risk (failure. Implications of these results for theory and practice are discussed in the main article.

  19. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L; Sullivan, Kathleen R; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2016-08-23

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants' reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents' intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants' reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants' reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant's sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants' systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people's social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others' food choices.

  20. Physicians' Self-Conceptions of Their Expertise in Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Wolfgang; Nüchtern, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Medical experts who practice social medicine have a strong ethical approach for their professional positions. Their reports must reflect an objective, independent, high-quality assessment of interactions between health status and the disability of individuals. However, they must simultaneously consider the societal involvement of these individuals when determining the framework of the Statutory Health Insurance and Social Security Systems. Their task is to recommend sociomedical benefits that are tailored to suit personal needs and that respect the individual life situations of the persons involved, thus complementing the efforts of healthcare professionals in clinical settings. The editorial describes the self-conception of this medical specialty on behalf of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). Policy makers in social insurances and social security systems generally must respect independent sociomedical recommendations as a crucial point for further realistic development activities.

  1. Systemic therapy and the social relational model of disability: enabling practices with people with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Therapy has been critiqued for personalizing the political (Kitzinger, 1993). The social-relational model (Thomas, 1999) is one theoretical resource for understanding the practices of therapy through a political lens. The social model(s) have viewed therapy with suspicion. This paper highlights – using composite case examples and the authors primary therapeutic modality, systemic therapy – some systemic practices with adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) that enact a position that it is s...

  2. [Disintegration of the prison system, public security and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixo, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    The defense of human rights, namely one of the most important duties of the legislature, is a considerable challenge in the day-to-day business of parliament. The opinions and practices of elected representatives reflect the security concerns and fears of society that engender a vast process of social exclusion. In this context, the defense of the right to health of persons deprived of liberty seems an especially difficult task, as shown in the interview of State Congressman Marcelo Freixo, the Coordinator of the Human Rights Commission of the Legislative Assembly in Rio de Janeiro and creator of the State Mechanism for Preventing and Combating Torture.

  3. Sustainability science: accounting for nonlinear dynamics in policy and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. Understanding resilience is critical for sustainability science, as linked social-ecological systems and the policy process that governs them are characterized by non-linear dynamics. Non-linear dynamics in these systems mean...

  4. Social Justice and Capacity for Self-Development in Educational Systems in European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores social justice and equity in educational policies and systems in the European Union, and analyzes the significance within. Equity indicators of the European educational systems, "Equity of the European Educational Systems: A set of indicators" declared in 2006, introduces the debates on educational justice issues on…

  5. A quantitative evaluation system of Chinese journals in the humanities and social sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Xinning; ZHOU; Ping

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyses on existing indicators for evaluating journals in the humanities and social sciences and our experience in constructing the Chinese Social Science Citation Index(CSSCI),we proposed a comprehensive system for evaluating Chinese academic journals in the humanities and social sciences.This system constitutes 8 primary indicators and 17 sub-indicators for multidisciplinary journals and 19 sub-indicators for discipline-specific journals.Each indicator or sub-indicator is assigned a suitable weight according to its importance in terms of measuring a journal’s academic quality and/or impact.

  6. Using a social-ecological systems perspective to understand tourism and landscape interactions in coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Hessel Heslinga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the potential synergies between tourism and landscapes and examine the potential contribution of tourism to build social-ecological resilience in the Dutch Wadden. Design/methodology/approach – The authors reveal how a social-ecological systems perspective can be used to conceptualize the Wadden as a coupled and dynamic system. This paper is a conceptual analysis that applies this approach to the Dutch Wadden. The data used for the inquiry primarily comes from a literature review. Findings – The authors argue that the social-ecological systems perspective is a useful approach and could be used to improve the governance of multi-functional socio-ecological systems in coastal areas. Opportunities for synergies between tourism and landscapes have been overlooked. The authors consider that tourism and nature protection are potentially compatible and that the synergies should be identified. Research limitations/implications – This paper is only a conceptual application rather than an empirical case study. Further research to actually apply the methodology is needed. Practical implications – Managers of protected areas should consider applying a social-ecological systems approach. Social implications – The views of a wide variety of stakeholders should be considered in landscape planning. Originality/value – The value of this paper lies in the articulation of the social-ecological systems perspective as a way to identify and understand the complex interactions between tourism and landscape, and the potential synergies between them.

  7. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  8. The immuno-dynamics of conflict intervention in social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, David C; Page, Karen; Flack, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    We present statistical evidence and dynamical models for the management of conflict and a division of labor (task specialization) in a primate society. Two broad intervention strategy classes are observed--a dyadic strategy--pacifying interventions, and a triadic strategy--policing interventions. These strategies, their respective degrees of specialization, and their consequences for conflict dynamics can be captured through empirically-grounded mathematical models inspired by immuno-dynamics. The spread of aggression, analogous to the proliferation of pathogens, is an epidemiological problem. We show analytically and computationally that policing is an efficient strategy as it requires only a small proportion of a population to police to reduce conflict contagion. Policing, but not pacifying, is capable of effectively eliminating conflict. These results suggest that despite implementation differences there might be universal features of conflict management mechanisms for reducing contagion-like dynamics that apply across biological and social levels. Our analyses further suggest that it can be profitable to conceive of conflict management strategies at the behavioral level as mechanisms of social immunity.

  9. The immuno-dynamics of conflict intervention in social systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Krakauer

    Full Text Available We present statistical evidence and dynamical models for the management of conflict and a division of labor (task specialization in a primate society. Two broad intervention strategy classes are observed--a dyadic strategy--pacifying interventions, and a triadic strategy--policing interventions. These strategies, their respective degrees of specialization, and their consequences for conflict dynamics can be captured through empirically-grounded mathematical models inspired by immuno-dynamics. The spread of aggression, analogous to the proliferation of pathogens, is an epidemiological problem. We show analytically and computationally that policing is an efficient strategy as it requires only a small proportion of a population to police to reduce conflict contagion. Policing, but not pacifying, is capable of effectively eliminating conflict. These results suggest that despite implementation differences there might be universal features of conflict management mechanisms for reducing contagion-like dynamics that apply across biological and social levels. Our analyses further suggest that it can be profitable to conceive of conflict management strategies at the behavioral level as mechanisms of social immunity.

  10. Surmountable Chasms: Networks and Social Innovation for Resilient Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex challenges demand complex solutions. By their very nature, these problems are difficult to define and are often the result of rigid social structures that effectively act as "traps". However, resilience theory and the adaptive cycle can serve as a useful framework for understanding how humans may move beyond these traps and towards the social innovation that is required to address many complex problems. This paper explores the critical question of whether networks help facilitate innovations to bridge the seemingly insurmountable chasms of complex problems to create change across scales, thereby increasing resilience. The argument is made that research has not yet adequately articulated the strategic agency that must be present within the network in order for cross scale interactions to occur. By examining institutional entrepreneurship through case studies and examples, this paper proposes that agency within networks requires specific skills from entrepreneurs, including ones that enable pattern generation, relationship building and brokering, knowledge and resource brokering, and network recharging. Ultimately, this begins to build a more complete understanding of how networks may improve human capacity to respond to complex problems and heighten overall resilience.

  11. Comparative Education: The Social Construction of the Modern World System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Meyer, John W.

    This paper is a critical assessment of the theory and evidence on three general issues in comparative education. It assesses the factors affecting the origins and expansion of national educational systems; the factors influencing the organizational structure and ideologies of systems of mass schooling and higher education; and the effects of…

  12. Social context predicts recognition systems in ant queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Stéphanie Agnès Jeanine; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of group-members is a key feature of sociality. Ants use chemical communication to discriminate nestmates from intruders, enhancing kin cooperation and preventing parasitism. The recognition code is embedded in their cuticular chemical profile, which typically varies between colonies....... We predicted that ants might be capable of accurate recognition in unusual situations when few individuals interact repeatedly, as new colonies started by two to three queens. Individual recognition would be favoured by selection when queens establish dominance hierarchies, because repeated fights...... for dominance are costly; but it would not evolve in absence of hierarchies. We previously showed that Pachycondyla co-founding queens, which form dominance hierarchies, have accurate individual recognition based on chemical cues. Here, we used the ant Lasius niger to test the null hypothesis that individual...

  13. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  14. Towards an evaluation framework for complex social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Diane M.; Kay, Nigel

    While there is growing realisation that the world in which we live in is highly complex with multiple interdependencies and irreducibly open to outside influence, how to make these 'systems' more manageable is still a significant outstanding issue. As (2004) suggests, applying the theoretical principles of Complex Systems may help solve complex problems in this complex world. While Bar-Yam provides examples of forward-thinking organisations which have begun to see the relevance of complex systems principles, for many organisations the language and concepts of complexity science such as self-organisation and unpredictability while they make theoretical sense offer no practical or acceptable method of implementation to those more familiar with definitive facts and classical hierarchical, deterministic approaches to control. Complexity Science explains why designed systems or interventions may not function as anticipated in differing environments, without providing a silver bullet which enables control or engineering of the system to ensure the desired results. One familiar process which might, if implemented with complex systems in mind, provide the basis of an accessible and understandable framework that enables policy makers and practitioners to better design and manage complex socio-technical systems is that of evaluation.

  15. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  16. Social Justice for Crossover Youth: The Intersection of the Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  17. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua ePoore

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation and non-social rewards (e.g., money and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward—social validation—and this activity’s relation to both attachment security and trust in the context of real romantic relationships. During the experiment, participants’ expectations for their romantic partners’ positive regard of them were confirmed (validated or violated, in either positive or negative directions. Primary analyses were conducted using predefined regions of interest, the locations of which were taken from previously published research. Results indicate that activity for mid-brain and striatal reward system regions of interest was modulated by social reward expectation violation in ways consistent with prior research on reward prediction-error. Additionally, activity in the striatum during viewing of disconfirmatory information was associated with both increases in post-scan reports of attachment anxiety and decreases in post-scan trust, a finding that follows directly from representational models of attachment and trust.

  18. Prediction-error in the context of real social relationships modulates reward system activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Joshua C; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Berkman, Elliot T; Inagaki, Tristen K; Welborn, Benjamin L; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    The human reward system is sensitive to both social (e.g., validation) and non-social rewards (e.g., money) and is likely integral for relationship development and reputation building. However, data is sparse on the question of whether implicit social reward processing meaningfully contributes to explicit social representations such as trust and attachment security in pre-existing relationships. This event-related fMRI experiment examined reward system prediction-error activity in response to a potent social reward-social validation-and this activity's relation to both attachment security and trust in the context of real romantic relationships. During the experiment, participants' expectations for their romantic partners' positive regard of them were confirmed (validated) or violated, in either positive or negative directions. Primary analyses were conducted using predefined regions of interest, the locations of which were taken from previously published research. Results indicate that activity for mid-brain and striatal reward system regions of interest was modulated by social reward expectation violation in ways consistent with prior research on reward prediction-error. Additionally, activity in the striatum during viewing of disconfirmatory information was associated with both increases in post-scan reports of attachment anxiety and decreases in post-scan trust, a finding that follows directly from representational models of attachment and trust.

  19. The Role of Control System in Increasing Corporate social Performance: The Use of Levers of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available One important instrument to be used in the control system design is strategic behaviors that can lead to the expected organization performance.  Referring to the extended definition of strategic behavior using stakeholder-based strategic behavior, corporate social performance is kind of strategic behavior to be influenced by using control system. This paper discusses how control system, using Simons‟ levers of control can play important role in increasing the corporate social performance. The interaction between control system, including belief system, boundary system, diagnostic control system, and interactive control system, as well as the corporate financial performance (CFP can affect the corporate social performance (CSP due to fact that increase in CFP resulting from the appropriate use of control system components enables the company has more chance to do the CSP. The levers of control are deemed to form an integral part of employee socialization and support the development of an organization‟s culture, the system of shared beliefs, values, norms, and mores of organizational members which are deemed to be a primary determinant of the direction of employee behavior.

  20. Towards A Self Adaptive System for Social Wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in science and technology have highlighted the importance of robust healthcare services, lifestyle services and personalized recommendations. For this purpose patient daily life activity recognition, profile information, and patient personal experience are required. In this research work we focus on the improvement in general health and life status of the elderly through the use of an innovative services to align dietary intake with daily life and health activity information. Dynamic provisioning of personalized healthcare and life-care services are based on the patient daily life activities recognized using smart phone. To achieve this, an ontology-based approach is proposed, where all the daily life activities and patient profile information are modeled in ontology. Then the semantic context is exploited with an inference mechanism that enables fine-grained situation analysis for personalized service recommendations. A generic system architecture is proposed that facilitates context information storage and exchange, profile information, and the newly recognized activities. The system exploits the patient’s situation using semantic inference and provides recommendations for appropriate nutrition and activity related services. The proposed system is extensively evaluated for the claims and for its dynamic nature. The experimental results are very encouraging and have shown better accuracy than the existing system. The proposed system has also performed better in terms of the system support for a dynamic knowledge-base and the personalized recommendations.

  1. Towards A Self Adaptive System for Social Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Pervez, Zeeshan; Iqbal, Farkhund; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-04-13

    Advancements in science and technology have highlighted the importance of robust healthcare services, lifestyle services and personalized recommendations. For this purpose patient daily life activity recognition, profile information, and patient personal experience are required. In this research work we focus on the improvement in general health and life status of the elderly through the use of an innovative services to align dietary intake with daily life and health activity information. Dynamic provisioning of personalized healthcare and life-care services are based on the patient daily life activities recognized using smart phone. To achieve this, an ontology-based approach is proposed, where all the daily life activities and patient profile information are modeled in ontology. Then the semantic context is exploited with an inference mechanism that enables fine-grained situation analysis for personalized service recommendations. A generic system architecture is proposed that facilitates context information storage and exchange, profile information, and the newly recognized activities. The system exploits the patient's situation using semantic inference and provides recommendations for appropriate nutrition and activity related services. The proposed system is extensively evaluated for the claims and for its dynamic nature. The experimental results are very encouraging and have shown better accuracy than the existing system. The proposed system has also performed better in terms of the system support for a dynamic knowledge-base and the personalized recommendations.

  2. Connectivity and discontinuity in social work practice: Challenges and opportunities of the implementation of an e-social work system in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mihai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency of the social work system in Romania, “investments in improving the current IT system in order to build an efficient electronic social work system” (Romanian Government, 2015b, 85 and the “development of a modern payment system” (Romanian Government, 2015b, 85 are key-points in the National Strategy concerning Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction for the period 2015-2020. Among other utilisations, the e-social work system is meant to be used by potential clients when submitting a request to benefit of means-tested measures. The current level of digitalisation of the Romanian society, particularly among vulnerable groups, leaves room for constructive debate regarding the feasibility and the potential challenges of such a project. The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges posed to social workers’ daily practice by the introduction of digitalisation in the work place, as well as its potential effects on the social worker-client professional relationship. We discuss based on the national strategies and data provided by the Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI (connectivity infrastructure and quality, digital skills of human capital, use of internet by citizens, integration and digital technology, and digital public services. We identify gaps between the aims and the proposed solutions concerning the e-social work system. Our study contributes to understanding the potential changes in social workers’ traditional roles brought forth by the implementation of a digitized social work system.

  3. Conversations with the community: the Methodist Hospital System's experience with social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelle, Denny; Rose, Clare L

    2011-01-01

    The Methodist Hospital System has maintained a social media presence on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube since 2009. After initial unofficial excursions into the world of social media, we discovered that social media can be a useful tool to extend a conversation with our patients and the community at large and share our hospital's culture with a larger base of like-minded people. But with this new power comes a heightened responsibility--platforms that can potentially reach millions of viewers and readers also provide a potential for misuse that can jeopardize patient privacy and place hospitals at risk. Because of their unique restrictions, even hospitals that use the tools regularly have much left to learn about social media. With constant monitoring and stewardship and a commitment to educating staff, hospitals can effectively use social media tools for marketing and education.

  4. Impairment of social behavior and communication in mice lacking the Uba6-dependent ubiquitin activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Kwak, Minseok; Lee, Peter C W

    2015-03-15

    The Uba6-Use1 ubiquitin enzyme cascade is a poorly understood arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome system required for mouse development. Recently, we reported that Uba6 brain-specific knockout (termed NKO) mice display abnormal social behavior and neuronal development due to a decreased spine density and accumulation of Ube3a and Shank3. To better characterize a potential role for NKO mice in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of the social behavior and communication of NKO mice. Our behavioral results confirmed that NKO mice display social impairments, as indicated by fewer vocalizations and decreased social interaction. We conclude that UBA6 NKO mice represent a novel ASD mouse model of anti-social and less verbal behavioral symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of chronic pain impact on patients, their social environment and the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Salazar, Alejandro; Mico, Juan Antonio; Failde, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) seriously affects the patient's daily activities and quality of life, but few studies on CP have considered its effects on the patient's social and family environment. In this work, through a review of the literature, we assessed several aspects of how CP influences the patient's daily activities and quality of life, as well as its repercussions in the workplace, and on the family and social environment. Finally, the consequences of pain on the health care system are discussed. On the basis of the results, we concluded that in addition to the serious consequences on the patient's life, CP has a severe detrimental effect on their social and family environment, as well as on health care services. Thus, we want to emphasize on the need to adopt a multidisciplinary approach to treatment so as to obtain more comprehensive improvements for patients in familial and social contexts. Accordingly, it would be beneficial to promote more social- and family-oriented research initiatives.

  6. How Does Football Influence the Political System and Juridify Social Movements? Brazil, June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Schwartz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to current trends in the analysis of new social movements, protests are related to economic issues or social inequalities, particularly those of a religious or ethnic nature which, in turn, produce new communications directed at the political system. The present study aims to determine the relationship between football and the social movements that occurred in Brazil in June 2013, as well as investigate the responses of the political system to these social grievances, centered primarily on the juridification of these social spheres. Thus, it focuses on how the legal and political systems absorb these communications into their self-referential logic. To that end, the methodology used is based on the structural functionalism of Niklas Luhmann and his theory of autopoietic social systems. The results demonstrate that both systems – political and legal – were significantly influenced by football, specifically by the substantial investments allocated to hosting the 2014 World Cup in Brazil which, when contrasted with the low return of public services in the country, reveal the root causes of June 2013. Según las tendencias actuales en el análisis de los nuevos movimientos sociales, las protestas están relacionadas con cuestiones económicas o desigualdades sociales, en particular las de carácter religioso o étnico que, a su vez, producen nuevas comunicaciones dirigidas al sistema político. Este estudio pretende determinar la relación entre el fútbol y los movimientos sociales que se produjeron en Brasil en junio de 2013, así como investigar las respuestas del sistema político a estas demandas sociales, centradas principalmente en la juridificación de estas esferas sociales. Por lo tanto, se centra en cómo los sistemas legales y políticos absorben estas comunicaciones en su lógica autorreferencial. Para ello, la metodología empleada se basa en el funcionalismo estructural de Niklas Luhmann y su teoría de los sistemas

  7. Selling Innovations Like Soap: The Interactive Systems Framework and Social Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlindon, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Despite the popularity and noted utility of Wandersman and colleagues' (2008) Interactive Systems Framework, the literature currently provides a primary focus on delivery organizations' and supportive stakeholders' capacities and strategies to implement innovations, presenting a critical gap in understanding. Unfortunately, reflective of a larger void in community dissemination and implementation efforts, there is a more limited focus on the dissemination of innovations. This paper presents the social marketing literature as a supplement to the Prevention Synthesis and Translation System (PSTS), the system responsible for dissemination. The study and practice of innovation synthesis and translation is examined in the literature; and based on the conclusions drawn, social marketing theory is used to provide a systematic approach to improving dissemination within the Interactive Systems Framework. Specifically, three gaps related to the PSTS are identified in the literature that align with and can be filled using social marketing. Social marketing is defined and presented as a supplement by providing theory and practices, within a systems context, for effectively communicating and influencing change. By blending social marketing with the Interactive Systems Framework, the aim is to improve the understanding of strategic communication and its role in the effective dissemination, and subsequent implementation, of innovations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  8. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Epstein

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The social-ecological systems framework was designed to provide a common research tool for interdisciplinary investigations of social-ecological systems. However, its origin in institutional studies of the commons belies its interdisciplinary ambitions and highlights its relatively limited attention to ecology and natural scientific knowledge. This paper considers the biophysical components of the framework and its epistemological foundations as it relates to the incorporation of knowledge from the natural sciences. It finds that the mixture of inductive and deductive reasoning associated with socially-oriented investigations of these systems is lacking on the ecological side, which relies upon induction alone. As a result the paper proposes the addition of a seventh core sub-system to the social-ecological systems framework, ecological rules, which would allow scholars to explicitly incorporate knowledge from the natural sciences for deductive reasoning. The paper shows, through an instructive case study, how the addition of ecological rules can provide a more nuanced description of the factors that contribute to outcomes in social-ecological systems.

  9. Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E; McClanahan, Timothy R; Daw, Tim M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Wilson, Shaun K; Hughes, Terence P

    2009-02-10

    The ecosystem goods and services provided by coral reefs are critical to the social and economic welfare of hundreds of millions of people, overwhelmingly in developing countries [1]. Widespread reef degradation is severely eroding these goods and services, but the socioeconomic factors shaping the ways that societies use coral reefs are poorly understood [2]. We examine relationships between human population density, a multidimensional index of socioeconomic development, reef complexity, and the condition of coral reef fish populations in five countries across the Indian Ocean. In fished sites, fish biomass was negatively related to human population density, but it was best explained by reef complexity and a U-shaped relationship with socioeconomic development. The biomass of reef fishes was four times lower at locations with intermediate levels of economic development than at locations with both low and high development. In contrast, average biomass inside fishery closures was three times higher than in fished sites and was not associated with socioeconomic development. Sustaining coral reef fisheries requires an integrated approach that uses tools such as protected areas to quickly build reef resources while also building capacities and capital in societies over longer time frames to address the complex underlying causes of reef degradation.

  10. Climate system properties determining the social cost of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Alexander; Allen, Myles R; Todd, Benjamin J; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J

    2013-01-01

    The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations. (letter)

  11. Climate system properties determining the social cost of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Alexander; Todd, Benjamin J.; Bowerman, Niel; Frame, David J.; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-06-01

    The choice of an appropriate scientific target to guide global mitigation efforts is complicated by uncertainties in the temperature response to greenhouse gas emissions. Much climate policy discourse has been based on the equilibrium global mean temperature increase following a concentration stabilization scenario. This is determined by the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) which, in many studies, shows persistent, fat-tailed uncertainty. However, for many purposes, the equilibrium response is less relevant than the transient response. Here, we show that one prominent policy variable, the social cost of carbon (SCC), is generally better constrained by the transient climate response (TCR) than by the ECS. Simple analytic expressions show the SCC to be directly proportional to the TCR under idealized assumptions when the rate at which we discount future damage equals 2.8%. Using ensemble simulations of a simple climate model we find that knowing the true value of the TCR can reduce the relative uncertainty in the SCC substantially more, up to a factor of 3, than knowing the ECS under typical discounting assumptions. We conclude that the TCR, which is better constrained by observations, less subject to fat-tailed uncertainty and more directly related to the SCC, is generally preferable to the ECS as a single proxy for the climate response in SCC calculations.

  12. Research on Corporate Social Responsibility of Supply Chain System Based on the Self-organization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baoying Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of supply chain system are analyzed based on the Self-organization theory from the angle of view of supply chain system. The mathematical models when the system fulfilling social responsibility including self-organization evolution model and self-organization function model are developed to discuss the formation and function of self-organization in supply chain system and coordination. Some basic conditions and tactics about self-organization establishment a...

  13. Lithium NLP: A System for Rich Information Extraction from Noisy User Generated Text on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Preeti; Spasojevic, Nemanja; Hu, Guoning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Lithium Natural Language Processing (NLP) system - a resource-constrained, high- throughput and language-agnostic system for information extraction from noisy user generated text on social media. Lithium NLP extracts a rich set of information including entities, topics, hashtags and sentiment from text. We discuss several real world applications of the system currently incorporated in Lithium products. We also compare our system with existing commercial and acad...

  14. When high pressure, system constraints, and a social justice mission collide: A socio-structural analysis of emergency department social work services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Megan; Cristofalo, Margaret; Dotolo, Danae; Torres, Nicole; Lahdya, Alexandra; Ho, Leyna; Vogel, Mia; Forrester, Mollie; Conley, Bonnie; Fouts, Susan

    2017-04-01

    The emergency department (ED) can be a critical intervention point for many patients with multifaceted needs. Social workers have long been part of interdisciplinary ED teams. This study aimed to contribute to the limited understanding of social worker-patient interactions and factors influencing social work services in this setting. This paper reports a qualitative content analysis of social work medical record notes (N = 1509) of services provided to trauma patients in an urban, public, level 1 trauma center and an in-depth analysis of semi-structured interviews with ED social workers (N = 10). Eight major social work roles were identified: investigator, gatekeeper, resource broker, care coordinator, problem solver, crisis manager, advocate, discharge planner. Analyses revealed a complex interplay between ED social work services and multi-layered contexts. Using a social-ecological framework, we identified the interactions between micro or individual level factors, mezzo or local system level factors and macro environmental and systemic factors that play a role in ED interactions and patient services. Macro-level contextual influences were socio-structural forces including socioeconomic barriers to health, social hierarchies that reflected power differentials between providers and patients, and distrust or bias. Mezzo-level forces were limited resources, lack of healthcare system coordination, a challenging hierarchy within the medical model and the pressure to discharge patients quickly. Micro-level factors included characteristics of patients and social workers, complexity of patient stressors, empathic strain, lack of closure and compassion. All of these forces were at play in patient-social worker interactions and impacted service provision. Social workers were at times able to successfully navigate these forces, yet at other times these challenges were insurmountable. A conceptual model of ED social work and the influences on the patient-social worker

  15. Dysfunction of serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems in the antidepressant-resistant impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sho; Miyake, Yuriko; Yoshimi, Akira; Mouri, Akihiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-03-29

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days. Social behaviors were assessed at 1 and 15 days after the last stress exposure. Monoamine turnover was determined in specific regions of the brain in the mice exposed to the stress. Stress exposure as juveniles induced the impairment of social behaviors in adolescent mice. In mice that showed the impairment of social behaviors, turnover of the serotonin and dopamine, but not noradrenaline was decreased in specific brain regions. Acute and repeated administration of desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole failed to attenuate the impairment of social behaviors, whereas repeated administration of a combination of sertraline and aripiprazole showed additive attenuating effects. These findings suggest that social defeat stress exposure as juveniles induces the treatment-resistant impairment of social behaviors in adolescents through dysfunction in the serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems. The combination of sertraline and aripiprazole may be used as a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

  16. Scale Mismatches in Social-Ecological Systems: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme S. Cumming

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale is a concept that transcends disciplinary boundaries. In ecology and geography, scale is usually defined in terms of spatial and temporal dimensions. Sociological scale also incorporates space and time, but adds ideas about representation and organization. Although spatial and temporal location determine the context for social and ecological dynamics, social-ecological interactions can create dynamic feedback loops in which humans both influence and are influenced by ecosystem processes. We hypothesize that many of the problems encountered by societies in managing natural resources arise because of a mismatch between the scale of management and the scale(s of the ecological processes being managed. We use examples from southern Africa and the southern United States to address four main questions: (1 What is a "scale mismatch?" (2 How are scale mismatches generated? (3 What are the consequences of scale mismatches? (4 How can scale mismatches be resolved? Scale mismatches occur when the scale of environmental variation and the scale of social organization in which the responsibility for management resides are aligned in such a way that one or more functions of the social-ecological system are disrupted, inefficiencies occur, and/or important components of the system are lost. They are generated by a wide range of social, ecological, and linked social-ecological processes. Mismatches between the scales of ecological processes and the institutions that are responsible for managing them can contribute to a decrease in social-ecological resilience, including the mismanagement of natural resources and a decrease in human well-being. Solutions to scale mismatches usually require institutional changes at more than one hierarchical level. Long-term solutions to scale mismatch problems will depend on social learning and the development of flexible institutions that can adjust and reorganize in response to changes in ecosystems. Further research is

  17. A SYSTEM APPROACH TO ORGANISING PROTECTION FROM TARGETED INFORMATION IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Tumbinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The aim of the study is to formalise a generalised algorithm for the distribution of targeted information in social networks, serving as the basis for a methodology for increasing personal information security. Method The research is based on the methodology of protection from unwanted information distributed across social network systems. Results The article presents the formalisation of an algorithm for the distribution of targeted information across social networks: input and output parameters are defined and the algorithm’s internal conditions are described, consisting of parameters for implementing attack scenarios, which variation would allow them to be detailed. A technique for protection from targeted information distributed across social networks is proposed, allowing the level of protection of personal data and information of social networks users to be enhanced, as well as the reliability of information increased. Conclusion The results of the research will help to prevent threats to information security, counteract attacks by intruders who often use methods of competitive intelligence and social engineering through the use of countermeasures. A model for protection against targeted information and implement special software for its integration into online social network social information systems is developed. The system approach will allow external monitoring of events in social networks to be carried out and vulnerabilities identified in the mechanisms of instant messaging, which provide opportunities for attacks by intruders. The results of the research make it possible to apply a network approach to the study of informal communities, which are actively developing today, at a new level. 

  18. Response of the μ-opioid system to social rejection and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, D T; Sanford, B J; Meyers, K K; Love, T M; Hazlett, K E; Wang, H; Ni, L; Walker, S J; Mickey, B J; Korycinski, S T; Koeppe, R A; Crocker, J K; Langenecker, S A; Zubieta, J-K

    2013-11-01

    The endogenous opioid system, which alleviates physical pain, is also known to regulate social distress and reward in animal models. To test this hypothesis in humans (n=18), we used an μ-opioid receptor (MOR) radiotracer to measure changes in MOR availability in vivo with positron emission tomography during social rejection (not being liked by others) and acceptance (being liked by others). Social rejection significantly activated the MOR system (i.e., reduced receptor availability relative to baseline) in the ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus and periaqueductal gray (PAG). This pattern of activation is consistent with the hypothesis that the endogenous opioids have a role in reducing the experience of social pain. Greater trait resiliency was positively correlated with MOR activation during rejection in the amygdala, PAG and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), suggesting that MOR activation in these areas is protective or adaptive. In addition, MOR activation in the pregenual ACC was correlated with reduced negative affect during rejection. In contrast, social acceptance resulted in MOR activation in the amygdala and anterior insula, and MOR deactivation in the midline thalamus and sgACC. In the left ventral striatum, MOR activation during acceptance predicted a greater desire for social interaction, suggesting a role for the MOR system in social reward. The ventral striatum, amygdala, midline thalamus, PAG, anterior insula and ACC are rich in MORs and comprise a pathway by which social cues may influence mood and motivation. MOR regulation of this pathway may preserve and promote emotional well being in the social environment.

  19. Exploiting Rating Abstention Intervals for Addressing Concept Drift in Social Network Recommender Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Margaris

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems that social networks face is the continuous production of successful, user-targeted information in the form of recommendations, which are produced exploiting technology from the field of recommender systems. Recommender systems are based on information about users’ past behavior to formulate recommendations about their future actions. However, as time goes by, social network users may change preferences and likings: they may like different types of clothes, listen to different singers or even different genres of music and so on. This phenomenon has been termed as concept drift. In this paper: (1 we establish that when a social network user abstains from rating submission for a long time, it is a strong indication that concept drift has occurred and (2 we present a technique that exploits the abstention interval concept, to drop from the database ratings that do not reflect the current social network user’s interests, thus improving prediction quality.

  20. Anatomical differences in the mirror neuron system and social cognition network in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Joseph, Robert M; Snyder, Josh; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2006-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired social and emotional skills, the anatomical substrate of which is still unknown. In this study, we compared a group of 14 high-functioning ASD adults with a group of controls matched for sex, age, intelligence quotient, and handedness. We used an automated technique of analysis that accurately measures the thickness of the cerebral cortex and generates cross-subject statistics in a coordinate system based on cortical anatomy. We found local decreases of gray matter in the ASD group in areas belonging to the mirror neuron system (MNS), argued to be the basis of empathic behavior. Cortical thinning of the MNS was correlated with ASD symptom severity. Cortical thinning was also observed in areas involved in emotion recognition and social cognition. These findings suggest that the social and emotional deficits characteristic of autism may reflect abnormal thinning of the MNS and the broader network of cortical areas subserving social cognition.

  1. How Can a Global Social Support System Hope to Achieve Fairer Competiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ooms et al sets out some good general principles for a global social support system to improve fairer global competitiveness as a result of redistribution. This commentary sets out to summarize some of the conditions that would need to be satisfied for it to level up gradients in inequality through such a social support system, using the National Basketball Association (NBA) example as a point of reference. From this, the minimal conditions are described that would be required for the support system, proposed in the article by Ooms et al, to succeed. PMID:26927594

  2. Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, R.D.; Niles, M.T.; Gil, J.D.B.; Gaudin, A.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Assmann, A.; Assmann, T.S.; Brewer, K.; Faccio Carvalho, de P.C.; Cortner, O.; Dynes, R.; Garbach, K.; Kebreab, E.; Mueller, N.; Peterson, C.; Reis, J.C.; Snow, V.; Valentim, J.

    2017-01-01

    Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the

  3. Culturally grounded indicators of resilience in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor Sterling; Tamara Ticktin; Tē Kipa Kepa Morgan; Georgina Cullman; Diana Alvira; Pelika Andrade; Nadia Bergamini; Erin Betley; Kate Burrows; Sophie Caillon; Joachim Claudet; Rachel Dacks; Pablo Eyzaguirre; Chris Filardi; Nadav Gazit; Christian Giardina; Stacy Jupiter; Kealohanuiopuna Kinney; Joe McCarter; Manuel Mejia; Kanoe Morishige; Jennifer Newell; Lihla Noori; John Parks; Pua‘ala Pascua; Ashwin Ravikumar; Jamie Tanguay; Amanda Sigouin; Tina Stege; Mark Stege; Alaka Wali

    2017-01-01

    Measuring progress toward sustainability goals is a multifaceted task. International, regional, and national organizations and agencies seek to promote resilience and capacity for adaptation at local levels. However, their measurement systems may be poorly aligned with local contexts, cultures, and needs. Understanding how to build effective, culturally grounded...

  4. The relationship between social capital and quality management systems in European hospitals: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Dersarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could have important implications for the work of

  5. The Relationship between Social Capital and Quality Management Systems in European Hospitals: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Antje; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; DerSarkissian, Maral; Thompson, Caroline A.; Mannion, Russell; Wagner, Cordula; Ommen, Oliver; Sunol, Rosa; Pfaff, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic leadership is an important organizational capability and is essential for quality improvement in hospital settings. Furthermore, the quality of leadership depends crucially on a common set of shared values and mutual trust between hospital management board members. According to the concept of social capital, these are essential requirements for successful cooperation and coordination within groups. Objectives We assume that social capital within hospital management boards is an important factor in the development of effective organizational systems for overseeing health care quality. We hypothesized that the degree of social capital within the hospital management board is associated with the effectiveness and maturity of the quality management system in European hospitals. Methods We used a mixed-method approach to data collection and measurement in 188 hospitals in 7 European countries. For this analysis, we used responses from hospital managers. To test our hypothesis, we conducted a multilevel linear regression analysis of the association between social capital and the quality management system score at the hospital level, controlling for hospital ownership, teaching status, number of beds, number of board members, organizational culture, and country clustering. Results The average social capital score within a hospital management board was 3.3 (standard deviation: 0.5; range: 1-4) and the average hospital score for the quality management index was 19.2 (standard deviation: 4.5; range: 0-27). Higher social capital was associated with higher quality management system scores (regression coefficient: 1.41; standard error: 0.64, p=0.029). Conclusion The results suggest that a higher degree of social capital exists in hospitals that exhibit higher maturity in their quality management systems. Although uncontrolled confounding and reverse causation cannot be completely ruled out, our new findings, along with the results of previous research, could

  6. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  7. Theory of Systems and Social-Political Realities of Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of forming the theory of systems as a scientific paradigm of social-humanitarian cognition. Focusing their attention on the interpretations of the structural composition of a political system, the authors analyze the relations between the state and the citizens of modern Russia, the actually effective mechanisms of interaction between the authorities and public associations.

  8. Some Issues in connection with the Improvement of the Social Accounting Systems of Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. van Heemst (Jan)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractThere is growing awareness nowadays that the social accounting systems of developing countries are generally inadequate for purposes of analysis and planning. This inadequacy relates to the quality of the data contained in the systems as well as to their structure. The quality is

  9. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of Child Welfare Systems: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a "priori" measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate…

  10. Revisiting Bourdieu: Alternative Educational Systems in the Light of the Theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…

  11. Integrating social science into empirical models of coupled human and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Eric M. White; A Paige Fischer; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Susan Charnley; Christine S. Olsen; Thomas A. Spies; John D. Bailey

    2017-01-01

    Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks) between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challenges for social...

  12. Environmental Education for Social-Ecological System Resilience: A Perspective from Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to integrate environmental education, with a focus on building capacity at the level of the individual, with frameworks for resilience, with a focus on adaptive capacity at the level of the social-ecological system. Whereas previous work has focused on enhancing system-level capacity through building adaptive capacity in…

  13. Integrating Social Aspect into Sustainability Assessment of Bio-Based Industries: Towards a Systemic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiaani, P.; Van Passel, S.; Lebailly, Philippe; Kuppens, T.; Azadi, Hossein; Van Dael, M.

    2016-01-01

    Biobased industries require to be assessed on their positive and negative impacts on sustainable development. However, social factors are usually neglected in the majority of impact assessments of biobased industries: they are mainly focused on environmental performance and (techno)- economic assessments. This review proposes a new systemic approach for assessing and integrating the social dimension into sustainability assessments of biobased industries. First the main methodologies for as...

  14. Not just another variable: untangling the spatialities of power in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah L. Ingalls

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased attention has been paid to how the spatial dimensions of social-ecological systems are formative in shaping their ability to negotiate change and remain resilient. This paper moves this research further by exploring how diverse forms of power play a crucial role in shaping these spatial dimensions and the production of social-ecological outcomes. Grounding these explorations in a National Protected Area in Lao PDR, this paper explores how power relationships operate through the spatial and temporal domains of complex systems. Findings suggest (at least four important insights: (1 the exercise of power materializes in policies and programs and becomes written onto the spaces of social-ecological systems through boundary creation, zonation, and other social processes that (redefine spatial meanings; these meanings vary by social actor; (2 policies and programs map out unevenly across space and time as they interact with antecedent social-ecological conditions in ways that preclude linear causal relationships between policy and outcomes; (3 although local in their expression, spatialized disputes in social-ecological systems draw on cross-scalar discourses and networks of power to bolster, undermine, and (delegitimize competing environmental and social narratives; and (4 however powerful institutions and actor-networks may be, they are never fully hegemonic as they are attenuated by other discourses and operations of power, although these all play out across a highly uneven sociopolitical terrain. Paying greater attention to the spatial and temporal dynamics of power may be much more than a project of introducing yet another variable into the already complex admixture of analytic elements. Rather, by rendering these explicit as objects of analysis, common insights may change entirely or even be overturned.

  15. Humans and Seagrasses in East Africa : A social-ecological systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela

    2006-01-01

    The present study is one of the first attempts to analyze the societal importance of seagrasses (marine flowering plants) from a Natural Resource Management perspective, using a social-ecological systems (SES) approach. The interdisciplinary study takes place in East Africa (Western Indian Ocean, WIO) and includes in-depth studies in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Natural and social sciences methods were used. The results are presented in six articles, showing that seagrass ecosystems are ri...

  16. Social cost considerations and legal constraints in implementing modular integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lede, N. W.; Dixon, H. W.; King, O.; Hill, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Social costs associated with the design, demonstration, and implementation of the Modular Integrated Utility System are considered including the social climate of communities, leadership patterns, conflicts and cleavages, specific developmental values, MIUS utility goal assessment, and the suitability of certian alternative options for use in a program of implementation. General considerations are discussed in the field of socio-technological planning. These include guidelines for understanding the conflict and diversity; some relevant goal choices and ideas useful to planners of the MIUS facility.

  17. Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Fair, Alistair; Wistow, Jonathan; Val, Dimitri V; Oven, Katie

    2017-12-05

    This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience. We highlight a number of general conclusions which are likely to be of international relevance, although the review focussed on the situation in the UK. Extreme weather events impact the operation of health services through the effects on built, social and institutional infrastructures which support health and health care, and also because of changes in service demand as extreme weather impacts on human health. Strategic planning for extreme weather and impacts on the care system should be sensitive to within country variations. Adaptation will require changes to built infrastructure systems (including transport and utilities as well as individual care facilities) and also to institutional and social infrastructure supporting the health care system. Care sector organisations, communities and individuals need to adapt their practices to improve resilience of health and health care to extreme weather. Preparedness and emergency response strategies call for action extending beyond the emergency response services, to include health and social care providers more generally.

  18. Collective learning for the emergence of social norms in networked multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui

    2014-12-01

    Social norms such as social rules and conventions play a pivotal role in sustaining system order by regulating and controlling individual behaviors toward a global consensus in large-scale distributed systems. Systematic studies of efficient mechanisms that can facilitate the emergence of social norms enable us to build and design robust distributed systems, such as electronic institutions and norm-governed sensor networks. This paper studies the emergence of social norms via learning from repeated local interactions in networked multiagent systems. A collective learning framework, which imitates the opinion aggregation process in human decision making, is proposed to study the impact of agent local collective behaviors on the emergence of social norms in a number of different situations. In the framework, each agent interacts repeatedly with all of its neighbors. At each step, an agent first takes a best-response action toward each of its neighbors and then combines all of these actions into a final action using ensemble learning methods. Extensive experiments are carried out to evaluate the framework with respect to different network topologies, learning strategies, numbers of actions, influences of nonlearning agents, and so on. Experimental results reveal some significant insights into the manipulation and control of norm emergence in networked multiagent systems achieved through local collective behaviors.

  19. Vulnerability and risk of deltaic social-ecological systems exposed to multiple hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenlocher, Michael; Renaud, Fabrice G; Haas, Susanne; Sebesvari, Zita

    2018-08-01

    Coastal river deltas are hotspots of global change impacts. Sustainable delta futures are increasingly threatened due to rising hazard exposure combined with high vulnerabilities of deltaic social-ecological systems. While the need for integrated multi-hazard approaches has been clearly articulated, studies on vulnerability and risk in deltas either focus on local case studies or single hazards and do not apply a social-ecological systems perspective. As a result, vulnerabilities and risks in areas with strong social and ecological coupling, such as coastal deltas, are not fully understood and the identification of risk reduction and adaptation strategies are often based on incomplete assumptions. To overcome these limitations, we propose an innovative modular indicator library-based approach for the assessment of multi-hazard risk of social-ecological systems across and within coastal deltas globally, and apply it to the Amazon, Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM), and Mekong deltas. Results show that multi-hazard risk is highest in the GBM delta and lowest in the Amazon delta. The analysis reveals major differences between social and environmental vulnerability across the three deltas, notably in the Mekong and the GBM deltas where environmental vulnerability is significantly higher than social vulnerability. Hotspots and drivers of risk vary spatially, thus calling for spatially targeted risk reduction and adaptation strategies within the deltas. Ecosystems have been identified as both an important element at risk as well as an entry point for risk reduction and adaptation strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship—an interdisciplinary literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkoreit, Manjana; Hodbod, Jennifer; Baggio, Jacopo; Benessaiah, Karina; Calderón-Contreras, Rafael; Donges, Jonathan F.; Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rocha, Juan Carlos; Schoon, Michael; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-03-01

    The term tipping point has experienced explosive popularity across multiple disciplines over the last decade. Research on social-ecological systems (SES) has contributed to the growth and diversity of the term’s use. The diverse uses of the term obscure potential differences between tipping behavior in natural and social systems, and issues of causality across natural and social system components in SES. This paper aims to create the foundation for a discussion within the SES research community about the appropriate use of the term tipping point, especially the relatively novel term ‘social tipping point.’ We review existing literature on tipping points and similar concepts (e.g. regime shifts, critical transitions) across all spheres of science published between 1960 and 2016 with a special focus on a recent and still small body of work on social tipping points. We combine quantitative and qualitative analyses in a bibliometric approach, rooted in an expert elicitation process. We find that the term tipping point became popular after the year 2000—long after the terms regime shift and critical transition—across all spheres of science. We identify 23 distinct features of tipping point definitions and their prevalence across disciplines, but find no clear taxonomy of discipline-specific definitions. Building on the most frequently used features, we propose definitions for tipping points in general and social tipping points in SES in particular.

  1. Social Work Assessment Notes: A Comprehensive Outcomes-Based Hospice Documentation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Angela Gregory; Martin, Ellen; Jones, Barbara L; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the development of an integrated psychosocial patient and caregiver assessment and plan of care for hospice social work documentation. A team of hospice social workers developed the Social Work Assessment Notes as a quality improvement project in collaboration with the information technology department. Using the Social Work Assessment Tool as an organizing framework, this comprehensive hospice social work documentation system is designed to integrate assessment, planning, and outcomes measurement. The system was developed to guide the assessment of patients' and caregivers' needs related to end-of-life psychosocial issues, to facilitate collaborative care plan development, and to measure patient- and family-centered outcomes. Goals established with the patient and the caregiver are documented in the plan of care and become the foundation for patient-centered, strengths-based interventions. Likert scales are used to assign numerical severity levels for identified issues and progress made toward goals and to track the outcome of social work interventions across nine psychosocial constructs. The documentation system was developed for use in an electronic health record but can be used for paper charting. Future plans include automated aggregate outcomes measurement to identify the most effective interventions and best practices in end-of-life care.

  2. Impact of power plants on aquatic systems: a social perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed are: aquatic effects of thermal electric power stations; legal aspects of water pollution; EPA provisions for levels of thermal discharges to assure protection and propagation of a balanced, indigenous population of shellfish, fish, and wildlife in a body of water; cost benefit analysis of steam electric power effluents; cooling systems and siting of power plants; simulation modeling of population dynamics; and sociological aspects of water pollution

  3. Social response to nuclear power and alternative energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Bulaon, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Phase I of this study analyzed attitudes and beliefs of respondents drawn from Metro Manila. The second phase utilized a sample drawn from residents near a geothermal power plant site in the Southern Philippines. Four dimensions of beliefs (psychological environmental risks, technological benefits/development, economic benefits/implications, and socio-political/implications/benefit) were identified through factor analysis of beliefs items on nuclear energy and refined empirically to determine perceptions of respondents about all other energy systems. Identification of the relationship between dimensions provided insight into the shared perceptions about each energy system held by the various groups of respondents. The overall attitude of the respondents towards energy systems (nuclear, solar, hydro, geothermal and oil) was determined using three attitude measures: the Fishbein model, Osgood's semantic differential technique, and direct response to unfavorability/favorability scale. The belief dimensions were correlated with the attitude measures to determine the degree of contribution to attitude. A comparative analysis was made to different attitudes and beliefs held by the PRO and CON nuclear groups and by the subsamples: university students, science teachers and barangay leaders of Metro Manila sample. Attitudes and beliefs relating to the demographic variables were also examined for the two samples. (author)

  4. Matching Social and Ecological Systems in Complex Ocean Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Wilson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers ocean fisheries as complex adaptive systems and addresses the question of how human institutions might be best matched to their structure and function. Ocean ecosystems operate at multiple scales, but the management of fisheries tends to be aimed at a single species considered at a single broad scale. The paper argues that this mismatch of ecological and management scale makes it difficult to address the fine-scale aspects of ocean ecosystems, and leads to fishing rights and strategies that tend to erode the underlying structure of populations and the system itself. A successful transition to ecosystem-based management will require institutions better able to economize on the acquisition of feedback about the impact of human activities. This is likely to be achieved by multiscale institutions whose organization mirrors the spatial organization of the ecosystem and whose communications occur through a polycentric network. Better feedback will allow the exploration of fine-scale science and the employment of fine-scale fishing restraints, better adapted to the behavior of fish and habitat. The scale and scope of individual fishing rights also needs to be congruent with the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Place-based rights can be expected to create a longer private planning horizon as well as stronger incentives for the private and public acquisition of system relevant knowledge.

  5. Social Sensors (S2ensors): A Kind of Hardware-Software-Integrated Mediators for Social Manufacturing Systems Under Mass Individualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Jiang, Ping-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Currently, little work has been devoted to the mediators and tools for multi-role production interactions in the mass individualization environment. This paper proposes a kind of hardware-software-integrated mediators called social sensors (S2ensors) to facilitate the production interactions among customers, manufacturers, and other stakeholders in the social manufacturing systems (SMS). The concept, classification, operational logics, and formalization of S2ensors are clarified. S2ensors collect subjective data from physical sensors and objective data from sensory input in mobile Apps, merge them into meaningful information for decision-making, and finally feed the decisions back for reaction and execution. Then, an S2ensors-Cloud platform is discussed to integrate different S2ensors to work for SMSs in an autonomous way. A demonstrative case is studied by developing a prototype system and the results show that S2ensors and S2ensors-Cloud platform can assist multi-role stakeholders interact and collaborate for the production tasks. It reveals the mediator-enabled mechanisms and methods for production interactions among stakeholders in SMS.

  6. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saiful Ridhwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing medical information has become very critical in the healthcare delivery system. Medical information nowadays are optimized towards serving different areas such as; diagnosing of diseases, planning and administration, treatment and monitoring of patient outcomes, services and costs. This article provides a review into various Health and Social Care systems which encompasses the Knowledge Management value. For analysis, more than 30 systems that are related to Health and Social Care were gathered via Internet research, only 20 of these systems were finally selected based on recent system development and popularity of the system.Keywords: Health Care, Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Social Care, systemdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4 How to cite this article:Ridhwan, M.S., and Oyefolahan, I.O. (2013. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 92-101. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4

  7. The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escovar, Emily; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2016-03-14

    The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory describes a profile of traits that have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, and are thought to encompass a continuum that includes typically developing (TD) individuals. Although systemizing is hypothesized to be related to mathematical abilities, empirical support for this relationship is lacking. We examine the link between empathizing and systemizing tendencies and mathematical achievement in 112 TD children (57 girls) to elucidate how socio-cognitive constructs influence early development of mathematical skills. Assessment of mathematical achievement included standardized tests designed to examine calculation skills and conceptual mathematical reasoning. Empathizing and systemizing were assessed using the Combined Empathy Quotient-Child (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient-Child (SQ-C). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that mathematical achievement was not related to systemizing or the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing. Surprisingly, children with higher empathy demonstrated lower calculation skills. Further analysis using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) revealed that the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement was mediated by social ability rather than autistic behaviors. Finally, social awareness was found to play a differential role in mediating the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement in girls. These results identify empathy, and social skills more generally, as previously unknown predictors of mathematical achievement.

  8. Double coupling: modeling subjectivity and asymmetric organization in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Manuel-Navarrete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological organization is a multidimensional phenomenon that combines material and symbolic processes. However, the coupling between social and ecological subsystem is often conceptualized as purely material, thus reducing the symbolic dimension to its behavioral and actionable expressions. In this paper I conceptualize social-ecological systems as doubly coupled. On the one hand, material expressions of socio-cultural processes affect and are affected by ecological dynamics. On the other hand, coupled social-ecological material dynamics are concurrently coupled with subjective dynamics via coding, decoding, personal experience, and human agency. This second coupling operates across two organizationally heterogeneous dimensions: material and symbolic. Although resilience thinking builds on the recognition of organizational asymmetry between living and nonliving systems, it has overlooked the equivalent asymmetry between ecological and socio-cultural subsystems. Three guiding concepts are proposed to formalize double coupling. The first one, social-ecological asymmetry, expands on past seminal work on ecological self-organization to incorporate reflexivity and subjectivity in social-ecological modeling. Organizational asymmetry is based in the distinction between social rules, which are symbolically produced and changed through human agents' reflexivity and purpose, and biophysical rules, which are determined by functional relations between ecological components. The second guiding concept, conscious power, brings to the fore human agents' distinctive capacity to produce our own subjective identity and the consequences of this capacity for social-ecological organization. The third concept, congruence between subjective and objective dynamics, redefines sustainability as contingent on congruent relations between material and symbolic processes. Social-ecological theories and analyses based on these three guiding concepts would support the

  9. A Generic Framework for Extraction of Knowledge from Social Web Sources (Social Networking Websites for an Online Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javubar Sathick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining social web data is a challenging task and finding user interest for personalized and non-personalized recommendation systems is another important task. Knowledge sharing among web users has become crucial in determining usage of web data and personalizing content in various social websites as per the user’s wish. This paper aims to design a framework for extracting knowledge from web sources for the end users to take a right decision at a crucial juncture. The web data is collected from various web sources and structured appropriately and stored as an ontology based data repository. The proposed framework implements an online recommender application for the learners online who pursue their graduation in an open and distance learning environment. This framework possesses three phases: data repository, knowledge engine, and online recommendation system. The data repository possesses common data which is attained by the process of acquiring data from various web sources. The knowledge engine collects the semantic data from the ontology based data repository and maps it to the user through the query processor component. Establishment of an online recommendation system is used to make recommendations to the user for a decision making process. This research work is implemented with the help of an experimental case study which deals with an online recommendation system for the career guidance of a learner. The online recommendation application is implemented with the help of R-tool, NLP parser and clustering algorithm.This research study will help users to attain semantic knowledge from heterogeneous web sources and to make decisions.

  10. THE SOCIAL INNOVATIONS HARMONISED WITH THE COMPANY PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Olton

    2014-01-01

    The issue of work-life balance (WLB) refers to the inability to reconcile duties at work with family obligations as both environments put evident pressure on a person. This leads to imbalance which is a source of personal stress and low productivity. Hence, one cannot hide the fact that the effects of this imbalance can be very burdensome in financial and strictly organizational terms and for workers themselves. The aim of this paper is to propose a systemic solution in the organization so th...

  11. Social-communicative effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism, concurrently taking into account standardized psychometric data, standardized functional assessment of adaptive behaviour, and information on social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Eighteen preschool children (mean age = 38.78 months) were assigned to two intervention approaches, i.e. PECS and Conventional Language Therapy (CLT). Both PECS (Phases I-IV) and CLT were delivered three times per week, in 30-min sessions, for 6 months. Outcome measures were the following: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores for Communication and Reciprocal Social Interaction; Language and Personal-Social subscales of the Griffiths' Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS); Communication and Social Abilities domains of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS); and several social-communicative variables coded in an unstructured setting. Results demonstrated that the two groups did not differ at Time 1 (pre-treatment assessment), whereas at Time 2 (post-test) the PECS group showed a significant improvement with respect to the CLT group on the VABS social domain score and on almost all the social-communicative abilities coded in the unstructured setting (i.e. joint attention, request, initiation, cooperative play, but not eye contact). These findings showed that PECS intervention (Phases I-IV) can improve social-communicative skills in children with autism. This improvement is especially evident in standardized measures of adaptive behaviour and measures derived from the observation of children in an unstructured setting. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  12. Early emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Zoe; Woodward, Amanda L.; Sullivan, Kathleen R.; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2016-01-01

    Selecting appropriate foods is a complex and evolutionarily ancient problem, yet past studies have revealed little evidence of adaptations present in infancy that support sophisticated reasoning about perceptual properties of food. We propose that humans have an early-emerging system for reasoning about the social nature of food selection. Specifically, infants’ reasoning about food choice is tied to their thinking about agents’ intentions and social relationships. Whereas infants do not expect people to like the same objects, infants view food preferences as meaningfully shared across individuals. Infants’ reasoning about food preferences is fundamentally social: They generalize food preferences across individuals who affiliate, or who speak a common language, but not across individuals who socially disengage or who speak different languages. Importantly, infants’ reasoning about food preferences is flexibly calibrated to their own experiences: Tests of bilingual babies reveal that an infant’s sociolinguistic background influences whether she will constrain her generalization of food preferences to people who speak the same language. Additionally, infants’ systems for reasoning about food is differentially responsive to positive and negative information. Infants generalize information about food disgust across all people, regardless of those people’s social identities. Thus, whereas food preferences are seen as embedded within social groups, disgust is interpreted as socially universal, which could help infants avoid potentially dangerous foods. These studies reveal an early-emerging system for thinking about food that incorporates social reasoning about agents and their relationships, and allows infants to make abstract, flexible, adaptive inferences to interpret others’ food choices. PMID:27503878

  13. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Takahashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  14. Aggression, Social Stress, and the Immune System in Humans and Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Flanigan, Meghan E; McEwen, Bruce S; Russo, Scott J

    2018-01-01

    Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation. Therefore, dysregulation of the immune system may be one of the mediators of social stress that produces aggression and/or depression. Similar to humans, aggressive animals also show increased levels of several proinflammatory cytokines, however, unlike humans these animals are more protected from infectious organisms and have faster wound healing than animals with low aggression. On the other hand, subordinate animals that receive repeated social defeat stress have been shown to develop escalated and dysregulated immune responses such as glucocorticoid insensitivity in monocytes. In this review we synthesize the current evidence in humans, non-human primates, and rodents to show a role for the immune system in responses to social stress leading to psychiatric problems such as aggression or depression. We argue that while depression and aggression represent two fundamentally different behavioral and physiological responses to social stress, it is possible that some overlapped, as well as distinct, pattern of immune signaling may underlie both of them. We also argue the necessity of studying animal models of maladaptive aggression induced by social stress (i.e., social isolation) for understanding neuro-immune mechanism of aggression, which may be relevant to human aggression.

  15. Atomism and holism in the understanding of society and social systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its history, reflection on human society has been torn apart by the opposing views of atomism and holism. Traditional societies, the city state of ancient Greece as well as the medieval perfect society apparently resemble a whole with its parts. Early modernity continued this holistic inclination for a while, but soon reverted to atomistic theories of the (hypothetical social contract. Modern humanism dominated the subsequent views articulated in terms of the dialectical tension between nature and freedom (science ideal and personality ideal – including mechanistic and vitalistic approaches as well as the more recent acknowledgment of irreducibly complex systems (Behe, 2003. In Wiener’s (1954; 1956 “technologicism” human responsibility and freedom are sacrificed. An alternative view is advanced in terms of the normativity of societal life as well as its many-sidedness. It is shown that theories of social systems increasingly tend to explore avenues transcending the limitations of the atomistic additive approach and the boundary-leveling whole-parts scheme entailed in social systems theory. This development is used as a starting point for the classification of social interaction and for underscoring the scope of the principle of sphere-sovereignty for a multidisciplinary understanding of social systems.

  16. The mirror system and its role in social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2008-04-01

    Experiments in monkeys have shown that coding the goal of the motor acts is a fundamental property of the cortical motor system. In area F5, goal-coding motor neurons are also activated by observing motor acts done by others (the 'classical' mirror mechanism); in area F2 and area F1, some motor neurons are activated by the mere observation of goal-directed movements of a cursor displayed on a computer screen (a 'mirror-like' mechanism). Experiments in humans and monkeys have shown that the mirror mechanism enables the observer to understand the intention behind an observed motor act, in addition to the goal of it. Growing evidence shows that a deficit in the mirror mechanism underlies some aspects of autism.

  17. The Economic Crisis and the Solidarity of Social Insurance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domnica Doina Parcalabu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the first section we will briefly introduce the main impact of the global crisis on Romanian macroeconomics, financial markets with special focus on the pension systems, as well as the outlook of the international rating agencies and of the financial institutions regarding the reform solutions. The second section tackles the solidarity dimension of pension schemes, i.e. concepts like inter-generational, intra-generational, gender, and fiscal solidarity. The third section describes the pension reform measures tackled during the crisis providing also concise country profiles in CEE. These measures were mostly envisaged to mandate later retirement, reduce the deficit of Pillar I, change the pension indexation rules, eliminate privileged pension rights for special groups of workers, and improve benefits. The last section is to conclude with some policy implications.

  18. The role of non-governmental organizations in the social and the health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowicz, Maria; Cianciara, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the definitions, objectives, fields and tasks of non-governmental organizations in social life, health system and health policy. In addition, the article addresses the issue of effectiveness and quality of NGOs' activity. The term "NGOs" (Non-governmental Organizations) includes different categories of entities that operate not to obtain financial gain, and also do not belong to the government sector. Non-governmental Organizations' fields of activity were described in the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO). NGOs are an integral part of a democratic society. Sociological sciences emphasize their importance in enhancing social integration, implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, building civil society, social dialogue and participatory democracy. The main tasks of NGOs in the health system are providing services and health advocacy. Provision of services includes medical, social and psychological services as well as, integration activities, care and nursing, material and financial support, educational and information services and training. Health advocacy is a combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, policy support, social acceptance and systems support for a particular health goal or program. An important task carried out by NGOs is participation in the formation of health policy. The increasing role of NGOs in providing social services and the participation in political processes, result in the need to confirm the validity and credibility of their operation. One of the ways could be to introduce the mechanisms to assess quality and efficiency, such as registration as a part of a legal system, self-regulatory activities (card rules, codes of ethics), certification, participation in networks, monitoring and audit.

  19. Fit in the Body: Matching Embodied Cognition with Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne I. Hukkinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of fit has focused on the macrolevel fit between social institutions and ecosystems, and bypassed the microlevel fit between individual cognition and its socio-material environment. I argue that the conceptualizations we develop about social-ecological systems and our position in them should be understood as ways for a fundamentally cognitive organism to adapt to particular social and ecological situations. Since at issue is our survival as a species, we need to better understand the structure and dynamics of fit between human cognition and its social-ecological environment. I suggest that the embodied cognition perspective opens up possibilities for "nudging" evolution through the conceptual integration of the cognitively attractive but ecologically unrealistic neoclassical economics, and the cognitively less attractive but ecologically more realistic adaptive cycle theory (panarchy. The result is a conceptually integrated model, the Roller Coaster Blend, which expresses in metaphorical terms why competitive individuals are better off cooperating than competing with each other in the face of absolute resource limits. The blend enables the reframing of messages about the limits of the social-ecological system in terms of growth rather than degrowth. This is cognitively appealing, as upward growth fires in our minds the neural connections of "more," "control", and "happy." The blend's potential for nudging behavior arises from its autopoietic characteristic: it can be both an account of the social-ecological system as an emergent structure that is capable of renewing itself, and a cognitive attractor of individuals whose recruitment reinforces the integrity of the social-ecological system.

  20. Parasympathetic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates Associations Between Children's Executive Functioning and Social and Academic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Penzel, Taylor E; Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa

    2017-10-01

    This study examined whether children with poor executive functioning (EF) evidenced less social and academic impairments, compared to other children, if they demonstrated adaptive parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) regulation during experiences of failure. Participants with and without clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms (N = 61; 9-13 years; 48% male; 85% Caucasian) were administered a battery of EF tests and completed manipulated social and cognitive failure tasks. While participants completed failure tasks, respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) was measured as an indicator of PNS reactivity. Children's social and academic impairment in daily life was assessed based on parent and teacher report on multiple measures. RSA-R during social failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated social impairment and RSA-R during cognitive failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated academic impairment. Simple effects indicated that poor EF was significantly associated with impairment when children demonstrated RSA activation (increased PNS activity) but not when children demonstrated RSA withdrawal (decreases in PNS activity). Domain-crossed models (e.g., reactivity to social failure predicting academic impairment) were not significant, suggesting that the moderating effect of RSA-R was domain-specific. Results suggest that not all children with poor EF evidence social and academic impairment; RSA withdrawal during experiences of failure may be protective specifically for children with impaired EF skills.

  1. Social Adversity and Antisocial Behavior: Mediating Effects of Autonomic Nervous System Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Shawn E; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    The display of antisocial behaviors in children and adolescents has been of interest to criminologists and developmental psychologists for years. Exposure to social adversity is a well-documented predictor of antisocial behavior. Additionally, measures of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), pre-ejection period (PEP), and heart rate, have been associated with antisocial behaviors including rule-breaking and aggression. Social neuroscience research has begun to investigate how neurobiological underpinnings affect the relationship between social adversity and antisocial/psychopathic behavior in children and adolescents. This study investigated the potential mediating effects of ANS activity on the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in a group of 7- to 10-year-old children from the community (N = 339; 48.2% male). Moderated multiple mediation analyses revealed that low resting heart rate, but not PEP or HRV, mediated the relationship between social adversity and antisocial behavior in males only. Social adversity but not ANS measures were associated with antisocial behavior in females. Findings have implications for understanding the neural influences that underlie antisocial behavior, illustrate the importance of the social environment regarding the expression of these behaviors, and highlight essential gender differences.

  2. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of a prevention delivery system on perceived social capital: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Ang, Patricia M; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The current study examined the impact of the PROSPER delivery system for evidence-based prevention programs on multiple indicators of social capital in a rural and semi-rural community sample. Utilizing a randomized blocked design, 317 individuals in 28 communities across two states were interviewed at three time points over the course of 2.5 years. Bridging, linking, and the public life skills forms of social capital were assessed via community members' and leaders' reports on the perceptions of school functioning and the Cooperative Extension System, collaboration among organizations, communication and collaboration around youth problems, and other measures. Longitudinal mixed model results indicate significant improvements in some aspects of bridging and linking social capital in PROSPER intervention communities. Given the strength of the longitudinal and randomized research design, results advance prevention science by suggesting that community collaborative prevention initiatives can significantly impact community social capital in a rural and semi-rural sample. Future research should further investigate changes in social capital in different contexts and how changes in social capital relate to other intervention effects.

  4. The organisation of work and systems of labour market regulation and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2011-01-01

    The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand.......The paper demonstrates on the basis of date from 15 European countries that there is a close link between the form of labour market regulation and the systems of social protection on the one hand and modes of work organisation and learning on the other hand....

  5. Emergence of scale-free leadership structure in social recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Medo, Matúš; Cimini, Giulio; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The study of the organization of social networks is important for the understanding of opinion formation, rumor spreading, and the emergence of trends and fashion. This paper reports empirical analysis of networks extracted from four leading sites with social functionality (Delicious, Flickr, Twitter and YouTube) and shows that they all display a scale-free leadership structure. To reproduce this feature, we propose an adaptive network model driven by social recommending. Artificial agent-based simulations of this model highlight a "good get richer" mechanism where users with broad interests and good judgments are likely to become popular leaders for the others. Simulations also indicate that the studied social recommendation mechanism can gradually improve the user experience by adapting to tastes of its users. Finally we outline implications for real online resource-sharing systems.

  6. Activity systems modeling as a theoretical lens for social exchange studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Jones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The social exchange perspective seeks to acknowledge, understand and predict the dynamics of social interactions. Empirical research involving social exchange constructs have grown to be highly technical including confirmatory factor analysis to assess construct distinctiveness and structural equation modeling to assess construct causality. Each study seemingly strives to assess how underlying social exchange theoretic constructs interrelate. Yet despite this methodological depth and resultant explanatory and predictive power, a significant number of studies report findings that, once synthesized, suggest an underlying persistent threat of conceptual or construct validity brought about by a search for epistemological parsimony. Further, it is argued that a methodological approach that embraces inherent complexity such as activity systems modeling facilitates the search for simplified models while not ignoring contextual factors.

  7. The Social Context of the Chinese Food System: An Ethnographic Study of the Beijing Seafood Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fabinyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available China’s role in the global food system has expanded immensely in recent years. In the seafood sector, it is now the largest consumer of seafood products in the world, making the Chinese market highly significant for global fisheries. Drawing on ethnographic- and interview-based research in the largest seafood market in Beijing, this paper analyzes the social context of Chinese consumption and trade. We broadly conceive of this social context as encompassing a range of social norms and practices that include culturally and historically generated consumer preferences, and distinctive forms of governance and business practice. We find that the social context of China is a key driver of patterns of consumption and trade, and provides challenges and opportunities to improve governance for environmental sustainability. We highlight the need for greater policy and academic attention to these characteristics of seafood consumption and trade within China.

  8. Strengthening the Referral System through Social Capital: A Qualitative Inquiry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Phillips, David R

    2017-10-25

    The referral system in health care has been noted as very influential in determining which services are accessed and when. Nonetheless, existing studies have relied on specific measurable factors relating to health personnel, transportation and communication infrastructure, and finance to explain the challenges facing the referral policy in developing countries. While this is understandable, the role of social capital remains mostly uncharted even though it is implicit in the well-known lay referral system. Using various facets of the social capital concept, this paper empirically examines how the resources embedded in both structural and cognitive aspects of social relationships influence knowledge of, and adherence to, referral policy. This study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with 79 adults in the Ashanti Region of Ghana in 2015. Of the 79 participants, 28 lived in urban areas and 51 in rural localities. Eight health personnel and eight community leaders also contributed to the study. Additionally, six focus group discussions were held. The findings indicated that both cognitive and structural forms of social capital considerably underpinned the ability and willingness of people to adhere to the referral process. Moreover, the role of social capital was double-barrelled. It contributed in a significant way to encouraging or dissuading potential patients from rightly embracing the policy. In addition, precepts of social capital reinforced both positive and adverse effects of the other determinants of the policy such as finance and transportation. However, the magnitude of such impact was linked to how 'resourceful' and 'trustworthy' one's available social acquaintances were. The paper suggests that a cautious engagement with social capital will make it a potentially powerful tool for understanding the gaps in and improving the effectiveness of referral policy.

  9. Integrating social science into empirical models of coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Kline

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coupled human and natural systems (CHANS research highlights reciprocal interactions (or feedbacks between biophysical and socioeconomic variables to explain system dynamics and resilience. Empirical models often are used to test hypotheses and apply theory that represent human behavior. Parameterizing reciprocal interactions presents two challenges for social scientists: (1 how to represent human behavior as influenced by biophysical factors and integrate this into CHANS empirical models; (2 how to organize and function as a multidisciplinary social science team to accomplish that task. We reflect on these challenges regarding our CHANS research that investigated human adaptation to fire-prone landscapes. Our project sought to characterize the forest management activities of land managers and landowners (or "actors" and their influence on wildfire behavior and landscape outcomes by focusing on biophysical and socioeconomic feedbacks in central Oregon (USA. We used an agent-based model (ABM to compile biophysical and social information pertaining to actor behavior, and to project future landscape conditions under alternative management scenarios. Project social scientists were tasked with identifying actors' forest management activities and biophysical and socioeconomic factors that influence them, and with developing decision rules for incorporation into the ABM to represent actor behavior. We (1 briefly summarize what we learned about actor behavior on this fire-prone landscape and how we represented it in an ABM, and (2 more significantly, report our observations about how we organized and functioned as a diverse team of social scientists to fulfill these CHANS research tasks. We highlight several challenges we experienced, involving quantitative versus qualitative data and methods, distilling complex behavior into empirical models, varying sensitivity of biophysical models to social factors, synchronization of research tasks, and the need to

  10. Becoming a client of the Danish social service system increases stress in parents of disabled infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Skov, Liselotte; Andersen, John Sahl

    2011-06-01

    Parents of a young child with severe disabilities are facing a large range of new challenges; furthermore, most of these families have extended social needs regarding information, financial support, day care facilities, disability aids, etc. Many parents with disabled children have been found to be dissatisfied with social services. This study explores parents' experiences with Danish social services during their transition to a new daily life after the birth of a severely disabled child. Repeated qualitative interviews were performed individually with 16 parents of a severely disabled young child during the first two years after the diagnosis of the child's disabilities. Data were analysed using grounded theory. We found that the encounter with the social services increased stress in the families. Parental expectations were not met, especially regarding information; parents felt clientized, and obtaining social support was very resource consuming. Parents' needs regarding practical support and empathic case-working were not met and they spent much time and effort due to lacking continuity between sectors. Parents have specific needs when becoming clients in the social service system whose organisation of social services needs improvement. Health care professionals are advised to identify problems and support cooperation between the parents and the social service system, as well as to report the health-related consequences of prolonged and inefficient case-working for the child and its parents. was received from Socialministeriet, Landsforeningen LEV, Ronald McDonalds Børnefond, Susie og Peter Robinsohns fond, Rosalie Petersens fond, PLU-fonden, Ville Heises fond, Sygesikringens forskningsfond, Helsefonden, Elsass fonden. not relevant.

  11. What Can Engineering Systems Teach Us About Social (In)Justices? The Case of Public Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valderrama Pineda, Andres Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Politicians, consultants and engineers develop public transportation systems using a variety of well-developed and established modeling tools to calculate different aspects of a system. Some of them are performance-capacity against investment models to determine the value of a given technical cho...... in at various stages in the process hides social injustices under the veil of neutrality. This chapter, thus, calls to engineers to become critically aware of how they can influence systems modeling in ways that are more socially just....... that the implicit assumptions and even the specific ways of estimating different constants to value input data in these models shape the results in ways that perpetuate social injustices built in the urban landscape of our cities. This chapter analyses the case of the design of Transmilenio in Bogotá, a public mass...... transportation system coined as one of the most progressive on the planet. Part of a political discourse to improve social justice in Bogotá, the project is successful in many respects but falls short of the original aims in many other respects. The chapter describes how the “rational modeling” brought...

  12. Characterizing Economic and Social Properties of Trust and Reputation Systems in P2P Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Feng Wang; Yoshiaki Hori; Kouichi Sakurai

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems are self-organized and autonomous, social-control mechanism (like trust and reputation) is essential to evaluate the trustworthiness of participating peers and to combat the selfish, dishonest and malicious peer behaviors. So, naturally, we advocate that P2P systems that gradually act as an important information infrastructure should be multi-disciplinary research topic, and reflect certain features of our society. So, from economic and social perspective, this paper designs the incentive-compatible reputation feedback scheme based on well-known economic model, and characterizes the social features of trust network in terms of efficiency and cost. Specifically, our framework has two distinctive purposes: first, from high-level perspective, we argue trust system is a special kind of social network, and an accurate characterization of the structural properties of the network can be of fundamental importance to understand the dynamics of the system. Thus, inspired by the concept of weighted small-world, this paper proposes new measurements to characterize the social properties of trust system, that is, highg lobal and local efficiency, and low cost; then, from relative low-level perspective, we argue that reputation feedback is a special kind of information, and it is not free. So, based on economic model, VCG (Vickrey-Clarke-Grove)-like reputation remuneration mechanism is proposed to stimulate rational peers not only to provide reputation feedback, but truthfully offer feedback. Furthermore, considering that trust and reputation is subjective, we classify the trust into functional trust and referral trust, and extend the referral trust to include two factors: similarity and truthfulness, which can efficiently reduce the trust inference error. The preliminary simulation results show the benefits of our proposal and the emergence of certain social properties in trust network.

  13. The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Bacon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS. A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could

  14. The Social System Approach to Institutions: Examples from Western Economic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon I. Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While there is a general acceptance of a broad definition of social institutions as accepted rules of conduct in agent interactions, there are overlapping views on how institutions come into being and develop. Different views see institutions as the result of evolution, contract, convention, game theory, political power, or legal necessity. Once created, institutions can live their own life and gain influence on the whole economy/society in respects beyond their intrinsic origins. The overlapping views give the impression of pursued piecemeal approaches in addressing the issues. Treating issues of institutional formation and development in the framework of social system theory and analysis can be shown to simplify the picture appreciably and bring more insight. This paper intends to do that. It will display and apply the social system perspective to understanding institutional formation and development. The paper falls in two sections. First, it develops an analytical framework that views the economy as a social system with interactive subsystems that initiate and maintain their own subsystem institutions. Some subsystems expand faster than others, gaining more influence. Interaction of agents across subsystems facilitates the dominance of the more influential subsystem and the spread of the subsystem’s allied institutions to the whole social system. Second, the paper illustrates the validity of the social system perspective via reviewing a timeline that highlights the changing and evolving dominance of the major subsystems and their attached institutions in the economic history of the western world, and in particular, the interactions between the firm subsystem and the state subsystem.

  15. Scale-Free Relationships between Social and Landscape Factors in Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhu Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban planners and ecologists have long debated the relationship between the structure of urban landscapes and social activities. There have, however, been very few discussions as to whether any such relationships might depend on the scales of observation. This work applies a hierarchical zoning technique to data from the city of Quito, Ecuador, to examine how relationships between typical spatial landscape metrics and social indicators depend on zoning scales. Our results showed that the estimates of both landscape heterogeneity features and social indicators significantly depend on the zoning scale. The mean values of the typical landscape metrics and the social indicators all exhibited predictable responses to a changing zoning scale, suggesting a consistent and significant scaling relationship within the multiple zoning scales. Yet relationships between these pairs of variables remain notably invariant to scale. This quantitative demonstration of the scale-free nature of the relationship between landscape characteristics and social indicators furthers our understanding of the relationships between landscape structures and social aspects of urban spaces, including deprivation and public service accessibility. The relationships between social indicators and one typical landscape aggregation metric (represented as the percentage of like adjacencies were nevertheless significantly dependent on scale, suggesting the importance of zoning scale decisions for analyzing the relationships between the social indicators and the landscape characteristics related with landscape adjacency. Aside from this typical landscape aggregation metric, the general invariance to the zoning scale of relationships between landscape structures and socioeconomic indicators in Quito suggests the importance of applying these scale-free relationships in understanding complex socio-ecological systems in other cities, which are shaped by the conflated influences of both

  16. Social challenges when implementing information systems in everyday work in a nursing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Lina; Eriksén, Sara; Borg, Christel

    2014-09-01

    Implementation of information systems in healthcare has become a lengthy process where healthcare staff (eg, nurses) are expected to put information into systems without getting the overall picture of the potential usefulness for their own work. The aim of this study was to explore social challenges when implementing information systems in everyday work in a nursing context. Moreover, this study aimed at putting perceived social challenges in a theoretical framework to address them more constructively when implementing information systems in healthcare. Influenced by institutional ethnography, the findings are based on interviews, observations, and written reflections. Power (changing the existing hierarchy, alienation), professional identity (calling on hold, expert becomes novice, changed routines), and encounter (ignorant introductions, preconceived notions) were categories (subcategories) presented in the findings. Social Cognitive Theory, Diffusion of Innovations, organizational culture, and dramaturgical analysis are proposed to set up a theoretical framework. If social challenges are not considered and addressed in the implementation process, it will be affected by nurses' solidarity to existing power structures and their own professional identity. Thus, implementation of information systems affects more aspects in the organization than might have been intended. These aspects need to be taken in to account in the implementation process.

  17. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Thomas S.; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A.

    2007-01-01

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

  18. The Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers): Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Geigges, Julian; Voss, Andreas; Weinhold, Jan; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the theoretical background, development, and psychometric properties of the German and English versions of the Experience in Personal Social Systems Questionnaire (EXIS.pers). It assesses how the members of a personal social system experience their situation within that system. It is designed as a research tool for interventions in which only one member of the system participates (e.g., Family Constellation Seminars). The EXIS.pers was created to measure change on the individual level relating to one's own important personal social system. In Study 1, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) for latent variable identification of the original German EXIS.pers (n = 179). In Studies 2 and 3, we used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine the dimensionality of the German (n = 634) and English (n = 310) EXIS.pers. Internal consistencies and cross-cultural structural equivalence were assessed. EFA indicated that a four-factor model provided best fit for the German EXIS.pers. For both the German and English EXIS.pers, CFA provided the best fit for a five-factor bi-level model that included a general factor (Experience In Personal Social Systems) and four dimensions (Belonging, Autonomy, Accord, Confidence). Good internal consistencies, external associations, and cross-cultural structural equivalence were demonstrated. This study provides first evidence for the German and English EXIS.pers as an economical and reliable measure of an individual's experience within his or her personal social systems. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  19. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  20. The dominance behavioral system and manic temperament: Motivation for dominance, self-perceptions of power, and socially dominant behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system has been conceptualized as a biologically based system comprising motivation to achieve social power and self-perceptions of power. Biological, behavioral, and social correlates of dominance motivation and self-perceived power have been related to a range of psychopathological tendencies. Preliminary evidence suggests that mania and risk for mania (manic temperament) relate to the dominance system.

  1. Tracking social motivation systems deficits: the affective neuroscience view of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.

  2. New accounting information system: An application for a basic social benefit in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Peña-Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting information on social benefits is included, in accordance with the scope of its management, in the general Social Security budget. The information contained in the budget may be relevant, but it is likely to be insufficient to enable comparisons to be made with an entity's financial statements for previous periods and with the financial statements of other entities. Thus, IPSAS 1 proposes the presentation of additional information. On the basis of the New Public Management theory, this paper proposes an aggregate accounting model for accounting expenditure as a multi-annual information system which complements and expands information on a potential basic social benefit. This system reports in detail on the trends in the items that fund it, with the aim of achieving maximum transparency and accountability in public administrations by ensuring timely provision of quality information.

  3. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P; Williamson, Jane E

    2012-10-23

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.

  4. Why social attachment and oxytocin protect against addiction and stress: Insights from the dynamics between ventral and dorsal corticostriatal systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; Koole, S.L.; IJzerman, H.; Buisman-Pijlman, F.T.

    2014-01-01

    The present article advances a neurobiological model of the reciprocal associations between social attachment and drug abuse, and social attachment and chronic stress, as overlapping systems are involved in stress coping and social attachment. In terms of coping, responding to a novel stressor or

  5. Why social attachment and oxytocin protect against addiction and stress : Insights from the dynamics between ventral and dorsal corticostriatal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, M.; Koole, S.L.; Ijzerman, H.; Buisman-Pijlman, F.T.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present article advances a neurobiological model of the reciprocal associations between social attachment and drug abuse, and social attachment and chronic stress, as overlapping systems are involved in stress coping and social attachment. In terms of coping, responding to a novel stressor or

  6. The Performance Implications of Fit among Environment, Strategy, Structure, Control System and Social Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2009-12-01

    domain will be contingent upon strategic behaviors, which are behaviors of members in an organization. The paper integrates the contextual variables including business environment, strategy, organization structure, and control system with corporate performance by using corporate social performance as moderating variable by means of a recent literatures study from strategic management and accounting field.

  7. Social System of River City High School Senior Class: Socio-economic Status (SES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Richard F.

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…

  8. Program on ecosystem change and society: An international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, S.R.; Folke, C.; Norström, A.V.; Olsson, O.; Schultz, L.; Agarwal, B.; Balvanera, P.; Campbell, B.; Castilla, J.C.; Cramer, W.; DeFries, R.; Eyzaguirre, P.; Hughes, T.P.; Polasky, S.; Sanusi, Z.A.; Scholes, R.J.; Spierenburg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality

  9. Making Citizens of the World: The Political Socialization of Youth in Formal Mass Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Astiz, M. Fernanda; Fabrega, Rodrigo; Baker, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Unique cross-national data on adolescents' civic skills, knowledge, and political attitudes are used to examine the democratic processes of modern mass schooling, effects of national political systems, and patterns of youth political socialization in 27 nations. Compared to the generally weak reported effects on mathematics and reading…

  10. The Functioning of the Fiscal and Social Security Systems in a Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei DUMITRESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments in the ICT sector have opened the way to transforming the industrial economy into a digital - based one. The present paper offers a perspective on the impact of the new informational technologies on the society in general and on the organization and functioning of the fiscal and social security systems in Romania in particular.

  11. Cattle grazing and fish recovery on US federal lands: can social-ecological systems science help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Hannah Gosnell; Kendra L Wendel; Mary M Rowland; Michael J Wisdom

    2018-01-01

    In the western US, grazing management on federal lands containing habitat for fish species listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) has sparked social conflict and litigation for decades. To date, the problem has been addressed through a top-down environmental governance system, but rangeland managers and grazing permittees now believe there is a need for more...

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the mirror neuron system during social intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Bolmont, Mylene; Monteleone, George

    2017-10-27

    Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i.e., lust vs. romantic intentions. Our results showed that 62% of the stimuli evoking lustful intentions also evoked romantic intentions, and both intentions were sustained by similar activations of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule/angular gyrus for the first 432 ms after stimulus onset. Intentions to not love or not lust, on the other hand, were characterized by earlier differential activations of the inferior fronto-parietal network i.e., as early as 244 ms after stimulus onset. These results suggest that the mirror neuron system may not only code for the motor correlates of intentions, but also for the social meaning of intentions and its valence at both early/automatic and later/more elaborative stages of information processing.

  13. Social-Ecological System in Seagrass Ecosystem Management at Kotania Bay Waters, Western Seram, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawo, Mintje

    2017-10-01

    The concept of the Social-Ecological System (SES) of the coastal region, can be found in the seagrass ecosystem in the Kotania Bay Waters. Seagrass ecosystem as one of the productive ecosystem is part of an ecological system that can influence and influenced social system, in this case by people living around the seagrass ecosystem. This aim to estimating the socio-ecological vulnerability system of the seagrass ecosystem in the Kotania Bay Waters, the Linkage Matrix is used (de Chazal et al., 2008). This linkage matrix was created to determine the perception and understanding of the community on the ecosystem services provided by the seagrass ecosystem through the appraisal of various stakeholders. The results show that social values are rooted in the public perception of ecosystem goods and services, which are rarely considered. The ecological and economic value of natural resources is increasingly being used to determine the priority areas in the planning and management of coastal areas. The social value that exists in natural resources is highly recognized in conservation.

  14. Evolutionary-Simulative Methodology in the Management of Social and Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyavskiy V.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main provisions of the evolutionary-simulative methodology (ESM which is a methodology of mathematical modeling of equilibrium random processes (CPR, widely used in the economy. It discusses the basic directions of use of ESM solutions for social problems and economic management systems.

  15. Eboh and Traditional Medicine in Pre-Colonial Apana Social Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper extols the significance of traditional medicine in the social systems of pre-colonial Apana. Traditional medicine and its practitioners maintained their popularity in the socio-cultural development of Apana. The Apana word, eboh, which exists in the plural form, refers to the practitioners of traditional medicine.

  16. The principle of an NRF rating system for the humanities and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Research Foundation (NRF) is proposing to introduce a ratings system for the humanities and social sciences comparable to that which pertains in the natural sciences. The article welcomes this development, and argues for full and open consultation with the research community regarding appropriate ratings ...

  17. Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational

  18. Harnessing the plurality of actor frames in social-ecological systems : Ecological sanitation in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, M.; Vervoort, J.; Snel, D.; de Castro, F.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses a case study on ecological sanitation as a basis for lessons on identifying and harnessing the plurality of actor frames in social-ecological systems, thereby moving beyond the advocacy positions often taken by implementing NGOs. The study aimed to explore how perspectives between

  19. Closing global knowledge gaps : Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or

  20. Securing recommender systems against shilling attacks using social-based clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Lee, Tak Man Desmond; Pitsilis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    to promote their products by shilling the systems. With the advent of social networks new sources of information have been made available which can potentially render RS more resistant to attacks. In this paper we explore the information provided in the form

  1. Diagnostic Utility of the Social Skills Improvement System Performance Screening Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S. Kathleen; McCreery, Michael P.; Wang, Ye; Mohammadiamin, Houra; Cirks, Christen K.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers investigated the diagnostic utility of the Social Skills Improvement System: Performance Screening Guide (SSIS-PSG). Correlational, regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and conditional probability analyses were run to compare ratings on the SSIS-PSG subscales of Prosocial Behavior, Reading Skills, and Math Skills, to…

  2. Designing Economic Socialization System in the Educational Process of Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaidullina, Rimma M.; Amirov, Artur F.; Muhametshin, Vyacheslav S.; Tyncherov, Kamil T.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of this study is related to the fact that the necessity of compliance between the professional education system and progressive tendencies of world economy development demanded the formation of a new generation of economically socialized engineering and technical specialists, who own a sufficient level of economic competences, that…

  3. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  4. Concordance of Interests in Dynamic Models of Social Partnership in the System of Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Larissa V.; Ougolnitsky, Guennady A.; Usov, Anatoly B.; Vaskov, Maksim A.; Kirik, Vladimir A.; Astoyanz, Margarita S.; Angel, Olga Y.

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic game theoretic model of concordance of interests in the process of social partnership in the system of continuing professional education is proposed. Non-cooperative, cooperative, and hierarchical setups are examined. Analytical solution for a linear state version of the model is provided. Nash equilibrium algorithms (for non-cooperative…

  5. System dynamic simulation: A new method in social impact assessment (SIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, Shobeir, E-mail: shobeirkarami@gmail.com [Agricultural Extension and Education, Shiraz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Ezatollah, E-mail: ekarami@shirazu.ac.ir [Agricultural Extension and Education, Shiraz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buys, Laurie, E-mail: l.buys@qut.edu.au [Creative Industries Faculty, School of Design, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Drogemuller, Robin, E-mail: robin.drogemuller@qut.edu.au [Creative Industries Faculty, School of Design, Queensland University of Technology (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Many complex social questions are difficult to address adequately with conventional methods and techniques, due to the complicated dynamics, and hard to quantify social processes. Despite these difficulties researchers and practitioners have attempted to use conventional methods not only in evaluative modes but also in predictive modes to inform decision making. The effectiveness of SIAs would be increased if they were used to support the project design processes. This requires deliberate use of lessons from retrospective assessments to inform predictive assessments. Social simulations may be a useful tool for developing a predictive SIA method. There have been limited attempts to develop computer simulations that allow social impacts to be explored and understood before implementing development projects. In light of this argument, this paper aims to introduce system dynamic (SD) simulation as a new predictive SIA method in large development projects. We propose the potential value of the SD approach to simulate social impacts of development projects. We use data from the SIA of Gareh-Bygone floodwater spreading project to illustrate the potential of SD simulation in SIA. It was concluded that in comparison to traditional SIA methods SD simulation can integrate quantitative and qualitative inputs from different sources and methods and provides a more effective and dynamic assessment of social impacts for development projects. We recommend future research to investigate the full potential of SD in SIA in comparing different situations and scenarios.

  6. System dynamic simulation: A new method in social impact assessment (SIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Shobeir; Karami, Ezatollah; Buys, Laurie; Drogemuller, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Many complex social questions are difficult to address adequately with conventional methods and techniques, due to the complicated dynamics, and hard to quantify social processes. Despite these difficulties researchers and practitioners have attempted to use conventional methods not only in evaluative modes but also in predictive modes to inform decision making. The effectiveness of SIAs would be increased if they were used to support the project design processes. This requires deliberate use of lessons from retrospective assessments to inform predictive assessments. Social simulations may be a useful tool for developing a predictive SIA method. There have been limited attempts to develop computer simulations that allow social impacts to be explored and understood before implementing development projects. In light of this argument, this paper aims to introduce system dynamic (SD) simulation as a new predictive SIA method in large development projects. We propose the potential value of the SD approach to simulate social impacts of development projects. We use data from the SIA of Gareh-Bygone floodwater spreading project to illustrate the potential of SD simulation in SIA. It was concluded that in comparison to traditional SIA methods SD simulation can integrate quantitative and qualitative inputs from different sources and methods and provides a more effective and dynamic assessment of social impacts for development projects. We recommend future research to investigate the full potential of SD in SIA in comparing different situations and scenarios.

  7. Modelling social vulnerability in sub-Saharan West Africa using a geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, disasters and risk management have gained significant attention, especially with increasing awareness of the risks and increasing impact of natural and other hazards especially in the developing world. Vulnerability, the potential for loss of life or property from disaster, has biophysical or social dimensions. Social vulnerability relates to societal attributes which has negative impacts on disaster outcomes. This study sought to develop a spatially explicit index of social vulnerability, thus addressing the dearth of research in this area in sub-Saharan Africa. Nineteen variables were identified covering various aspects. Descriptive analysis of these variables revealed high heterogeneity across the South West region of Nigeria for both the state and the local government areas (LGAs. Feature identification using correlation analysis identified six important variables. Factor analysis identified two dimensions, namely accessibility and socioeconomic conditions, from this subset. A social vulnerability index (SoVI showed that Ondo and Ekiti have more vulnerable LGAs than other states in the region. About 50% of the LGAs in Osun and Ogun have a relatively low social vulnerability. Distribution of the SoVI shows that there are great differences within states as well as across regions. Scores of population density, disability and poverty have a high margin of error in relation to mean state scores. The study showed that with a geographical information system there are opportunities to model social vulnerability and monitor its evolution and dynamics across the continent.

  8. Return to work after renal transplantation: a study of the Brazilian Public Social Security System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, Alexandre Augusto; Reichelt, Angela J; Dos Santos, Edson F; Albuquerque, Galton C; Kramer, José S P; Hirakata, Vania N; Garcia, Valter D

    2014-12-15

    Return to work is an objective parameter used worldwide to evaluate the success of organ transplantation and is especially feasible after renal transplantation. This study sought to describe the frequency of return to work after renal transplantation and related characteristics. Retrospective cohort of 511 isolated kidney transplant recipients was recruited from a Brazilian referral center from January 2005 to December 2009; all were matched to the public social security database to determine inclusion and benefit awards, as well as the rate of resumption of contributions to the public social security system, a surrogate marker of work rehabilitation. Characteristics associated with work return were analyzed. No social security records were found for 28 subjects. The remaining 483 subjects had a mean age of 45±13 years; 62% were male; 401 (83%) received some public social security benefit; 298 were paying dues and could, therefore, receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. Of these, 78 subjects made social security payments after transplantation, resulting in a work return rate of 26% (95% confidence interval, 21-32). Younger age, living donor graft, and chronic glomerulonephritis were significantly associated with return to work. In Brazil, most renal transplant recipients are on social security benefits, but only a small proportion return to work after surgery. Clinical characteristics may help define work resumption trends.

  9. Internet and Social Media Use After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Sparr, Christina; Hart, Tessa; Bergquist, Thomas; Bogner, Jennifer; Dreer, Laura; Juengst, Shannon; Mellick, David; OʼNeil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Sander, Angelle M; Whiteneck, Gale G

    To characterize Internet and social media use among adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to compare demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with Internet use between those with and without TBI. Ten Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems centers. Persons with moderate to severe TBI (N = 337) enrolled in the TBI Model Systems National Database and eligible for follow-up from April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. Prospective cross-sectional observational cohort study. Internet usage survey. The proportion of Internet users with TBI was high (74%) but significantly lower than those in the general population (84%). Smartphones were the most prevalent means of Internet access for persons with TBI. The majority of Internet users with TBI had a profile account on a social networking site (79%), with more than half of the sample reporting multiplatform use of 2 or more social networking sites. Despite the prevalence of Internet use among persons with TBI, technological disparities remain in comparison with the general population. The extent of social media use among persons with TBI demonstrates the potential of these platforms for social engagement and other purposes. However, further research examining the quality of online activities and identifying potential risk factors of problematic use is recommended.

  10. USE AND USE INTENSITY OF SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKING SYSTEMS BY NIGERIAN AGRO-ENTREPRENEURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Omotoso AJAYI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Agro-entrepreneurs are key to the Nigerian economy as they constitute the majority of the work force, providing food and employment opportunities for more than 60% of the largest black nation on earth. Nigeria’s social media networking system which is the largest in Africa has got its usefulness in many conventional and contemporary applications in the recent times. Social media has become the fastest, cheapest and unrestricted communication and marketing tool of this jet age. This study therefore focused on the use and use intensity of social media networking systems by Nigerian agro-entrepreneurs. The study made use of mainly primary data. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires assisted with interview schedules. Field data collection was conducted between June and September, 2014. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select three hundred and sixty (360 respondents across the three (3 highly ICT compliant states (Lagos, Ondo and Oyo. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression model. The results of the regression model indicate that education, availability of power supply and customer base of the agro-entrepreneurs positively influenced use intensity of social media by the agro-entrepreneurs while age and cost of access data negatively influenced their use intensity of social media.

  11. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  12. Social and Behavioral Aspects of a Tag-Based Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative tagging has emerged as a useful means to organize and share resources on the Web. Recommender systems have been utilized tags for identifying similar resources and generate personalized recommendations. In this paper, we analyze social and behavioral aspects of a tag-based recommender...... system which suggests similar Web pages based on the similarity of their tags. Tagging behavior and language anomalies in tagging activities are some aspects examined from an experiment involving 38 people from 12 countries....

  13. Social Network Analysis of the Caste-Based Reservation System in India

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, S. R. S.; Parasuram, Aishwarya; Saini, Jaspal Singh

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that the reservation system in India, which has existed since the time of Indian Independence (1947), has caused more havoc and degradation than progress. This being a popular public opinion, these notions have not been based on any rigorous scientific study or research. In this paper, we revisit the cultural divide among the Indian population from a purely social networks based approach. We study the reservation system in detail, starting from its past and observing its ef...

  14. User Participation and Honesty in Online Rating Systems: What a Social Network Can Do

    OpenAIRE

    Davoust, Alan; Esfandiari, Babak

    2016-01-01

    An important problem with online communities in general, and online rating systems in particular, is uncooperative behavior: lack of user participation, dishonest contributions. This may be due to an incentive structure akin to a Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). We show that introducing an explicit social network to PD games fosters cooperative behavior, and use this insight to design a new aggregation technique for online rating systems. Using a dataset of ratings from Yelp, we show that our aggrega...

  15. Individual and Social Requirement Aspects of Sustainable eLearning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alharthi, Ahmed D.; Spichkova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Internationalization of the higher education has created the so-called borderless university, which provides better opportunities for learning and increases the human and social sustainability. eLearning systems are a special kind of software systems, developed to provide a platform for accessible teaching and learning, including also online access to learning materials and online support for learning and teaching. The aim of our current work is to extract, analyse, and combine the results fr...

  16. Operationalising a social-ecological system perspective on the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Gren, Åsa; Engström, Gustav; Ospina, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    We propose a framework to support management that builds on a social-ecological system perspective on the Arctic Ocean. We illustrate the framework's application for two policy-relevant scenarios of climate-driven change, picturing a shift in zooplankton composition and alternatively a crab invasion. We analyse archetypical system dynamics between the socio-economic, the natural, and the governance systems in these scenarios. Our holistic approach can help managers identify looming problems arising from complex system interactions and prioritise among problems and solutions, even when available data are limited.

  17. Social Mating System and Sex-Biased Dispersal in Mammals and Birds: A Phylogenetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Karen E.; Shelley, Erin L.; Davis, Katie E.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that patterns of sex-biased dispersal are related to social mating system in mammals and birds has gained widespread acceptance over the past 30 years. However, two major complications have obscured the relationship between these two behaviors: 1) dispersal frequency and dispersal distance, which measure different aspects of the dispersal process, have often been confounded, and 2) the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in these vertebrate groups has not been examined using modern phylogenetic comparative methods. Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the relationship between mating system and sex-biased dispersal in mammals and birds. Results indicate that the evolution of female-biased dispersal in mammals may be more likely on monogamous branches of the phylogeny, and that females may disperse farther than males in socially monogamous mammalian species. However, we found no support for a relationship between social mating system and sex-biased dispersal in birds when the effects of phylogeny are taken into consideration. We caution that although there are larger-scale behavioral differences in mating system and sex-biased dispersal between mammals and birds, mating system and sex-biased dispersal are far from perfectly associated within these taxa. PMID:23483957

  18. An Environmental Scan of Health and Social System Navigation Services in an Urban Canadian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Carter RN, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems navigation services provided by a designated provider or team have the potential to address health and social disparities. We conducted an environmental scan of navigation activities in a large urban Canadian community to identify and describe: service providers who engage in systems navigation; the clients who require systems navigation support and the issues they face; activities involved; and barriers and facilitators in providing systems navigation support to clients. Using an online survey and convenience sampling, we recruited individuals who self-identified as community navigators or practiced systems navigation activities as part of their role. The majority of respondents ( n  = 145 were social workers, social services workers, or nurses. Clients of navigators struggled with mental health or addictions issues, disabilities, chronic diseases, and history of trauma or abuse. The most frequently reported activities of navigators were building professional relationships, managing paperwork, and communicating with relevant agencies or organizations. Barriers to navigation were time available in the work day, difficulty partnering due to bureaucratic structures, differing philosophies and ways of working, and a lack of central information repository in the community. Facilitators were a client-centered organization, the availability of multiple community resources in the region, and organizational support. Participants struggled with client waitlists, system issues such as lack of resources and interagency collaboration, and role clarity.

  19. Issues of Formation and Use of Financial Resources of the Social Welfare System (Case Study of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Valentinovna Tikhomirova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the social welfare system in the Komi Republic and in the Russian Federation on the whole is undergoing gradual reforming, the main goals of which are as follows: improving the quality of life; supporting the poor and vulnerable segments of the population; mitigating possible negative consequences of reforms; improving pension provision; further improvement of targeted social assistance; streamlining social benefits; development of the social services market. In this regard, the study of methodological basis for the formation and use of financial resources of the social welfare system becomes more and more important. The goal of this work is to develop theoretical and methodical approaches to the improvement of financial mechanism for the social welfare system in the region. The paper considers the formation and use of financial resources for social protection of population in the Republic of Komi. The author reveals specifics of formation of budgets of all levels and the powers of federal and regional authorities in the field of mutual responsibility. The paper shows the imbalance of financial resources and obligations at all levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. Scientific novelty of the work consists in the fact that it defines social protection as a financial category that provides redistribution of financial resources emerging in the process of formation of centralized and decentralized financial resources, through a set of forms and types of social protection aimed to ensure its targeted provision. On the basis of the national accounts system, which in terms of methodology focuses on a single international standard, the author develops a structure of forms and types of social protection, which are the basis of its financial mechanism: state social guarantees and minimum social standards; social benefits (social insurance and social assistance benefits; and social services. The paper considers main directions

  20. Research of Tourism Rescue System based on Social-Local-Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Beiqi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism Rescue System(TRSis a key issue to ensure the success of tourism service.The development of our country′s TRS showed that tourists are usually in a moving state with the geographical position information during travel accident process.So it is necessary to construct TRS using Social-Local-Mobile technology.The paper has presented the detail of Social-Local-Mobile technology,and has analyzed the motivation and practical strategy of building TRS.