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Sample records for sns liquids reflectometer

  1. Optimization of the SNS magnetism reflectometer neutron-guide optics using Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, F

    2002-01-01

    The magnetism reflectometer at the spallation neutron source SNS will employ advanced neutron optics to achieve high data rate, improved resolution, and extended dynamic range. Optical components utilized will include a multi-channel polygonal curved bender and a tapered neutron-focusing guide section. The results of a neutron beam interacting with these devices are rather complex. Additional complexity arises due to the spectral/time-emission profile of the moderator and non-perfect neutron optical coatings. While analytic formulae for the individual components provide some design guidelines, a realistic performance assessment of the whole instrument can only be achieved by advanced simulation methods. In this contribution, we present guide optics optimizations for the magnetism reflectometer using Monte Carlo simulations. We compare different instrument configurations and calculate the resulting data rates. (orig.)

  2. Ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical synthesis of SnS nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Gómez, Nora A.; Parra-Arcieniega, Salomé M. de la; Garza-Tovar, Lorena L.; Torres-González, Luis C.; Sánchez, Eduardo M., E-mail: eduardo.sanchezcv@uanl.edu.mx

    2014-03-05

    Highlight: • Obtention of SnS nanostructures using novel ionic liquid assisted sonochemical method. • Influence of the (BMImBF{sub 4}) ionic liquid in SnS morphology. • Inhibitory effect in SnS crystallinity by structuring agents in ionic environments. -- Abstract: SnS nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the ionic liquid-assisted sonochemical method (ILASM). The starting reagents were anhydrous SnCl{sub 2}, thioacetamide, dissolved in ethanol and ionic liquid (IL)1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMImBF{sub 4}) mixtures. Our experiments showed that IL plays an important role in the morphology of SnS. A 1:1 ethanol:IL mixture was found to yield the more interesting features. The lower concentration of Sn (II) in solution favored the presence of nanoplatelets. An increase in ultrasonic time favored crystalline degree and size as well. Also, the effect of additives as 3-mercaptopropionic acid, diethanolamine, ethylene glycol, and trioctyl phosphine oxide is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis-DRS) were used to characterize the obtained products.

  3. A pulsed source neutron reflectometer for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, J.; Williams, W.G.

    1985-05-01

    A design for a neutron reflectometer for surface studies to be constructed at the SNS is presented. Examples of its use to study problems in surface chemistry, surface magnetism and low dimensional structures are highlighted. (author)

  4. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, ΔT, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to ∼550 degrees C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to ∼650 degrees C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above ∼600 degrees C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150 degrees C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material

  5. SNS Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.; Cameron, P.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project is a collaborative effort to build the next generation neutron science facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The facility will deliver a 2 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target. Neutrons from this target will be moderated and sent to several state-of-the-art instruments. Six national laboratories are involved in SNS construction. Berkeley (LBNL) will build the front end that produces a 2.5 MeV, 52 mA H-beam. Los Alamos (LANL) is responsible for the 1 GeV linac with a superconducting section provided by Thomas Jefferson (JLab). Brookhaven (BNL) is building the transfer lines and accumulator ring. Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne (ANL) have responsibility for the target and instruments. All activities are coordinated by the SNS project office at Oak Ridge. The high beam power, a desired availability of 95%, and an aggressive commissioning schedule lead to some interesting challenges in beam diagnostics

  6. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Delcayre, F; Hamber, F; Hilbert, B; Monneret, E; Toia, J L

    2006-01-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high‐capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC wil...

  7. Experimental Results Obtained with Air Liquide Cold Compression System: CERN LHC and SNS Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcayre, F.; Courty, J.-C.; Hamber, F.; Hilbert, B.; Monneret, E.; Toia, J.-L.

    2006-04-01

    Large scale collider facilities will make intensive use of superconducting magnets, operating below 2.0 K. This dictates high-capacity refrigeration systems operating below 2.0 K. These systems, making use of cryogenic centrifugal compressors in a series arrangement with room temperature screw compressors will be coupled to a refrigerator, providing a certain power at 4.5 K. A first Air Liquide Cold Compression System (CCS) unit was built and delivered to CERN in 2001. Installed at the beginning of 2002, it was commissioned and tested successfully during year 2002. A series of four sets of identical CCS were then tested in 2004. Another set of four cryogenic centrifugal compressors (CCC) has been delivered to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2002. These compressors were tested and commissioned from December 2004 to July 2005. The experimental results obtained with these systems will be presented and discussed: the characteristics of the CCC will be detailed. The principles of control for the CCC in series will be detailed.

  8. The neutron reflectometer at `SINQ`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    SINQ`s dedicated reflectometer will be a flexible instrument in many respect. A `white beam time of flight` as well as a `constant wavelength` setup are possible for reflectometric experiments in a vertical scattering geometry. The phase controlled double chopper at the beginning of the instrument together with properly chosen time channels at the detector allow for the variation of the temporal resolution. Collimation slits serve to determine the angular resolution. In combination, the resolution can be tailored to the experimental needs. Additionally, one can adjust the illumination of the sample by setting the sample table and the detector to an appropriate distance. A mounting for exchangeable mirrors can be used to supply polarized neutrons by a multilayer polarizer or monochromatic neutrons by a multilayer monochromator. When it is equipped with a supermirror as a deflecting unit one can maintain a horizontal sample position which makes reflectometry on liquid samples practicable. Remanent polarizers are assigned for the changing over of the neutron polarization. A 1 T electromagnet installed on the sample manipulation table and polarization analyzers complete the polarized reflectometry setup. Alternately, an x-y-detector and single detectors will be available. By 1997/1998 the neutron reflectometer will be operational as a users` instrument. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs.

  9. The neutron reflectometer at 'SINQ'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, D.

    1996-01-01

    SINQ's dedicated reflectometer will be a flexible instrument in many respect. A 'white beam time of flight' as well as a 'constant wavelength' setup are possible for reflectometric experiments in a vertical scattering geometry. The phase controlled double chopper at the beginning of the instrument together with properly chosen time channels at the detector allow for the variation of the temporal resolution. Collimation slits serve to determine the angular resolution. In combination, the resolution can be tailored to the experimental needs. Additionally, one can adjust the illumination of the sample by setting the sample table and the detector to an appropriate distance. A mounting for exchangeable mirrors can be used to supply polarized neutrons by a multilayer polarizer or monochromatic neutrons by a multilayer monochromator. When it is equipped with a supermirror as a deflecting unit one can maintain a horizontal sample position which makes reflectometry on liquid samples practicable. Remanent polarizers are assigned for the changing over of the neutron polarization. A 1 T electromagnet installed on the sample manipulation table and polarization analyzers complete the polarized reflectometry setup. Alternately, an x-y-detector and single detectors will be available. By 1997/1998 the neutron reflectometer will be operational as a users' instrument. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 30 refs

  10. Reflectometer design using nonimaging optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snail, K A

    1987-12-15

    A new type of two-stage reflectometer is proposed for the measurement of directional hemispherical reflectance. The proposed reflectometer consists of a primary collecting mirror coupled to a secondary mirror chosen to eliminate the Fresnel variation of the detector (or source) response. The secondary mirror shape needed is an inverted nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). For direct mode operation, the detector is placed at the larger CPC aperture. Ray tracing of a CPC/ellipsoid reflectometer indicates that the throughput is high and isotropic. Design trade-offs and two-stage reflectometers employing a hemisphere and dual paraboloid primary are also discussed.

  11. Reflectometer measurements on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Pavlichenko, R.O.; Tanaka, K.; Ejiri, A.

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed radar reflectometer is the suitable reflectometer technique, in order to study the effect of the strong magnetic shear on polarization of microwave in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Because pulsed radar reflectometry is measured the delay time of the reflected wave, it can be distinguished between X-mode and O-mode polarized wave. At X-mode operation it is found the position of the ergodic edge layer is steady in spite of the increased density in the core region during neutral beam is injected. If the electron density is not reached to the critical cutoff one, the pulsed radar system could be used as a delayometer. The measured delayometer signal is almost in agreement with the numerical calculation using the assumption which the polarization of the propagated wave into the plasma is decided at the edge region, nevertheless the angle of the magnetic field line to the magnetic axis is changed in the propagated direction of the launched wave. (author)

  12. Luminosity class of neutron reflectometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshanov, N.K., E-mail: pnk@pnpi.spb.ru

    2016-10-21

    The formulas that relate neutron fluxes at reflectometers with differing q-resolutions are derived. The reference luminosity is defined as a maximum flux for measurements with a standard resolution. The methods of assessing the reference luminosity of neutron reflectometers are presented for monochromatic and white beams, which are collimated with either double diaphragm or small angle Soller systems. The values of the reference luminosity for unified parameters define luminosity class of reflectometers. The luminosity class characterizes (each operation mode of) the instrument by one number and can be used to classify operating reflectometers and optimize designed reflectometers. As an example the luminosity class of the neutron reflectometer NR-4M (reactor WWR-M, Gatchina) is found for four operation modes: 2.1 (monochromatic non-polarized beam), 1.9 (monochromatic polarized beam), 1.5 (white non-polarized beam), 1.1 (white polarized beam); it is shown that optimization of measurements may increase the flux at the sample up to two orders of magnitude with monochromatic beams and up to one order of magnitude with white beams. A fan beam reflectometry scheme with monochromatic neutrons is suggested, and the expected increase in luminosity is evaluated. A tuned-phase chopper with a variable TOF resolution is recommended for reflectometry with white beams.

  13. A new neutron reflectometer at Australia's HIFAR research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.; Nelson, A.; Schulz, J.C.; Jones, M.J.; Studer, A.J.; Hathaway, P.

    2005-01-01

    A new neutron reflectometer has been built at Australia's 10MW HIFAR research reactor. The X172 reflectometer operates in a monochromatic, angular dispersive mode collecting reflectivity data as a function of angle. The incident neutron beam is monochromated by a pair of pyrolytic graphite crystals (λ=2.43A) before being collimated using a pair of motorised sintered B 4 C slits. Detection of the reflected neutron beam is via a 10-atmosphere, helium-3, linear position sensitive detector. Examples of data collected using the X172 reflectometer at air-solid and solid-liquid interfaces are given. Neutron reflectivity values as low as 10 -5 have been measured on this instrument

  14. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  15. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  16. Microwave Imaging Reflectometer for TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Munsat; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; A.J.H. Donne; and M. van de Pol

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of fluctuations in magnetically confined plasmas is essential to the advancement of turbulence-based transport physics. Though microwave reflectometry has proven to be an extremely useful and sensitive tool for measuring small density fluctuations in some circumstances, this technique has been shown to have limited viability for large amplitude, high kq fluctuations and/or core measurements. To this end, a new instrument based on 2-D imaging reflectometry has been developed to measure density fluctuations over an extended plasma region in the TEXTOR tokamak. This technique is made possible by collecting an extended spectrum of reflected waves with large-aperture imaging optics. Details of the imaging reflectometry concept, as well as technical details of the TEXTOR instrument will be presented. Data from roof-of-principle experiments on TEXTOR using a prototype system is presented, as well as results from a systematic off-line study of the advantages and limitations of the imaging reflectometer

  17. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  18. Tunable UV-visible absorption of SnS2 layered quantum dots produced by liquid phase exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Ilanchezhiyan, P; Mohan Kumar, G; Cho, Hak Dong; Zhang, Lei; Chan, A Sattar; Lee, Dong J; Panin, Gennady N; Kang, Tae Won

    2017-02-02

    4H-SnS 2 layered crystals synthesized by a hydrothermal method were used to obtain via liquid phase exfoliation quantum dots (QDs), consisting of a single layer (SLQDs) or multiple layers (MLQDs). Systematic downshift of the peaks in the Raman spectra of crystals with a decrease in size was observed. The bandgap of layered QDs, estimated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and the tunneling current measurements using graphene probes, increases from 2.25 eV to 3.50 eV with decreasing size. 2-4 nm SLQDs, which are transparent in the visible region, show selective absorption and photosensitivity at wavelengths in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum while larger MLQDs (5-90 nm) exhibit a broad band absorption in the visible spectral region and the photoresponse under white light. The results show that the layered quantum dots obtained by liquid phase exfoliation exhibit well-controlled and regulated bandgap absorption in a wide tunable wavelength range. These novel layered quantum dots prepared using an inexpensive method of exfoliation and deposition from solution onto various substrates at room temperature can be used to create highly efficient visible-blind ultraviolet photodetectors and multiple bandgap solar cells.

  19. The ATF two-frequency correlation reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Anabitarte, E.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Thomas, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) density fluctuation reflectometer system consists of two individual reflectometers operating in the 30- to 40-GHz band. Each reflectometer consists of a tunable microwave source and a quadrature phase detector connected to the same antenna system. This arrangement allows two-frequency operation along the same radial chord for radial coherence measurements. The technique used in making radial coherence measurements is discussed and the results of such experiments are given. Initial experiments have shown high coherence when the frequencies of the two reflectometers are tuned close together and a clear loss of coherence as the radial separation of the cutoff layers is increased by increasing the frequency separation of the two reflectometers. Recent results have shown that local measurements of density fluctuations in plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are possible and that detailed structure can be seen in the fluctuation spectra. In addition, radial correlation lengths have been found to be from 0.5 to 1.0 cm in ECH plasmas, with some frequency structures having correlation lengths up to 3 cm. In plasmas with neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial correlation lengths in the edge region have been found to be approximately 0.1--0.2 cm. 4 figs

  20. Initial studies of reflectometer for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    ITER-related activities taking place over the last year were concentrated primarily on the area of advanced reflectometry systems. In particular, we have concentrated on reflectometer systems for density profile and density fluctuation studies on ITER. This interest has led us to spend much of our time investigating the pulsed radar time-of-flight reflectometer approaches (i.e. moderate pulse and ultrashort pulse). Pulsed radar systems offer the ability to make detailed profile measurements using fixed frequency sources, avoiding the need for highly stable sweepable sources as required by the more traditional FM radar systems

  1. 2-D Reflectometer Modeling for Optimizing the ITER Low-field Side Reflectometer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.; Valeo, E.J.; Budny, R.V.; Kessel, C.; Johnson, D.

    2005-01-01

    The response of a low-field side reflectometer system for ITER is simulated with a 2?D reflectometer code using a realistic plasma equilibrium. It is found that the reflected beam will often miss its launch point by as much as 40 cm and that a vertical array of receiving antennas is essential in order to observe a reflection on the low-field side of ITER

  2. Remote handling equipment for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulten, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives information on the areas of the SNS, facility which become highly radioactive preventing hands-on maintenance. Levels of activity are sufficiently high in the Target Station Area of the SNS, especially under fault conditions, to warrant reactor technology to be used in the design of the water, drainage and ventilation systems. These problems, together with the type of remote handling equipment required in the SNS, are discussed

  3. The LHC Beam Pipe Waveguide Mode Reflectometer

    CERN Document Server

    Kroyer, T; Caspers, Friedhelm; Sulek, Z; Williams, L R

    2007-01-01

    The waveguide-mode reflectometer for obstacle detection in the LHC beam pipe has been intensively used for more than 18 months. The â€ワAssembly” version is based on the synthetic pulse method using a modern vector network analyzer. It has mode selective excitation couplers for the first TE and TM mode and uses a specially developed waveguide mode dispersion compensation algorithm with external software. In addition there is a similar â€ワIn Situ” version of the reflectometer which uses permanently installed microwave couplers at the end of each of the nearly 3 km long LHC arcs. During installation a considerable number of unexpected objects have been found in the beam pipes and subsequently removed. Operational statistics and lessons learned are presented and the overall performance is discussed.

  4. Phase ramping and modulation of reflectometer signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.D.; Bartlett, D.V.; Stoff, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The phase and amplitude signals of JET heterodyne reflectometers show varying levels of high frequency turbulence superimposed on a slow changing mean. The phase signal also shows multi-radian (> 1 fringe) variations with two quite different time scales (2-10 ms and sub-ms). In both cases the mean reflected power, together with turbulent phase and amplitude fluctuation levels, are modulated synchronously with the are modulated synchronously with the phase fringes. The slow fringes appear to result radial movement of the cutoff layer with the amplitude modulation possibly due to multiple reflection between plasma and wall. The fast fringes occur in intermittent bursts and appear to be phase runaway resulting from antenna misalignment. Using a 2-D physical optics simulation code it is possible to replicate the fast bursts of phase runaway from steady-state turbulence and misaligned antennas. This offers a possible alternative explanation for some of the observations of bursting turbulence seen in reflectometer signals. (authors)

  5. Phase ramping and modulation of reflectometer signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.; Bartlett, D.; Stott, P.

    1999-06-01

    The phase and amplitude signals of JET heterodyne reflectometers show varying levels of high frequency turbulence superimposed on a slow changing mean. The phase signal also shows multi-radian (>1 fringe) variations with two quite different time scales (2-10ms and sub-ms). In both cases the mean reflected power, together with turbulent phase and amplitude fluctuation levels, are modulated synchronously with the phase fringes. The slow fringes appear to result from radial movement of the cutoff layer with the amplitude modulation possibly due to multiple reflection between plasma and wall. The fast fringes occur in intermittent bursts and appear to be phase runaway resulting from antenna misalignment. Using a 2D physical optics simulation code it is possible to replicate the fast bursts of phase runaway from steady-state turbulence and misaligned antennas. This offers a possible alternative explanation for some of the observations of bursting turbulence seen in reflectometer signals. (author)

  6. The polarized neutron reflectometer 'Reverans'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzhabov, A.K. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: akr@pnpi.spb.ru; Gordeev, G.P. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Lazebnik, I.M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Axelrod, L.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation); Zabenkin, V.N. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-15

    The polarized neutron reflectometer 'Reverans' with a vertical plane of scattering is being installed at the VVR-M reactor (Gatchina, Russia). It will be used for research on phase boundaries, interfaces and free surfaces. Systems under study can be both magnetic and nonmagnetic ones. At present the installation of the reflectometer is at the final stage. The parameters and abilities of the reflectometer are presented.

  7. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  8. Status of the SNS Linac An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Holtkamp, N

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source SNS is a second generation pulsed neutron source and under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SNS is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic energy Sciences and is dedicated to the study of the structure and dynamics of materials by neutron scattering. A collaboration composed of six national laboratories (ANL, BNL, TJNAF, LANL, LBNL, ORNL) is responsible for the design and construction of the various subsystems. With the official start in October 1998, the operation of the facility will begin in 2006 and deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam with a pulse length of approximately 700 nanoseconds on a liquid mercury target. The multi-lab collaboration allowed access to a large variety of expertise in order to enhance the delivered beam power by almost an order of magnitude compared to existing neutron facilities. The SNS linac consists of a combination of room temperature and superconducting structures and will be the first pulsed high power sc lin...

  9. SNS moderator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The pulsed-neutron source SNS facility will start operation at 1 MW. A later upgrade to 5 MW is planned. The facility consists of a linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and a target station. The protons from the accumulator ring will be injected into the target station at 1 GeV. The subsequent spallation process will then produce low-energy thermal neutrons that may be used for a wide variety of experiments. In this paper the authors discuss neutronic calculations which address various aspects of the moderate design. The computer codes HETC and MCNP were used for these calculations with the former code performing the high-energy transport. Neutrons which fell in energy to 20 MeV or less were then passed to MCNP for further transport

  10. SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Michael Drury; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Peter Kneisel; John Mammosser; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircia Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Tim Whitlatch; Mark Wiseman

    2003-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility, Jefferson Lab, is producing 24 Superconducting Radio FR-equency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium beta production, and 12 high beta (0.81) production cryomodules. After testing [ ], the medium beta prototype cryomodule was shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and acceptance check out has been completed. All production orders for cavities and cryomodule components are being received at this time and the medium beta cryomodule production run has started. Each of the medium beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. The performance results of cryomodules to date will be discussed

  11. Development of the HANARO Neutron Reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Seong, Baek Seok; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Choi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Ki Yun

    2006-10-01

    This report contains the development process of a neutron reflectometer which was installed at the HANARO. This also contains the process of reflectivity measurement and analysis for thin films by using the instrument. In order to evaluate the instrument's performance, the result of reflectivity measurement and analysis on the reference samples such as a d-PS and a SiO 2 with different thicknesses was described. Finally, this report contains a measurement and analysis result of reflectivity for various thin films to certify the possibility of the instrument's utilization

  12. PLATYPUS - A Time-of-Flight Neutron Reflectometer at the OPAL Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Michael; Brule, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Neutron reflectometry is used to probe the structure of surfaces, thin-films or buried interfaces as well as processes occurring at surfaces and interfaces. Applications cover adsorbed surfactant layers, self-assembled monolayers, biological membranes, electrochemical and catalytic interfaces, polymer coatings and photosensitive films. The PLATYPUS neutron reflectometer has been recognised as one of the highest priority instruments to be constructed at the new 20MW OPAL research reactor at Lucas Heights. The instrument will be capable of collecting data from solid, liquid and magnetic samples using a broad wavelength band of polarised or non-polarised neutrons. Details of the design and construction of the PLATYPUS reflectometer will be given. (authors)

  13. An automatic sample changer for use on the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    A design for an Automatic Room Temperature Sample Changer suitable for any completely contained sample, gas, liquid or solid, has been produced. Samples can be moved in any sequence into the neutron beam. The design was evolved primarily to suit SNS instruments. A prototype was constructed specifically for the LAD spectrometer having ten sample positions. The accuracy of the sample positioning was determined. (author)

  14. A time-of-flight neutron reflectometer for surface and interfacial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, J.; Ward, R.C.; Williams, W.G.

    1987-03-01

    A time-of-flight neutron reflectometer constructed for surface and interfacial studies, and installed at the ISIS pulsed neutron source, is described. One of its important design features is its inclined incident beam, since this allows both liquid and solid surface phenomena to be investigated. Measurements are presented to show the performance of the instrument, and new representative results, which include studies of liquid surfaces, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and thin film multilayers, are included as illustrations of the scientific potential of the method. (author)

  15. The new polarized neutron reflectometer in Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, U.; Alefeld, B.; Bergs, W.; Kentzinger, E.; Brueckel, T.

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the HADAS spectrometer in the guide hall of the Juelich research reactor FRJ-2 a polarized neutron reflectometer is build with a 2D-position sensitive detector system. The new spectrometer is optimized for reflectivity and diffuse magnetic scattering measurements with small incident angles on thin magnetic films with thicknesses in the nm range. The polarization analyzer covers the whole detector area, so that a range of 2.5 deg in the scattering angle can be measured simultaneously. The analyzer consists of a stack of supermirrors tilted against the scattering plane. In this reflection geometry, the momentum transfer resolution of the instrument is not reduced, but the sample height is limited to 17 mm. For the monochromator, polarizer and collimation different setups have been compared on the basis of Monte-Carlo calculations: a focusing elliptical supermirror monochromator, a cylindrical mirror, a focusing pyrolytic graphite double monochromator and a double monochromator with bent perfect Si crystals. (author)

  16. Laboratory Characterization of an Imaging Reflectometer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsat, T.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Donne, A.J.H.; Pol, M. van de

    2003-01-01

    While microwave reflectometry has proven to be a sensitive tool for measuring electron density fluctuations in many circumstances, it has also been shown to have limited viability for core measurements and/or conditions of strong turbulence. To this end, a new instrument based on 2-D imaging reflectometry has been developed to measure density fluctuations over an extended plasma region in the TEXTOR tokamak. Laboratory characterization of this instrument has been performed using corrugated reflecting targets as an approximation to plasma reflections including 2-D turbulent fluctuations of various magnitude and poloidal wavenumber. Within this approximation, the imaging reflectometer can recover the spectral and spatial characteristics of the reflection layer lost to or otherwise inaccessible to conventional techniques

  17. Networked Attached Devices at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, W

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) diagnostic instruments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are based on the Network Attached Device (NAD) concept. Each pickup or sensor has its own resources such as timing, data acquisition and processing. NADs are individually connected to the network, thus reducing the brittleness inherent in tightly coupled systems. This architecture allows an individual device to fail or to be serviced or removed without disrupting other devices. This paper describes our implementation of the nearly 400 NADs to be deployed. The hardware consists of rack-mounted PCs with standard motherboards and PCI data-acquisition boards. The software environment is based on LabVIEW and EPICS. LabVIEW supports the agile development demanded by modern diagnostic systems. EPICS is the control system standard for the entire SNS facility. To achieve high performance, LabVIEW and EPICS communicate through shared memory. SNS diagnostics are developed by a multi-laboratory partnership including ORNL, BNL, LAN...

  18. TREFF: Reflectometer and instrument component test beamline at MLZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Link

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available TREFF is a high resolution polarized neutron reflectometer and instrument component test beamline resulting in a highly modular instrument providing a flexible beam line for various applications.

  19. Spectrum of density turbulence measured by microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xuantong; Cao Janyong; Xu Deming; Zhang Hongying; Yang Qinwei

    1993-01-01

    The principle of measuring lower frequency density turbulence with microwave reflectometer is presented. Preliminary results from the HL-1 tokamak have been obtained and compared with the results measured by means of electrostatic probe

  20. The US spallation neutron source (SNS) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The SNS is a 1 MW pulsed spallation neutron source that will be sited at Oak Ridge. It will consist of a high-current, normal-conducting linac accelerating an H - beam to 1 GeV, an accumulator ring which compresses each 1 ms linac pulse into a 600 ns bunch which is then extracted in a single turn onto a liquid mercury target. Neutron pulses emerge at a 60 Hz rate from the two ambient, and two cryogenic moderators. Eighteen beam ports surrounding the target station are available for neutron-scattering instrumentation. Funds for ten instruments are included in the construction project; these instruments will provide basic measurement capability for the many and varied research activities at the SNS facility. The new spallation source is being built by a consortium of laboratories; the partners are LBNL, LANL, BNL, ANL and ORNL. The breadth and depth of experience and resources brought by such a wide-spread team offers very significant advantages. Construction will start in October of 1998, operation will begin in October, 2005. (J.P.N.)

  1. First neutron results from SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leadbetter, A.J.; Abbley, D.; Bailey, I.F.

    1985-05-01

    The report summarises the analyses of the first neutron results on the pulsed spallation source SNS. The source parameters; aspects of the instrumentation; and experimental results particular to a given beamline; are all discussed. General conclusions based on these data, the detectors and the computing system, are also examined. (U.K.)

  2. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  3. AMOR - the versatile reflectometer at SINQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, D.; Gross, P.; Keller, P.; Schlumpf, N.; Könnecke, M.

    2000-03-01

    We report on a new facility for neutron reflectometry situated at the end position of a cold neutron guide at the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source SINQ. The instrument is a flexible apparatus, adaptable to the needs of the user's individual experiment. Principally designed to operate in the time-of-flight mode it is also capable to exploit the fact that SINQ is a continuous source because PSI's developments in the field of thin film multilayers are fruitfully applied. By means of multilayer monochromators it can be converted into a constant wavelength reflectometer. Polarized neutron reflectometry on AMOR takes advantage of remanent FeCo/Ti:N supermirrors and multilayers which can be operated in a way that no spin flippers are needed. The time and angular contributions to the resolution in momentum transfer are separately determinable in TOF mode. The total length of the instrument is adjustable in order to optimize resolution together with the illumination of the sample's surface. Large sample environments can be placed on the sample table that is actively isolated against vibrations. Single detectors and an EMBL 3He area detector can be chosen, alternatively. The instrument concept as well as parameters of its components are presented.

  4. Neutronic moderator design for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    Neutronics analyses are now in progress to support the initial selection of moderator design parameters for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The results of the initial optimization studies involving moderator poison plate location, moderator position, and premoderator performance for the target system are presented in this paper. Also presented is an initial study of the use of a composite moderator to produce a liquid methane like spectrum

  5. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS FOR RAMP-EDGE SNS JUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Q.; Fan, Y.; Gim, Y.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the processing optimization and fabrication of ramp-edge high-temperature superconducting junctions by using alternative materials for both superconductor electrodes and normal-metal barrier. By using Ag-doped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (Ag:YBCO) as electrodes and a cation-modified compound of (Pr y Gd 0.6-y )Ca 0.4 Ba 1.6 La 0.4 Cu 3 O 7 (y = 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6) as a normal-metal barrier, high-temperature superconducting Josephson junctions have been fabricated in a ramp-edge superconductor/normal-metal/superconductor (SNS) configuration. By using Ag:YBCO as electrodes, we have found that the processing controllability /reproducibility and the stability of the SNS junctions are improved substantially. The junctions fabricated with these alternative materials show well-defined RSJ-like current vs voltage characteristics at liquid nitrogen temperature

  6. Status of the Cryogenic System Commissioning at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Casagrande, Fabio; Campisi, Isidoro E; Creel, Jonathan; Dixon, Kelly; Ganni, Venkatarao; Gurd, Pamela; Hatfield, Daniel; Howell, Matthew; Knudsen, Peter; Stout, Daniel; Strong, William

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 Watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning strategy and status will be presented.

  7. SNS project-wide beam current monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesselman, M.; Witkover, R.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    A consortium of national laboratories is constructing the Spallation Neutron Source [1] (SNS) to be installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are signal similarities that exist in the beam diagnostic instrumentation that could permit common designs. This paper will focus on the beam current monitoring requirements, and the methods under consideration to measure beam current in various locations throughout the SNS facility

  8. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Drury; Edward Daly; Christiana Grenoble; William Hicks; Lawrence King; Tomasz Plawski; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman; G. Davis; Jean Delayen

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-β (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-β and twelve high-β (0.81) production cryomodules. Nine medium-β cryomodules as well as two high-β cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q 0 ), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Q ext 's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper

  9. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Michael A; Davis, Kirk; Delayen, Jean R; Grenoble, Christiana; Hicks, William R; King, Larry; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Tom; Preble, Joseph P; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-beta and twelve high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Ten medium-beta cryomodules as well as two high beta cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q0), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Qext's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper.

  10. Future Muon Source Possibilities at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Travis J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); MacDougall, Prof. Gregory J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The workshop “Future Muon Source Possibilities at the SNS” was held September 1-2, 2016 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The workshop aimed to examine the technical feasibility and scientific need to construct a μSR and/or β-NMR facility at the SNS. During the course of the workshop it became evident that recently developed technology could enable the development of a world leading pulsed muon source at SNS, without impacting the neutron science missions of the SNS. The details are discussed below.

  11. Progress on the SNS target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carne, A.

    1983-01-01

    This review gives progress and modifications covering the last eighteen months, under the five broad areas of target, target assembly, control system, bulk shield and remote handling. Finally a discussion of additional facilities to the SNS is presented

  12. AMOR - the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer at SINQ/PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mukul; Gutberlet, T.; Stahn, J.; Keller, P.; Clemens, D.

    2004-07-01

    The apparatus for multioptional reflectometry (AMOR) at SINQ/PSI is a versatile reflectometer operational in the time-of-flight (TOF) mode (in a wavelength range of 0.15 nm <λ < 1.3 nm) as well as in the monochromatic (theta-2theta) mode with both polarized and unpolarized neutrons. AMOR is designed to perform reflectometry measurements in horizontal sample-plane geometry which allows studying both solid-liquid and liquid-liquid interfaces. A pulsed cold neutron beam from the end position of the neutron guide is produced by a dual-chopper system (side-by-side) having two windows at 180^{circ} and rotatable with a maximum frequency of 200 Hz. In the TOF mode, the chopper frequency, width of the gating window and the chopper-detector distance can be selected independently providing a wide range of q-resolution (Delta q/q=1-10&%slash;). Remanent FeCoV/Ti : N supermirrors are used as polarizer/analyzer with a polarization efficiency of sim97&%slash;. For the monochromatic wavelength mode, a Ni/Ti multilayer is used as a monochromator, giving sim50&%slash; reflectivity at a wavelength of 0.47 nm. In the present work, a detailed description of the instrument and setting-up of the polarization option is described. Results from some of the recent studies with polarized neutrons and measurements on liquid surfaces are presented.

  13. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Lauter, Valeria [ORNL; Szulczewski, Greg J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    New, more efficient materials for spin valves - a device used in magnetic sensors, random access memories, and hard disk drives - may be on the way based on research using the magnetism reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Spin valve devices work by means of two or more conducting magnetic material layers that alternate their electrical resistance depending on the layers alignment. Giant magnetoresistance is a quantum mechanical effect first observed in thin film structures about 20 years ago. The effect is observed as a significant change in electrical resistance, depending on whether the magnetization of adjacent ferromagnetic layers is in a parallel or an antiparallel magnetic alignment. 'What we are doing here is developing new materials. The search for new materials suitable for injecting and transferring carriers with a preferential spin orientation is most important for the development of spintronics,' said Valeria Lauter, lead instrument scientist on the magnetism reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), who collaborated on the experiment. The researchers discovered that the conductivity of such materials is improved when an organic polymer semiconductor layer is placed between the magnetic materials. Organic semiconductors are now the material of choice for future spin valve devices because they preserve spin coherence over longer times and distances than conventional semiconductors. While research into spin valves has been ongoing, research into organic semiconductors is recent. Previous research has shown that a 'conductivity mismatch' exists in spin valve systems in which ferromagnetic metal electrodes interface with such organic semiconductors as Alq3 ({pi}-conjugated molecule tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminium). This mismatch limits the efficient injection of the electrons from the electrodes at the interface with the semiconductor material. However, lithium fluoride (LiF), commonly used in light

  14. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MI, J.L.; SANDBERG, J.; SANDERS, R.; SOUKAS, A.; ZHANG, W.

    2000-01-01

    The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted

  15. CLEARING OF ELECTRON CLOUD IN SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPRIA, D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe a mechanism using the clearing electrodes to remove the electron cloud in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, where strong multipacting could happen at median clearing fields. A similar phenomenon was reported in an experimental study at Los Alamos laboratory's Proton Synchrotron Ring (PSR). We also investigated the effectiveness of the solenoid's clearing mechanism in the SNS, which differs from the short bunch case, such as in B-factories. The titanium nitride (TiN) coating of the chamber walls was applied to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY)

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of the spear reflectometer at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Monte Carlo instrument simulation code, MCLIB, contains elements to represent several components found in neutron spectrometers including slits, choppers, detectors, sources and various samples. Using these elements to represent the components of a neutron scattering instrument, one can simulate, for example, an inelastic spectrometer, a small angle scattering machine, or a reflectometer. In order to benchmark the code, we chose to compare simulated data from the MCLIB code with an actual experiment performed on the SPEAR reflectometer at LANSCE. This was done by first fitting an actual SPEAR data set to obtain the model scattering-length-density profile, Β(z), for the sample and the substrate. Then these parameters were used as input values for the sample scattering function. A simplified model of SPEAR was chosen which contained all of the essential components of the instrument. A code containing the MCLIB subroutines was then written to simulate this simplified instrument. The resulting data was then fit and compared to the actual data set in terms of the statistics, resolution and accuracy

  17. Observation of energetic particle mode by using microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Toi, K.; Osakabe, M.; Yamamoto, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two heterodyne reflectometer systems are utilized for the fluctuation measurement in the Large Helical Device (LHD). By using the extraordinary polarized wave, we can measure the corresponding value to the combined fluctuation with the electron density and the magnetic field in the plasma core region even if the radial electron density profile is flat. E-band system has three channels of fixed frequencies of 78, 72, 65 GHz. The system is very convenient to observe magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) phenomena such as energetic particle driven Alfven eigenmodes, even if the system works as an interferometer mode. The detailed behaviour of the energetic particle mode is studied when low-n MHD burst is occurred. It seems to be caused that the spatial distribution of high energy particle is changed by such a MHD-burst. Also to know the radial distribution of MHD mode, frequency swept R-band reflectometer is applied for the first time. It seems to be successfully detected the energetic particle mode and toroidal Alfven eigenmode. (author)

  18. An Examination of the Causal Relationship among Self-Identity Development, Using SNS and SNS Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Shohei; Sakata, Kiriko; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The adolescent is the big turning point during the life. Adolescents must find positive answer for the question “what is with the quality of oneself” through interactions with neighboring people to develop SELF-IDENTITY. On the other hand, Social Network Services (SNS) are highly familiar to them, making “SNS addiction” become a big social problem. This study attempted causal relationship among self-identity development and using SNS, consequently SNS addiction, from the viewpoint of personal...

  19. SNS Diagnostics Tools for Data Acquisition and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Sundaram, Madhan; Long, Cary D

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1.0 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based and will run Windows for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. The diagnostics platform as well as other control systems and operator consoles use the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to communicate. This paper describes the tools created to evaluate the diagnostic instrument using our standard programming environment, LabVIEW. The tools are based on the LabVIEW Channel Access library and can run on Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. The data-acquisition tool uses drop and drag to select process variables organized by instrument, accelerator component, or beam parameters. The data can be viewed on-line and logged to disk for later ...

  20. Dynamic Visualization of SNS Diagnostics Summary Report and System Status

    CERN Document Server

    Blokland, Willem; Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Embedded Windows XP and LabVIEW. The diagnostics instruments communicate with the control system using the Channel Access (CA) protocol of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). This paper describes the Diagnostics Group's approach to collecting data from the instruments, processing it, and presenting live in a summarized way over the web. Effectively, adding a supervisory level to the diagnostics instruments. One application of this data mining is the "Diagnostics Status Page" that summarizes the insert-able devices, transport efficiencies, and the mode of the accelerator in a compact webpage. The displays on the webpage change automatically to show the latest and/o...

  1. IMPACT simulation and the SNS linac beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Qiang, J.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-particle tracking simulations for the SNS linac beam dynamics studies are performed with the IMPACT code. Beam measurement results are compared with the computer simulations, including beam longitudinal halo and beam losses in the superconducting linac, transverse beam Courant-Snyder parameters and the longitudinal beam emittance in the linac. In most cases, the simulations show good agreement with the measured results

  2. A nanoscale ordered materials diffractometer for the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuefeind, Joerg; Chipley, Kenneth K.; Tulk, Chris A.; Simonson, J. Michael; Winokur, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Nanoscale Ordered Materials Diffractometer (NOMAD) is one of five neutron scattering instruments being managed within the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Instruments-Next Generation (SING) project. NOMAD is designed as a high-flux, medium-resolution diffractometer using a large bandwidth of neutron energies and extensive detector coverage to perform structural determinations of local order in crystalline and amorphous materials. The instrument will enable studies of a large variety of samples ranging from liquids, solutions, glasses, polymers, and nanocrystalline materials to long-range ordered crystals and will allow unprecedented access to high-resolution pair distribution functions, small-contrast isotope substitution experiments, small sample sizes, and parametric studies. Project completion for the instrument is anticipated in 2010 and a review of the design status will be given

  3. Experimental study of a swept reflectometer with a single antenna for plasma density profile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.A.G.; Simonet, F.

    1984-12-01

    The feasibility of a swept microwave reflectometer, with one antenna only, for plasma electron density measurement is studied. Experimental results obtained in the laboratory by simulating the plasma with a metallic mirror are presented

  4. First results of the SOL reflectometer on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C.; Hanson, G.; Lin, Y.; Wilgen, J.; Wukitch, S.; Labombard, B.; Wallace, G.

    2012-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer has been built on Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer (SOL) density profiles adjacent to the lower hybrid launcher. The reflectometer system operates between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms and covers a density range of ˜1016-1020 m-3 at B0 = 5-5.4 T. This paper discusses the analysis of reflectometer density profiles and presents first experimental results of SOL density profile modifications due to the application of lower hybrid range-of-frequencies power to L-mode discharges. Comparison between density profiles measured by the X-mode reflectometer and scanning Langmuir probes is also shown.

  5. Progress in design of the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardekopf, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a six-laboratory collaboration to build an intense pulsed neutron facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The linac design has evolved from the conceptual design presented in 1997 in order to achieve higher initial performance and to incorporate desirable upgrade features. The linac is now designed to produce 2-MW beam power using a combination of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, drift-tube linac (DTL), coupled-cavity linac (CCL), and superconducting-RF (SRF) linac. Designs of each of these elements support he high peak intensity and high quality beam required for injection into the SNS accumulator ring. This paper will trace the evolution of the linac design and the progress made in the R and D program. (author)

  6. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  7. Ferrite measurements for SNS accelerating cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendall, R.G.; Church, R.A.

    1979-03-01

    The RF system for the SNS has six double accelerating cavities each containing seventy ferrite toroids. Difficulties experienced in obtaining toroids to the required specifications are discussed and the two toroid test cavity built to test those supplied is described. Ferrite measurements are reported which were undertaken to measure; (a) μQf as a function of frequency and RF field level and (b) bias current as a function of frequency for different ranges of ferrite permeability μ. (U.K.)

  8. CORRECTION SYSTEMS UPGRADE FOR THE SNS RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAPAPHILIPPOU, Y.; GARDNER, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    In view of the changes in the design of the SNS ring from the original FODO lattice [l] to the 220m hybrid lattice [2] and finally 1.3GeV compatible 248m ring [3], complementary studies have been undertaken, in order to upgrade its correction packages. We review the evolution of the correction systems and present the accelerator physics studies for the adopted schemes and powering plan

  9. SNS RING STUDY AT THE AGS BOOSTER.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS, L.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; FEDOTOV, A.; GARDNER, C.; LEE, Y.Y.; LUCCIO, A.; MALITSKY, N.; ROSER, T.; WENG, W.T.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.; REECE, K.; WANG, J.G.

    2000-06-30

    During the g-2 run at the BNL AGS in early 2000, a 200 MeV storage-ring-like magnetic cycle has been set-up and tuned at the Booster in preparing for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring study. In this article, we report the progress of the machine set-up, tuning, some preliminary studies, and the future plan.

  10. Modeling high-Power Accelerators Reliability-SNS LINAC (SNS-ORNL); MAX LINAC (MYRRHA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A. E.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving reliability has recently become a very important objective in the field of particle accelerators. The particle accelerators in operation are constantly undergoing modifications, and improvements are implemented using new technologies, more reliable components or redundant schemes (to obtain more reliability, strength, more power, etc.) A reliability model of SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) LINAC has been developed within MAX project and analysis of the accelerator systems reliability has been performed within the MAX project, using the Risk Spectrum reliability analysis software. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparison with the SNS operational data. Results and conclusions are presented in this paper, oriented to identify design weaknesses and provide recommendations for improving reliability of MYRRHA linear accelerator. The SNS reliability model developed for the MAX preliminary design phase indicates possible avenues for further investigation that could be needed to improve the reliability of the high-power accelerators, in view of the future reliability targets of ADS accelerators.

  11. Brain anatomy alterations associated with Social Networking Site (SNS) addiction

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qinghua; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    This study relies on knowledge regarding the neuroplasticity of dual-system components that govern addiction and excessive behavior and suggests that alterations in the grey matter volumes, i.e., brain morphology, of specific regions of interest are associated with technology-related addictions. Using voxel based morphometry (VBM) applied to structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of twenty social network site (SNS) users with varying degrees of SNS addiction, we show that SNS addic...

  12. Fabrication of high crystalline SnS and SnS2 thin films, and their switching device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeongsu; Lee, Jeongsu; Shin, Seokyoon; Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Seungjin; Park, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Sejin; Lee, Namgue; Bang, Minwook; Lee, Seung-Beck; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2018-05-01

    Representative tin sulfide compounds, tin monosulfide (SnS) and tin disulfide (SnS2) are strong candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, based on non-toxicity, low cost, unique structures and optoelectronic properties. However, it is insufficient for synthesizing of tin sulfide thin films using vapor phase deposition method which is capable of fabricating reproducible device and securing high quality films, and their device characteristics. In this study, we obtained highly crystalline SnS thin films by atomic layer deposition and obtained highly crystalline SnS2 thin films by phase transition of the SnS thin films. The SnS thin film was transformed into SnS2 thin film by annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in H2S atmosphere. This phase transition was confirmed by x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and we studied the cause of the phase transition. We then compared the film characteristics of these two tin sulfide thin films and their switching device characteristics. SnS and SnS2 thin films had optical bandgaps of 1.35 and 2.70 eV, and absorption coefficients of about 105 and 104 cm‑1 in the visible region, respectively. In addition, SnS and SnS2 thin films exhibited p-type and n-type semiconductor characteristics. In the images of high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, SnS and SnS2 directly showed a highly crystalline orthorhombic and hexagonal layered structure. The field effect transistors of SnS and SnS2 thin films exhibited on–off drain current ratios of 8.8 and 2.1 × 103 and mobilities of 0.21 and 0.014 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, respectively. This difference in switching device characteristics mainly depends on the carrier concentration because it contributes to off-state conductance and mobility. The major carrier concentrations of the SnS and SnS2 thin films were 6.0 × 1016 and 8.7 × 1013 cm‑3, respectively, in this experiment.

  13. Circuit Design to Stabilize the Reflectometer Local Oscillator Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung CC; Kramer GJ; Johnson E; Solomon W; Nazikian R.

    2005-01-01

    Reflectometry, which uses the microwave radar technique to probe the magnetically confined fusion plasmas, is a very powerful tool to observe the density fluctuations in the fusion plasmas. Typically, two or more microwave beams of different frequencies are used to study the plasma density fluctuations. The frequency separation between these two beams of the PPPL designed reflectometer system upgrade on the DIII-D tokamak can be varied over 18 GHz. Due to the performance of the associated electronics, the local oscillator (LO) power level at the LO port of the I/Q demodulator suffers more than 12 dB of power fluctuations when the frequency separation is varied. Thus, the I/Q demodulator performance is impaired. In order to correct this problem, a power leveling circuit is introduced in the PPPL upgrade. According to the test results, the LO power fluctuation was regulated to be within 1 dB for greater than 16 dB of input power variation over the full dynamic bandwidth of the receiver

  14. Application of Time Domain Reflectometers in Urban Settings ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time domain reflectometers (TDRs) are sensors that measure the volumetric water content of soils and porous media. The sensors consist of stainless steel rods connected to a circuit board in an epoxy housing. An electromagnetic pulse is propagated along the rods. The time, or period, required for the signal to travel down the rods and back varies with the volumetric water content of the surrounding media and temperature. A calibration curve is needed for the specific media. TDRs were developed mostly for agricultural applications; however, the technology has also been applied to forestry and ecological research. This study demonstrates the use of TDRs for quantifying drainage properties in low impact development (LID) stormwater controls, specifically permeable pavement and rain garden systems. TDRs were successfully used to monitor the responses of urban fill, engineered bioretention media, and the aggregate storage layer under permeable pavement to multiple rain events of varying depth, intensity, and duration. The hydrologic performance of permeable pavement and rain garden systems has previously been quantified for underdrain systems, but there have been few studies of systems that drain to the underlying soils. We know of no published studies outlining the use of TDR technology to document drainage properties in media other than soil. In this study TDRs were installed at multiple locations and depths in underlying urban fill soils, engineered bior

  15. Homodyne reflectometer for NBI interlock on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kawahata, Kazuo; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Ejiri, Akira

    2001-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) under low density causes serious damage on vacuum vessel wall. It is necessary to stop NBI when electron density becomes lower than 1x10 19 m -3 . This needs reliable density monitor for NBI interlock. A three-channel homodyne reflectometer was installed on Large Helical Device (LHD) and was used for NBI interlock. 28.5, 34.9 and 40.2 GHz Gunn oscillators were used with O mode injection. Their O mode cut off density correspond to 1x10 19 , 1.5x10 19 and 2x10 19 m -3 respectively. The simple homodyne detection is presently used. When the density reaches to the cutoff density, the reflected signals are detected. The reflected signal consists of DC signal due to local and reflected power, and AC signal due to position of cut off layer and density fluctuation. Since the change of DC signal at lower and higher than cut off density was very small, root mean square (RMS) value of AC signal were used for interlock signal. This interlock system is successfully working from the beginning of the NBI experiments campaign on LHD. (author)

  16. Circuit Design to Stabilize the Reflectometer Local Oscillator Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, C. C.; Kramer, G. J.; Johnson, E.; Solomon, W.; Nazikian, R.

    2005-10-04

    Reflectometry, which uses the microwave radar technique to probe the magnetically confined fusion plasmas, is a very powerful tool to observe the density fluctuations in the fusion plasmas. Typically, two or more microwave beams of different frequencies are used to study the plasma density fluctuations. The frequency separation between these two beams of the PPPL designed reflectometer system upgrade on the DIII-D tokamak can be varied over 18 GHz. Due to the performance of the associated electronics, the local oscillator (LO) power level at the LO port of the I/Q demodulator suffers more than 12 dB of power fluctuations when the frequency separation is varied. Thus, the I/Q demodulator performance is impaired. In order to correct this problem, a power leveling circuit is introduced in the PPPL upgrade. According to the test results, the LO power fluctuation was regulated to be within 1 dB for greater than 16 dB of input power variation over the full dynamic bandwidth of the receiver.

  17. Scrape-off layer reflectometer for Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cornwall; Hanson, Greg; Wilgen, John; Lin, Yijun; Wukitch, Steve

    2010-10-01

    A swept-frequency X-mode reflectometer is being built for Alcator C-Mod to measure the scrape-off layer density profiles at the top, middle, and bottom locations in front of both the new lower hybrid launcher and the new ion cyclotron range of frequencies antenna. The system is planned to operate between 100 and 146 GHz at sweep rates from 10 μs to 1 ms, and will cover a density range of approximately 1016-1020 m-3 at B0=5-5.4 T. To minimize the effects of density fluctuations, both differential phase and full phase reflectometry will be employed. Design, test data, and calibration results of this electronics system will be discussed. To reduce attenuation losses, tallguide (TE01) will be used for most of the transmission line system. Simulations of high mode conversion in tallguide components, such as e-plane hyperbolic secant radius of curvature bends, tapers, and horn antennas will be shown. Experimental measurements of the total attenuation losses of these components in the lower hybrid waveguide run will also be presented.

  18. Modulator considerations for the SNS RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an intense neutron source for neutron scattering experiments. The project is in the research stage, with construction funding beginning next year. The SNS is comprised of an ion source, a 1,000 MeV, H - linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a neutron producing target, and experimental area to utilize the scattering of the neutrons. The linear accelerator is RF driven, and the peak beam current is 27 mA and the beam duty factor is 5.84%. The peak RF power required is 104 MW, and the H - beam pulse length is 0.97 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The RF pulses must be about 0.1 ms longer than the beam pulses, due to the Q of the accelerating cavities, and the time required to establish control of the cavity fields. The modulators for the klystrons in this accelerator are discussed in this paper. The SNS is designed to be expandable, so the beam power can be doubled or even quadrupled in the future. One of the double-power options is to double the beam pulse length and duty factor. The authors are specifying the klystrons to operate in this twice-duty-factor mode, and the modulator also should be expandable to 2 ms pulses at 60 Hz. Due to the long pulse length and low RF frequency of 805 MHz, the klystron power is specified at 2.5 MW peak, and the RF system will have 56 klystrons at 805 MHz, and three 1.25 MW peak power klystrons at 402.5 MHz for the low energy portion of the accelerator. The low frequency modulators are conventional floating-deck modulation anode control systems

  19. Online vrienden bepalen de overtuigingskracht van SNS-campagnes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Antheunis, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.

    2011-01-01

    Marketers more and more design advertising campaigns especially for Social Network Sites (SNS), with the aim that SNS users forward these campaigns to their online network. By means of a survey, this study investigates whether the persuasiveness of such campaigns is determined by the strength of the

  20. SNS online display technologies for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemir, K.U.; Chen, X.; Purcell, J.; Danilova, E.

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitousness of web clients from personal computers to cell phones results in a growing demand for web-based access to control system data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) we have investigated different technical approaches to provide read access to data in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for a wide variety of web client devices. The core web technology, HTTP, is less than ideal for online control system displays. Appropriate use of Ajax, especially the Long Poll paradigm, can alleviate fundamental HTTP limitations. The SNS Status web uses basic Ajax technology to generate generic displays for a wide audience. The Dashboard uses Long Poll and more client-side Java-Script to offer more customization and faster updates for users that need specialized displays. The Web OPI uses RAP for web access to any BOY display, offering utmost flexibility because users can create their own BOY displays in CSS. These three approaches complement each other. Users can access generic status displays with zero effort, invest time in creating their fully customized displays for the Web OPI, or use the Dashboard as an intermediate solution

  1. Effects of annealing on evaporated SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakrani, Samsudi; Ismail, Bakar [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The effects of annealing of evaporated tin sulphide thin films (SnS) are described. The films were initially deposited onto glass substrate, followed by annealing in an encapsulated carbon block under the running argon gas at 310 degree Celsius. Short time annealing of the films results in a slight change of the compositions to a mix SnS/SnS sub 2 compound, and the tendency of increasing SnS sub 2 formation was observed on the films annealed for longer periods up to 20 hours. X-ray results showed the transformation of SnS peaks (040) and (080) to predominantly SnS sub 2 peaks - (001), (100), (101), and (110). The associated absorption coefficients measured on the films were found to be greater than 10 sup 5 cm sup -1, with indication of higher photon energy leading to the formation of SnS sub 2 compound.

  2. Effects of annealing on evaporated SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudi Sakrani; Bakar Ismail

    1994-01-01

    The effects of annealing of evaporated tin sulphide thin films (SnS) are described. The films were initially deposited onto glass substrate, followed by annealing in an encapsulated carbon block under the running argon gas at 310 degree Celsius. Short time annealing of the films results in a slight change of the compositions to a mix SnS/SnS sub 2 compound, and the tendency of increasing SnS sub 2 formation was observed on the films annealed for longer periods up to 20 hours. X-ray results showed the transformation of SnS peaks (040) and (080) to predominantly SnS sub 2 peaks - (001), (100), (101), and (110). The associated absorption coefficients measured on the films were found to be greater than 10 sup 5 cm sup -1, with indication of higher photon energy leading to the formation of SnS sub 2 compound

  3. Direct detection of lower hybrid wave using a reflectometer on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraiwa, S.; Baek, S.; Dominguez, A.; Marmar, E.; Parker, R.; Kramer, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    The possibility of directly detecting a density perturbation produced by lower hybrid (LH) waves using a reflectometer is presented. We investigate the microwave scattering of reflectometer probe beams by a model density fluctuation produced by short wavelength LH waves in an Alcator C-Mod experimental condition. In the O-mode case, the maximum response of phase measurement is found to occur when the density perturbation is approximately centimeters in front of the antenna, where Bragg scattering condition is satisfied. In the X-mode case, the phase measurement is predicted to be more sensitive to the density fluctuation close to the cut-off layer. A feasibility test was carried out using a 50 GHz O-mode reflectometer on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, and positive results including the detection of 4.6 GHz pump wave and parametric decay instabilities were obtained.

  4. First results from the new reflectometer, D17B at the Institut Laue Langevin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubitt, R.; Lauter, H.

    1999-01-01

    D17B will be a reflectometer with the maximum flexibility in resolution, methods of data acquisition and sample environment. The instrument will be able to cover a q-range of 0.001 to 0.4 A -1 and measure reflectivities of the order of 10 -8 . Due to the straightened guide and super-mirror focusing sections, the peak flux will be a factor of seven larger than D17. With a continuous source of neutrons such it is possible to measure reflectivity as a function of q using either a monochromatic beam or by time-of flight (TOF). D17B will have both these option available. The monochromatic method has the advantage of being able to utilize the peak wavelength flux at all points in the scan and is the most efficient method of dealing with polarising neutrons and spin-flipping for magnetic experiments. However the TOF method offers a greater flexibility of resolution and enables certain experiments like dynamics of fixed geometry to be carried out which are not possible with the monochromatic method. The detector will have an area of 250 x 500 mm with a resolution of 1.5 x 3 mm and will be able to be moved between 1 and 3.5 m from the sample position to enable a wide q-range of off-specular scattering to be detected. The reflection plane will be horizontal thus experiments involving free liquid surfaces will not be carried out in this instrument. Details of the present status of the instrument and first experimental results are presented. (author)

  5. Performance of a reflectometer at continuous wave and pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo simulations presented here involve simulations of reflectivity measurements of one sample using a reflectometer of traditional geometry at different neutron sources. The same reflectometer was used in all simulations. Only the characteristics of the neutron source, and the technique used to measure neutron wavelength were changed. In the case of the CW simulation, a monochromating crystal was used to select a nearly monochromatic beam (MB) from the neutron spectrum. In the simulations of the pulse sources, the time needed to traverse a fixed distance was measured, from which neutron wavelength is deduced

  6. Development of a novel fast frequency modulation scheme for the JET multi-channel reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliyanakis, N.

    1999-10-01

    A novel frequency modulation scheme has been developed for the multi-channel reflectometer used to measure density profiles and density fluctuations on the JET tokamak. This reflectometer normally uses slow frequency sweeping, combined with fixed-frequency operation, to measure the group delay, as well as plasma fluctuations, at 10 different microwave frequencies. The novel scheme uses continuous frequency modulation on a time-scale much faster than that of plasma fluctuations, the main aim being to make the group delay measurement more robust against plasma fluctuations. This paper discusses the theoretical background of the scheme, gives a detailed description of the system, and presents results from plasma measurements. (author)

  7. Recent Neutronic Optimization Studies at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.D.; Ferguson, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    Recent design considerations at the Spallation Neutron Source have led to significant changes in the target station design, including changing the outer lead reflector to stainless steel and adding structural elements to aid heat transfer. In light of the design evolution, basic design decisions, including the moderator positions, were re-evaluated. With the proton beam energy of 1.0 GeV and a beam power of 2 MW, moderator positions were originally selected to optimize the performance of the upstream moderators, although some penalty was accepted in order to enhance the overall performance of the mixed coupled and decoupled moderators in the SNS target system. The work presented in this paper details sensitivity studies of selected moderator positions as a function of neutron energy. A possible change in proton beam energy, to 1.3 GeV while maintaining a beam power of 2 MW, is also studied in terms of moderator position. (authors)

  8. Mechanical design of the SNS MEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshatz, D.; DeMello, A.; Doolittle, L.; Luft, P.; Staples, J.; Zachoszcz, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is presently designing and building the 2.5 MeV front end for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The front end includes a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) that carries the 2.5 MeV, 38 mA peak current, H - beam from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to the drift tube linac (DTL) through a series of 14 electromagnetic quadrupoles, four rebuncher cavities, and a fast traveling wave chopping system. The beamline contains numerous diagnostic devices, including stripline beam position and phase monitors (BPM), toroid beam current monitors (BCM), and beam profile monitors. Components are mounted on three rafts that are separately supported and aligned. The large number of beam transport and diagnostic components in the 3.6 meter-long beamline necessitates an unusually compact mechanical design

  9. ASIC-enabled High Resolution Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skendzic, Sandra

    Fiber optics has become the preferred technology in communication systems because of what it has to offer: high data transmission rates, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and lightweight, flexible cables. An optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) provides a convenient method of locating and diagnosing faults (e.g. break in a fiber) along a fiber that can obstruct crucial optical pathways. Both the ability to resolve the precise location of the fault and distinguish between two discrete, closely spaced faults are figures of merit. This thesis presents an implementation of a high resolution OTDR through the use of a compact and programmable ASIC (application specific integrated circuit). The integration of many essential OTDR functions on a single chip is advantageous over existing commercial instruments because it enables small, lightweight packaging, and offers low power and cost efficiency. Furthermore, its compactness presents the option of placing multiple ASICs in parallel, which can conceivably ease the characterization of densely populated fiber optic networks. The OTDR ASIC consists of a tunable clock, pattern generator, precise timer, electrical receiver, and signal sampling circuit. During OTDR operation, the chip generates narrow electrical pulse, which can then be converted to optical format when coupled with an external laser diode driver. The ASIC also works with an external photodetector to measure the timing and amplitude of optical reflections in a fiber. It has a 1 cm sampling resolution, which allows for a 2 cm spatial resolution. While this OTDR ASIC has been previously demonstrated for multimode fiber fault diagnostics, this thesis focuses on extending its functionality to single mode fiber. To validate this novel approach to OTDR, this thesis is divided into five chapters: (1) introduction, (2) implementation, (3), performance of ASIC-based OTDR, (4) exploration in optical pre-amplification with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and

  10. Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, Joe R.; Freeman, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

  11. Comparison Analysis among Large Amount of SNS Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Okada, Isamu; Izumi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    In recent years, application of Social Networking Services (SNS) and Blogs are growing as new communication tools on the Internet. Several large-scale SNS sites are prospering; meanwhile, many sites with relatively small scale are offering services. Such small-scale SNSs realize small-group isolated type of communication while neither mixi nor MySpace can do that. However, the studies on SNS are almost about particular large-scale SNSs and cannot analyze whether their results apply for general features or for special characteristics on the SNSs. From the point of view of comparison analysis on SNS, comparison with just several types of those cannot reach a statistically significant level. We analyze many SNS sites with the aim of classifying them by using some approaches. Our paper classifies 50,000 sites for small-scale SNSs and gives their features from the points of network structure, patterns of communication, and growth rate of SNS. The result of analysis for network structure shows that many SNS sites have small-world attribute with short path lengths and high coefficients of their cluster. Distribution of degrees of the SNS sites is close to power law. This result indicates the small-scale SNS sites raise the percentage of users with many friends than mixi. According to the analysis of their coefficients of assortativity, those SNS sites have negative values of assortativity, and that means users with high degree tend to connect users with small degree. Next, we analyze the patterns of user communication. A friend network of SNS is explicit while users' communication behaviors are defined as an implicit network. What kind of relationships do these networks have? To address this question, we obtain some characteristics of users' communication structure and activation patterns of users on the SNS sites. By using new indexes, friend aggregation rate and friend coverage rate, we show that SNS sites with high value of friend coverage rate activate diary postings

  12. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  13. Progress with the SNS front-end systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Abraham, W.; Ayers, J.J.; Cheng, D.W.; Cull, P.; DiGennaro, R.; Doolittle, L.; Gough, R.A.; Greer, J.B.; Hoff, M.D.; Leung, K.N.; Lewis, S.; Lionberger, C.; MacGill, R.; Minamihara, Y.; Monroy, M.; Oshatz, D.; Pruyn, J.; Ratti, A.; Reijonen, J.; Schenkel, T.; Staples, J.W.; Syversrud, D.; Thomae, R.; Virostek, S.; Yourd, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Front-End Systems (FES) of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project have been described in detail elsewhere [1]. They comprise an rf-driven H - ion source, electrostatic LEBT, four-vane RFQ, and an elaborate MEBT. These systems are planned to be delivered to the SNS facility in Oak Ridge in June 2002. This paper discusses the latest design features, the status of development work, component fabrication and procurements, and experimental results with the first commissioned beamline elements

  14. Ion Source Development at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Kenik, E. A.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Potter, K. G.; Lang, B. R.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M. P.; Desai, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) now routinely operates near 1 MW of beam power on target with a highly-persistent ∼38 mA peak current in the linac and an availability of ∼90%. The ∼1 ms-long, 60 Hz, ∼50 mA H - beam pulses are extracted from a Cs-enhanced, multi-cusp, RF-driven, internal-antenna ion source. An electrostatic LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) focuses the 65 kV beam into the RFQ accelerator. The ion source and LEBT have normally a combined availability of ∼99%. Although much progress has been made over the last years to achieve this level of availability further improvements are desirable. Failures of the internal antenna and occasionally impaired electron dump insulators require several source replacements per year. An attempt to overcome the antenna issues with an AlN external antenna source early in 2009 had to be terminated due to availability issues. This report provides a comprehensive review of the design, experimental history, status, and description of recently updated components and future plans for this ion source. The mechanical design for improved electron dump vacuum feedthroughs is also presented, which is compatible with the baseline and both external antenna ion sources.

  15. The Inelastic Instrument suite at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, Garrett E; Abernathy, Douglas L; Ehlers, Georg; Hagen, Mark E; Herwig, Kenneth W; Mamontov, Eugene; Ohl, Michael E; Wildgruber, Christoph U

    2008-01-01

    The instruments in the extensive suite of spectrometers at the SNS are in various stages of installation and commissioning. The Back Scattering Spectrometer (BASIS) is installed and is in commissioning. It's near backscattering analyzer crystals provide the 3 eV resolution as expected. BASIS will enter the user program in the fall of 2007. The ARCS wide angular-range thermal to epithermal neutron spectrometer will come on line in the fall of 2007 followed shortly by the Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer. These two direct geometry instruments provide moderate resolution and the ability to trade resolution for flux. In addition both instruments have detector coverage out to 140o to provide a large Q range. The SEQUOIA spectrometer, complete in 2008, is the direct geometry instrument that will provide fine resolution in the thermal to epithermal range. The Spin-Echo spectrometer, to be completed on a similar time scale, will provide the finest energy resolution worldwide. The HYSPEC spectrometer, available no later than 2011, will provide polarized capabilities and optimized flux in the thermal energy range. Finally, the Vision chemical spectrometer will use crystal analyzers to study energy transfers into the epithermal range

  16. Growth and photovoltaic performance of SnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepa, K.G., E-mail: deepachaithanya@gmail.com [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Nagaraju, J. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Orthorhombic SnS quantum dots are synthesized by chemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HOMO-LUMO level alignments confirmed the electron transport from SnS to TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell characteristics are analyzed with different size quantum dots. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FF increased drastically from 15 to 51% on adding a buffer layer to the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SnS QDSSC showed highest V{sub oc} of 504 mV and 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Abstract: Tin sulphide (SnS) quantum dots of size ranging from 2.4 to 14.4 nm are prepared by chemical precipitation method in aqueous media. Growth of the SnS particles is monitored by controlling the deposition time. Both XRD and SAED patterns confirm that the particles possess orthorhombic structure. The uncapped SnS particles showed secondary phases like Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} and SnS{sub 2} which is visible in the SAED pattern. From the electrochemical characterization, HOMO-LUMO levels of both TiO{sub 2} and SnS are determined and the band alignment is found to be favorable for electron transfer from SnS to TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the HOMO-LUMO levels varied for different particle sizes. Solar cell is fabricated by sensitizing porous TiO{sub 2} thin film with SnS QDs. Cell structure is characterized with and without buffer layer between FTO and TiO{sub 2}. Without the buffer layer, cell showed an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 504 mV and short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.3 mA/cm{sup 2} under AM1.5 condition. The low fill factor of this structure (15%) is seen to be increased drastically to 51%, on the incorporation of the buffer layer. The cell characteristics are analyzed using two different size quantum dots.

  17. The SNS target station preliminary Title I shielding analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Lillie, R.A.; Barnes, J.M.; McNeilly, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). During the conceptual design phase of the SNS project, the target station bulk-biological shield was characterized and the activation of the major targets station components was calculated. Shielding requirements were assessed with respect to weight, space, and dose-rate constraints for operating, shut-down, and accident conditions utilizing the SNS shield design criteria, DOE Order 5480.25, and requirements specified in 10 CFR 835. Since completion of the conceptual design phase, there have been major design changes to the target station as a result of the initial shielding and activation analyses, modifications brought about due to engineering concerns, and feedback from numerous external review committees. These design changes have impacted the results of the conceptual design analyses, and consequently, have required a re-investigation of the new design. Furthermore, the conceptual design shielding analysis did not address many of the details associated with the engineering design of the target station. In this paper, some of the proposed SNS target station preliminary Title I shielding design analyses will be presented. The SNS facility (with emphasis on the target station), shielding design requirements, calculational strategy, and source terms used in the analyses will be described. Preliminary results and conclusions, along with recommendations for additional analyses, will also be presented. (author)

  18. Simulations of signal amplification and oscillations using a SNS junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, A.M.; Soares, V.; Nicolsky, R.

    1998-01-01

    A superconducting - normal metal - superconducting junction (SNS junction) may exhibit a low voltage negative differential resistance (LVNDR) effect over part of its current voltage characteristic (CVC). As the LVNDR effect is stable against a bias voltage at this CVC range, it should be possible to combine a SNS junction with conventional electronic circuits to obtain electronic devices such as mixers, amplifiers and oscillators. Making use of this remarkable effect, we show that an amplifier may be feasible by assembling a simple voltage divider made up of a SNS junction in series with a resistor. The amplifier circuit includes an adjustable DC voltage supply (the bias voltage) and an AC signal source with a given voltage. The SNS junction is connected in series with a resistor R. Choosing values of the load resistance R approximately equal to the module of the negative differential resistance (dV/dI), at the bias voltage, we may obtain large gains in this amplifier device. In order to get an oscillator, the SNS junction should be connected to a RLC tank circuit with a bias voltage adjusted in the range of the LVNDR region of its CVC. A power output of the order of one microwatt may be easily obtained. (orig.)

  19. Microprocessor-controlled time domain reflectometer for dynamic shock position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchow, C.F.; Conrad, G.E.; Holt, D.M.; Hodson, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    Time-domain reflectometry is used in a novel way to measure dynamically shock propagation in various media. The primary component in this measurement system is a digital time domain reflectometer, which uses local intelligence, a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, to make the unit adaptable and versatile. The recorder, its operating theory and its method of implementation are described and typical data are reviewed. Applications include nuclear explosion yield estimates and explosive energy flow measurements

  20. RF Processing of the Couplers for the SNS Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.Kang; I.E. Campisi; D. Stout; A. Vassioutchenko; M. Stirbet; M. Drury; T. Powers

    2005-01-01

    All eighty-one fundamental power couplers for the 805 MHz superconducting cavities of the SNS linac have been RF conditioned and installed in the cryomodules successfully. The couplers were RF processed at JLAB or at the SNS in ORNL: more than forty couplers have been RF conditioned in the SNS RF Test Facility (RFTF) after the first forty couplers were conditioned at JLAB. The couplers were conditioned up to 650 kW forward power at 8% duty cycle in traveling and standing waves. They were installed on the cavities in the cryomodules and then assembled with the airside waveguide transitions. The couplers have been high power RF tested with satisfactory accelerating field gradients in the cooled cavities

  1. Synthesis and characterization of different morphological SnS nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Sunil H; Chaudhary, Mahesh D; Deshpande, M P

    2014-01-01

    SnS in three nano forms possessing different morphologies such as particles, whiskers and ribbons were synthesised by chemical route. The morphology variation was brought about in the chemical route synthesis by varying a synthesis parameter such as temperature and influencing the synthesis by use of surfactant. The elemental composition determination by energy dispersive analysis of x-rays (EDAX) showed that all three synthesized SnS nanomaterials were tin deficient. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all of them possess orthorhombic structure. The Raman spectra of the three SnS nanomaterials showed that all three samples possess three common distinguishable peaks. In them two peaks lying at 98 ± 1 cm −1 and 224 ± 4 cm −1 are the characteristic A g mode of SnS. The third peak lying at 302 ± 1 cm −1 is associated with secondary Sn 2 S 3 phase. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the respective morphologies. The optical analysis showed that they possess direct as well as indirect optical bandgap. The electrical transport properties study on the pellets prepared from the different nanomaterials of SnS showed them to be semiconducting and p-type in nature. The current–voltage (I–V) plots of the silver (Ag)/SnS nanomaterials pellets for dark and incandescent illumination showed that all configurations showed good ohmic behaviour except Ag/SnS nanoribbons pellet configuration under illumination. All the obtained results are discussed in detail. (paper)

  2. Ultrasonic synthesis of In-doped SnS nanoparticles and their physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Yousefi, Ramin

    2018-05-01

    Indium (In)-doped Tin (II) Sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by an ultra-sonication method and their optical, electrical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties were investigated. XRD patterns of the obtained NPs indicated formation of orthorhombic polycrystalline SnS. Field emission scanning electron microscopy exhibited flower-like NPs with particle sizes below 100 nm for both SnS and In-doped SnS samples. Optical analysis showed a decrease in energy band gap of SnS NPs upon In doping. In addition, electrical results demonstrated p-type nature of the synthesized SnS NPs and enhanced electrical conductivity of the NPs due to increased tin vacancy. Dielectric experiments on SnS NPs suggested an electronic polarizations effect to be responsible for changing dielectric properties of the particles, in terms of frequency. Finally, photocatalytic experiments revealed that high degradation power can be obtained using In-doped SnS NPs.

  3. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  4. Transverse Matching Progress Of The SNS Superconducting Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Experience using laser-wire beam profile measurement to perform transverse beam matching in the SNS superconducting linac is discussed. As the SNS beam power is ramped up to 1 MW, transverse beam matching becomes a concern to control beam loss and residual activation in the linac. In our experiments, however, beam loss is not very sensitive to the matching condition. In addition, we have encountered difficulties in performing a satisfactory transverse matching with the envelope model currently available in the XAL software framework. Offline data analysis from multi-particle tracking simulation shows that the accuracy of the current online model may not be sufficient for modeling the SC linac.

  5. Lithium insertion mechanism in SnS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre-Devos, I.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.C.; Lavela, P.

    2000-01-01

    We study lithium insertion in SnS 2 by means of 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy at Sn L I,III , and S K edges, and theoretical electronic structures (calculated in the density-functional theory framework). An insertion mechanism is derived according to the Li amount. It shows the influence of the SnS 2 -layered structure on the Sn reduction, particularly the possibility of an intermediate oxidation state between Sn IV and Sn II , which is not observed during Li insertion in three-dimensional sulfides

  6. Neutron scattering instruments for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Fornek, T.; Herwig, K.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a 1 MW pulsed spallation source for neutron scattering planned for construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This facility is being designed as a 5-laboratory collaboration project. This paper addresses the proposed facility layout, the process for selection and construction of neutron scattering instruments at the SNS, the initial planning done on the basis of a reference set of ten instruments, and the plans for research and development (R and D) to support construction of the first ten instruments and to establish the infrastructure to support later development and construction of additional instruments

  7. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaki, Sunil H., E-mail: sunilchaki@yahoo.co.in; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  8. Computational Benchmark Calculations Relevant to the Neutronic Design of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Glasgow, D.C.; Jerde, E.A.; Johnson, J.O.; Yugo, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will provide an intense source of low-energy neutrons for experimental use. The low-energy neutrons are produced by the interaction of a high-energy (1.0 GeV) proton beam on a mercury (Hg) target and slowed down in liquid hydrogen or light water moderators. Computer codes and computational techniques are being benchmarked against relevant experimental data to validate and verify the tools being used to predict the performance of the SNS. The LAHET Code System (LCS), which includes LAHET, HTAPE ad HMCNP (a modified version of MCNP version 3b), have been applied to the analysis of experiments that were conducted in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In the AGS experiments, foils of various materials were placed around a mercury-filled stainless steel cylinder, which was bombarded with protons at 1.6 GeV. Neutrons created in the mercury target, activated the foils. Activities of the relevant isotopes were accurately measured and compared with calculated predictions. Measurements at BNL were provided in part by collaborating scientists from JAERI as part of the AGS Spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) collaboration. To date, calculations have shown good agreement with measurements

  9. Reliability model of SNS linac (spallation neutron source-ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A.; Fernandez, P.

    2015-01-01

    A reliability model of SNS LINAC (Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) has been developed using risk spectrum reliability analysis software and the analysis of the accelerator system's reliability has been performed. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparing them with the SNS operational data. This paper presents the main results and conclusions focusing on the definition of design weaknesses and provides recommendations to improve reliability of the MYRRHA ( linear accelerator. The reliability results show that the most affected SNS LINAC parts/systems are: 1) SCL (superconducting linac), front-end systems: IS, LEBT (low-energy beam transport line), MEBT (medium-energy beam transport line), diagnostics and controls; 2) RF systems (especially the SCL RF system); 3) power supplies and PS controllers. These results are in line with the records in the SNS logbook. The reliability issue that needs to be enforced in the linac design is the redundancy of the systems, subsystems and components most affected by failures. For compensation purposes, there is a need for intelligent fail-over redundancy implementation in controllers. Enough diagnostics has to be implemented to allow reliable functioning of the redundant solutions and to ensure the compensation function

  10. DESIGN OF BEAM-EXTRACTION SEPTUM MAGNET FOR THE SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TSOUPAS, N.; LEE, Y.Y.; RANK, J.; TUOZZOLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    The beam-extraction process from the SNS accumulator ring [1,2] requires a Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we discuss the geometrical and magnetic field requirements of the magnet and present results obtained from two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations that shows the field quality in the regions of interest of the septum magnet

  11. Overview of Privacy in Social Networking Sites (SNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powale, Pallavi I.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.

    2013-07-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become an integral part of communication and life style of people in today's world. Because of the wide range of services offered by SNSs mostly for free of cost, these sites are attracting the attention of all possible Internet users. Most importantly, users from all age groups have become members of SNSs. Since many of the users are not aware of the data thefts associated with information sharing, they freely share their personal information with SNSs. Therefore, SNSs may be used for investigating users' character and social habits by familiar or even unknown persons and agencies. Such commercial and social scenario, has led to number of privacy and security threats. Though, all major issues in SNSs need to be addressed, by SNS providers, privacy of SNS users is the most crucial. And therefore, in this paper, we have focused our discussion on "privacy in SNSs". We have discussed different ways of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) leakages from SNSs, information revelation to third-party domains without user consent and privacy related threats associated with such information sharing. We expect that this comprehensive overview on privacy in SNSs will definitely help in raising user awareness about sharing data and managing their privacy with SNSs. It will also help SNS providers to rethink about their privacy policies.

  12. A conception of a new neutron spin echo reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kali, Gy.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The tilted field technique in the neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy came into the centre of attention in the recent few years. The method was first proposed by F. Mezei and R. Pynn in 1980. A real measurement for high resolution small angle scattering (SANS) on their resonance spin-echo spectrometer was published by Keller et al. [1]. A conception of a new instrument was proposed by M.T. Rekveldt [2] for SANS and reflectometry, using dc field perpendicular to the neutron beam. By further developing these ideas, the setup of a multitask instrument using the traditional way (dc field parallel to the beam) is discussed. This spectrometer may be best applicable in liquid surface reflectometry combining NSE by separating specular and nonspecular reflection. This instrument setup uses wide wavelength band and/or non-collimated neutron beam. (author) [1] T. Keller et al, Neutron News 6, no 3 (1995) 16.; [2] M.T. Rekveldt, Nuc. Inst. and Meth. in Physics Res. B 114 (1996) 366

  13. New Structure for a Six-Port Reflectometer in Monolithic Microwave Integrated-Circuit Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann , Frank; Huyart , Bernard; Bergeault , Eric; Jallet , Louis

    1997-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new structure for a six-port reflectometer which due to its simplicity can be implemented very easily in monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology. It uses nonmatched diode detectors with a high input impedance which are placed around a phase shifter in conjunction with a power divider for the reference detector. The circuit has been fabricated using the F20 GaAs process of the GEC–Marconi foundry and operates between 1.3 GHz and 3...

  14. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  15. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degraff, Brian D. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  16. GINA-A polarized neutron reflectometer at the Budapest Neutron Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottyan, L.; Merkel, D. G.; Nagy, B.; Sajti, Sz.; Deak, L.; Endroczi, G. [Wigner RCP, RMKI, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Fuezi, J. [Wigner RCP, SZFKI, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); University of Pecs, Pollack Mihaly Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, H-7602 Pecs, P.O. Box 219 (Hungary); Petrenko, A. V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, 141980 (Russian Federation); Major, J. [Wigner RCP, RMKI, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme (formerly Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung), Heisenbergstr. 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The setup, capabilities, and operation parameters of the neutron reflectometer GINA, the recently installed 'Grazing Incidence Neutron Apparatus' at the Budapest Neutron Centre, are introduced. GINA, a dance-floor-type, constant-energy, angle-dispersive reflectometer is equipped with a 2D position-sensitive detector to study specular and off-specular scattering. Wavelength options between 3.2 and 5.7 A are available for unpolarized and polarized neutrons. Spin polarization and analysis are achieved by magnetized transmission supermirrors and radio-frequency adiabatic spin flippers. As a result of vertical focusing by a five-element pyrolytic graphite monochromator, the reflected intensity from a 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 mm{sup 2} sample has been doubled. GINA is dedicated to studies of magnetic films and heterostructures, but unpolarized options for non-magnetic films, membranes, and other surfaces are also provided. Shortly after its startup, reflectivity values as low as 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} have been measured by the instrument. The instrument capabilities are demonstrated by a non-polarized and a polarized reflectivity experiment on a Si wafer and on a magnetic film of [{sup 62}Ni/{sup nat}Ni]{sub 5} isotope-periodic layer composition. The facility is now open for the international user community. Its further development is underway establishing new sample environment options and spin analysis of off-specularly scattered radiation as well as further decreasing the background.

  17. GINA--a polarized neutron reflectometer at the Budapest Neutron Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottyán, L; Merkel, D G; Nagy, B; Füzi, J; Sajti, Sz; Deák, L; Endrőczi, G; Petrenko, A V; Major, J

    2013-01-01

    The setup, capabilities, and operation parameters of the neutron reflectometer GINA, the recently installed "Grazing Incidence Neutron Apparatus" at the Budapest Neutron Centre, are introduced. GINA, a dance-floor-type, constant-energy, angle-dispersive reflectometer is equipped with a 2D position-sensitive detector to study specular and off-specular scattering. Wavelength options between 3.2 and 5.7 Å are available for unpolarized and polarized neutrons. Spin polarization and analysis are achieved by magnetized transmission supermirrors and radio-frequency adiabatic spin flippers. As a result of vertical focusing by a five-element pyrolytic graphite monochromator, the reflected intensity from a 20 × 20 mm(2) sample has been doubled. GINA is dedicated to studies of magnetic films and heterostructures, but unpolarized options for non-magnetic films, membranes, and other surfaces are also provided. Shortly after its startup, reflectivity values as low as 3 × 10(-5) have been measured by the instrument. The instrument capabilities are demonstrated by a non-polarized and a polarized reflectivity experiment on a Si wafer and on a magnetic film of [(62)Ni/(nat)Ni](5) isotope-periodic layer composition. The facility is now open for the international user community. Its further development is underway establishing new sample environment options and spin analysis of off-specularly scattered radiation as well as further decreasing the background.

  18. SuperADAM: upgraded polarized neutron reflectometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devishvili, A; Zhernenkov, K; Dennison, A J C; Toperverg, B P; Wolff, M; Hjörvarsson, B; Zabel, H

    2013-02-01

    A new neutron reflectometer SuperADAM has recently been built and commissioned at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. It replaces the previous neutron reflectometer ADAM. The new instrument uses a solid state polarizer/wavelength filter providing a highly polarized (up to 98.6%) monochromatic neutron flux of 8 × 10(4) n cm(-2) s(-1) with monochromatization Δλ∕λ = 0.7% and angular divergence Δα = 0.2 mrad. The instrument includes both single and position sensitive detectors. The position sensitive detector allows simultaneous measurement of specular reflection and off-specular scattering. Polarization analysis for both specular reflection and off-specular scattering is achieved using either mirror analyzers or a (3)He spin filter cell. High efficiency detectors, low background, and high flux provides a dynamic range of up to seven decades in reflectivity. Detailed specifications and the instrument capabilities are illustrated with examples of recently collected data in the fields of thin film magnetism and thin polymer films.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING FOR SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2001-01-01

    The inner surface of the ring vacuum chambers of the US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be coated with ∼100 nm of Titanium Nitride (TiN). This is to minimize the secondary electron yield (SEY) from the chamber wall, and thus avoid the so-called e-p instability caused by electron multipacting as observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. Both DC sputtering and DC-magnetron sputtering were conducted in a test chamber of relevant geometry to SNS ring vacuum chambers. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) were used to analyze the coatings for thickness, stoichiometry and impurity. Excellent results were obtained with magnetron sputtering. The development of the parameters for the coating process and the surface analysis results are presented

  20. Deformation Monitoring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Error, J J; Fazekas, J J; Helus, S A; Maines, J R

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project is a 1.4 MW accelerator-based neutron source located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For shielding purposes, a 17 foot berm of native soil has been constructed on top of the accelerator tunnel system. This backfill has caused ongoing settlement of the tunnels. The settlement has been monitored by the SNS Survey and Alignment Group at regular intervals, in order to discover the patterns of deformation, and to determine when the tunnels will be stable enough for precise alignment of beam line components. The latest monitoring results indicate that the settlement rate has significantly decreased. This paper discusses the techniques and instrumentation of the monitoring surveys, and provides an analysis of the results.

  1. SNS AC Power Distribution and Reliability of AC Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. A design description under the Construction Design and Maintenance (CDM) with regard to regulations (OSHA, NFPA, NEC), reliability issues and maintenance of the AC power distribution system are herewith presented. The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. The Accelerator Systems are Front End (FE)and LINAC KLYSTRON Building (LK), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), Accumulator Ring and Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) Support Buildings have 30MW installed power. FELK has 16MW installed, majority of which is klystron and magnet power supply system. CHL, supporting the super conducting portion of the accelerator has 7MW installed power and the RING Systems (HEBT, RING and RTBT) have also 7MW installed power.*

  2. SNS Central Helium Liquefier spare Carbon Bed installation and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degraff, Brian D. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been without major operations downtime since operations were started back in 2006. This system utilizes a vessel filled with activated carbon as the final major component to remove oil vapor from the compressed helium circuit prior to insertion into the system's cryogenic cold box. The need for a spare carbon bed at SNS due to the variability of carbon media lifetime calculation to adsorption efficiency will be discussed. The fabrication, installation and commissioning of this spare carbon vessel will be presented. The novel plan for connecting the spare carbon vessel piping to the existing infrastructure will be presented.

  3. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) conceptual design shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Odano, N.; Lillie, R.A.

    1998-03-01

    The shielding design is important for the construction of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) due to its impact on conventional facility design, maintenance operations, and since the cost for the radiation shielding shares a considerable part of the total facility costs. A calculational strategy utilizing coupled high energy Monte Carlo calculations and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations, along with semi-empirical calculations, was implemented to perform the conceptual design shielding assessment of the proposed SNS. Biological shields have been designed and assessed for the proton beam transport system and associated beam dumps, the target station, and the target service cell and general remote maintenance cell. Shielding requirements have been assessed with respect to weight, space, and dose-rate constraints for operating, shutdown, and accident conditions. A discussion of the proposed facility design, conceptual design shielding requirements calculational strategy, source terms, preliminary results and conclusions, and recommendations for additional analyses are presented

  4. TRACKING TESTS FOR THE SNS FAST INJECTION BUMP POWER SUPPLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENG, W.; CUTLER, R.; DEWAN, S.

    2004-01-01

    The tracking requirement of the SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies is described. In addition to the usual tracking between the load current and the input reference of a power supply, these power supplies must also track between pairs of units under slightly different loads. This paper describes the use of a current-null test to measure tracking performances. For the actual tests, a single dummy magnet load was used to measure the tracking between the first two production units at the manufacturer's facility. Using the Yokogawa WE7000 waveform. PC-based measurement instrument, input and output waveforms are digitized and stored in data files. A program written for this application is then used to extract data from these files to construct, analyze the waveforms and characterize the power supply performance. Results of the measurements of two SNS Fast Injection Bump power supplies will be presented in this paper

  5. Electron-cloud simulation results for the PSR and SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We present recent simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud in the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and updated results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos. In particular, a complete refined model for the secondary emission process including the so called true secondary, rediffused and backscattered electrons has been included in the simulation code

  6. Synthesis and characterization of electrodeposited SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, W. Y.; Sun, Y. C.; Djurišić, A. B.; Chan, W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Here we systematically investigated the effect of solution concentration and growth temperature on the properties of SnS thin films. The properties of deposited films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We found that sample quality is strongly affected by deposition conditions and that the sample composition exhibits strong temperature dependence. Detailed discussion of material properties dependence on the growth conditions is given

  7. EPICS V4 Evaluation for SNS Neutron Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Pearson, Matthew R [ORNL; Guyotte, Greg S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Version 4 of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit allows defining application-specific structured data types (pvData) and offers a network protocol for their efficient exchange (pvAccess). We evaluated V4 for the transport of neutron events from the detectors of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to data acquisition and experiment monitoring systems. This includes the comparison of possible data structures, performance tests, and experience using V4 in production on a beam line.

  8. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring

  9. DESIGN OF AN IMPROVED ION CHAMBER FOR THE SNS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITKOVER,R.L.; GASSNER,D.

    2002-05-06

    Ion chambers are in common use as beam loss monitors at many accelerators. A unit designed and used at FNAL and later at BNL was proposed for the SNS. Concerns about the ion collection times and low collection efficiency at high loss rates led to improvements to this unit and the design of an alternate chamber with better characteristics. Prototypes have been tested with pulsed beams. The design and test results for both detectors will be presented.

  10. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-06-30

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring.

  11. Modifications in SnS thin films by plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-01

    The present study shows the modifications of structural, optical and electrical characteristics that occur in tin sulfide (SnS) thin films treated in air and in nitrogen plasma at different pressure conditions. The films were obtained by the chemical bath deposition method, which results in SnS thin films with an orthorhombic crystalline structure, band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.1-1.2 eV, and electrical conductivities ({sigma}) in the order of 10{sup -6} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1}. The films treated with air plasma at pressures between 1 and 4 Torr, showed the presence of SnS{sub 2}, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, within the band gap values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 eV. On the other hand, the films treated with nitrogen plasma presented the same phases, but showed a significant modification in the electrical conductivity, increasing from 10{sup -6} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} (as-deposited) up to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} (plasma treated). This result is a suitable range of conductivity for the improvement of the solar cells with SnS as an absorber material. Also, emission spectroscopy measurements were carried out in both air and nitrogen plasma treatments.

  12. Status of the SNS superconducting linac and future plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H- ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS generates neutrons by the spallation reaction with the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade and has been operating with beam for almost two years. As the first operational pulsed superconducting linac, many of the aspects of its performance were unknown and unpredictable. A lot of experiences and data have been gathered on the pulsed behavior of cavities and cryomodules at various repetition rates and at various temperatures during the commissioning of its components and beam operations. This experience is of great value in determining future optimizations of SNS as well in guiding in the design and operation of future pulsed superconducting linacs. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam, the performance of the superconducting linac and the future plans will be presented.

  13. Commissioning and operation of the horizontal test apparatus at SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Hannah, Brian S. [ORNL; Doleans, Marc [ORNL; Saunders, Jeffrey W. [ORNL

    2015-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) has built, commissioned and operated a Horizontal Test Apparatus (HTA) vessel in the Radiofrequency Test Facility (RFTF) test cave. It can be operated at 4.5 K using the independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF). The HTA is designed to be a single cavity version of an SNS cryomodule with the ability to demount and replace the cavity. It provides the functionality for testing a single dressed SNS medium or high beta Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) cavity. The HTA is currently being used in support of R&D for in-situ plasma processing of the cavity's inner niobium surface. The design and commissioning of the HTA at 4.5 K will be presented as well as results from operating the HTA including cool-down, warm-up and steady state operations. Results from plasma processing a warm SCRF cavity in-between cold HTA tests will also be reported.

  14. THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAW, R.W.; HERR, A.D.; FEIGERLE, C.S.; CUTLER, R.J.; LIAW, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H - Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 (micro)m, 350 (micro)g/cm 2 ) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H - beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported

  15. High Intensity Effects in the SNS Accumulator Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Jeffrey A.; Cousineau, Sarah M.; Danilov, Viatcheslav; Plum, Michael A.; Shishlo, Andrei P.

    2008-01-01

    Currently operating at 0.5 MW beam power on target, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is already the world's most powerful pulsed neutron source. However, we are only one third of the way to full power. As we ramp toward full power, the control of the beam and beam loss in the ring will be critical. In addition to practical considerations, such as choice of operating point, painting scheme, RF bunching, and beam scattering, it may be necessary to understand and mitigate collective effects due to space charge, impedances, and electron clouds. At each stage of the power ramp-up, we use all available resources to understand and to minimize beam losses. From the standpoint of beam dynamics, the losses observed so far under normal operating conditions have not involved collective phenomena. We are now entering the intensity regime in which this may change. In dedicated high intensity beam studies, we have already observed resistive wall, extraction kicker impedance-driven, and electron cloud activities. The analysis and simulation of this data are important ongoing activities at SNS. This paper discusses the status of this work, as well as other considerations necessary to the successful full power operation of SNS.

  16. DATA ACQUISITION FOR SNS BEAM LOSS MONITOR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YENG, Y.; GASSNER, D.; HOFF, L.; WITKOVER, R.

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam loss monitor system uses VME based electronics to measure the radiation produced by lost beam. Beam loss signals from cylindrical argon-filled ion chambers and neutron detectors will be conditioned in analog front-end (AFE) circuitry. These signals will be digitized and further processed in a dedicated VME crate. Fast beam inhibit and low-level, long-term loss warnings will be generated to provide machine protection. The fast loss data will have a bandwidth of 35kHz. While the low level, long-term loss data will have much higher sensitivity. This is further complicated by the 3 decade range of intensity as the Ring accumulates beam. Therefore a bandwidth of 100kHz and dynamic range larger than 21 bits data acquisition system will be required for this purpose. Based on the evaluation of several commercial ADC modules in preliminary design phase, a 24 bits Sigma-Delta data acquisition VME bus card was chosen as the SNS BLM digitizer. An associated vxworks driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed at BNL. Simulating test results showed this system is fully qualified for both fast loss and low-level, long-term loss application. The first prototype including data acquisition hardware setup and EPICS software (running database and OPI clients) will be used in SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) system commissioning

  17. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) assisted hydrothermal synthesis of SnS nanorods and nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Subhajit; Kar, Soumitra; Chaudhuri, Subhadra

    2007-01-01

    Nanorods and nanosheets of tin sulfide (SnS) were synthesized by a novel thioglycolic acid (TGA) assisted hydrothermal process. The as prepared nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD study reveals the formation of well-crystallized orthorhombic structure of SnS. Diameter of the SnS nanorods varied within 30-100 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns identify the single crystalline nature for the SnS nanocrystals. The mechanism for the TGA assisted growth for the nanosheets and nanorods have been discussed

  18. Characterization and Optical Properties of the Single Crystalline SnS Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue GH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The SnS nanowire arrays have been successfully synthesized by the template-assisted pulsed electrochemical deposition in the porous anodized aluminum oxide template. The investigation results showed that the as-synthesized nanowires are single crystalline structures and they have a highly preferential orientation. The ordered SnS nanowire arrays are uniform with a diameter of 50 nm and a length up to several tens of micrometers. The synthesized SnS nanowires exhibit strong absorption in visible and near-infrared spectral region and the direct energy gapE gof SnS nanowires is 1.59 eV.

  19. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    events at Mars associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which includes the identification of interplanetary shocks. MGS observations of energetic particles at varying geometries between the Earth and Mars that include shocks produced by halo, limb, and backsided events provide a unique......We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  20. Using the time domain reflectometer to check for a locate a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramphal, M.; Sadok, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) is one of the most useful tools for finding cable faults (opens, shorts, bad cable splices). The TDR is connected to the end of the line and shows the distance to the fault. It uses a low voltage signal that will not damage the line or interfere with nearby lines. The TDR sends a pulse or energy down the cable under test; when the pulse encounters the end of the cable or any cable fault, a portion of the pulse energy is reflected. The elapsed time of the reflected pulse is and indication of the distance to the fault. The shape of the reflected pulse uniquely identifies the type of cable fault. (author)

  1. Invited article: polarization "down under": the polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T; Klose, F; Le Brun, A P; Füzi, J; Brule, A; Nelson, A; Holt, S A; James, M

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  2. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.-I.; Regan, Amy; Wang, Y.-M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller

  3. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, S I; Wang, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller.

  4. TRANSVERSE PHASE SPACE PAINTING FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING INJECTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    The result of investigation and comparison of a series of transverse phase space painting schemes for the injection of SNS accumulator ring [1] is reported. In this computer simulation study, the focus is on the creation of closed orbit bumps that give desired distributions at the target. Space charge effects such as tune shift, emittance growth and beam losses are considered. The results of pseudo end-to-end simulations from the injection to the target through the accumulator ring and Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) system [2] are presented and discussed.

  5. Optoelectronic characterizations of vacuum evaporated Cu 2 SnS 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of non-toxic, cheap earthly abundant, ternary compound of Cu2SnS3 thin film. ... film were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. ... to determine the electrical properties of the deposited Cu2SnS3 ternary films.

  6. Synthesis and Raman analysis of SnS nanoparticles synthesized by PVP assisted polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baby, Benjamin Hudson; Mohan, D. Bharathi, E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, School of Physical, Chemical and Applied Sciences, Pondicherry University, R.V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2015-06-24

    SnS film was prepared by a simple drop casting method after synthesizing SnS nanoparticles by using PVP assisted polyol method. Confocal Raman study was carried out for the as deposited and annealed (150, 300 and 400 °C) films at two different excitation wavelengths 514 and 785 nm. At the excitation wavelength of 514 nm, the Raman modes showed for a mixed phase of SnS and SnS{sub 2} up to 150 °C and then only a pure SnS phase was observed up to 400 °C due to the dissociation of SnS{sub 2} in to SnS by releasing S. The increase in intensity of Raman (A{sub g} and B{sub 3g}) as well as IR (B{sub 3u}) active modes of SnS are observed with increasing annealing temperature at excitation wavelength 785 nm due to the increased crystallinity and inactiveness of SnS{sub 2} modes. X-ray diffraction confirming the formation of a single phase of SnS while the greater homogeneity in both size and shape of SnS nanoparticles were confirmed through surface morphology from SEM.

  7. Lessons Learned from the Jefferson Lab - SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Hogan; Edward Daly; John Fischer; Joseph Preble

    2005-01-01

    In light of the recent developments with the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the recommendation to utilize ''Cold'' technology for this future particle accelerator, this paper will present the lessons learned from the recently concluded Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodule production run at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Over the past twenty years Jefferson Lab has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more SRF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The knowledge gained from the design and fabrication of the SNS prototype, eleven - 0.61 (medium) beta and the twelve - 0.81 (high) beta cryomodules, will prove to be an effective asset to the ILC project. After delivery of the final production cryomodule in March 2005, design and fabrication data will be collected, evaluated and presented to make this information beneficial for future particle accelerator projects. Recommendations with respect to these findings will also be presented as an integral part of this paper

  8. Higher order mode analysis of the SNS superconducting linac

    CERN Document Server

    Sang Ho Kim; Dong Jeon; Sundelin, R

    2001-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOM's) of monopoles, dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles in beta =0.61 and beta =0.81 6-cell superconducting (SC) cavities for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project, have been found up to about 3 GHz and their properties such as R/Q, trapping possibility, etc have been figured out concerning manufacturing imperfection. The main issues of HOM's are beam instabilities (published separately) and HOM induced power especially from TM monopoles. The time structure of SNS beam has three different time scales of pulses, which are micro-pulse, midi-pulse and macropulse. Each time structure will generate resonances. When a mode is near these resonance frequencies, the induced voltage could be large and accordingly the resulting HOM power. In order to understand the effects from such a complex beam time structure on the mode excitation and resulting HOM power, analytic expressions are developed. With these analytic expressions, the induced HOM voltage and HOM power were calculated by assuming e...

  9. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClanahan, Tucker C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Lu, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  10. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  11. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  12. Band Alignments, Valence Bands, and Core Levels in the Tin Sulfides SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3: Experiment and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Whittles, TJ; Burton, LA; Skelton, JM; Walsh, A; Veal, TD; Dhanak, VR

    2016-01-01

    Tin sulfide solar cells show relatively poor efficiencies despite attractive photovoltaic properties, and there is difficulty in identifying separate phases, which are also known to form during Cu2ZnSnS4 depositions. We present X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy measurements of single crystal SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3, with electronic-structure calculations from density functional theory (DFT). Differences in the XPS spectra of the three phases, including...

  13. Radiation transport analyses in support of the SNS Target Station Neutron Beam Line Shutters Title I Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.M.; Pevey, R.E.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed radiation transport analysis of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) shutters is important for the construction of the SNS because of its impact on conventional facility design, normal operation of the facility, and maintenance operations. Thus far the analysis of the SNS shutter travel gaps has been completed. This analysis was performed using coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations

  14. A novel technique for real-time estimation of edge pedestal density gradients via reflectometer time delay data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, L., E-mail: zeng@fusion.gat.com; Doyle, E. J.; Rhodes, T. L.; Wang, G.; Sung, C.; Peebles, W. A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bobrek, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6006 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A new model-based technique for fast estimation of the pedestal electron density gradient has been developed. The technique uses ordinary mode polarization profile reflectometer time delay data and does not require direct profile inversion. Because of its simple data processing, the technique can be readily implemented via a Field-Programmable Gate Array, so as to provide a real-time density gradient estimate, suitable for use in plasma control systems such as envisioned for ITER, and possibly for DIII-D and Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The method is based on a simple edge plasma model with a linear pedestal density gradient and low scrape-off-layer density. By measuring reflectometer time delays for three adjacent frequencies, the pedestal density gradient can be estimated analytically via the new approach. Using existing DIII-D profile reflectometer data, the estimated density gradients obtained from the new technique are found to be in good agreement with the actual density gradients for a number of dynamic DIII-D plasma conditions.

  15. Error studies for SNS Linac. Part 1: Transverse errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The SNS linac consist of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), a drift-tube linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) and a coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The RFQ and DTL are operated at 402.5 MHz; the CCDTL and CCL are operated at 805 MHz. Between the RFQ and DTL is a medium-energy beam-transport system (MEBT). This error study is concerned with the DTL, CCDTL and CCL, and each will be analyzed separately. In fact, the CCL is divided into two sections, and each of these will be analyzed separately. The types of errors considered here are those that affect the transverse characteristics of the beam. The errors that cause the beam center to be displaced from the linac axis are quad displacements and quad tilts. The errors that cause mismatches are quad gradient errors and quad rotations (roll)

  16. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  17. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-08-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {micro}s with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1 mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generatino and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  18. SNS ACCUMULATOR RING DESIGN AND SPACE CHARGE CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WENG,W.T.

    1998-05-04

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5{micro}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  19. The SNS Resonance Control Cooling System Control Valve Upgrade Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Derrick C.; Schubert, James Phillip; Tang, Johnny Y.

    2008-01-01

    The normal-conducting linac of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) uses 10 separate Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS) water skids to control the resonance of 6 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and 4 Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) accelerating structures. The RCCS water skids use 2 control valves; one to regulate the chilled water flow and the other to bypass water to a chilled water heat exchanger. These valves have hydraulic actuators that provide position and feedback to the control system. Frequency oscillations occur using these hydraulic actuators due to their coarse movement and control of the valves. New pneumatic actuator and control positioners have been installed on the DTL3 RCCS water skid to give finer control and regulation of DTL3 cavity temperature. This paper shows a comparison of resonance control performance for the two valve configurations.

  20. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5micros with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H - beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed

  1. Preparation and characterization of Cu2SnS3 thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Narasimman, R.; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    Cu2SnS3 thin films were electrodeposited on F:SnO2/Glass substrates at room temperature by using aqueous solution. Copper and tin were first electrodeposited from single bath and post annealed in the presence of sulphur atmosphere to obtain the Cu2SnS3 phase. The Cu2SnS3 phase with preferred orientation along the (112) crystal direction grows to greater extent by the post annealing of the film. Raman analysis confirms the monoclinic crystal structure of Cu2SnS3 with principle mode of vibration as A1 (symmetric breathing mode) corresponding to the band at 291 cm-1. It also reveals the benign coexistence of orthorhombic Cu3SnS4 and Cu2SnS7 phases. Optical properties of the film show direct band gap of 1.25 eV with a high absorption coefficient of the order of 104 cm-1 in the visible region. Photo activity of the electrodeposited film was established in two electrode photoelectro-chemical cell, where an open circuit voltage of 91.6 mV and a short circuit current density of 10.6 µA/cm2 were recorded. Fabrication of Cu2SnS3 thin film heterojunction solar cell is underway.

  2. The RF power system for the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The initial goal of the SNS project is to produce a 1 MW average beam of protons with short pulse lengths onto a neutron-producing target. The objective of the SNS RF system is to generate 117 MW peak of pulsed 805 MHz microwave power with an accelerated beam pulse length of 1.04 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The power system must be upgradeable in peak power to deliver 2 MW average power to the neutron target. The RF system also requires about 3 MW peak of RF power at 402.5 MHz, but that system is not discussed here. The design challenge is to produce an RF system at minimum cost, that is very reliable and economical to operate. The combination of long pulses and high repetition rates make conventional solutions, such as the pulse transformer and transmission line method, very expensive. The klystron, with a modulating anode, and 1.5 MW of peak output power is the baseline RF amplifier, an 56 are required in the baseline design. The authors discuss four power system configurations that are the candidates for the design. The baseline design is a floating-deck modulating anode system. A second power system being investigated is the fast-pulsed power supply, that can be turned on and off with a rise time of under 0.1 ms. This could eliminate the need for a modulator, and drastically reduce the energy storage requirements. A third idea is to use a pulse transformer with a series IGBT switch and a bouncer circuit on the primary side, as was done for the TESLA modulator. A fourth method is to use a series IGBT switch at high voltage, and not use a pulse transformer. The authors discuss the advantages and problems of these four types of power systems, but they emphasize the first two

  3. The energy-dispersive reflectometer at BESSY II: a challenge for thin film analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pietsch, U; Geue, T; Neissendorfer, F; Brezsesinski, G; Symietz, C; Moehwald, H; Gudat, W

    2001-01-01

    Installed in 1999 the energy-dispersive reflectometer at the 13.2 bending magnet employs the exponentially decaying white X-ray emission spectrum of the 1.7 GeV storage ring of BESSY II outside the vacuum. Using an energy-dispersive detector specular and longitudinal-diffuse reflectivity spectra of thin films can be recorded simultaneously between 0.2 A sup - sup 1

  4. In situ polarized 3He system for the Magnetism Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, X; Jiang, C Y; Lauter, V; Ambaye, H; Brown, D; Crow, L; Gentile, T R; Goyette, R; Lee, W T; Parizzi, A; Robertson, J L

    2012-07-01

    We report on the in situ polarized (3)He neutron polarization analyzer developed for the time-of-flight Magnetism Reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Using the spin exchange optical pumping method, we achieved a (3)He polarization of 76% ± 1% and maintained it for the entire three-day duration of the test experiment. Based on transmission measurements with unpolarized neutrons, we show that the average analyzing efficiency of the (3)He system is 98% for the neutron wavelength band of 2-5 Å. Using a highly polarized incident neutron beam produced by a supermirror bender polarizer, we obtained a flipping ratio of >100 with a transmission of 25% for polarized neutrons, averaged over the wavelength band of 2-5 Å. After the cell was depolarized for transmission measurements, it was reproducibly polarized and this performance was maintained for three weeks. A high quality polarization analysis experiment was performed on a reference sample of Fe/Cr multilayer with strong spin-flip off-specular scattering. Using a combination of the position sensitive detector, time-of-flight method, and the excellent parameters of the (3)He cell, the polarization analysis of the two-dimensional maps of reflected, refracted, and off-specular scattered intensity above and below the horizon were obtained, simultaneously.

  5. Growth of highly textured SnS on mica using an SnSe buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Fong, W.K.; Wang, W.; Surya, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the growth of SnS thin films on mica substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent 2D layered structure and strong (001) texture were observed with a record low rocking curve full width at half maximum of ∼ 0.101° for the SnS(004) diffraction. An interface model is used to investigate the nucleation of SnS on mica which indicates the co-existence of six pairs of lateral growth orientations and is in excellent agreement with the experimental Φ-scan measurements indicating 12 peaks separated by 30° from each other. To control the lateral growth of the SnS epilayers we investigate the utilization of a thin SnSe buffer layer deposited on the mica substrate prior to the growth of the SnS thin film. The excellent lattice match between SnSe and mica enhances the alignment of the nucleation of SnS and suppresses the minor lateral orientations along the mica[110] direction and its orthogonal axis. Detailed low-frequency noise measurement was performed to characterize the trap density in the films and our results clearly demonstrate substantial reduction in the density of the localized states in the SnS epilayer with the use of an SnSe buffer layer. - Highlights: • A record low rocking curve FWHM for deposited SnS on mica • Investigation of the nucleation of SnS on mica using the interface model • Investigation of nucleation mechanism by phi-scan measurement • Grain boundary formation from crystallites of various nucleation orientations • Suppression of nucleation orientations using an SnSe buffer layer

  6. Effects of Ge- and Sb-doping and annealing on the tunable bandgaps of SnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsuan-Tai; Chiang, Ming-Hung; Huang, Chen-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    SnS, Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films with single orthorhombic SnS phase were fabricated via solvothermal routes and subsequent spin-coating, respectively. The substitution solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. The bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films can be tuned in the ranges of 1.25–1.35 and 1.30–1.39 eV, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the tunable bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films are discussed. For the Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films subjected to annealing at 200–350 °C in N{sub 2}, the bandgaps of 200 °C-annealed films remain unchanged, while those of 300 °C- and 350 °C-annealed films decrease with the annealing temperature because of the evaporation of Ge and Sb respectively. - Highlights: • Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films were fabricated via spin-coating. • The solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. • The bandgaps of SnS films can be tuned by Ge and Sb doping respectively. • Annealing above 300 °C reduces the bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films.

  7. Intercalation of organic molecules into SnS2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, M.L.; Tan, K.J.; Wei, F.X.; Zhang, K.K.; Jiang, H.; Kloc, C.

    2013-01-01

    SnS 2 is a layered semiconductor with a van der Waals gap separating the covalently bonded layers. In this study, post-synthesis intercalation of donor organic amine molecules, such as ethylenediamine (en), into tin disulfide and secondary intercalation of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and 1, 5-naphthalenediamine (NDA) into SnS 2e n have been verified with X-ray diffraction. PPD and NDA did not intercalate directly even during prolonged annealing but replaced en readily if en was already present in the van der Waals gap. The c-lattice dilation is proportional to the intercalant size. Unit cell lattices of intercalated products were determined from the positions of the X-ray diffraction peaks. Optical images taken during the intercalation showed that intercalation progressed from the periphery towards the interior of the crystal. TEM diffraction patterns in the [0 0 1] direction of SnS 2 after intercalation revealed defects and stacking mismatches among the SnS 2 layers caused by the intercalation. UV–Vis absorption studies showed a red shift in the band edge of the SnS 2 material after intercalation. The band edge was 2.2 eV for pristine SnS 2 ; after intercalation with en or PPD, the absorbance spectra band edges shifted to approximately 0.7 eV or 0.5 eV, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: SnS 2 single crystals were intercalated with organic amine molecules such as ethylenediamine, phenylenediamine and naphthalenediamine. Absorption studies showed red shift of band edge after intercalation, which was consistent with optical observations. X-ray diffraction indicated lattice dilation in the c-lattice of SnS 2 after intercalation. Highlights: ► Organic molecules intercalated inhomogenously between covalently bonded SnS 2 layers. ► Ethylenediamine (en) intercalate directly into SnS 2 . ► Phenylenediamine (PPD) and naphthalenediamine (NDA) can be intercalated into SnS 2 secondary. ► In a secondary intercalation the bonds between layers are weakened by direct

  8. Flux gain for a next-generation neutron reflectometer resulting from improved supermirror performance

    CERN Document Server

    Rehm, C

    2002-01-01

    Next-generation spallation neutron source facilities will offer instruments with unprecedented capabilities through simultaneous enhancement of source power and usage of advanced optical components. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), already under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and scheduled to be completed by 2006, will provide greater than an order of magnitude more effective source flux than current state-of-the-art facilities, including the most advanced research reactors. An additional order of magnitude gain is expected through the use of new optical devices and instrumentation concepts. Many instrument designs require supermirror neutron guides with very high critical angles for total reflection. In this contribution, we will discuss how the performance of a modern neutron-scattering instrument depends on the efficiency of these supermirrors. We summarize current limitations of supermirror coatings and outline ideas for enhancing their performance, particularly for improving the reflec...

  9. Fabrication and optical properties of SnS thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Although the fabrication of tin disulfide thin films by SILAR method is quiet common, there is, however, no report is available on the growth of SnS thin film using above technique. In the present work, SnS films of 0.20 μm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by SILAR method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were smooth and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films. Scanning electron micrograph revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDAX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component while UV-vis transmission spectra exhibited high absorption in the visible region. The intense and sharp emission peaks at 680 and 825 nm (near band edge emission) dominated the photoluminescence spectra

  10. Simple eco-friendly synthesis of the surfactant free SnS nanocrystal toward the photoelectrochemical cell application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoguang; Woo, Heechul; Wu, Peinian; Hong, Hyo Jin; Jung, Wan Gil; Kim, Bong-Joong; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Choi, Jin Woo

    2017-11-28

    A simple, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly pathway for synthesizing efficient sunlight-driven tin sulfide photocatalyst was studied. SnS nanocrystals were prepared by using mechanical method. The bulk SnS was obtained by evaporation of SnS nanocrystal solution. The synthesized samples were characterized by using XRD, SEM, TEM, UV-vis, and Raman analyses. Well crystallized SnS nanocrystals were verified and the electrochemical characterization was also performed under visible light irradiation. The SnS nanocrystals have shown remarkable photocurrent density of 7.6 mA cm -2 under 100 mW cm -2 which is about 10 times larger than that of the bulk SnS under notably stable operation conditions. Furthermore, the SnS nanocrystals presented higher stability than the bulk form. The IPCE(Incident photon to current conversion efficiency) of 9.3% at 420 nm was obtained for SnS nanocrystal photoanode which is strikingly higher than that of bulk SnS, 0.78%. This work suggests that the enhancement of reacting area by using SnS nanocrystal absorbers could give rise to the improvement of photoelectrochemical cell efficiency.

  11. Reflectometer end station for synchrotron calibrations of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility flight optics and for spectrometric research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessle, D.E.; Fitch, J.J.; Ingram, R.; Zhang Juda, J.; Blake, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Preparations have been underway to construct and test a facility for grazing incidence reflectance calibrations of flat mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The purpose is to conduct calibrations on witness flats to the coating process of the flight mirrors for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The x-ray energy range required is 50 eV--12 keV. Three monochromatic beamlines (X8C, X8A, U3A) will provide energy tunability over this entire range. The goal is to calibrate the AXAF flight mirrors with uncertainties approaching 1%. A portable end station with a precision-positioning reflectometer has been developed for this work. We have resolved the vacuum cleanliness requirements to preserve the coating integrity of the flats with the strict grazing-angle certainty requirements placed on the rotational control system of the reflectometer. A precision positioning table permits alignment of the system to the synchrotron beam to within 10 arcsec; the reflectometer's rotational control system can then produce grazing angle accuracy to within less than 2 arcsec, provided that the electron orbit is stable. At 10--12 keV, this degree of angular accuracy is necessary to achieve the calibration accuracy required for AXAF. However the most important energy regions for the synchrotron calibration are in the 2000--3200 eV range, where the M-edge absorption features of the coating element, iridium, appear, and the 300--700 eV range of the Ir N edges. The detail versus energy exhibited in these features cannot be traced adequately without a tunable energy source, which necessitates a synchrotron for this work. We present the mechanical designs, motion control systems, detection and measurement capabilities, and selected procedures for our measurements, as well as reflectance data

  12. The Research on Informal Learning Model of College Students Based on SNS and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Cong, Xiao; Bi, Fangyan; Zhou, Dongdai

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, informal learning based on online become the main way for college students to learn a variety of subject knowledge. The favor to the SNS community of students and the characteristics of SNS itself provide a good opportunity for the informal learning of college students. This research first analyzes the related research of the informal learning and SNS, next, discusses the characteristics of informal learning and theoretical basis. Then, it proposed an informal learning model of college students based on SNS according to the support role of SNS to the informal learning of students. Finally, according to the theoretical model and the principles proposed in this study, using the Elgg and related tools which is the open source SNS program to achieve the informal learning community. This research is trying to overcome issues such as the lack of social realism, interactivity, resource transfer mode in the current network informal learning communities, so as to provide a new way of informal learning for college students.

  13. AND/R: Advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer for investigation of thin films and multilayers for the life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dura, Joseph A.; Pierce, Donald J.; Majkrzak, Charles F.; Maliszewskyj, Nicholas C.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Loesche, Mathias; O'Donovan, Kevin V.; Mihailescu, Mihaela; Perez-Salas, Ursula; Worcester, David L.; White, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    An elastic neutron scattering instrument, the advanced neutron diffractometer/reflectometer (AND/R), has recently been commissioned at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. The AND/R is the centerpiece of the Cold Neutrons for Biology and Technology partnership, which is dedicated to the structural characterization of thin films and multilayers of biological interest. The instrument is capable of measuring both specular and nonspecular reflectivity, as well as crystalline or semicrystalline diffraction at wave-vector transfers up to approximately 2.20 A -1 . A detailed description of this flexible instrument and its performance characteristics in various operating modes are given

  14. Results of the SNS front end commissioning at Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, A.; Ayers, J.J.; Doolittle, L.; Greer, J.B.; Keller, R.; Lewis, S.; Lionberger, C.; Monroy, M.; Pruyn, J.; Staples, J.W.; Syversrude, D.; Thomae, R.; Virostek, S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Shea, T.; SNS Accelerator Physics Group; SNS Beam Diagnostics Collaboration

    2002-01-01

    The Front-End Systems (FES) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project comprise an rf-driven H - ion source, an electrostatic 2-lens LEBT, a 2.5 MeV RFQ, followed by a 14-quadrupole, 4-rebuncher MEBT including traveling-wave fast choppers. The nominal 2.5 MeV H - beam has a current of 38 mA at a repetition rate of 60 Hz and 1 ms pulse length, for a macro duty-factor of 6%, and is chopped at a rate of approximately 1 MHz with a mini duty-factor of 68%. The normalized rms beam emittance at the MEBT exit, matching the first tank of a 402.5 MHz Alvarez linac, is measured to be approximately 0.3 π mm mrad. Diagnostic elements include wire scanners, BPMs, fast current monitors, a slit-harp emittance device and RFQ field monitoring probes. The results of the beam commissioning and the operation of the RFQ and diagnostic instrumentation are reported. The entire FES was shut down at LBNL at the end of May 2002 and will be recommissioned at ORNL prior to installation of the drift-tube linac

  15. Precision Magnetic Elements for the SNS Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Spataro, C.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic elements for an accumulator storage ring for a 1 GeV Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been under design. The accumulation of very high intensity protons in a storage ring requires beam optical elements of very high purity to minimize higher order resonances in the presence of space charge. The parameters of the elements required by the accumulator lattice design have been reported. The dipoles have a 17 cm gap and are 124 cm long. The quadrupoles have a physical length to aperture diameter ratio of 40 cm/21 cm and of 45 cm/31 cm. Since the elements have a large aperture and short length, optimizing the optical effects of magnet ends is the major design challenge. Two dimensional (2D) computer computations can, at least on paper, produce the desired accuracy internal to magnets, i.e. constant dipole fields and linear quadrupole gradients over the desired aperture to 1 x 10 -4 . To minimize undesirable end effects three dimensional (3D) computations can be used to design magnet ends. However, limitations on computations can occur, such as necessary finite boundary conditions, actual properties of the iron employed, hysteresis effects, etc., which are slightly at variance with the assumed properties. Experimental refinement is employed to obtain the desired precision

  16. RF Beam Position Monitor for the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kurt; Cameron, Peter; Dawson, Craig; Degen, Chris; Kesselman, Martin; Mead, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source Ring accumulates 1060 pulses of 38-mA peak current 1-GeV H-minus particles from the Linac through the HEBT line, then delivers this accumulated beam in a single pulse to a mercury target via the RTBT line. The dynamic range over the course of the accumulation cycle is 60 dB. As a result of particle energy distribution the 402.5-MHz RF bunching frequency quickly de-coheres during the first few turns. In order to measure first-turn position a dual-mode BPM has been designed to process 402.5-MHz signal energy during the first few turns then switch to a Baseband mode to process de-cohered energy in the low MHz region. The design has been implemented as a dual mother/daughter board PCI architecture. Both Baseband and RF calibration are included on the RF BPM board. A prototype system has been installed in the SNS Linac

  17. Refined beam measurements on the SNS H- injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B. X.; Welton, R. F.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Stinson, C. M.; Stockli, M. P.

    2017-08-01

    The H- injector for the SNS RFQ accelerator consists of an RF-driven, Cs-enhanced H- ion source and a compact, two-lens electrostatic LEBT. The LEBT output and the RFQ input beam current are measured by deflecting the beam on to an annular plate at the RFQ entrance. Our method and procedure have recently been refined to improve the measurement reliability and accuracy. The new measurements suggest that earlier measurements tended to underestimate the currents by 0-2 mA, but essentially confirm H- beam currents of 50-60 mA being injected into the RFQ. Emittance measurements conducted on a test stand featuring essentially the same H- injector setup show that the normalized rms emittance with 0.5% threshold (99% inclusion of the total beam) is in a range of 0.25-0.4 mm.mrad for a 50-60 mA beam. The RFQ output current is monitored with a BCM toroid. Measurements as well as simulations with the PARMTEQ code indicate an underperforming transmission of the RFQ since around 2012.

  18. DOUBLE-WALL COLLIMATOR DESIGN OF THE SNS PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; LUDEWIG, H.; CATALAN-LASHERAS, N.; CRIVELLO, S.

    2001-01-01

    The collimator absorber array of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project is responsible for stopping the 1.0 GeV protons that are in the halo of the beam. It is estimated that 0.1% of the 2 MW beam will be intercepted by the adopted collimating scheme implemented at various sections of the beam transport and accumulation. This paper summarizes the conceptual design of the collimator absorber as well as the supporting detailed analysis that were performed and guided the design process. Key requirement in the design process is the need for the collimator beam tube to minimize beam impedance while closely following its beta function. Due to lack of available experimental data, the long-term behavior of irradiated materials in an environment where they interface with coolant flow becomes an issue. Uncertainties in the long-term behavior prompted a special double-wall design that will enable not only beam halo interception but also the efficient transfer of deposited energy both under normal and off-normal conditions to the coolant flow. The thermo-mechanical response of the double wall beam tube and of a particle bed surrounding it are discussed in detail in the paper

  19. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels. [using a reflectometer which separately evaluates spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces is described. A phase locked detection system for the reflectometer is also described. A selective coating on aluminum potentially useful for flat plate solar collector applications is presented. The coating is composed of strongly bound copper oxide (divalent) and is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content. Fabrication costs are expected to be small due to the one stop fabrication process. A number of conclusions gathered from the literature as to the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are discussed.

  20. Neutronics for the SNS long wavelength target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E.B.; Micklich, B.J.; Carpenter, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most significant and adventurous aspects of the LWTS (Long Wavelength Target Station) design concept is the use of slab moderators, historically considered to be awkward due to the high contamination of the neutron beams with fast and high- energy neutrons. Concern over this contamination is the reason behind our proposition that none of the beam on a slab moderator should be viewed directly, that is, without a curved guide, compact bender, or other fast and high-energy neutron filter. We made a large number of calculations concerning fast neutron source term of the solid target-slab moderator configuration with monolithic solid methane, which includes a curved guide or compact beam bender. We also made optimization on target position, beam void open angle, target gap and target division of the split target configuration. All fast and high-energy neutron spectra will be reported as lethargy spectra, normalized to 1 eV. In this way, we will attempt to define the 'cost' of using slab moderators as a function of the payoff gained from their use. We report these data for general information and discussion, and further draw the conclusions. Numerous issues have arisen in the course of the LWTS concept development, which require more information than is now in hand to provide the basis for detailed design and for potential design innovations. Some of the R and D issues are listed, along with proposed efforts to fill design needs. We have devised a highly effective 'base case' conceptual design for LWTS, which we are still evaluating and optimizing. LWTS will provide distinctly unique capabilities complimentary to SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) HPTS (High Power Target Station). The configuration of LWTS is strongly coupled to instrument requirements through close interaction with scientists formulating the science case and instrument suite. (Tanaka, Y.)

  1. Azobenzene mesogens mediated preparation of SnS nanocrystals encapsulated with in-situ N-doped carbon and their enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Zhou Yang; Chen Dongzhong; Duan Junfei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, azobenzene mesogen-containing tin thiolates have been synthesized, which possess ordered lamellar structures persistent to higher temperature and serve as liquid crystalline precursors. Based on the preorganized tin thiolate precursors, SnS nanocrystals encapsulated with in-situ N-doped carbon layer have been achieved through a simple solventless pyrolysis process with the azobenzene mesogenic thiolate precursor served as Sn, S, N, and C sources simultaneously. Thus prepared nanocomposite materials as anode of lithium ion batteries present a large specific capacity of 604.6 mAh·g −1 at a current density of 100 mA·g −1 , keeping a high capacity retention up to 96% after 80 cycles, and display high rate capability due to the synergistic effect of well-dispersed SnS nanocrystals and N-doped carbon layer. Such encouraging results shed a light on the controlled preparation of advanced nanocomposites based on liquid crystalline metallomesogen precursors and may boost their novel intriguing applications. (special topic)

  2. Physical properties of very thin SnS films deposited by thermal evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shuying; Conibeer, Gavin

    2011-01-01

    SnS films with thicknesses of 20–65 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by thermal evaporation. The physical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible-near infrared spectroscopy at room temperature. The results from XRD, XPS and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicate that the deposited films mainly exhibit SnS phase, but they may contain a tiny amount of Sn 2 S 3 . The deposited SnS films are pinhole free, smooth and strongly adherent to the surfaces of the substrates. The color of the SnS films changes from pale yellow to brown with the increase of the film thickness from 20 nm to 65 nm. The very smooth surfaces of the thin films result in their high reflectance. The direct bandgap of the films is between 2.15 eV and 2.28 eV which is much larger than 1.3 eV of bulk SnS, this is deserving to be investigated further.

  3. The critical current density of an SNS Josephson-junction in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, George J; Hampshire, Damian P

    2013-01-01

    Although the functional form of the critical current density (J c ) of superconducting–normal–superconducting (SNS) Josephson-junctions (J-Js) has long been known in the very low field limit (e.g. the sinc function), includes the local properties of the junction and has been confirmed experimentally in many systems, there have been no such general solutions available for high fields. Here, we derive general analytic equations for J c in zero field and in high fields across SNS J-Js for arbitrary resistivity of the superconductor and the normal layer which are consistent with the literature results available in limiting cases. We confirm the validity of the approach using both computational solutions to time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory applied to SNS junctions and experimental J c data for an SNS PbBi–Cd–PbBi junction. We suggest that since SNS junctions can be considered the basic building blocks for the description of the grain boundaries of polycrystalline materials because they both provide flux-flow channels, this work may provide a mathematical framework for high J c technological polycrystalline superconductors in high magnetic fields. (paper)

  4. Commissioning of the Superconducting Linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H-ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS will use the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons to generate neutrons by spallation, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade. The SRF cavities, operated at 805 MHz, were designed, built and integrated into cryomodules at Jefferson Lab and installed and tested at SNS. SNS is also the first proton-like accelerator which uses SRF cavities in a pulse mode. Many of the details of the cavity performance are peculiar to this mode of operation, which is also being applied to lepton accelerators (TESLA test facility and X-FEL at DESY and the international linear collider project). Thanks to the low frequency of the SNS superconducting cavities, operation at 4.2 K has been possible without beam energy degradation, even though the cavities and cryogenic systems were originally designed for 2.1 K operation. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam and the performance of the superconducting linac will be presented

  5. Structural and optical characteristics of SnS thin film prepared by SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.

  6. Damping the e-p instability in the SNS accumulator ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N. J.; Deibele, C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Xie, Z.

    2018-03-01

    A broadband, digital damper system for both transverse planes developed for the SNS accumulator ring has recently damped the first indications of the broadband 50-150 MHz e-p instability in a 1.2 MW neutron production beam. This paper presents details of the design and operation of the SNS damper system as well as results of active damping of the e-p instability in the SNS ring showing a reduction in power of betatron oscillation over the 10-300 MHz band of up to 70%. The spectral content of the beam during operation, with and without the damper system is presented and performance of the damper system is evaluated.

  7. Transverse beam stability measurement and analysis for the SNS accumulator ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zaipeng [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1691 (United States); Deibele, Craig, E-mail: deibele@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO BOX 2008 MS6483, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6461 (United States); Schulte, Michael J.; Hu, Yu-Hen [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1691 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based transverse feedback damper system was implemented in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring with the intention to stabilize the electron–proton (e–p) instability in the frequency range of 1–300 MHz. The transverse feedback damper could also be used as a diagnostic tool by measuring the beam transfer function (BTF). An analysis of the BTF measurements provides the stability diagram for the production beam at SNS. This paper describes the feedback damper system and its setup as the BTF diagnostic tool. Experimental BTF results are presented and beam stability is analyzed by use of the BTF measurements for the SNS accumulator ring.

  8. Transverse beam stability measurement and analysis for the SNS accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Zaipeng; Deibele, Craig; Schulte, Michael J.; Hu, Yu-Hen

    2015-01-01

    A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based transverse feedback damper system was implemented in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring with the intention to stabilize the electron–proton (e–p) instability in the frequency range of 1–300 MHz. The transverse feedback damper could also be used as a diagnostic tool by measuring the beam transfer function (BTF). An analysis of the BTF measurements provides the stability diagram for the production beam at SNS. This paper describes the feedback damper system and its setup as the BTF diagnostic tool. Experimental BTF results are presented and beam stability is analyzed by use of the BTF measurements for the SNS accumulator ring

  9. Electronic and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayer doped with non-magnetic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Rong, Qing-Yan; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2018-05-01

    We performed a systematic study of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayer doped with non-magnetic elements in groups IA, IIA and IIIA based on the first-principles methods. The doped systems exhibit half-metallic and metallic natures depending on the doping elements. The formation of magnetic moment is attributable to the cooperative effect of the Hund's rule coupling and hole concentration. The spin polarization can be stabilized and enhanced through confining the delocalized impurity states by biaxial tensile strain in hole-doped SnS2 monolayer. Both the double-exchange and p-p exchange mechanisms are simultaneously responsible for the ferromagnetic ground state in those hole-doped materials. Our results demonstrate that spin polarization can be induced and controlled in SnS2 monolayers by non-magnetic doping and tensile strain.

  10. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  11. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  12. Wavefunction and energy of the 1s22sns configuration in a beryllium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shizhong; Ma Kun; Yu Jiaming; Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    A new set of trial functions for 1s 2 2sns configurations in a beryllium atom is suggested. A Mathematica program based on the variational method is developed to calculate the wavefunctions and energies of 1s 2 2sns (n = 3–6) configurations in a beryllium atom. Non-relativistic energy, polarization correction and relativistic correction which include mass correction, one-and two-body Darwin corrections, spin-spin contact interaction and orbit-orbit interaction, are calculated respectively. The results are in good agreement with experimental data. (atomic and molecular physics)

  13. Development of N-layer materials for SNS junction and SQUID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.P.; McDevitt, J.T.; Jia, Q.

    1997-01-01

    Materials characteristics including water reactivity, oxygen loss, electromigration of oxide ions, and interfacial reactivity problems have plagued attempts to produce reliable and reproducible cuprate SNS superconductor junctions. In an effort to solve some of these formidable problems, new N-layer compounds from the family of R 1-x Ca x Ba 2-y La y Cu 3-z M z O 7-δ (R = Y, Gd and Pr; M = Co, Ni and Zn; 0 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ phase and the modified materials exhibit enhanced durability properties. The compounds have been utilized to make both SNS junctions and SQUID devices

  14. Implementation of SNS Model for Intrusion Prevention in Wireless Local Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isah, Abdullahi

    The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria.......The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria....

  15. Space charge and magnet error simulations for the SNS accumulator ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe-Wang, J.; Fedotov, A.V.; Wei, J.; Machida, S.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of space charge forces and magnet errors in the beam of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring are investigated. In this paper, the focus is on the emittance growth and halo/tail formation in the beam due to space charge with and without magnet errors. The beam properties of different particle distributions resulting from various injection painting schemes are investigated. Different working points in the design of SNS accumulator ring lattice are compared. The simulations in close-to-resonance condition in the presence of space charge and magnet errors are presented. (author)

  16. Contrast enhancement in an optical time-domain reflectometer via self-phase modulation compensation by chirped probe pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Vdovenko, V S; Simikin, D E; Gorshkov, B G

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we propose a novel method for optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR)–reflectogram contrast enhancement via compensation of nonlinear distortions of propagating probe pulse, which arise due to the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect in optical fiber. The compensation is performed via preliminary frequency modulation (chirp) of the initial probe pulse according to the specific law. As a result the OTDR contrast at some distant predefined fiber point is fully restored to the value of non-distorted probe pulse at the beginning of the fiber line. As a result, the performance of the phase OTDR increases. The point of full SPM compensation could be shifted to any other point of the fiber line via preliminary frequency modulation index change. The feasibility of the proposed method is theoretically proved and experimentally demonstrated. (paper)

  17. A quasi-distributed temperature sensor interrogated by a wavelength-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crunelle, C; Wuilpart, M; Caucheteur, C; Mégret, P

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we present a quasi-distributed temperature monitoring system based on the concatenation of identical low-reflective fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and interrogated by means of an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). An original wavelength-sensitive system placed before the OTDR detector is used to analyze the reflected signal. This system allows the height of the FBG reflection peaks in the OTDR trace to depend on their resonance wavelength, and therefore to the local temperature. In addition, a simple but original reference method is proposed. The configuration of the whole interrogating device is kept very basic, as a standard OTDR and some passive components are used. The cost of the overall system is therefore very limited. In this note, the wavelength-sensitive system is studied in details, as well as the reference method. Experimental results are reported. (technical design note)

  18. SnS2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as high performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongyu; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Luo, Jun; Shi, Yingying; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesized SnS 2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures exhibit large reversible capacity, superior cycling performance, and good rate capability as compared to pure SnS 2 nanoflakes. - Highlights: • Synthesis of SnS 2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid structures. • Simple solution-phase approach. • Morphology feature of SnS 2 . • Enhanced performance as Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: SnS 2 nanoflakes decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid structures are directly synthesized via a simple solution-phase approach. The as-prepared SnS 2 /MWCNTs structures are investigated as anode materials for Li-ion batteries as compared with SnS 2 nanoflakes. It has been found that the composite structure exhibit excellent lithium storage performance with a large reversible capacity, superior cycling performance, and good rate capability as compared to pure SnS 2 nanoflakes. The first discharge and charge capacities have been found to be 1416 and 518 mA h g −1 for SnS 2 /MWCNTs composite electrodes at a current density of 100 mA g −1 between 5 mV and 1.15 V versus Li/Li + . A stable reversible capacity of ∼510 mA h g −1 is obtained for 50 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance may be attributed to the flake-morphology feature of SnS 2 and the addition of MWCNTs that can hinder the agglomeration of the active materials and improve the conductivity of the composite electrode simultaneously

  19. Photoelectrochemical properties of orthorhombic and metastable phase SnS nanocrystals synthesized by a facile colloidal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Po-Chia [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Chang; Shaikh, Muhammad Omar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Tainan 710, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chia-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-12-01

    SnS of orthorhombic (OR) and metastable (SnS) phases were synthesized by using a simple and facile colloidal method. The tin precursor was synthesized using tin oxide (SnO) and oleic acid (OA), while the sulfur precursor was prepared using sulfur powder (S) and oleyamine (OLA). The sulfur precursor was injected into the tin precursor and the prepared SnS nanocrystals were precipitated at a final reaction temperature of 180 °C. The results show that hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) can be successfully used as a surfactant to synthesize monodisperse 20 nm metastable SnS nanoparticles, while OR phase SnS nanosheets were obtained without HMDS. The direct bandgap observed for the metastable SnS phase is higher (1.66 eV) as compared to the OR phase (1.46 eV). The large blueshift in the direct bandgap of metastable SnS is caused by the difference in crystal structure. The blueshift in the direct band gap value for OR-SnS could be explained by quantum confinement in two dimensions in the very thin nanosheets. SnS thin films used as a photo anode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell were prepared by spin coating on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The photocurrent density of the SnS (metastable SnS)/FTO and SnS (OR)/FTO are 191.8 μA/cm{sup 2} and 57.61 μA/cm{sup 2} at an applied voltage of − 1 V at 150 W, respectively. These narrow band gap and low cost nanocrystals can be used for applications in future optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • A facile method to synthesize two different phases of SnS having different morphological and optical properties. • The phases and morphologies of SnS nanocrystal can be controlled by adding capping surfactant hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). • As we know, this is the first metastable SnS photoanode for application in a photoelectrochemical cell.

  20. Phase-tunable Majorana bound states in a topological N-SNS junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Bork; Danon, Jeroen; Flensberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the differential conductance of a one-dimensional normal-superconductor-normal-superconductor (N-SNS) junction with a phase bias applied between the two superconductors. We consider specifically a junction formed by a spin-orbit coupled semiconducting nanowire with regions ...

  1. Electronic structure of SnS deduced from photoelectron spectra and band-structure calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, A.R.H.F.; Groot, R.A. de; Haas, C.; Turner, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    SnS is a layer compound with a phase transition from a high-temperature β phase to a low-temperature α phase with a lower symmetry. Ab initio band-structure calculations are presented for both phases. The calculations show that the charge distributions in the two phases are very similar. However,

  2. Fabrication of SnS quantum dots for solar cell applications: issues of capping and doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rath, J.K.; Prastani, C.; Nanu, D.E.; Nanu, M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Vetushka, A.; Hývl, M.; Fejfar, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present our recent study of SnS particles in the backdrop of significant developments that have taken place so far for which a review of the present status of this material, its structural, optical, electronic characteristics, and device performance is described. To further improve the

  3. Effect of van der Waals interaction on the properties of SnS2 layered semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminovski, Y.; Palacios, P.; Wahnón, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, dispersion correction applied on layered semiconductors is a topic of interest. Among the known layered semiconductors, SnS 2 polytypes are wide gap semiconductors with a van der Waals interaction between their layers, which could form good materials to be used in photovoltaic applications. The present work gives an approach to the SnS 2 geometrical and electronic characterization using an empirical dispersion correction added to the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional and subsequent actualization of the electronic charge density using the screened hybrid Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof functional using a density functional code. The obtained interlayer distance and band-gap are in good agreement with experimental values when van der Waals dispersion forces are included. - Highlights: ► Tin disulphide (SnS 2 ) has been calculated using density functional theory methods. ► A dispersion correction was also applied for two different SnS 2 polytypes. ► Geometrical parameters and band-gaps were obtained using both approaches. ► Our calculations give a good agreement of the computed band gap with experiment

  4. Research on SNS and Education: The State of the Art and Its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hoyos, Carlos; Haya Salmón, Ignacio; Fernández-Díaz, Elia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for further discussion, a review of the scientific literature produced internationally on the use of Social Network Sites (SNS) in different levels of education and settings. A total of 62 articles published in international scientific journals with peer review have been analysed. The main objective of this paper is to discuss…

  5. BEAM-LOSS DRIVEN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; CAMERON,P.; DANBY,G.; GARDNER,C.J.; JACKSON,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; LUDEWIG,H.; MALITSKY,N.; RAPARIA,D.; TSOUPAS,N.; WENG,W.T.; ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper summarizes three-stage design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.).

  6. Beam-Loss Driven Design Optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes three-state design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.)

  7. Development of SNS Stream Analysis Based on Forest Disaster Warning Information Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; KIM, D.; Kang, M.; Woo, C.; Kim, D.; Seo, J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, H.; Heon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Forest disasters, such as landslides and wildfires, cause huge economic losses and casualties, and the cost of recovery is increasing every year. While forest disaster mitigation technologies have been focused on the development of prevention and response technologies, they are now required to evolve into evacuation and border evacuation, and to develop technologies fused with ICT. In this study, we analyze the SNS (Social Network Service) stream and implement a system to detect the message that the forest disaster occurred or the forest disaster, and search the keyword related to the forest disaster in advance in real time. It is possible to detect more accurate forest disaster messages by repeatedly learning the retrieved results using machine learning techniques. To do this, we designed and implemented a system based on Hadoop and Spark, a distributed parallel processing platform, to handle Twitter stream messages that open SNS. In order to develop the technology to notify the information of forest disaster risk, a linkage of technology such as CBS (Cell Broadcasting System) based on mobile communication, internet-based civil defense siren, SNS and the legal and institutional issues for applying these technologies are examined. And the protocol of the forest disaster warning information service system that can deliver the SNS analysis result was developed. As a result, it was possible to grasp real-time forest disaster situation by real-time big data analysis of SNS that occurred during forest disasters. In addition, we confirmed that it is possible to rapidly propagate alarm or warning according to the disaster situation by using the function of the forest disaster warning information notification service. However, the limitation of system application due to the restriction of opening and sharing of SNS data currently in service and the disclosure of personal information remains a problem to be solved in the future. Keyword : SNS stream, Big data, Machine

  8. Carbon-doped SnS2 nanostructure as a high-efficiency solar fuel catalyst under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Samireddi, Satyanarayana; Chang, Yu-Chung; Putikam, Raghunath; Chang, Po-Han; Sabbah, Amr; Fu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Fu; Wu, Chih-I; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Chung, Po-Wen; Lin, M C; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2018-01-12

    Photocatalytic formation of hydrocarbons using solar energy via artificial photosynthesis is a highly desirable renewable-energy source for replacing conventional fossil fuels. Using an L-cysteine-based hydrothermal process, here we synthesize a carbon-doped SnS 2 (SnS 2 -C) metal dichalcogenide nanostructure, which exhibits a highly active and selective photocatalytic conversion of CO 2 to hydrocarbons under visible-light. The interstitial carbon doping induced microstrain in the SnS 2 lattice, resulting in different photophysical properties as compared with undoped SnS 2 . This SnS 2 -C photocatalyst significantly enhances the CO 2 reduction activity under visible light, attaining a photochemical quantum efficiency of above 0.7%. The SnS 2 -C photocatalyst represents an important contribution towards high quantum efficiency artificial photosynthesis based on gas phase photocatalytic CO 2 reduction under visible light, where the in situ carbon-doped SnS 2 nanostructure improves the stability and the light harvesting and charge separation efficiency, and significantly enhances the photocatalytic activity.

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafashan, Hosein; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-07-01

    SnS1-xSex nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, -1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS1-xSex nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS1-xSex nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS1-xSex nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS1-xSex thin films. The PL spectra of SnS1-xSex nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV-vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (Eg) of SnS1-xSex nanostructures varied between 1.22-1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  10. Combinatorial development of Cu2SnS3 as an earth abundant photovoltaic absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Lauryn L.

    The development of high efficiency, earth abundant photovoltaic absorbers is critical if photovoltaics are to be implemented on the TW scale. Although traditional thin films absorbers such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe have achieved over 20% device efficiencies, the ultimately scalability of these devices may be limited by elemental scarcity and toxicity issues. To date, the most successful earth abundant thin film absorber is Cu2ZnSn(S,Se) 4, which has achieved 12.6% efficiency as of 2014. However, chemical complexity and disorder issues with this material have made the path to higher efficiency CZTSSe devices unclear. As a result, many researchers are now exploring alternative earth abundant absorber materials. In this thesis, we apply our "rapid development" methodology to the exploration of alternative photovoltaic absorbers. The rapid development (RD) methodology, consisting of exploration, research, and development stages, uses complementary theory and experiment to assess candidate materials and down-select in each stage. The overall result is that, in the time span of ~2-3 years, we are able to rapidly go from tens of possible absorber materials to 1-2 working PV device prototypes. Here, we demonstrate the RD approach as applied to the Cu-Sn-S system. We begin our investigation of the Cu-Sn-S system by evaluating the thermodynamic stability, electrical transport, electronic structure, and optical and defect properties of candidate materials using complementary theory and experiment. We find that Cu2SnS3 is the most promising absorber candidate because of its strong optical absorption, tunable doping, and wide stability range. Our other candidate compounds suffer from serious flaws that preclude them from being successful photovoltaic absorbers, including too high experimental conductivity (Cu4SnS4), or poor hole transport and low absorption coefficient (Cu4Sn7S16). Next, we investigate the doping and defect physics of Cu2SnS 3. We identify the origins of the

  11. TiO2-SnS2 nanocomposites: solar-active photocatalytic materials for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kusic, Hrvoje; Fanetti, Mattia; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Valant, Matjaz; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2017-08-01

    The study is aimed at evaluating TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites as effective solar-active photocatalysts for water treatment. Two strategies for the preparation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites were examined: (i) in-situ chemical synthesis followed by immobilization on glass plates and (ii) binding of two components (TiO 2 and SnS 2 ) within the immobilization step. The as-prepared TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites and their sole components (TiO 2 or SnS 2 ) were inspected for composition, crystallinity, and morphology using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analyses. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine band gaps of immobilized TiO 2 -SnS 2 and to establish the changes in comparison to respective sole components. The activity of immobilized TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites was tested for the removal of diclofenac (DCF) in aqueous solution under simulated solar irradiation and compared with that of single component photocatalysts. In situ chemical synthesis yielded materials of high crystallinity, while their morphology and composition strongly depended on synthesis conditions applied. TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites exhibited higher activity toward DCF removal and conversion in comparison to their sole components at acidic pH, while only in situ synthesized TiO 2 -SnS 2 composites showed higher activity at neutral pH.

  12. Synthesis of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanoparticles using surfactant free microemulsion (SFME) with the single microemulsion scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkas, Hemant S.; Marathe, Deepak M.; Mahajan, Mrunal S.; Muntaser, Faisal; Patil, Mahendra B.; Tak, Swapnil R.; Sali, Jaydeep V.

    2017-02-01

    Synthesis of monomorphic, SnS nanoparticles without using a capping agent is a difficult task with chemical route of synthesis. This paper reports on synthesis of tin monosulfide (SnS) nanopartilces with dimension in the quantum-dot regime using surfactant free microemulsion with single microemulsion scheme. This has been achieved by reaction in microreactors in the CME (C: chlorobenzene, M: methanol and E: ethylene glycol) microemulsion system. This is an easy and controllable chemical route for synthesis of SnS nanoparticles. Nanoparticle diameter showed prominent dependence on microemulsion concentration and marginal dependence on microemulsion temperature in the temperature range studied. The SnS nanoparticles formed with this method form stable dispersion in Tolune.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of nanostructured Se-doped SnS: Effect of Se-dopant on surface characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafashan, Hosein; Azizieh, Mahdi; Balak, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition method. • The XRD patterns obviously showed that the synthesized films were polycrystalline. • The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films showed four emission peaks. • The UV–vis spectra shows a variation in the optical band gap energy of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films from 1.22 to 1.65 eV. • SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films would be suitable for use as absorber layers. - Abstract: SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures with different Se-dopant concentrations were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate through cathodic electrodeposition technique. The pH, temperature, applied potential (E), and deposition time remained were 2.1, 60 °C, −1 V, and 30 min, respectively. SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microcopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and UV–vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed that the SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures were polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. FESEM showed various kinds of morphologies in SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures due to Se-doping. PL and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to evaluate the optical properties of SnS_1_-_xSe_x thin films. The PL spectra of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures displayed four emission peaks, those are a blue, a green, an orange, and a red emission. UV–vis spectra showed that the optical band gap energy (E_g) of SnS_1_-_xSe_x nanostructures varied between 1.22–1.65 eV, due to Se-doping.

  14. Status of the NPDGamma Experiment at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, R., E-mail: ralarcon@asu.edu; Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Department of Physics (United States); Collaboration: NPDGamma Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    The main goal of the NPDGamma experiment is to measure the gamma-ray asymmetry with respect to the neutron spin direction in the nuclear reaction n-vector + p {yields} d + {gamma}. The up-down asymmetry A{sub {gamma}} has a predicted size of the order of 5 {center_dot}10{sup - 8} , and the NPDGamma experiment is designed to measure it with an uncertainty of about 10{sup - 8}. To test the entire apparatus the gamma-ray asymmetry from neutron capture was measured using a Cl target followed by measurements on Al to establish the relevant background levels. At present the experiment is taking data with a liquid H{sub 2} target to measure the parity violation on the n-vector + p {yields} d + {gamma} reaction and extract the {Delta}I = 1 part of the hadronic weak interaction.

  15. Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2 composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Marin; Kopcic, Nina; Kusic, Hrvoje; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Bozic, Ana Loncaric

    2018-01-01

    One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 , for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO 2 -SnS 2 /H 2 O 2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO 2 -SnS 2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO 2 -SnS 2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS 2 into non-active SnO 2 . Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO 2 -SnS 2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.

  16. Optimization of Pulsed Operation of the Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) Cavities at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    In order to address the optimization in a pulsed operation, a systematic computational analysis has been made in comparison with operational experiences in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). From the analysis it appears that the SNS SRF cavities can be operated at temperatures higher than 2.1 K, a fact resulting from both the pulsed nature of the superconducting cavities, the specific configuration of the existing cryogenic plant and the operating frequency

  17. Detrimental Effect Elimination of Laser Frequency Instability in Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer by Using Self-Heterodyne Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqian Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A useful method for eliminating the detrimental effect of laser frequency instability on Brillouin signals by employing the self-heterodyne detection of Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering is presented. From the analysis of Brillouin scattering spectra from fibers with different lengths measured by heterodyne detection, the maximum usable pulse width immune to laser frequency instability is obtained to be about 4 µs in a self-heterodyne detection Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR system using a broad-band laser with low frequency stability. Applying the self-heterodyne detection of Rayleigh and Brillouin scattering in BOTDR system, we successfully demonstrate that the detrimental effect of laser frequency instability on Brillouin signals can be eliminated effectively. Employing the broad-band laser modulated by a 130-ns wide pulse driven electro-optic modulator, the observed maximum errors in temperatures measured by the local heterodyne and self-heterodyne detection BOTDR systems are 7.9 °C and 1.2 °C, respectively.

  18. Initial results of H-mode edge pedestal turbulence evolution with quadrature reflectometer measurements on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: wangg@fusion.gat.com; Peebles, W.A. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Doyle, E.J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rhodes, T.L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Nguyen, X. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G.J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Burrell, K.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Strait, E.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    High-resolution quadrature reflectometer measurements of density fluctuation levels have been obtained on DIII-D for H-mode edge pedestal studies. Initial results are presented from the L-H transition to the first ELM for two cases: (i) a low pedestal beta discharge, in which density turbulence in the pedestal has little change during the ELM-free phase, and (ii) a high pedestal beta discharge in which both density and magnetic turbulence are observed to increase before the first ELM. These high beta data are consistent with the existence of electromagnetic turbulence suggested by some transport models. During Type-I ELM cycles, when little magnetic turbulence can be observed, pedestal turbulence increases just after an ELM crash and then decreases before next ELM strikes, in contrast to a drop after ELM crash and then it re-grows when strong magnetic turbulence shows similar behavior. Clear ELM precursors are observed on {<=}20% of Type-I ELMs observed to date.

  19. Characterization of hydrothermally synthesized SnS nanoparticles for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajwar, Birendra Kumar; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, SnS nanoparticles were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method using stannous chloride and thiourea as tin (Sn) and sulfur (S) precursor respectively. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and UV-Vis Spectroscopy techniques. XRD pattern reveals that as-prepared nanoparticles exhibit orthorhombic structure. Average particles size was calculated using Scherrer's formula and found to be 23 nm. FESEM image shows that the as-prepared nanoparticles are in plate like structure. Direct optical band gap (Eg) of as-synthesized nanoparticles was calculated through UV-Vis Spectroscopy measurement and found to be 1.34 eV, which is near to optimum need for photovoltaic solar energy conversion (1.5 eV). Thus this SnS, narrowband gap semiconductor material can be applied as an alternative absorber material for solar cell application.

  20. On the modification to the SNS extracted proton beam to allow for a transmission target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reading, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    The present SNS proton beam line consists of a series of triplets of quadrupoles with an achromatic bend such that the protons are taken from the accelerator ring into Hall 3, down its centre line onto the target. The modification described here has been prompted by the demands of a proposed negative pion bio-medical beam line, and the adaption replaces the last three triplets QT12, QT13 and QT14 (Quadrupoles Q41 to Q49 incl.). It begins at an achromatic waist in the original design, and by the use of three triplets of greater aperture produces a further small waist for a target station before focussing the 'object' produced by this transmission target onto the SNS target. (UK)

  1. Carbon dots decorated vertical SnS_2 nanosheets for efficient photocatalytic oxygen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Fengmei; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Liu, Kaili; Huang, Yun; Jiang, Chao; He, Jun; Liu, Quanlin

    2016-01-01

    Metal sulfides are highly desirable materials for photocatalytic water splitting because of their appropriate energy bands. However, the poor stability under light illumination in water hinders their wide applications. Here, two-dimensional SnS_2 nanosheets, along with carbon dots of the size around 10 nm, are uniformly grown on fluorine doped tin oxide glasses with a layer of nickel nanoparticles. Significantly, strong light absorption and enhanced photocurrent density are achieved after integration of SnS_2 nanosheets with carbon dots. Notably, the rate of oxygen evolution reached up to 1.1 mmol g"−"1 h"−"1 under simulated sunlight irradiation featuring a good stability.

  2. Synthesis of SnS nanoparticles by SILAR method for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukigase, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Berger, Marie-Hélène; Sagawa, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Susumu

    2011-03-01

    SnS-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were applied in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) which are environmentally more favorable than conventional Cd or Pb-chalcogenide-sensitized electrodes. SnS nanoparticles were well-distributed over the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Deposited SnS nanoparticles had diameter about 3 nm. Under AM1.5 irradiation with 100 mW/cm2 light intensity (at 1 sun), the energy conversion efficiency of obtained cells reached a value of 0.21% (0.25 cm2) at SILAR coating cycles of 5. In addition, the photovoltaic performance was improved by additional ZnS coating on the surface of SnS-sensitized TiO2 electrodes.

  3. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI, J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply

  4. Shielding calculations in support of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) proton beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Popova, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Determining the bulk shielding requirements for accelerator environments is generally an easy task compared to analyzing the radiation transport through the complex shield configurations and penetrations typically associated with the detailed Title II design efforts of a facility. Shielding calculations for penetrations in the SNS accelerator environment are presented based on hybrid Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates particle transport methods. This methodology relies on coupling tools that map boundary surface leakage information from the Monte Carlo calculations to boundary sources for one-, two-, and three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations. The paper will briefly introduce the coupling tools for coupling MCNPX to the one-, two-, and three-dimensional discrete ordinates codes in the DOORS code suite. The paper will briefly present typical applications of these tools in the design of complex shield configurations and penetrations in the SNS proton beam transport system

  5. SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, John; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael A; Fischer, John; Hiatt, Tommy; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Preble, Joseph P; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wilson, Katherine; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and d...

  6. The Jefferson Lab Quality Assurance Program for the SNS Superconducting Linac Construction Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph Ozelis

    2003-01-01

    As part of a multi-laboratory collaboration, Jefferson Lab is currently engaged in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of 23 cryomodules for the superconducting linac portion of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As with any large accelerator construction project, it is vitally important that these components be built in a cost effective and timely manner, and that they meet the stringent performance requirements dictated by the project specifications. A comprehensive Quality Assurance (QA) program designed to help accomplish these goals has been implemented as an inherent component of JLab's SNS construction effort. This QA program encompasses the traditional spectrum of component performance, from incoming parts inspection, raw materials testing, through to sub-assembly and finished article performance evaluation

  7. EXPLORING TRANSVERSE BEAM STABILITY IN THE SNS IN THE PRESENCE OF SPACE CHARGE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDOTOV,A.V.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; WEI,J.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; SHISHLO,A.

    2002-06-03

    The highest possible intensity in the machine is typically determined by the onset of coherent beam instabilities. Understanding the contribution of various effects to the damping and growth of such instabilities in the regime of strong space charge is thus of crucial importance. In this paper we explore transverse beam stability by numerical simulations using recently implemented models of transverse impedance and three-dimensional space charge. Results are discussed with application to the SNS accumulators.

  8. Electron-cloud updated simulation results for the PSR, and recent results for the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent simulation results for the main features of the electron cloud in the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and updated results for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos are presented in this paper. A refined model for the secondary emission process including the so called true secondary, rediffused and backscattered electrons has recently been included in the electron-cloud code

  9. Optical Tooling and its Uses at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    CERN Document Server

    Helus, Scott; Error, Joseph; Fazekas, Julius; Maines, James

    2005-01-01

    Optical tooling has been a mainstay of the accelerator alignment community for decades. Even now in the age of electronic survey equipment, optical tooling remains a viable alternative, and at times the only alternative. At SNS, we combine traditional optical tooling alignment methods, instrumentation, and techniques, with the more modern electronic techniques. This paper deals with the integration of optical tooling into the electronic survey world.

  10. Social Network Sites (SNS): do they match ? Definitions and methods for social sciences and marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Stenger, Thomas; Coutant, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Social Networks Sites (SNS) such as Facebook, MySpace, Skyrock.com or Linkedin have become new fields of investigation for marketing. Even though the phenomenon has met with an amazing popular success, only a few scientific works have been published on this subject. This article proposes initially to evaluate the situation by a review of the experts' discourses and, then, a an analysis of the texts in core disciplines specialising in social networks analysis (mainly sociometry, anthropology a...

  11. Structural and chemical transformations in SnS thin films used in chemically deposited photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, David; Delgado, Guadalupe; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Chemically deposited SnS thin films possess p-type electrical conductivity. We report a photovoltaic structure: SnO 2 :F-CdS-SnS-(CuS)-silver print, with V oc > 300 mV and J sc up to 5 mA/cm 2 under 850 W/m 2 tungsten halogen illumination. Here, SnO 2 :F is a commercial spray-CVD (Pilkington TEC-8) coating, and the rest deposited from different chemical baths: CdS (80 nm) at 333 K, SnS (450 nm) and CuS (80 nm) at 293-303 K. The structure may be heated in nitrogen at 573 K, before applying the silver print. The photovoltaic behavior of the structure varies with heating: V oc ∼ 400 mV and J sc 2 , when heated at 423 K in air, but V oc decreases and J sc increases when heated at higher temperatures. These photovoltaic structures have been found to be stable over a period extending over one year by now. The overall cost of materials, simplicity of the deposition process, and possibility of easily varying the parameters to improve the cell characteristics inspire further work. Here we report two different baths for the deposition of SnS thin films of about 500 nm by chemical deposition. There is a considerable difference in the nature of growth, crystalline structure and chemical stability of these films under air-heating at 623-823 K or while heating SnS-CuS layers, evidenced in XRF and grazing incidence angle XRD studies. Heating of SnS-CuS films results in the formation of SnS-Cu x SnS y . 'All-chemically deposited photovoltaic structures' involving these materials are presented

  12. Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others? news, may influence recipients? perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other?s posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. ...

  13. Empirical analysis of internal social media and product innovation: Focusing on SNS and social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Idota, Hiroki; Minetaki, Kazunori; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Recently social media such as Blog and SNS has been introducing by many firms for means of sharing information inside the firm, in particular to promote product and process innovation. This paper attempts to examine the relationship between social media and product innovation, and research questions are summarized as follows: (i) whether social capital influences the use of social media; (ii) whether social media promotes product innovation; and (iii) whether the effect of social media on pro...

  14. Template-free synthesis of novel SnS2 array and its superior performances for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anquan; Qiao, Lulu; Tan, Pengfei; Ma, Yongjin; Liu, Yi; Pan, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A kind of novel three-dimensional SnS2 array was fabricated by an ethylenediamine (EDA) assisting low-temperature solvothermal method. It was observed that as-obtained SnS2 array was composed of numerous SnS2 nanosheets with the thickness of about 22 nm. When used as lithium ion batteries (LIBs) anode, the SnS2 array displayed remarkable capacities on rate and cycling performances, delivering the rates with reversible capacities of 763.3, 658.6, 593.6, 554.4 and 450.3 mAh g-1 at the current densities of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the satisfactory cycling performance was also disclosed, remaining capacity of 547.8 mAh g-1 after 100th cycle at 0.2 A g-1, better than some reported pure SnS2 nanostructures. Based on the characterization and experimental results, the reasons of such superior electrochemical performances were determined and elaborated. It means that the SnS2 array possesses promising potential on the renewable energy field.

  15. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  16. Impact of high temperature and short period annealing on SnS films deposited by E-beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy Minnam; Kang, Jeong-yoon; Jeon, Chan-Wook, E-mail: cwjeon@ynu.ac.kr

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Preparation SnS films using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. • SnS films were annealed at a high temperaure for different short period of times. • The films showed highly oriented (111) planes with orthorhombic crystal structure. • Surface morphology showed bigger and faceted grains embedded in orthorombic. • The TEM confirmed that big orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. - Abstract: Thin films of SnS were deposited on Mo-substrate using electron beam evaporation at room temperature. As-deposited SnS films were annealed at a constant high temperaure of 860 K for different short period of times, 1 min, 3 min, and 5 min. The impact of heat treatment period on the physical properties of SnS films was investigated using appropriate characterization tools. XRD analysis revealed that the films were highly oriented along (111) plane with orthorhombic crystal structure. Surface morphology of as-deposited SnS films showed an identical leaf texture where as the annealed films showed large orthorombic slab shape grains in adidition to the leaf shape grains, which indicates the significance of short period annealing at high temperature. The transmission electron microscopy confirmed that those large orthorombic slabs had single-crystalline nature. The results emphasized that the short period annealing treatment at high temperature stimulated the growth of film towards the single crystallinity.

  17. Low-Temperature Electrical Characteristics of Si-Based Device with New Tetrakis NiPc-SNS Active Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Arzu Büyükyağci; Carbas, Buket Bezgın; Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Soylu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    A new tetrakis 4-(2,5-di-2-thiophen-2-yl-pyrrol-1-yl)-substituted nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc-SNS) has been synthesized. This synthesized NiPc-SNS thin film was deposited on p-type Si substrate using the spin coating method (SCM) to fabricate a NiPc-SNS/ p-Si heterojunction diode. The temperature-dependent electrical characteristics of the NiPc-SNS/ p-Si heterojunction with good rectifying behavior were investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) measurements between 50 K and 300 K. The results indicate that the ideality factor decreases while the barrier height increases with increasing temperature. The barrier inhomogeneity across the NiPc-SNS/ p-Si heterojunction reveals a Gaussian distribution at low temperatures. These results provide further evidence of the more complicated mechanisms occurring in this heterojunction. Based on these findings, NiPc-SNS/ p-Si junction diodes are feasible for use in low-temperature applications.

  18. Moderator poison design and burn-up calculations at the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Ferguson, P.D.; Iverson, E.B.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Popova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The spallation neutron source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was commissioned in April 2006. At the nominal operating power (1.4 MW), it will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of ∼$2 million a piece. A replacement of the inner reflector plug presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are a lot of factors limiting the lifetime of the inner reflector plug, like radiation damage to the structural material and helium production of beryllium, the bottle-neck is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. Increasing the thickness of the poison sheet extends the lifetime but would sacrifice the neutronic performance of the moderators. A compromise is accepted at the current SNS target system which uses thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 6 MW-years of operation. The calculations in this paper reveal that Cd may be a better poison material from the perspective of lifetime and neutronic performance. In replacing Gd, the inner reflector plug could reach a lifetime of 8 MW-years with ∼5% higher peak neutron fluxes at almost no loss of energy resolution

  19. Photocurrent Enhancement by a Rapid Thermal Treatment of Nanodisk-Shaped SnS Photocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kumar, Mohit; Kim, Joondong; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2017-12-21

    Photocathodes made from the earth-abundant, ecofriendly mineral tin monosulfide (SnS) can be promising candidates for p/n-type photoelectrochemical cells because they meet the strict requirements of energy band edges for each individual photoelectrode. Herein we fabricated SnS-based cell that exhibited a prolonged photocurrent for 3 h at -0.3 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in a 0.1 M HCl electrolyte. An enhancement of the cathodic photocurrent from 2 to 6 mA cm -2 is observed through a rapid thermal treatment. Mott-Schottky analysis of SnS samples revealed an anodic shift of 0.7 V in the flat band potential under light illumination. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) analysis indicates that an efficient charge transfer appropriate for solar hydrogen generation occurs at the -0.3 V vs RHE potential. This work shows that SnS is a promising material for photocathode in PEC cells and its performance can be enhanced via simple postannealing.

  20. Tunneling Diode Based on WSe2 /SnS2 Heterostructure Incorporating High Detectivity and Responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Hu, Xiaozong; Zhou, Shasha; Song, Hongyue; Zhang, Qi; Pi, Lejing; Li, Liang; Li, Huiqiao; Lü, Jingtao; Zhai, Tianyou

    2018-02-01

    van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on atomically thin 2D materials have led to a new era in next-generation optoelectronics due to their tailored energy band alignments and ultrathin morphological features, especially in photodetectors. However, these photodetectors often show an inevitable compromise between photodetectivity and photoresponsivity with one high and the other low. Herein, a highly sensitive WSe 2 /SnS 2 photodiode is constructed on BN thin film by exfoliating each material and manually stacking them. The WSe 2 /SnS 2 vdW heterostructure shows ultralow dark currents resulting from the depletion region at the junction and high direct tunneling current when illuminated, which is confirmed by the energy band structures and electrical characteristics fitted with direct tunneling. Thus, the distinctive WSe 2 /SnS 2 vdW heterostructure exhibits both ultrahigh photodetectivity of 1.29 × 10 13 Jones (I ph /I dark ratio of ≈10 6 ) and photoresponsivity of 244 A W -1 at a reverse bias under the illumination of 550 nm light (3.77 mW cm -2 ). © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. An Exploration of Social Networking Sites (SNS) Adoption in Malaysia Using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) And Intrinsic Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Goh Say Leng; Suddin Lada; Mohd Zulkifli Muhammad; Ag Asri Hj Ag Ibrahim; Tamrin Amboala

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore the factors that encourage students to adopt social network sites (SNS) in Malaysia and to use the study’s findings to develop guidelines for SNS providers on how to maximize the rate of adoption. A conceptual model of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and intrinsic motivation is proposed and empirically tested in the context of SNS usage. Structural Equation modelling was used on the survey data from 283 university s...

  2. ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF THE MISFIT-LAYER COMPOUND (SNS)(1.17)NBS2 DEDUCED FROM BAND-STRUCTURE CALCULATIONS AND PHOTOELECTRON-SPECTRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FANG, CM; ETTEMA, ARHF; HAAS, C; WIEGERS, GA; VANLEUKEN, H; DEGROOT, RA

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the misfit-layer compound (SnS)(1.17)NbS2 we carried out an ab initio band-structure calculation of the closely related commensurate compound (SnS)(1.20)NbS2. The band structure is compared with calculations for NbS2 and for hypothetical SnS with

  3. Electronic structure of the misfit-layer compound (SnS)1.17NbS2 deduced from band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C.M.; Ettema, A.R.H.F.; Haas, C.; Wiegers, G.A.; Leuken, H. van; Groot, R.A. de

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the misfit-layer compound (SnS)1.17NbS2 we carried out an ab initio band-structure calculation of the closely related commensurate compound (SnS)1.20NbS2. The band structure is compared with calculations for NbS2 and for hypothetical SnS with

  4. Evaluation of low-frequency operational limit of proposed ITER low-field-side reflectometer waveguide run including miter bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guiding [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Peebles, W. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Doyle, E. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Crocker, N. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Wannberg, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Plasma Science and Technology Inst. (PSTI); Lau, Cornwall H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hanson, Gregory R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doane, John L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The present design concept for the ITER low-field-side reflectometer transmission line (TL) consists of an ~40 m long, 6.35 cm diameter helically corrugated waveguide (WG) together with ten 90° miter bends. This paper presents an evaluation of the TL performance at low frequencies (33-50 GHz) where the predicted HE11 mode ohmic and mode conversion losses start to increase significantly. Quasi-optical techniques were used to form a near Gaussian beam to efficiently couple radiation in this frequency range into the WG. We observed that the output beams from the guide remained linearly polarized with cross-polarization power levels of ~1.5%-3%. The polarization rotation due to the helical corrugations was in the range ~1°-3°. The radiated beam power profiles typically show excellent Gaussian propagation characteristics at distances >20 cm from the final exit aperture. The round trip propagation loss was found to be ~2.5 dB at 50 GHz and ~6.5 dB at 35 GHz, showing an inverse increase with frequency. This was consistent with updated calculations of miter bend and ohmic losses. At low frequencies (33-50 GHz), the mode purity remained very good at the exit of the waveguide, and the losses are perfectly acceptable for operation in ITER. Finally, the primary challenge may come from the future addition of a Gaussian telescope and other filter components within the corrugated guide, which will likely introduce additional perturbations to the beam profile and an increase in mode-conversion loss.

  5. Study of density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas on JFT-2M by microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kouji

    1997-08-01

    We propose the model which can explain the runaway phase. The model takes account of the scattered wave which is caused by the density fluctuation near the cut-off layer. We should take a new approach instead of the conventional phase measurement in order to derive the information of the density fluctuation from the data with the runaway phase. The complex spectrum and the rotary spectrum analyses are useful tools to analyze such data. The density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas is discussed by using this new approach. We have observed that the reduction of the density fluctuation is localized in the edge region where the sheared electric field is produced. The fluctuations in the range of frequency lower than 100 kHz are mainly reduced. Two interesting features have been observed. One is the detection of the coherent mode around 100 kHz in H-mode. This mode appears about 10 ms after L to H transition. The timing corresponds to the formation of a steep density and temperature gradient in the edge region. The other is the enhancement of the fluctuations with the frequency higher than 300 kHz in H-mode in contrast to the reduction of the fluctuations with the frequency lower than 100 kHz. The Doppler shift is observed in the complex auto-power spectrum of the reflected wave when the plasma is actively moved. We have confirmed that the movement of the plasma is appropriately measured by using the low pass filter. The reflectometer can be used to measure the density profile by using a low pass filter even when the runaway phase phenomenon occurs. (author). 150 refs

  6. Laboratory reflectometer for the investigation of optical elements in a wavelength range of 5-50 nm: description and testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakhin, S. A.; Zabrodin, I. G.; Zuev, S. E.; Kas'kov, I. A.; Lopatin, A. Ya.; Nechay, A. N.; Polkovnikov, V. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Tsybin, N. N.; Chkhalo, N. I.; Svechnikov, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a laboratory reflectometer developed at the IPM RAS for precision measurements of spectral and angular dependences of the reflection and transmission coefficients of optical elements in a wavelength range of 5-50 nm. The radiation is monochromatised using a high-resolution Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a plane diffraction grating and two spherical collimating mirrors. A toroidal mirror focuses the probe monochromatic beam on a sample. The X-ray source is a highly ionised plasma produced in the interaction of a high-power laser beam with a solid target at an intensity of 1011-1012 W cm-2. To stabilise the emission characteristics, the target executes translatory and rotary motions in such a way that every pulse irradiates a new spot. The short-focus lens is protected from contamination by erosion products with the use of a specially designed electromagnetic system. The samples under study are mounted on a goniometer is accommodated in a dedicated chamber, which provides five degrees of freedom for samples up to 500 mm in diameter and two degrees of freedom for a detector. The sample mass may range up to 10 kg. The X-ray radiation is recorded with a detector composed of a CsI photocathode and two microchannel plates. A similar detector monitors the probe beam intensity. The spectral reflectometer resolution is equal to 0.030 nm with the use of ruled gratings with a density of 900 lines mm-1 (spectral range: 5-20 nm) and to 0.067 nm for holographic gratings with a density of 400 lines mm-1 (spectral range: 10-50 nm). We analyse the contribution of higher diffraction orders to the probe signal intensity and the ways of taking it into account in the measurements. Examples are given which serve to illustrate the reflectometer application to the study of multilayer mirrors and filters.

  7. Extrinsic pseudocapacitve Li-ion storage of SnS anode via lithiation-induced structural optimization on cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qingwang; Zhou, Gang; Liu, Jiatu; Wu, Chen; Wei, Weifeng; Chen, Libao; Li, Chengchao

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new enhanced extrinsic pseudocapacitve Li-ion storage mechanism via lithiation-induced structural optimization strategy. The flower-like C@SnS and bulk SnS exhibit initial capacity decay and subsequent increase of capacity on cycling. After a long-term lithiation/delithiation process, flower-like C@SnS and bulk SnS exhibit improved rate performance and reversible capacity in comparison with those of initial state. Moreover, a high capacity of 530 mAh g-1 is still remained even after 1550 cycles at a high current density of 5.0 A g-1 for flower-like C@SnS after pre-lithiation of 350 cycles. According to the comprehensive analysis of structural evolution and electrochemical performance, it demonstrates that SnS electrodes experience crystal size reduction and further amorphization on cycling, which enhances the reversibility of conversion reaction for SnS, leading to increasing capacity. On the other hand, surface-dominated extrinsic pseudocapacitive contribution results in enhanced rate performance because electrodes expose a large fraction of Li+ sites on surface or near-surface region with structural optimization on cycling. This study reveals that extrinsic pseudocapacitance of SnS can be stimulated via lithiation-induced structural optimization, which gives rise to high-rate and long-lived performances.

  8. Facile fabrication of Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts with efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaomin; Huang, Guanbo; Gao, Haihuan; Pan, Cheng; Wang, Huan; Yan, Jing; Liu, Yu; Qiu, Haixia; Ma, Ning; Gao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by combining a hydrothermal technique and a facile in situ growth method. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra. Their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by degrading methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. It was found that when the mass percentage of Bi_2S_3 in Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 was 7.95 wt%, the as-prepared Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 nanocomposite showed the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO. The highly improved performance of the Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 nanocomposite was mainly ascribed to the efficient charge separation. - Highlights: • Facile fabrication of novel Bi_2S_3/SnS_2 heterojunction photocatalysts. • High-performance photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants. • Good recyclability of catalyst without photo-corrosion. • The photocatalytic mechanism was proposed.

  9. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited SnS using O{sub 2} plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Martínez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Calixto-Rodríguez, M. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Reyes, P.G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Flores, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, we report modifications of structural and optical, electrical properties that occur in tin sulphide (SnS) treated in O{sub 2} plasma. The SnS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were treated in an O{sub 2} plasma discharge at 3 Torr of pressure discharge, a discharge voltage of 2.5 kV and 20 mA of discharge current. The prepared and treated thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The photoconductivity and electrical effects of SnS have been studied. The SnS thin films had an orthorhombic crystalline structure. With the plasma treatment the optical gap and electrical properties of the SnS films changed from 1.61 to 1.84 eV, for 3.9 × 10{sup 5} to 10.42 Ω cm, respectively. These changes can be attributed to an increase in electron density, percolation effects due to porosity, surface degradation/etching that is an increase in surface roughness, where some structural changes related to crystallinity occurs like a high grain size as revealed by SEM images.

  10. Physical properties of SnS thin films grown by hot wall deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremenok, V.; Ivanov, V.; Bashkirov, S.; Unuchak, D.; Lazenka, V.; Bente, K.; Tashlykov, I.; Turovets, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Recently, considerable effort has been invested to gain a better and deeper knowledge of structural and physical properties of metal chalcogenide semiconductors because of their potential application in electrical and photonic devices. Among them, tin sulphide (SnS) has attracted attention because of band gap of 1.3 eV and an absorption coefficient greater than 10 4 cm - 1. Additionally, by using tin sulfide compounds for photovoltaic devices, the production costs are decreased, because these materials are cheap and abundant in nature. For the sythesis of SnS thin films by hot wall deposition, SnS ingots were used as the source materials synthesized from high purity elements (99.999 percent). The thin films were grown onto glass at substrate temperatures between 220 and 380 degrees Celsium. The thickness of the films was in the range of 1.0 - 2.5 μm. The crystal structure and crystalline phases of the materials were studied by XRD using a Siemens D-5000 diffractometer with CuK α (λ = 1.5418 A) radiation. In order to consider instrumental error, the samples were coated by Si powder suspended in acetone. The composition and surface morphology of thin films were investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a CAMECA SX-100, a scanning electron microscope JEOL 6400 and an atomic force microscope (AFM, Model: NT 206), respectively. Depth profiling was performed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) using a Perkin Elmer Physical Electronics 590. The electrical resistivity was studied by van der Pauw four-probe technique using silver paste contact. The optical transmittance was carried out using a Varian Cary 50 UV - VIS spectrophotometer in the range 500 - 2000 nm. The as-grown films exhibited a composition with a Sn/S at. percent ratio of 1.06. The AES depth profiles revealed relatively uniform composition through the film thickness. The XRD analysis of the SnS films showed that they were monophase (JCPDS 39-0354), polycrystalline with

  11. Effect of a magnetic field on the excess resistance of SNS sandwiches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvenov, G.Y.; Ryazanov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The contribution of superconducting plates to the resistance of Ta--Cu--Ta sandwiches in the presence of a magnetic field of up to 170 Ge is investigated. Near the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/H, the Ta used was in a mixed (vortical) state. It is shown that the presence of gradients of the order parameter near the Abrikosov vortices appreciably changes the penetration depth of a longitudinal electric field into the superconductor and leads to a corresponding change in the excess resistance of SNS sandwiches

  12. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  13. Effect of thickness on electrical properties of SILAR deposited SnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Astam, Aykut; Cerhan, Asena; ćayir, Tuba

    2016-03-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films of different thickness were prepared on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature using tin (II) chloride and sodium sulfide aqueous solutions. The thicknesses of the films were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and found to be 47.2, 65.8, 111.0, and 128.7nm for 20, 25, 30 and 35 deposition cycles respectively. The electrical properties of the films were investigated using d.c. two-point probe method at room temperature and the results showed that the resistivity was found to decrease with increasing film thickness.

  14. Analysis of the Qualification-Tests Performance of the Superconducting Cavities for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Delayen, J R; Ozelis, O

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This consists of 11 medium-beta (β=0.61) cyomodules of 3 cavities each, and 12 high-beta (β=0.81) cryomodules of 4 cavities each. Before assembly into cavity strings the cavities undergo individual qualification tests in a vertical cryostat (VTA). In this paper we analyze the performance of the cavities during these qualification tests, and attempt to correlate this performance with cleaning, assembly, and testing procedures. We also compare VTA performance with performance in completed cryomodules.

  15. Possible use of the SNS synchrotron for feasibility tests on aspects of heavy ion fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planner, C.W.; Rees, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    There remain a large number of theoretical and practical problems to be solved before a complete accelerator-driver system prototype and a target chamber prototype may be built with any confidence to allow an assessment to be made of the practicality of heavy ion fusion power plants. Two accelerator-driver systems remain under serious consideration for 1 - 10 MJ systems of ion kinetic energies approximately 10 GeV, namely, the induction linac and the storage ring systems. The possible use of the SNS synchrotron for comparative studies of these alternative accelerator-driver systems is discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Nanodiamond Foils for H- Stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL; Harris, Gary [Howard University; Piazza, Fabrice [Pontifica Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, Dominican Republic

    2013-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a single nanodiamond foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the entire operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control over film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development

  17. Electric field effect on the critical current of SNS-contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmanov, A.L.; Rozhkov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field effect on the SNS-contact critical current is investigated in the Ginzburg-Landau theory approximation. It is shown that the electric field may cause a notable increase of the contact critical current especially if the sample temperature is close to the temperature of a superconducting transition of T sc normal layer. Electric field effect is increased with the reduction of film thickness, but it can strong enough for thick films as well at temperature close to T sc . 11 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Fabrication of SnS thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Tin sulfide films of 0.20 µm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were well covered and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films and provided information on the crystallite size and residual strain of the thin films. FESEM revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component. High absorption in the visible region was evident from UV–Vis transmission spectra. PL studies were carried out with 550 nm photon excitation. To the best of our knowledge, however, no attempt has been made to fabricate a SnS thin film using the SILAR technique

  19. Development of a fast sweep heterodyne microwave reflectometer; Developpement d`un reflectometre micro-onde heterodyne a balayage ultra rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Ph [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-01

    The density profile of fusion plasmas can be investigated by the reflectometry diagnostic. The measurement principle is based on the radar techniques which calculate the phase shift of a millimeter wave propagating into the plasma and reflected at a cut-off layer. We have tried to describe the density fluctuation effects upon detected signal to understand the disturbing mechanisms which prevent, sometime, the measurement of the phase. First, we have tried to understand the mechanisms and the origin of the turbulence which is responsible for phase disturbance. We point out the role of collisionality {nu}{sup *} and plasma radiation (with the Hugill normalised parameter H) which control the instability. We also demonstrate that the phase delay of the probing wave is very sensitive to the plasma MHD phenomena and is less affected by the micro-turbulence. The second part of this work is the development and the use of a new heterodyne reflectometer. This new diagnostic uses O-mode beam polarisation and works on the 26-36 GHz frequency range. It launches simultaneously into the plasma two frequencies separated by 320 MHz and we can study them separately or with the amplitude modulation technique. It possesses a better sensitivity than the previous homodyne reflectometer and a higher frequency agility. Its heterodyne detection allows us to separate phase and amplitude informations from the detected signal. (author) 93 refs.

  20. Hierarchical Graphene-Encapsulated Hollow SnO2@SnS2 Nanostructures with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wangwang; Xie, Zhiqiang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Dietrich, Grant; Dooley, Kerry M; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-14

    Complex hierarchical structures have received tremendous attention due to their superior properties over their constitute components. In this study, hierarchical graphene-encapsulated hollow SnO2@SnS2 nanostructures are successfully prepared by in situ sulfuration on the backbones of hollow SnO2 spheres via a simple hydrothermal method followed by a solvothermal surface modification. The as-prepared hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposite can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting excellent cyclability with a capacity of 583 mAh/g after 100 electrochemical cycles at a specific current of 200 mA/g. This material shows a very low capacity fading of only 0.273% per cycle from the second to the 100th cycle, lower than the capacity degradation of bare SnO2 hollow spheres (0.830%) and single SnS2 nanosheets (0.393%). Even after being cycled at a range of specific currents varied from 100 mA/g to 2000 mA/g, hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites maintain a reversible capacity of 664 mAh/g, which is much higher than single SnS2 nanosheets (374 mAh/g) and bare SnO2 hollow spheres (177 mAh/g). Such significantly improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique hierarchical hollow structure, which not only effectively alleviates the stress resulting from the lithiation/delithiation process and maintaining structural stability during cycling but also reduces aggregation and facilitates ion transport. This work thus demonstrates the great potential of hierarchical SnO2@SnS2@rGO nanocomposites for applications as a high-performance anode material in next-generation lithium ion battery technology.

  1. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  2. Electronic structure of the misfit layer compound (SnS)(1.20)TiS2 : Band structure calculations and photoelectron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, CM; deGroot, RA; Wiegers, GA; Haas, C

    1996-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the incommensurate misfit layer compound (SnS)(1.20)TiS2 we carried out an ab initio band structure calculation in the supercell approximation. The band structure is compared with that of the components 1T-TiS2 and hypothetical SnS with a similar

  3. Electronic structure of the misfit layer compound (SnS)1.20TiS2 : band structure calculations and photoelectron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, C.M.; Groot, R.A. de; Wiegers, G.A.; Haas, C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to understand the electronic structure of the incommensurate misfit layer compound (SnS)1.20TiS2 we carried out an ab initio band structure calculation in the supercell approximation. The band structure is compared with that of the components 1T-TiS2 and hypothetical SnS with a similar

  4. Comparative study of SnS recrystallization in molten CdI{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}and KI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmo, Kristi; Kauk-Kuusik, Marit; Pilvet, Maris; Mikli, Valdek; Kaerber, Erki; Raadik, Taavi; Leinemann, Inga; Altosaar, Mare; Raudoja, Jaan [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-01-15

    In the present study, the recrystallization of polycrystalline SnS in different molten salts CdI{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2} and KI as flux materials are presented. The recrystallization and growth of polycrystalline material in molten salts produces unique SnS monograin powders usable in monograin layer solar cells. XRD and Raman analysis revealed that single phase SnS powder can be obtained in KI at 740 C and in SnCl{sub 2} at 500 C. Long time heating of SnS in molten CdI{sub 2} was accompanied by chemical interaction between SnS and CdI{sub 2} that resulted in a mixture of CdS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} crystals. SEM images showed that morphology of crystals can be controlled by the nature of the flux materials: needle-like Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} together with round edged crystals of CdS in CdI{sub 2}, flat crystals of SnS with smooth surfaces in SnCl{sub 2} and well-formed SnS crystals with rounded edges in KI had been formed. The temperatures of phase transitions and/or the interactions of SnS and flux materials were determined by differential thermal analysis. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Overcoming the efficiency limitations of SnS2 nanoparticle-based bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam Nguyen Truong, Nguyen; Kieu Trinh, Thanh; Thanh Hau Pham, Viet; Smith, Ryan P.; Park, Chinho

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the effects of heat treatment, the electron transport layer, and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporation on the performance of hybrid bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells composed of tin disulfide (SnS2) nanoparticles (NPs) and low band gap energy polymers poly[2,6-(4,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b3,4-b‧]dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) or poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}) (PBT7). Inserting an electron transport layer (ETL) (i.e., ZnO) on the top of the photoactive layer improved the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, which led to an improvement in charge transport. Moreover, adding a suitable amount of PCBM to the SnS2/polymer active layer enhanced the device performance, such as short circuit current density (J sc) and power conversion efficiency (PCE). In particular, adding 0.5 mg of PCBM to the composite solution led to a 25% and 1.5% improvement in the J sc value and PCE, respectively. The enhanced performance was due mainly to the improvements in the surface morphology of the photoactive layer, charge carrier mobility within the donor-acceptor interface, and carrier collection efficiency at the cathode.

  6. Teacher-student Relationship and SNS-mediated Communication: Perceptions of both role-players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnon Hershkovitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher-student relationships are vital for academic and social development of students, for teachers’ professional and personal development, and for having a supportive learning environment. In the digital age, these relationships can extend beyond bricks and mortar and beyond school hours. Specifically, these relationships are extended today while teachers and students communicate via social networking sites (SNS. This paper characterizes differences between teachers (N=160 and students (N=587 who are willing to connect with their students/teachers via Facebook and those who do not wish to connect. The quantitative research reported here within is based on data collection of personal characteristics, attitudes towards Facebook, and perceptions of teacher-student relationship. Findings suggest differences in characteristics of the two groups (willing to connect vs. not willing to connect within both populations (teachers and students. Also, in both populations, those who were willing to connect, compared to those who were not willing to connect, present more positive attitudes towards using Facebook for teaching/learning and are more opposed to a banning policy of student-teacher SNS-based communication. We also found that students who were willing to connect showed a greater degree of closeness with their teachers compared to those who were not willing to connect. This study may assist policymakers when setting up regulations regarding teacher-student communication via social networking sites.

  7. Social networking sites (SNS) as a tool for midwives to enhance social capital for adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Williamson, Moira; Ferguson, Sally

    2018-07-01

    to explore ways in which midwives can enhance the support provided by social networking sites for adolescent mothers. a narrative approach was employed to guide the research design and processes. Approval was obtained from Edith Cowan University human ethics department. focus groups and interviews were undertaken with adolescent mothers and midwives in Western Australia. the four key themes identified across both groups were validation by midwives, importance of ownership, enhanced community connections and the importance of guideline development. findings suggest both mothers and midwives consider there are a variety of ways in which healthcare professionals could enhance the support afforded to adolescent mothers by their use of SNS. Midwives were more likely to consider the need for guideline development, but the underlying value of accessible, professionally mediated online support and information was consistent across the two groups. Midwives would benefit from acknowledging the role played by SNS in providing support to adolescent mothers and by considering ways in which this technology can be used to lend further support to this group of mothers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A low-temperature sample orienting device for single crystal spectroscopy at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherline, T E; Solomon, L; Roberts, C K II; Bruce, D; Gaulin, B; Granroth, G E, E-mail: sherlinete@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    A low temperature sample orientation device providing three axes of rotation has been successfully built and is in testing for use on several spectrometers at the spallation neutron source (SNS). Sample rotation about the vertical ({omega}) axis of nearly 360 deg. and out of plane tilts ({phi} and v) of from -3.4 deg. to 4.4 deg. and from -2.8 deg. to 3.5 deg., respectively, are possible. An off-the-shelf closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) is mounted on a room temperature sealed rotary flange providing {omega} rotations of the sample. Out-of-plane tilts are made possible by piezoelectric actuated angular positioning devices mounted on the low temperature head of the CCR. Novel encoding devices based on magnetoresistive sensors have been developed to measure the tilt stage angles. This combination facilitates single crystal investigations from room temperature to 3.1 K. Commissioning experiments of the rotating CCR for both powder and single crystal samples have been performed on the ARCS spectrometer at the SNS. For the powder sample this device was used to continuously rotate the sample and thus average out any partial orientation of the powder. The powder rings observed in S(Q) are presented. For the single crystal sample, the rotation was used to probe different regions of momentum transfer (Q-space). Laue patterns obtained from a single crystal sample at two rotation angles are presented.

  9. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches

  10. Layered SnS sodium ion battery anodes synthesized near room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2017-08-10

    In this report, we demonstrate a simple chemical bath deposition approach for the synthesis of layered SnS nanosheets (typically 6 nm or ~10 layers thick) at very low temperature (40 °C). We successfully synthesized SnS/C hybrid electrodes using a solution-based carbon precursor coating with subsequent carbonization strategy. Our data showed that the ultrathin carbon shell was critical to the cycling stability of the SnS electrodes. As a result, the as-prepared binder-free SnS/C electrodes showed excellent performance as sodium ion battery anodes. Specifically, the SnS/C anodes delivered a reversible capacity as high as 792 mAh·g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA·g−1. They also had superior rate capability (431 mAh·g−1 at 3,000 mA·g−1) and stable long-term cycling performance under a high current density (345 mAh·g−1 after 500 cycles at 3 A·g−1). Our approach opens up a new route to synthesize SnS-based hybrid materials at low temperatures for energy storage and other applications. Our process will be particularly useful for chalcogenide matrix materials that are sensitive to high temperatures during solution synthesis.

  11. Electronic and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayer doped with 4d transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Xiao, Gang; Rong, Qing-Yan; Chen, Qiao; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and magnetic properties of SnS2 monolayers substitutionally doped with 4-d transition-metal through systematic first principles calculations. The doped complexes exhibit interesting electronic and magnetic behaviors, depending on the interplay between crystal field splitting, Hund's rule, and 4d levels. The system doped with Y is nonmagnetic metal. Both the Zr- and Pd-doped systems remain nonmagnetic semiconductors. Doping results in half-metallic states for Nb-, Ru-, Rh-, Ag, and Cd doped cases, and magnetic semiconductors for systems with Mo and Tc dopants. In particular, the Nb- and Mo-doped systems display long-ranged ferromagnetic ordering with Curie temperature above room temperature, which are primarily attributable to the double-exchange mechanism, and the p-d/p-p hybridizations, respectively. Moreover, The Mo-doped system has excellent energetic stability and flexible mechanical stability, and also possesses remarkable dynamic and thermal (500 K) stability. Our studies demonstrate that Nb- and Mo-doped SnS2 monolayers are promising candidates for preparing 2D diluted magnetic semiconductors, and hence will be a helpful clue for experimentalists.

  12. SNS 2.1K Cold Box Turn-down Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Casagrande; P.A. Gurd; D.R. Hatfield; M.P. Howell; W.H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; V. Ganni; P. Knudsen

    2006-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is nearing completion. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The 2.1K cold box consists of four stages of centrifugal compressors with LN2-cooled variable speed electric motors and magnetic bearings. The cryogenic system successfully supported the Linac beam commissioning at both 4.2K and 2.1K and has been fully operational since June 2005. This paper describes the control principles utilized and the experimental results obtained for the SNS cold compressors turn-down capability to about 30% of the design flow, and possible limitation of the frequency dependent power factor of the cold compressor electric motors, which was measured for the first time during commissioning. These results helped to support the operation of the Linac over a very broad and stable cold compressor operating flow range (refrigeration capacity) and pressure. This in turn helped to optimize the cryogenic system operating parameters, minimizing the utilities and improving the system reliability and availability

  13. The formation of α-phase SnS nanorods by PVP assisted polyol synthesis: Phase stability, micro structure, thermal stability and defects induced energy band transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baby, Benjamin Hudson; Mohan, D. Bharathi, E-mail: d.bharathimohan@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    We report the formation of single phase of SnS nanostructure through PVP assisted polyol synthesis by varying the source concentration ratio (Sn:S) from 1:1M to 1:12M. The effect of PVP concentration and reaction medium towards the preparation of SnS nanostructure is systematically studied through confocal Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis–NIR absorption and fluorescence spectrophotometers. The surface morphology of SnS nanostructure changes from nanorods to spherical shape with increasing PVP concentration from 0.15M to 0.5M. Raman analysis corroborates that Raman active modes of different phases of Sn-S are highly active when Raman excitation energy is slightly greater than the energy band gap of the material. The presence of intrinsic defects and large number of grain boundaries resulted in an improved thermal stability of 20 °C during the phase transition of α-SnS. Band gap calculation from tauc plot showed the direct band gap of 1.5 eV which is attributed to the single phase of SnS, could directly meet the requirement of an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. Finally, we proposed an energy band diagram for as synthesized single phase SnS nanostructure based on the experimental results obtained from optical studies showing the energy transitions attributed to band edge transition and also due to the presence of intrinsic defects. - Highlights: • PVP stabilizes the orthorhombic (α) phase of SnS. • Optical band gap of P type SnS tuned by PVP for photovoltaic applications. • The formation of Sn rich SnS phase is investigated through XPS analysis. • Intrinsic defects enhance the thermal stability of α-SnS. • The feasibility of energy transition liable to point defects is discussed.

  14. Enhanced photodegradation activity of methyl orange over Ag2CrO4/SnS2 composites under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jin; Zhou, Xiaosong; Ma, Lin; Xu, Xuyao; Wu, Jingxia; Liang, Huiping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel visible-light-driven Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 composites are synthesized. • Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than pure Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 . • Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 exhibits excellent stability for the photodegradation of MO. • The possible photocatalytic mechanism was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Novel Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 composites were prepared by a simple chemical precipitation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The visible light photocatalytic tests showed that the Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 composites enhanced photocatalytic activities for the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm), and the optimum rate constant of Ag 2 CrO 4 /SnS 2 at a weight content of 1.0% Ag 2 CrO 4 for the degradation of MO was 2.2 and 1.5 times larger than that of pure Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 , respectively. The improved activity could be attributed to high separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons-hole pairs on the interface of Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 , which arised from the synergistic effect between Ag 2 CrO 4 and SnS 2 . Moreover, the possible photocatalytic mechanism with superoxide radical anions and holes species as the main reactive species in photocatalysis process was proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  15. Integrated optics reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Philip R; Murphy, Kent A.; Gunther, Michael F; Gause, Charles B

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus includes a laser source configured to output laser light at a target frequency, and a measurement unit configured to measure a deviation between an actual frequency outputted by the laser source at a current period of time and the target frequency of the laser source. The apparatus includes a feedback control unit configured to, based on the measured deviation between the actual and target frequencies, control the laser source to maintain a constant frequency of laser output from the laser source so that the frequency of laser light transmitted from the laser source is adjusted to the target frequency. The feedback control unit can control the laser source to maintain a linear rate of change in the frequency of its laser light output, and compensate for characteristics of the measurement unit utilized for frequency measurement. A method is provided for performing the feedback control of the laser source.

  16. Vacuum-ultraviolet reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Baffle, three-blade chopper, and split spherical mirror transmit alternating dual beam into integrating sphere. Alternating reference and sample beams are detected by high gain photomultiplier and modified logarithmic ratiometer. Device is useful in fusion research, high power laser work, and spectrometer or monochromator construction.

  17. Influence of substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of hot wall deposited SnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkirov, S.A.; Gremenok, V.F.; Ivanov, V.A.; Shevtsova, V.V.; Gladyshev, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Tin monosulfide SnS raises an interest as a promising material for photovoltaics. The influence of the substrate material on the microstructure and optical properties of SnS thin films with [111] texture obtained by hot wall vacuum deposition on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide substrates is reported. The lattice parameters for layers grown on different substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction and their deviations from the data reported in the literature for single α-SnS crystals were discussed. The change in the degree of preferred orientation of the films depending on the substrate material is observed. The direct nature of the optical transitions with the optical band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV is reported. - Highlights: • SnS thin films were hot wall deposited on glass, molybdenum and indium tin oxide. • Physical properties of the films were studied with respect to the substrate type. • The SnS lattice parameter deviations were observed and the explanation was given. • The direct optical transitions with the band gap of 1.15 ± 0.01 eV were observed

  18. A facile inexpensive route for SnS thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedi, Sreedevi [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Minna Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy, E-mail: drmvasudr9@gmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Pejjai, Babu [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Jeon, Chan-Wook [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chinho, E-mail: chpark@ynu.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 280Daehak-ro, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Ramakrishna Reddy, K.T., E-mail: ktrkreddy@gmail.com [Solar Photovoltaic Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswasra University, Tirupati 517 502 (India)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: PYS spectra of SnS/SnS{sub 2} interface and the related band diagram. - Highlights: • A low cost SnS solar cell is developed using chemical bath deposition. • We found E{sub I} & χ of SnS (5.3 eV & 4.0 eV) and SnS{sub 2} (6.9 eV & 4.1 eV) films from PYS. • Band offsets of 0.1 eV (E{sub c}) and 1.6 eV (E{sub v}) are estimated for SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction. • SnS based solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 0.51%. - Abstract: Environment-friendly SnS based thin film solar cells with SnS{sub 2} as buffer layer were successfully fabricated from a facile inexpensive route, chemical bath deposition (CBD). Layer studies revealed that as-grown SnS and SnS{sub 2} films were polycrystalline; (1 1 1)/(0 0 1) peaks as the preferred orientation; 1.3 eV/2.8 eV as optical band gaps; and showed homogeneous microstructure with densely packed grains respectively. Ionization energy and electron affinity values were found by applying photoemission yield spectroscopy (PYS) to the CBD deposited SnS and SnS{sub 2} films for the first time. These values obtained as 5.3 eV and 4.0 eV for SnS films; 6.9 eV and 4.1 eV for SnS{sub 2} films. The band alignment of SnS/SnS{sub 2} junction showed TYPE-II heterostructure. The estimated conduction and valance band offsets were 0.1 eV and 1.6 eV respectively. The current density–voltage (J–V) measurements of the cell showed open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.12 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 10.87 mA cm{sup −2}, fill factor (FF) of 39% and conversion efficiency of 0.51%.

  19. SnS absorber thin films by co-evaporation: Optimization of the growth rate and influence of the annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, Víctor, E-mail: victor.robles@ciemat.es; Trigo, Juan Francisco; Guillén, Cecilia; Herrero, José

    2015-05-01

    Tin sulfide thin films were prepared by co-evaporation on soda-lime glass substrates, for use as absorber layers. The synthesis was carried out at 350 °C substrate temperature and varying the growth rate in the 2-6 Å/s range, adjusting the deposition time in order to obtain thicknesses in the 700-1500 nm range. After evaporation, the samples were heated at 400 °C and 500 °C under various atmospheres. The evolution of the morphological, structural and optical properties has been analyzed as a function of the thickness and deposition rate, before and after annealing. For the samples grown at the lowest rate, SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase mixing has been observed by X-ray diffraction. Samples with reduced thickness preferably crystallize in the SnS phase, whereas thicker layers become richer in the Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase. The sulfur treatment of samples prepared at the lowest rate results in the formation of SnS{sub 2} phase. Otherwise, the samples obtained at the highest rates show single-phase SnS after heating at 400 °C in sulfur atmosphere, with gap energy values around 1.24 eV. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide thin films were deposited by co-evaporation at different growth rates. • The influence of the growth rate and post-annealing at different conditions was studied. • The SnS phase was obtained by optimizing the growth rate and the annealing process. • The SnS phase presented properties for use as absorber layer.

  20. THE METHODS OF PRODUCING AND ANALYZING POLARIZED NEUTRON BEAMS FOR HYSPEC AT THE SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAPIRO, S.M.; PASSELL, L.; ZALIZNYAK, A.; GHOSH, V.J.; LEONHARDT, W.L.; HAGEN, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Hybrid Spectrometer (HYSPEC), under construction at the SNS on beam line 14B, is the only inelastic scattering instrument designed to enable polarization of the incident and the scattered neutron beams. A Heusler monochromator will replace the graphite crystal for producing polarized neutrons. In the scattered beam it is planned to use a collimator--multi-channel supermirror bender array to analyze the polarization of the scattered beam over the final energy range from 5-20 meV. Other methods of polarization analysis under consideration such as transmission filters using He 3 , Sm, and polarized protons are considered. Their performance is estimated and a comparison of the various methods of polarization is made

  1. Spray pyrolyzed Cu2SnS3 thin films for photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Biren; Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Pati, Ranjan K.; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit; Ray, Abhijit

    2018-05-01

    We report the fabrication of Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films by a non-vacuum and low cost spray pyrolysis technique. Annealing of the as-deposited film in the sulphur atmosphere produces highly stoichiometric, granular and crystalline CTS phase. The CTS thin films shows direct optical band gap of 1.58 eV with high absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1. Hall measurement shows the carrier concentration of the order of 1021 cm-3 and a favourable resistivity of 10-3 Ω cm. A solar cell architecture of Glass/FTO/CTS/CdS/Al:ZnO/Al was fabricated and its current-voltage characteristic shows an open circuit voltage, short circuit current density and fill-factor of 12.6 mV, 20.2 µA/cm2 and 26% respectively. A further improvement in the solar cell parameters is underway.

  2. Neutronic Design Calculations on Moderators for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will provide an intense source of neutrons for a large variety of experiments. It consists of a high-energy (1-GeV) and high-power (∼1-MW) proton accelerator, an accumulator ring, together with a target station and an experimental area. In the target itself, the proton beam will produce neutrons via the spallation process and these will be converted to low-energy ( 2 O moderators. Extensive engineering design work has been conducted on the moderator vessels. For our studies we have produced realistic neutronic representations of these moderators. We report on neutronic studies conducted on these representations of the moderators using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

  3. Neutron scattering for studies of soft matter at SNS and HFIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    In this talk, we will present an overview of the scientific program of the Structure and Dynamics of Soft Matter Group, in the Biology and Soft Matter Division of the Neutron Sciences Directorate. From the broader area of soft materials research, the group members have chosen four main areas of scientific focus including: Confinement and Low-Dimensional Systems, Structure and Dynamics of Colloids, Nanoparticle-Polymer Composites, Transport in Membranes, and New Neutron Techniques for soft matter science. We will present several examples of neutron scattering experimental studies in each of these areas highlighting the experimental and theoretical (or modeling) capabilities of the group at both HFIR and SNS. Example topics to be discussed include SANS, reflectometry, and/or quasielastic studies of membranes on patterned interfaces, dynamics and structure of soft colloidal materials (including both polymeric dendrimers and biomimetic materials), gas confinement in mesoporous structures, transport in polyelectrolyte thin films, and development of spin-echo SANS concepts. (author)

  4. Andreev reflexion studies on planar hybrid SNS-junctions based on 122-thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Sebastian; Schmidt, Stefan; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Kurth, Fritz; Iida, Kazumasa; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the properties of iron-based superconductors, we prepared hybrid junctions in thin film technique. Therefore two geometries were prepared, a planar SNS-junction and an edge junction. The base electrode was made of Ba(Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}){sub 2}As{sub 2} thin films, a sputtered gold layer acts as normal barrier for the planar junction and for the counter electrode we used the conventional superconductor lead. We measured the electrical properties of each electrode, as well as the junctions itself. To obtain information about the order parameter symmetry, we show the differential conductance and compare with different variations of an extended BTK-model. We show differences and commonalities between the results of both junction geometries.

  5. Recent Performance of and Plasma Outage Studies with the SNS H- Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    SNS ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised RFQ, which requires higher RF power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H- beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ~55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ~90% of the continuous ~300W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly-detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 also increased the H- beam current to ~55 mA, and increased the transmission by ~7%.

  6. A Time Domain Reflectometer with 100 ps precision implemented in a cost-effective FPGA for the test of the KLOE-2 Inner Tracker readout anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Czerwinski, E. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Erriquez, O. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fanizzi, G., E-mail: Giampiero.Fanizzi@ba.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Bari, Bari (Italy); Felici, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Liuzzi, R.; Loddo, F.; Mongelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [INFN gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A.; Valentino, V. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy)

    2013-01-11

    A Time Domain Reflectometer implemented in a single cost-effective Field Programmable Gate Array device is shown to achieve a precision around 100 ps. The Time to Digital Converter section of the device is based on a tapped delay line followed by an encoder and shows both Differential and Integral Non-Linearity below one least significant bit. The same Field Programmable Gate Array houses an 8051 8-bits microprocessor, for the control of the pulse signals generation, the acquisition and the first treatment of raw data. Principles of operation, architecture, performance and preliminary trials on the prototype are presented in this paper. As an example of possible application, the proposed circuit has been usefully used to perform the quality control of the micro-strip anodic planes of the Gas Electron Multiplier Inner Tracker of the KLOE-2 experiment.

  7. Thermally evaporated thin films of SnS for application in solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Robert W.; Ogah, Ogah E.; Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian

    2009-01-01

    SnS (tin sulphide) is of interest for use as an absorber layer and the wider energy bandgap phases e.g. SnS 2 , Sn 2 S 3 and Sn/S/O alloys of interest as Cd-free buffer layers for use in thin film solar cells. In this work thin films of tin sulphide have been thermally evaporated onto glass and SnO 2 :coated glass substrates with the aim of optimising the properties of the material for use in photovoltaic solar cell device structures. In particular the effects of source temperature, substrate temperature, deposition rate and film thickness on the chemical and physical properties of the layers were investigated. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis was used to determine the film composition, X-ray diffraction to determine the phases present and structure of each phase, transmittance and reflectance versus wavelength measurements to determine the energy bandgap and scanning electron microscopy to observe the surface topology and topography and the properties correlated to the deposition parameters. Using the optimised conditions it is possible to produce thin films of tin sulphide that are pinhole free, conformal to the substrate and that consist of densely packed columnar grains. The composition, phases present and the optical properties of the layers deposited were found to be highly sensitive to the deposition conditions. Energy bandgaps in the range 1.55 eV-1.7 eV were obtained for a film thickness of 0.8 μm, and increasing the film thickness to > 1 μm resulted in a reduction of the energy bandgap to less than 1.55 eV. The applicability of using these films in photovoltaic solar cell device structures is also discussed.

  8. Effects and Correction of Closed Orbit Magnet Errors in the SNS Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, S.C.; Holmes, J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the effect and correction of three types of orbit errors in SNS: quadrupole displacement errors, dipole displacement errors, and dipole field errors. Using the ORBIT beam dynamics code, we focus on orbit deflection of a standard pencil beam and on beam losses in a high intensity injection simulation. We study the correction of these orbit errors using the proposed system of 88 (44 horizontal and 44 vertical) ring beam position monitors (BPMs) and 52 (24 horizontal and 28 vertical) dipole corrector magnets. Correction is carried out numerically by adjusting the kick strengths of the dipole corrector magnets to minimize the sum of the squares of the BPM signals for the pencil beam. In addition to using the exact BPM signals as input to the correction algorithm, we also consider the effect of random BPM signal errors. For all three types of error and for perturbations of individual magnets, the correction algorithm always chooses the three-bump method to localize the orbit displacement to the region between the magnet and its adjacent correctors. The values of the BPM signals resulting from specified settings of the dipole corrector kick strengths can be used to set up the orbit response matrix, which can then be applied to the correction in the limit that the signals from the separate errors add linearly. When high intensity calculations are carried out to study beam losses, it is seen that the SNS orbit correction system, even with BPM uncertainties, is sufficient to correct losses to less than 10-4 in nearly all cases, even those for which uncorrected losses constitute a large portion of the beam.

  9. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  10. Utilization of Monte Carlo Calculations in Radiation Transport Analyses to Support the Design of the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has given the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project approval to begin Title I design of the proposed facility to be built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and construction is scheduled to commence in FY01 . The SNS initially will consist of an accelerator system capable of delivering an ∼0.5 microsecond pulse of 1 GeV protons, at a 60 Hz frequency, with 1 MW of beam power, into a single target station. The SNS will eventually be upgraded to a 2 MW facility with two target stations (a 60 Hz station and a 10 Hz station). The radiation transport analysis, which includes the neutronic, shielding, activation, and safety analyses, is critical to the design of an intense high-energy accelerator facility like the proposed SNS, and the Monte Carlo method is the cornerstone of the radiation transport analyses

  11. A Cross-cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eSoon Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one’s experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105, South Korea (n = 113, and China (n = 87. The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts’ profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users’ profiles and contact with friends’ profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts’ profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Malaysia (n = 105), South Korea (n = 113), and China (n = 87). The study explored specific social and interpersonal behaviors on SNS, such as browsing the contacts' profiles, checking for updates, and improving contact with SNS contacts, as well as the intensity of SNS use, hypothesizing that those with high intensity of use in the Asian context may be doing so to achieve the social goal of maintaining contact and keeping updated with friends. Two scales measuring activities on other users' profiles and contact with friends' profiles were developed and validated. As predicted, some cross-cultural differences were found. Koreans were more likely to use SNS to increase contact but tended to spend less time browsing contacts' profiles than the Malaysians and Chinese. The intensity of SNS use differed between the countries as well, where Malaysians reported higher intensity than Koreans and Chinese. Consistent with study predictions, Koreans were found with the highest Autonomous-Related self-construal scores. The Autonomous-Related self-construal predicted SNS intensity. The findings suggest that cultural contexts, along with the way the self is construed in different cultures, may encourage different types of SNS usage. The authors discuss study implications and suggest future research directions. PMID:27148100

  14. Impact of additional sulphur on structure, morphology and optical properties of SnS thin films by thermal evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banotra, Arun; Padha, Naresh; Kumar, Shiv; Kapoor, Ashok K.

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of SnS have been obtained from Sn and S powders which were mixed up using ball mill technique with and without evaporating additional sulphur prior to annealing at 523K. The obtained samples were taken for structural, optical, chemical and morphological studies. The X-ray diffraction reveals the formation of SnS phase on annealing in vacuum having S/Sn ratio of 0.67 obtained from EDAX. This deficit in `S' is removed by supplementing additional `S' of 200nm prior to annealing which results in the S/Sn ratio of 1.01. The optical transmission recorded from spectrophotometer used to study different optical parameters. Morphological results corroborate well with the XRD, EDAX and optical study. The obtained stoichiometric films were also tested for Ag/p-SnS Schottky diodes on In coated glass substrates using current voltage measurements.

  15. Direct fabrication of a W-C SNS Josephson junction using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jun; Kometani, Reo; Ishihara, Sunao; Warisawa, Shin’ichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A tungsten-carbide (W-C) superconductor/normal metal/superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction has been fabricated using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition (FIB-CVD). Under certain process conditions, the component ratio has been tuned from W: C: Ga = 26%: 66%: 8% in the superconducting wires to W: C: Ga = 14%: 79%: 7% in the metallic junction. The critical current density at 2.5 K in the SNS Josephson junction is 1/3 of that in W-C superconducting nanowire. Also, a Fraunhofer-like oscillation of critical current in the junction with four periods is observed. FIB-CVD opens avenues for novel functional superconducting nanodevices. (paper)

  16. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF THE SNS CCL HOT MODEL WATER COOLING SYSTEM USING THE SINDA/FLUINT NETWORK MODELING TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. AMMERMAN; J. BERNARDIN

    1999-11-01

    This report presents results for design and analysis of the hot model water cooling system for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) coupled-cavity linac (CCL). The hot model, when completed, will include segments for both the CCL and coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL). The scope of this report encompasses the modeling effort for the CCL portion of the hot model. This modeling effort employed the SINDA/FLUINT network modeling tool. This report begins with an introduction of the SNS hot model and network modeling using SINDA/FLUINT. Next, the development and operation of the SINDA/FLUINT model are discussed. Finally, the results of the SINDA/FLUINT modeling effort are presented and discussed.

  17. Evaluation of SNS Beamline Shielding Configurations using MCNPX Accelerated by ADVANTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risner, Joel M; Johnson, Seth R.; Remec, Igor; Bekar, Kursat B.

    2015-01-01

    Shielding analyses for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory pose significant computational challenges, including highly anisotropic high-energy sources, a combination of deep penetration shielding and an unshielded beamline, and a desire to obtain well-converged nearly global solutions for mapping of predicted radiation fields. The majority of these analyses have been performed using MCNPX with manually generated variance reduction parameters (source biasing and cell-based splitting and Russian roulette) that were largely based on the analyst's insight into the problem specifics. Development of the variance reduction parameters required extensive analyst time, and was often tailored to specific portions of the model phase space. We previously applied a developmental version of the ADVANTG code to an SNS beamline study to perform a hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo analysis and showed that we could obtain nearly global Monte Carlo solutions with essentially uniform relative errors for mesh tallies that cover extensive portions of the model with typical voxel spacing of a few centimeters. The use of weight window maps and consistent biased sources produced using the FW-CADIS methodology in ADVANTG allowed us to obtain these solutions using substantially less computer time than the previous cell-based splitting approach. While those results were promising, the process of using the developmental version of ADVANTG was somewhat laborious, requiring user-developed Python scripts to drive much of the analysis sequence. In addition, limitations imposed by the size of weight-window files in MCNPX necessitated the use of relatively coarse spatial and energy discretization for the deterministic Denovo calculations that we used to generate the variance reduction parameters. We recently applied the production version of ADVANTG to this beamline analysis, which substantially streamlined the analysis process. We also tested importance function

  18. Enhanced cyclic stability of SnS microplates with conformal carbon coating derived from ethanol vapor deposition for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Jiangwen; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Yuan, Bin; Yang, Lichun; Zhu, Min

    2018-04-01

    Carbon coated SnS microplates (SnS@C MPs) were prepared via a facile chemical vapor deposition method using SnS2 nanoflakes as precursor and ethanol vapor as carbon source. The carbon coating restrains the growth of SnS during the heat treatment. Furthermore, it improves the electronic conductivity as well as accommodates volume variations of SnS during the sodiation and desodiation processes. Therefore, the rate capability and cycle performance of the SnS@C MPs as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries are remarkably enhanced compared with the bare SnS and the SnS2 precursor. At current densities of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 A g-1, the optimized SnS@C MPs exhibit stable capacities of 602.9, 532.1, 512.2, 465.9 and 427.2 mAh g-1, respectively. At 1 A g-1, they show a reversible capacity of 528.8 mAh g-1 in the first cycle, and maintain 444.7 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, with capacity retention of 84.1%. The carbon coating through chemical vapor deposition using ethanol vapor as carbon sources is green, simple and cost-effective, which shows great promise to improve the reversible Na+ storage of electrode materials.

  19. Employers as Nightmare Readers: An Analysis of Ethical and Legal Concerns Regarding Employer-Employee Practices on SNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suder Seili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this interdisciplinary paper is to study the social reality surrounding the data processing practices employers and employees engage in on social networking sites (SNS. Considering the lack of empirical studies, as well as the considerable uncertainty in the way personal data protection is implemented across the European Union (EU, the paper offers insights on the topic. Qualitative text analysis of semi-structured interviews with employers from the service sector (N=10 and the field of media and communication (N=15, as well as employers from organisations which had experienced various problems due to things their employees had posted on social media (N=14, and employees from the financial sector (N=15 were carried out to explore whether the data protection principles, which can be viewed as the most important guidelines for employers in the EU, are actually followed in their everyday SNS data processing practices. Even though the data protection principles emphasise the need for fair, purposeful, transparent, minimal and accurate processing of personal data, our interviews with employers and employees reveal that the actual SNS processing practices rarely live up to the standards. Our findings indicate that there is a growing mismatch between the social reality and legal requirements regarding data subjects.

  20. Influence of complexing agent (Na2EDTA on chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD data showed that the films have a polycrystalline and orthorhombic structure. It also indicated that the most intense peak at 2 θ = 30.2° which belongs to (221 plane of Cu4 SnS4. The film deposited with 0.05 M Na2 EDTA showed good uniformity, good surface coverage with bigger grains and produced higher absorbance value. The band gap energy varies with the variation of Na2EDTA concentration which ranging from 1.56-1.60 eV. Deposition at concentration of 0.05 M Na2EDTA proved to offer a reasonably good Cu4SnS4 thin film.

  1. High-Resolution Tracking Asymmetric Lithium Insertion and Extraction and Local Structure Ordering in SnS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Huang, Yuan; Liao, Lei; Sutter, Peter; Liu, Kaihui; Yu, Dapeng; Wang, En-Ge

    2016-09-14

    In the rechargeable lithium ion batteries, the rate capability and energy efficiency are largely governed by the lithium ion transport dynamics and phase transition pathways in electrodes. Real-time and atomic-scale tracking of fully reversible lithium insertion and extraction processes in electrodes, which would ultimately lead to mechanistic understanding of how the electrodes function and why they fail, is highly desirable but very challenging. Here, we track lithium insertion and extraction in the van der Waals interactions dominated SnS2 by in situ high-resolution TEM method. We find that the lithium insertion occurs via a fast two-phase reaction to form expanded and defective LiSnS2, while the lithium extraction initially involves heterogeneous nucleation of intermediate superstructure Li0.5SnS2 domains with a 1-4 nm size. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Li0.5SnS2 is kinetically favored and structurally stable. The asymmetric reaction pathways may supply enlightening insights into the mechanistic understanding of the underlying electrochemistry in the layered electrode materials and also suggest possible alternatives to the accepted explanation of the origins of voltage hysteresis in the intercalation electrode materials.

  2. Improving cycle stability of SnS anode for sodium-ion batteries by limiting Sn agglomeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Shi, Liang; Lan, Danni; Li, Quan

    2018-02-01

    Flower-like SnS nanostructures are obtained by a simple solvothermal method for anode applications in Na-ion batteries. We show experimental evidence of progressive Sn agglomeration and crystalline Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation process of the SnS electrode, both of which contribute to the capacity decay of the electrode upon repeated cycles. By replacing the commonly adopted acetylene black conductive additive with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), the cycle stability of the SnS electrode is largely improved, which correlates well with the observed suppression of both Sn agglomeration and Na2S enrichment at the end of de-sodiation cycle. A full cell is assembled with the SnS/MWCNT anode and the P2-Na2/3Ni1/3Mn1/2Ti1/6O2 cathode. An initial energy density of 262 Wh/kg (normalized to the total mass of cathode and anode) is demonstrated for the full cell, which retains 71% of the first discharge capacity after 40 cycles.

  3. Design, operational experiences and beam results obtained with the SNS H- ion source and LEBT at Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)** Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that fully satisfies the operational requirements through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. Compared to the early R and D version, many features of the ion source have been improved, and reliable operation at 6% duty factor has been achieved producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. LEBT operation proved that the purely electrostatic focusing principle is well suited to inject the ion beam into the RFQ accelerator, including the steering and pre-chopping functions. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ and Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) system. Prospects for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  4. Investigation of flow asymmetry and instability in the liquid mercury target of the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointer, D.; Ruggles, A.; Wendel, M.; Crye, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will utilize a liquid mercury target placed in the path of a high-energy proton beam to produce neutrons for research activities. As the high-energy protons interact with the mercury target, the majority of the beam energy is converted to thermal energy. The liquid mercury must provide sufficient heat transfer to maintain the temperature of the target structure within the thermal limits of the structural materials. Therefore, the behavior of the liquid mercury flow must be characterized in sufficient detail to ensure accurate evaluation of heat transfer in the mercury target. A combination of experimental and computational methods is utilized to characterize the flow in these preliminary analyses. Preliminary studies of the liquid mercury flow in the SNS target indicate that the flow in the exit channel may exhibit multiple recirculation zones, flow asymmetries, and possibly large-scale flow instabilities. While these studies are not conclusive, they serve to focus the efforts of subsequent CFD modeling and experimental programs to better characterize the flow patterns in the SNS mercury target

  5. Non-monotonic effect of growth temperature on carrier collection in SnS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Steinmann, V.; Mangan, N. M.; Brandt, R. E.; Poindexter, J. R.; Jaramillo, R.; Mailoa, J. P.; Hartman, K.; Polizzotti, A.; Buonassisi, T.; Yang, C.; Gordon, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the effects of growth temperature on material and device properties of thermally evaporated SnS thin-films and test structures. Grain size, Hall mobility, and majority-carrier concentration monotonically increase with growth temperature. However, the charge collection as measured by the long-wavelength contribution to short-circuit current exhibits a non-monotonic behavior: the collection decreases with increased growth temperature from 150 °C to 240 °C and then recovers at 285 °C. Fits to the experimental internal quantum efficiency using an opto-electronic model indicate that the non-monotonic behavior of charge-carrier collection can be explained by a transition from drift- to diffusion-assisted components of carrier collection. The results show a promising increase in the extracted minority-carrier diffusion length at the highest growth temperature of 285 °C. These findings illustrate how coupled mechanisms can affect early stage device development, highlighting the critical role of direct materials property measurements and simulation

  6. Solution processed Cu2SnS3 thin films for visible and infrared photodetector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Dias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cu2SnS3 thin films were deposited using an economic, solution processible, spin coating technique. The films were found to possess a tetragonal crystal structure using X-ray diffraction. The film morphology and the particle size were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The various planes in the crystal were observed using transmission electron microscopy. The optimum band gap of 1.23 eV and a high absorption coefficient of 104 cm−1 corroborate its application as a photoactive material. The visible and infrared (IR photo response was studied for various illumination intensities. The current increased by one order from a dark current of 0.31 μA to a current of 1.78 μA at 1.05 suns and 8.7 μA under 477.7 mW/cm2 IR illumination intensity, at 3 V applied bias. The responsivity, sensitivity, external quantum efficiency and specific detectivity were found to be 10.93 mA/W, 5.74, 2.47% and 3.47 × 1010 Jones respectively at 1.05 suns and 16.32 mA/W, 27.16, 2.53% and 5.10 × 1010 Jones respectively at 477.7 mW/cm2 IR illumination. The transient photoresponse was measured both for visible and IR illuminations.

  7. Magnetic Field Monitoring in the SNS and LANL Neutron EDM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Alina; SNS nEDM Collaboration; LANL nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The SNS neutron EDM experiment requires the ability to precisely control and monitor the magnetic field inside of the fiducial volume. However, it is not always practical (or even possible) to measure the field within the region of interest directly. To remedy this issue, we have designed a field monitoring system that will allow us to reconstruct the field inside of the fiducial volume using noninvasive measurements of the field components at discrete locations external to this volume. A prototype probe array (consisting of 12 single-axis fluxgate magnetometer sensors) was used to monitor the magnetic field within the fiducial volume of an in-house magnetic testing apparatus. In this talk, the design and results of this test will be presented, and the possible implementation of this field monitoring method may have in the room temperature LANL neutron EDM experiment will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Award Number DE-SC-0014622.

  8. Neural network based approach for tuning of SNS feedback and feedforward controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung-Il; Prokop, Mark S.; Regan, Amy H.

    2002-01-01

    The primary controllers in the SNS low level RF system are proportional-integral (PI) feedback controllers. To obtain the best performance of the linac control systems, approximately 91 individual PI controller gains should be optimally tuned. Tuning is time consuming and requires automation. In this paper, a neural network is used for the controller gain tuning. A neural network can approximate any continuous mapping through learning. In a sense, the cavity loop PI controller is a continuous mapping of the tracking error and its one-sample-delay inputs to the controller output. Also, monotonic cavity output with respect to its input makes knowing the detailed parameters of the cavity unnecessary. Hence the PI controller is a prime candidate for approximation through a neural network. Using mean square error minimization to train the neural network along with a continuous mapping of appropriate weights, optimally tuned PI controller gains can be determined. The same neural network approximation property is also applied to enhance the adaptive feedforward controller performance. This is done by adjusting the feedforward controller gains, forgetting factor, and learning ratio. Lastly, the automation of the tuning procedure data measurement, neural network training, tuning and loading the controller gain to the DSP is addressed.

  9. Development of Nb nanoSQUIDs based on SNS junctions for operation in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosh, Viacheslav; Kieler, Oliver; Weimann, Thomas; Zorin, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Mueller, Benedikt; Martinez-Perez, Maria Jose; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Quantum Science in LISA+, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the magnetization reversal of single magnetic nanoparticles requires SQUIDs with high spatial resolution, high spin sensitivity (a few Bohr magneton μ{sub B}) and at the same time sufficient stability in high magnetic fields. We fabricated dc nanoSQUIDs comprising overdamped SNS sandwich-type (Nb/HfTi/Nb) Josephson junctions using optimized technology based on combination of electron beam lithography and chemical-mechanical polishing. Our nanoSQUIDs have Josephson junctions with lateral dimensions ≤ 150 nm x 150 nm, effective loop areas < 0.05 μm{sup 2} and the distance between the Josephson junctions ≤ 100 nm. The feeding strip lines of the width ≤ 200 nm have been realized. The nanoSQUIDs have shown stable operation in external magnetic fields at least up to 250 mT. Sufficiently low level of flux noise resulting in spin sensitivity of few tens μ{sub B}/Hz{sup 1/2} has been demonstrated. A further reduction of the nanoSQUID size using our technology is possible.

  10. Temperature behavior of SNS-like Nb/Al-AlO x/Nb Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Maggi, S.; Rocci, R.; Sosso, A.; Steni, R.

    2006-01-01

    Overdamped Nb/Al-AlO x /Nb Josephson junctions are an intermediate state between the SIS and SNS Josephson junctions. Stable and reproducible non-hysteretic current-voltage characteristics have been obtained with a proper choice of the fabrication parameters, featuring critical current densities J c up to 25 kA/cm 2 and characteristic voltages up to 450 μV. While these values make the junctions interesting for RSFQ electronic circuits, their response to an RF signal at 70 GHz has demonstrated their suitability for both programmable and ac voltage standard. In these work we analyse the temperature behavior of these junctions up to T/T c = 1, T c being the niobium critical temperature, which gives relevant information on the junction structure and, especially, on the oxide insulator/metallic film barrier, which is the key for the reproducible transition from an hysteretic to a non-hysteretic behavior. The results are also compared with other data of hysteretic and overdamped junctions

  11. Glutatione modified ultrathin SnS2 nanosheets with highly photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Renjie; Zhou, Tengfei; Hu, Juncheng; Li, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    L-Glutatione (GSH) modified ultrathin SnS 2 nanosheets were successfully synthesized via a one-pot, facile and rapid solvothermal approach. During the process, the GSH not only served as the sulfur sources, the structure-directing agent, but also as the surface modified ligands. The as-synthesized samples mainly consist of ultrathin nanosheets with the thickness of about 10 nm. Inspiringly, even under the visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation, the as-synthesized products exhibited highly photocatalytic activities for both the degradation of methyl orange (MO) and the reductive conversion of Cr (VI) in aqueous solution. The superior performance was presented by completely removed the methyl orange and aqueous Cr(VI) in 20 min and 60 min, respectively. It was much higher than the pure samples, which suggested that these obtained photocatalysts have the potential for wastewater treatment in a green way. The high-efficiency of photocatalytic properties could attribute to the ultrathin size of the photocatalysts and the chelation between GSH and Sn (IV), which have the advantages of electron–hole pairs separation. Moreover, modified organic compounds with common electron donors would also enhance the spectral response even to the near infrared region through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism. (papers)

  12. Self-disclosure on SNS: Do disclosure intimacy and narrativity influence interpersonal closeness and social attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja

    2017-05-01

    On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others' news, may influence recipients' perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other's posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. In addition, disclosure messages can vary in the degree of intimacy (from superficial to intimate) and narrativity (from a random blather to a story-like narrative). The roles of disclosure intimacy and narrativity on perceived closeness and social attraction were examined by a 2 × 2 experimental design. By conducting one lab study and another online replication, we consistently found that disclosure frequency, when perceived as appropriate, predicted familiarity and closeness. The effects of disclosure intimacy and narrativity were not stable. Further exploratory analyses showed that the roles of disclosure intimacy on closeness and social attraction were constrained by the perceived appropriateness, and the effects of narrativity on closeness and social attraction were mediated by perceived entertainment value.

  13. Development of a Social DTN for Message Communication between SNS Group Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Takasuka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have the ability to communicate with other terminals through ad hoc connections. A variety of applications have been developed to exploit this ability. The authors have developed an Android OS (operating system application (called “social DTN manager” that builds a DTN (delay, disruption, disconnection tolerant networking among members of a social networking service (SNS community using a community token. The members can exchange messages over this network. Control messages for building a DTN are forwarded to only those nodes that use the same community token in order to reduce flooding of message copies. When a source node sends a communication request to its destination node, they exchange control messages to establish a communication route. Relay nodes use these messages to create and hold routing information for these nodes in their routing tables. Thereafter, relay nodes can forward data messages based on their routing tables. This again reduces flooding of message copies. The social DTN manager incorporates these functions, Facebook Graph API and Google Nearby Connections API. The authors have installed it in Android terminals and confirmed that a social DTN can successfully be built using this application and that data messages can be exchanged between terminals via reactive routes.

  14. SNS Resonance Control Cooling Systems and Quadrupole Magnet Cooling Systems DIW Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magda, Karoly [ORNL

    2018-01-01

    This report focuses on control of the water chemistry for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Resonance Control Cooling System (RCCS)/Quadrupole Magnet Cooling System (QMCS) deionized water (DIW) cooling loops. Data collected from spring 2013 through spring 2016 are discussed, and an operations regime is recommended.It was found that the RCCS operates with an average pH of 7.24 for all lines (from 7.0 to 7.5, slightly alkaline), the average low dissolved oxygen is in the area of < 36 ppb, and the main loop average resistivity of is > 14 MΩ-cm. The QMCS was found to be operating in a similar regime, with a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 , low dissolved oxygen in the area of < 45 ppb, and main loop resistivity of 10 to 15 MΩ-cm. During data reading, operational corrections were done on the polishing loops to improve the water chemistry regime. Therefore some trends changed over time.It is recommended that the cooling loops operate in a regime in which the water has a resistivity that is as high as achievable, a dissolved oxygen concentration that is as low as achievable, and a neutral or slightly alkaline pH.

  15. Social networking sites (SNS); exploring their uses and associated value for adolescent mothers in Western Australia in terms of social support provision and building social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Towell, Amanda

    2015-09-01

    to explore the use of social networking sites (SNS) by adolescent mothers in Western Australia (WA) in relation to social support and the building of social capital. a constructionist narrative inquiry approach was employed to guide the research design and processes. Approval was gained from the university human ethics department. Sampling was purposeful and data were collected using in-depth interviews with seven adolescent mothers in WA. interviews were undertaken within the homes of adolescent mothers across WA. from within three fundamental domains of social support; tangible, emotional and informational support, provided by SNS use, five key themes were identified from the narratives. 'Social connectedness' was identified as a form of tangible support, sometimes termed 'practical' or 'instrumental' support. This theme incorporates connectedness with family, friends, and peers and across new and existing social groups. Three themes were identified that relate to emotional support; 'increased parenting confidence'; 'reduced parental stress' and 'enhanced self-disclosure' afforded by use of SNS. 'Access to information' was identified in terms of informational support, with participants often highlighting SNS use as their primary portal for information and advice. the findings of this study suggest that SNS use affords adolescent mothers in WA access to tangible, informational and emotional support and thus is a valuable source of social capital for these mothers. This study provides a platform for further exploration into this phenomenon, and possible implications include the potential for midwives and health care professionals to promote the benefits of SNS use with, and for, this group of mothers, or to incorporate SNS use into modern health care practices to further develop the potential for improved social capital related outcomes for them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing of SNS-032 in a Panel of Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines with Acquired Resistance to a Broad Range of Drugs12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschmann, Nadine; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Voges, Yvonne; Sharifi, Mohsen; Riecken, Kristoffer; Meyer, Jochen; von Deimling, Andreas; Fichtner, Iduna; Ghafourian, Taravat; Westermann, Frank; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2013-01-01

    Novel treatment options are needed for the successful therapy of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor SNS-032 in a panel of 109 neuroblastoma cell lines consisting of 19 parental cell lines and 90 sublines with acquired resistance to 14 different anticancer drugs. Seventy-three percent of the investigated neuroblastoma cell lines and all four investigated primary tumor samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 50% in the range of the therapeutic plasma levels reported for SNS-032 (<754 nM). Sixty-two percent of the cell lines and two of the primary samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 90% in this concentration range. SNS-032 also impaired the growth of the multidrug-resistant cisplatin-adapted UKF-NB-3 subline UKF-NB-3rCDDP1000 in mice. ABCB1 expression (but not ABCG2 expression) conferred resistance to SNS-032. The antineuroblastoma effects of SNS-032 did not depend on functional p53. The antineuroblastoma mechanism of SNS-032 included CDK7 and CDK9 inhibition-mediated suppression of RNA synthesis and subsequent depletion of antiapoptotic proteins with a fast turnover rate including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2; cIAP-1), and survivin. In conclusion, CDK7 and CDK9 represent promising drug targets and SNS-032 represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cases. PMID:24466371

  17. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system.

  18. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System How Can it Help Me?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Stephen D.; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Peterson, Peter F.; Reuter, Michael A.; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I.; Kohl, James Arthur; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cobb, John W.; Lynch, Vickie E.; Chen, Meili; Trater, James R.

    2010-01-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a live cataloging system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members access to their

  19. van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Yang, Yunbo; Guo, Fawen; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Bhat, Ishwara; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Conventional hetero-epitaxial films are typically grown on lattice and symmetry matched single crystal substrates. We demonstrated the epitaxial growth of orthorhombic SnS film (∼500 nm thick) on single crystal, monolayer graphene that was transferred on the amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. Using X-ray pole figure analysis we examined the structure, quality and epitaxy relationship of the SnS film grown on the single crystal graphene and compared it with the SnS film grown on commercial polycrystalline graphene. We showed that the SnS films grown on both single crystal and polycrystalline graphene have two sets of orientation domains. However, the crystallinity and grain size of the SnS film improve when grown on the single crystal graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the near surface texture has more phases as compared with that of the entire film. The surface texture of a film will influence the growth and quality of film grown on top of it as well as the interface formed. Our result offers an alternative approach to grow a hetero-epitaxial film on an amorphous substrate through a single crystal graphene buffer layer. This strategy of growing high quality epitaxial thin film has potential applications in optoelectronics.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic performance of SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers derived from the electrospinning-made SnO{sub 2} nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Ma, Qianli; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Xinlu; Yu, Hui; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia, E-mail: dongxiangting888@163.com [Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry and Nanotechnology at Universities of Jilin Province, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun (China)

    2017-11-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanofibers were fabricated by calcination of the electrospun PVP/SnCl{sub 4} composite nanofibers. For the first time, SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers were successfully synthesized by double crucible sulfurization and selenidation methods via inheriting the morphology of SnO{sub 2} nanofibers used as precursors, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers are respectively pure orthorhombic phase with space group of Pbnm and Cmcm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation indicates that the diameters of SnS nanofibers and SnSe nanofibers are respectively 140.54±12.80 nm and 96.52±14.17 nm under the 95 % confidence level. The photocatalytic activities of samples were studied by using rhodamine B (Rh B) as degradation agent. When SnS or SnSe nanofibers are employed as the photocatalysts, the respective degradation rates of Rh B solution under the ultraviolet light irradiation after 200 min irradiation are 92.55 % and 92.86 %. The photocatalytic mechanism and formation process of SnS and SnSe nanofibers are also provided. More importantly, this preparation technique is of universal significance to prepare other metal chalcogenides nanofibers. (author)

  1. SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by N-doped carbon and TiO2 for high-performance Na-ion storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, SnS2 nanosheets arrays sandwiched by porous N-doped carbon and TiO2 (TiO2@SnS2@N-C on flexible carbon cloth are prepared and tested as a free-standing anode for high-performance sodium ion batteries. The as-obtained TiO2@SnS2@N-C composite delivers a remarkable capacity performance (840 mA h g−1 at a current density of 200 mA g−1, excellent rate capability and long-cycling life stability (293 mA h g−1 at 1 A g−1 after 600 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect of each component of the unique hybrid structure, in which the SnS2 nanosheets with open framworks offer high capacity, while the porous N-doped carbon nanoplates arrays on flexible carbon cloth are able to improve the conductivity and the TiO2 passivation layer can keep the structure integrity of SnS2 nanosheets.

  2. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of SnS2 with a Cubic Structure: The DFT Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshayeshi, A.; Taghavi Mendi, R.; Majidiyan Sarmazdeh, M.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a cubic structure of polymorphic SnS2 has been synthesized experimentally, which is stable at room temperature. In this paper, we calculated some structural, electronic and optical properties of the cubic SnS2 structure based on the full potential-linearized augmented plane waves method. We also studied the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the physical properties of the cubic SnS2 structure. Structural results show that the compressibility of the cubic SnS2 phase is greater than its trigonal phase and the compressibility decreases with increasing pressure. Investigations of the electronic properties indicate that pressure changes the density of states and the energy band gap increases with increasing pressure. The variation of energy band gap versus pressure is almost linear. We concluded that cubic SnS2 is a semiconductor with an indirect energy band gap, like its trigonal phase. The optical calculations revealed that the dielectric constant decreases with increasing pressure, and the width of the forbidden energy interval increases for electromagnetic wave propagation. Moreover, plasmonic energy and refractive index are changed with increasing pressure.

  3. First-principles study of SnS electronic properties using LDA, PBE and HSE06 functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimova, R.; Ganchenkova, M.; Karazhanov, S.; Marstein, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, tin sulphide (SnS) has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional CIGS and CZTC for use in solar cells, possessing such properties as non-toxicity, low cost and production stability. SnS has a high theoretically predicted efficiency above 20%, but the experimentally achieved efficiency so far is as low as 4.36%. The reason for the low achieved efficiency is unclear. One of the powerful tools to get deeper insights about the nature of the problem is first-principles calculation approaches. That is why SnS has become an attractive subject for first-principles calculations recently. Previously calculated data, however, show a widespread of such fundamental value as the bandgap varying from 0.26 to 1.26 eV. In order to understand a reason for that, in this work, we concentrate on a systematic study of calculation parameters effects on the resulting electronic structure, with the particular attention paid to the influence of the exchange-correlation functional chosen for calculations. Several exchange-correlation functionals (LDA, PBE and HSE06) were considered. The systematic analysis has shown that the bandgap variation can result from a tensile/compressive hydrostatic pressure introduced by non-equilibrium lattice parameters used for the calculations. The study of the applicability of three functionals has shown that HSE06 gives the best match to both experimentally obtained bandgap and the XPS valence band spectra. LDA underestimates the bandgap but qualitatively reproduces experimentally measured valence DOS similar to that of HSE06 in contrast to PBE. PBE underestimates the bandgap and does not match to the measured XPS spectra.

  4. Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS protonstorage rings by tailoring the bunch profile

    CERN Document Server

    Pivi, M T

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electron cloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure.

  5. Monte-Carlo simulation of a high-resolution inverse geometry spectrometer on the SNS. Long Wavelength Target Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, H.N.; Herwig, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    Using the Monte-Carlo simulation program McStas, we present the design principles of the proposed high-resolution inverse geometry spectrometer on the SNS-Long Wavelength Target Station (LWTS). The LWTS will provide the high flux of long wavelength neutrons at the requisite pulse rate required by the spectrometer design. The resolution of this spectrometer lies between that routinely achieved by spin echo techniques and the design goal of the high power target station backscattering spectrometer. Covering this niche in energy resolution will allow systematic studies over the large dynamic range required by many disciplines, such as protein dynamics. (author)

  6. MITIGATION OF THE ELECTRON-CLOUD EFFECT IN THE PSR AND SNS PROTONSTORAGE RINGS BY TAILORING THE BUNCH PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, Mauro T F

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electron cloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure

  7. Mitigation of the electron-cloud effect in the PSR and SNS proton storage rings by tailoring the bunch profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M.; Furman, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the storage ring of the Spallation Neutron Source(SNS) at Oak Ridge, and for the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at Los Alamos, both with intense and very long bunches, the electroncloud develops primarily by the mechanism of trailing-edge multipacting. We show, by means of simulations for the PSR, how the resonant nature of this mechanism may be effectively broken by tailoring the longitudinal bunch profile at fixed bunch charge, resulting in a significant decrease in the electron-cloud effect. We briefly discuss the experimental difficulties expected in the implementation of this cure

  8. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that

  9. The structure of a mixed GluR2 ligand-binding core dimer in complex with (S)-glutamate and the antagonist (S)-NS1209

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Christina; Pickering, Darryl S; Mirza, Osman

    2006-01-01

    domains has been observed. (S)-NS1209 adopts a novel binding mode, including hydrogen bonding to Tyr450 and Gly451 of D1. Parts of (S)-NS1209 occupy new areas of the GluR2 ligand-binding cleft, and bind near residues that are not conserved among receptor subtypes. The affinities of (RS)-NS1209 at the Glu....... The thermodynamics of binding of the antagonists (S)-NS1209, DNQX and (S)-ATPO to the GluR2 ligand-binding core have been determined by displacement isothermal titration calorimetry. The displacement of (S)-glutamate by all antagonists was shown to be driven by enthalpy....

  10. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System - How Can it Help Me?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Stephen D; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W; Peterson, Peter F; Reuter, Michael A; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I; Kohl, James A; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Cobb, John W; Lynch, Vickie E; Chen Meili; Trater, James R; Smith, Bradford C; Swain, Tom; Huang Jian [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mikkelson, Ruth; Mikkelson, Dennis, E-mail: millersd@ornl.gov

    2010-11-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops - the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a 'live cataloging' system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members

  11. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System - How Can it Help Me?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Stephen D; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W; Peterson, Peter F; Reuter, Michael A; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I; Kohl, James A; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S; Cobb, John W; Lynch, Vickie E; Chen Meili; Trater, James R; Smith, Bradford C; Swain, Tom; Huang Jian; Mikkelson, Ruth; Mikkelson, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops - the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a 'live cataloging' system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members access to

  12. The SNS/HFIR Web Portal System - How Can it Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen D.; Geist, Al; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Peterson, Peter F.; Reuter, Michael A.; Ren, Shelly; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Campbell, Stuart I.; Kohl, James A.; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cobb, John W.; Lynch, Vickie E.; Chen, Meili; Trater, James R.; Smith, Bradford C.; (William Swain, Tom; Huang, Jian; Mikkelson, Ruth; Mikkelson, Dennis; een, Mar K. L. Gr

    2010-11-01

    In a busy world, continuing with the status-quo, to do things the way we are already familiar, often seems to be the most efficient way to conduct our work. We look for the value-add to decide if investing in a new method is worth the effort. How shall we evaluate if we have reached this tipping point for change? For contemporary researchers, understanding the properties of the data is a good starting point. The new generation of neutron scattering instruments being built are higher resolution and produce one or more orders of magnitude larger data than the previous generation of instruments. For instance, we have grown out of being able to perform some important tasks with our laptops - the data are too big and the computations would simply take too long. These large datasets can be problematic as facility users now begin to grapple with many of the same issues faced by more established computing communities. These issues include data access, management, and movement, data format standards, distributed computing, and collaboration among others. The Neutron Science Portal has been architected, designed, and implemented to provide users with an easy-to-use interface for managing and processing data, while also keeping an eye on meeting modern cybersecurity requirements imposed on institutions. The cost of entry for users has been lowered by utilizing a web interface providing access to backend portal resources. Users can browse or search for data which they are allowed to see, data reduction applications can be run without having to load the software, sample activation calculations can be performed for SNS and HFIR beamlines, McStas simulations can be run on TeraGrid and ORNL computers, and advanced analysis applications such as those being produced by the DANSE project can be run. Behind the scenes is a "live cataloging" system which automatically catalogs and archives experiment data via the data management system, and provides proposal team members access to

  13. Synthesis And Electrochemical Characteristics Of Mechanically Alloyed Anode Materials SnS2 For Li/SnS2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for efficient and economic energy storage, tin disulfide (SnS2, as one of the most attractive anode candidates for the next generation high-energy rechargeable Li-ion battery, have been paid more and more attention because of its high theoretical energy density and cost effectiveness. In this study, a new, simple and effective process, mechanical alloying (MA, has been developed for preparing fine anode material tin disulfides, in which ammonium chloride (AC, referred to as process control agents (PCAs, were used to prevent excessive cold-welding and accelerate the synthesis rates to some extent. Meanwhile, in order to decrease the mean size of SnS2 powder particles and improve the contact areas between the active materials, wet milling process was also conducted with normal hexane (NH as a solvent PCA. The prepared powders were both characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field emission-scanning electron microscopeand particle size analyzer. Finally, electrochemical measurements for Li/SnS2 cells were takenat room temperature, using a two-electrode cell assembled in an argon-filled glove box and the electrolyte of 1M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate(EC/dimethylcarbonate (DMC/ethylene methyl carbonate (EMC (volume ratio of 1:1:1.

  14. Three-Dimensional SnS Decorated Carbon Nano-Networks as Anode Materials for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D SnS decorated carbon nano-networks (SnS@C were synthesized via a facile two-step method of freeze-drying combined with post-heat treatment. The lithium and sodium storage performances of above composites acting as anode materials were investigated. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 780 mAh·g−1 for SnS@C composites can be obtained at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. Even cycled at a high current density of 2 A·g−1, the reversible capacity of this composite can be maintained at 610 mAh·g−1 after 1000 cycles. The initial charge capacity for sodium ion batteries can reach 333 mAh·g−1, and it retains a reversible capacity of 186 mAh·g−1 at 100 mA·g−1 after 100 cycles. The good lithium or sodium storage performances are likely attributed to the synergistic effects of the conductive carbon nano-networks and small SnS nanoparticles.

  15. Structure, Surface Morphology, and Optical and Electronic Properties of Annealed SnS Thin Films Obtained by CBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reghima, Meriem; Akkari, Anis; Guasch, Cathy; Turki-Kamoun, Najoua

    2014-09-01

    SnS thin films were initially coated onto Pyrex substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method and annealed at various temperatures ranging from 200°C to 600°C for 30 min in nitrogen gas. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a structural transition from face-centered cubic to orthorhombic occurs when the annealing temperature is over 500°C. The surface morphology of all thin layers was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The elemental composition of Sn and S, as measured by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is near the stoichiometric ratio. Optical properties studied by means of transmission and reflection measurements show an increase in the absorption coefficient with increasing annealing temperatures. The band gap energy is close to 1.5 eV, which corresponds to the optimum for photovoltaic applications. Last, the thermally stimulated current measurements show that the electrically active traps located in the band gap disappear after annealing at 500°C. These results suggest that, once again, annealing as a post-deposition treatment may be useful for improving the physical properties of the SnS layers included in photovoltaic applications. Moreover, the thermo-stimulated current method may be of practical relevance to explore the electronic properties of more conventional industrial methods, such as sputtering and chemical vapor deposition.

  16. Exploring Student Use of Social Networking Services (SNS) Surrounding Moral Development, Gender, Campus Crime, Safety, and the Clery Act: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Haley

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory sequential mixed methods study was to explore college students' use of social networking services (SNS); examining how and why they communicate about campus safety information. This study took place at Stockton University, a regional state institution in NJ. Undergraduate students took part in an online quantitative…

  17. Language, mobile phones and internet : a study of SMS texting, email, IM and SNS chats in computer mediated communication (CMC) in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, Sandra Nekesa

    2010-01-01

    This book examines the use of language in Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) genres in Kenya. It focuses on Short Messaging Service (SMS), Email, Instant Messages (IM) and Social Network Sites (SNS) genres. It presents an overview of the use and characteristics of Kenyan languages in CMC texts

  18. Development of SnS (FTO/CdS/SnS) thin films by nebulizer spray pyrolysis (NSP) for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulanantham, A. M. S.; Valanarasu, S.; Jeyadheepan, K.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report a well-organized analysis on various key-properties of SnS thin films for solar cell fabricated by nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals the polycrystalline nature of deposited films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The crystallite size was calculated and observed to be in the range of 8-28 nm with increasing molarity of precursor solution. The stoichiometry composition of SnS was confirmed by EDX study. SEM/AFM studies divulge the well-covered deposited surface with spherical grains and the size of grains is increasing with concentration and so the roughness. A remarkable decrease in band gap from 2.6 eV to 1.6 eV was noticed by raising the molar concentration from 0.025 M up to 0.075 M. A single strong emission peak at about 825 nm is observed in PL spectra with enhanced intensity which may be attributed to near band edge emission. From the Hall effect measurement, it was found that the SnS thin film exhibits p-type conductivity. The calculated values of resistivity and carrier concentration are 0.729 Ω cm and 3.67 × 1018/cm3 respectively. Furthermore, to study the photovoltaic properties of SnS thin films a heterojunction solar cell, FTO/n-CdS/p-SnS was produced and the conversion efficiency was recorded about 0.01%.

  19. Fabrication of 2D SnS2/g-C3N4 heterojunction with enhanced H2 evolution during photocatalytic water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enzhou; Chen, Jibing; Ma, Yongning; Feng, Juan; Jia, Jia; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun

    2018-08-15

    In this work, the 2D SnS 2 /g-C 3 N 4 heterojunctions were successfully prepared by heating the homogeneous dispersion of SnS 2 nanosheets and g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets using a microwave muffle. SEM, TEM and HRTEM images indicated that the SnS 2 nanosheets were loaded on the surface of the g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets. The UV-vis spectra show that the absorption intensity of the as-prepared samples was increased and the absorption range was also extended from 420 nm to approximately 600 nm. The H 2 production rate over 5 wt% SnS 2 /g-C 3 N 4 can reach 972.6 μmol·h -1 ·g -1 under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) using TEOA as the sacrifice agent and Pt as the electron trap, which is 2.9 and 25.6 times higher than those of the pristine g-C 3 N 4 and SnS 2 , respectively. According to the obtained PL spectra, photocurrent and EIS spectra, the enhanced performance for H 2 generation over the heterojunctions is primarily ascribed to the rapid charge transfer arising from the suitable band gap positions leading to an improved photocatalytic performance. The recycling experiments indicated that the as-prepared composites exhibit good stability in H 2 production. Additionally, a possible enhanced mechanism for H 2 evolution was deduced based on the results obtained by various characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Crystal Structure, Optical, and Electrical Properties of SnSe and SnS Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by Vacuum Evaporation Techniques for Solar Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariswan; Sutrisno, H.; Prasetyawati, R.

    2017-05-01

    Thin films of SnSe and SnS semiconductors had been prepared by vacuum evaporation techniques. All prepared samples were characterized on their structure, optical, and electrical properties in order to know their application in technology. The crystal structure of SnSe and SnS was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument. The morphology and chemical composition were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive of X-Ray Analysis (EDAX). The optical property such as band gap was determined by DR-UV-Vis (Diffuse Reflectance-Ultra Violet-Visible) spectroscopy, while the electrical properties were determined by measuring the conductivity by four probes method. The characterization results indicated that both SnSe and SnS thin films were polycrystalline. SnSe crystallized in an orthorhombic crystal system with the lattice parameters of a = 11.47 Å, b = 4.152 Å and c = 4.439 Å, while SnS had an orthorhombic crystal system with lattice parameters of a = 4.317 Å, b = 11.647 Å and c = 3.981 Å. Band gaps (Eg) of SnSe and SnS were 1.63 eV and 1.35 eV, respectively. Chemical compositions of both thin films were non-stoichiometric. Molar ratio of Sn : S was close to ideal which was 1 : 0.96, while molar ratio of Sn : S was 1 : 0.84. The surface morphology described the arrangement of the grains on the surface of the thin film with sizes ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 microns. Color similarity on the surface of the SEM images proved a homogenous thin layer.

  1. Active beam position stabilization of pulsed lasers for long-distance ion profile diagnostics at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Robert A; Liu, Yun; Long, Cary; Aleksandrov, Alexander; Blokland, Willem

    2011-02-14

    A high peak-power Q-switched laser has been used to monitor the ion beam profiles in the superconducting linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The laser beam suffers from position drift due to movement, vibration, or thermal effects on the optical components in the 250-meter long laser beam transport line. We have designed, bench-tested, and implemented a beam position stabilization system by using an Ethernet CMOS camera, computer image processing and analysis, and a piezo-driven mirror platform. The system can respond at frequencies up to 30 Hz with a high position detection accuracy. With the beam stabilization system, we have achieved a laser beam pointing stability within a range of 2 μrad (horizontal) to 4 μrad (vertical), corresponding to beam drifts of only 0.5 mm × 1 mm at the furthest measurement station located 250 meters away from the light source.

  2. Eco-friendly p-type Cu2SnS3 thermoelectric material: crystal structure and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yawei; Li, Chao; Huang, Rong; Tian, Ruoming; Ye, Yang; Pan, Lin; Koumoto, Kunihito; Zhang, Ruizhi; Wan, Chunlei; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    As a new eco-friendly thermoelectric material, copper tin sulfide (Cu2SnS3) ceramics were experimentally studied by Zn-doping. Excellent electrical transport properties were obtained by virtue of 3-dimensionally conductive network for holes, which are less affected by the coexistence of cubic and tetragonal phases that formed upon Zn subsitition for Sn; a highest power factors ~0.84 mW m−1 K−2 at 723 K was achieved in the 20% doped sample. Moreover, an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity close to theoretical minimum was observed in these samples, which could be related to the disordering of atoms in the coexisting cubic and tetragonal phases and the interfaces. Thanks to the phonon-glass-electron-crystal features, a maximum ZT ~ 0.58 was obtained at 723 K, which stands among the tops for sulfide thermoelectrics at the same temperature. PMID:27666524

  3. Structural and optical properties of Cu2SnS3 thin films obtained by SILAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut ASTAM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu2SnS3 thin films were obtained by annealing of SILAR deposited films at 350°C for 1 hour in sulphur atmosphere. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX and optical absorption measurements, before and after annealing. The XRD results showed that the annealing process transformed the crystal structure of the films from amorphous to polycrystalline. SEM images revealed that the surface morphology of films was changed after annealing while EDAX analysis showed that the films were excess in copper concentration before and after annealing. Optical absorption measurements confirmed that the direct band gap of films decreased from 1.27 eV to 1.21 eV with annealing.

  4. Microstructure and composition of a SNS Josephson junction using CaRuO3 as the metallic barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeveld, S.; Merkle, K.L.; Char, K.

    1994-10-01

    Superconductor - normal - superconductor (SNS) edge junctions consisting of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /CaRuO 3 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x were fabricated on (001) LaA1O 3 substrates. These devices display an excess interface resistance which is not well understood but is related to the SN interface and interlayer structure. High-resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the SN interface to determine the structure and possible interface defects. Energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were performed on the CaRuO 3 film and near interface regions to quantify the extent of interdiffusion between the CiRuO 3 and YBCO films. Changes in either the interface structure or the normal layer chemistry are expected to greatly influence the junction properties

  5. Mesoporous carbon anchored with SnS2 nanosheets as an advanced anode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianping; Wu, Ping; Lou, Feijian; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Yiming; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •SnS 2 nanosheets densely and uniformly anchored on 3D mesoporous carbon matrix. •Unique structural characteristics of both 2D nanosheet and 3D porous carbon matrix. •Markedly enhanced lithium storage capability by virtue of its structure superiority. -- Abstract: This paper reports a novel type of nanohybrid, mesoporous carbon anchored with SnS 2 nanosheets (MC-SnS 2 NSs), which integrates the structural characteristics of both two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet and 3D porous carbon matrix. When evaluated as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the MC-SnS 2 NSs exhibits significantly enhanced cycling stability and rate capability by virtue of its unique structural superiority

  6. Preliminary estimates of dose and residual activation of selected components in ring collimation straight of the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Simos, N.; Walker, J.; Mallen, A.; Wei, J.; Todosow, M.

    2000-01-01

    The highest doses to components in the SNS ring are expected to be to those located in the collimation straight section. In this paper the authors present estimated doses to magnets and cable located between collimators. In addition the buildup of relatively long half-life radioactive isotopes is estimated, following machine operation and shutdown. Finally, the potential dose to operators approaching the machine following operation and shutdown for four hours is made. The results indicate that selected components might require replacement after several years of full power operation. In addition, the reflection of gamma-rays from the tunnel walls contribute a non-negligible amount to the dose of an operator in the tunnel following machine shutdown

  7. Programmed cell death in the leaves of the Arabidopsis spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D mutant correlates with increased expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael M.D.J.-M. Gaussand

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From a pool of transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana plants harboring an activator T-DNA construct, one mutant was identified that developed spontaneous necrotic spots (sns-D on the rosette leaves under aseptic conditions. The sns-D mutation is dominant and homozygous plants are embryo lethal. The mutant produced smaller rosettes with a different number of stomata than the wild-type. DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of cells in the necrotic spots and a significant increase of caspase-3 and caspase-6 like activities in sns-D leaf extracts indicated that the sns-D mutation caused programmed cell death (PCD. The integration of the activator T-DNA caused an increase of the expression level of At1g13020, which encodes the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4B2. The expression level of eIF4B2 was positively correlated with the severity of sns-D mutant phenotype. Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is indeed caused by activation tagging of eIF4B2. Thus, incorrect regulation of translation initiation may result in PCD.

  8. Modification of the morphology and optical properties of SnS films using glancing angle deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazideh, M.R., E-mail: Mohammadrezasazideh@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dizaji, H. Rezagholipour, E-mail: hrgholipour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: mhe_ehsani@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, R. Zarei, E-mail: r.zarei1991@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • SnS thin films produced by thermal evaporation method using glancing angle deposition technique. • At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range. • FESEM images showed drastic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle deposition. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) films were prepared by thermal evaporation method using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique at zero and different oblique incident flux angles (α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°). The physical properties of prepared films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the film deposited at α = 0° formed as single phase with an orthorhombic structure. However, the layers became amorphous at α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°. Beside the appearance of amorphous feature in the film prepared at α higher than zero, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was also observed. The top and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images of the samples showed noticeable changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle. The band gap and refractive index values of the films were calculated by optical transmission measurements. The optical band-gap values were observed to increase with increasing the incident flux angle. This can be due to presence of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase observed in the samples produced at α values other than zero. The effective refractive index and porosity exhibit an opposite evolution as the incident angle α rises. At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range.

  9. Deposition and characterization of spray pyrolysed p-type Cu2SnS3 thin film for potential absorber layer of solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkadam, S.; Sakthi, P.; Prabhakaran, S.; Chakravarty, Sujay; Ganesan, V.; Rajesh, A. Leo

    2018-06-01

    Thin film of ternary Cu2SnS3 (CTS), a potential absorber layer for solar cells was successfully deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. The GIXRD pattern revealed that the film having tetragonal Cu2SnS3 phase with the preferential orientation along (112), (200), (220) and (312) plane and it is further confirmed using Raman spectroscopy by the existence of Raman peak at 320 cm-1. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to estimate the surface roughness of 28.8 nm. The absorption coefficient was found to be greater than the order of 105 cm-1 and bandgap of 1.70 eV. Hall effect measurement indicates the p type nature of the film with a hole concentration of 1.03 × 1016cm-3 and a hall mobility of 404 cm2/V. The properties of CTS thin film confirmed suitable to be a potential absorber layer material for photovoltaic applications.

  10. A Cross-Cultural Examination of SNS Usage Intensity and Managing Interpersonal Relationships Online: The Role of Culture and the Autonomous-Related Self-Construal

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soon Li; Kim, Jung-Ae; Golden, Karen Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwi; Park, Miriam Sang-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the autonomy and relatedness of the self may be influenced by one's experiences and social expectations within a particular cultural setting. The present research examined the role of culture and the Autonomous-Related self-construal in predicting for different aspects of Social Networking Sites (SNS) usage in three Asian countries, especially focusing on those aspects serving interpersonal goals. Participants in this cross-cultural study included 305 university students from Ma...

  11. In situ capping for size control of monochalcogenide (ZnS, CdS and SnS) nanocrystals produced by anaerobic metal-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Gyoung Gug; Datskos, Panos G; Jacobs, Christopher B; Ivanov, Ilia N; Joshi, Pooran C; Meyer, Harry M III; Armstrong, Beth L; Kidder, Michelle; Graham, David E; Moon, Ji-Won

    2015-01-01

    Metal monochalcogenide quantum dot nanocrystals of ZnS, CdS and SnS were prepared by anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria using in situ capping by oleic acid or oleylamine. The capping agent preferentially adsorbs on the surface of the nanocrystal, suppressing the growth process in the early stages, thus leading to production of nanocrystals with a diameter of less than 5 nm. (paper)

  12. Impact of deposition temperature on the properties of SnS thin films grown over silicon substrate—comparative study of structural and optical properties with films grown on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films were chemically deposited over silicon substrate in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The effects of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films were evaluated. All films present an orthorhombic SnS structure with a preferred orientation along (040). High absorption coefficients (in the range of 105 cm-1) were found for all obtained films with an increase in α value when deposition temperature decreases. Furthermore, the effects of substrate type were investigated based on comparison between the present results and those obtained for SnS films grown under the same deposition conditions but over glass substrate. The results suggest that the formation of SnS films onto glass substrate is faster than onto silicon substrate. It is found that the substrate nature affects the orientation growth of the films and that SnS films deposited onto Si present more defects than those deposited onto glass substrate. The optical transmittance is also restricted by the substrate type, mostly below 1000 nm. The obtained results for SnS films onto silicon suggest their promising integration within optoelectronic devices.

  13. Diagnostics for Evaluating Performance of NSTX Liquid Lihium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Kallman, J.; Leblanc, B.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Wilgen, J.; Allain, J.-P.; Taylor, C.

    2009-11-01

    A Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX to investigate particle control and power handling with liquid lithium as plasma-facing component (PFC). The LLD is expected to provide a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). To study the effects of such a PFC on plasma performance, a variety of edge measurements are required. Since its surface is highly reflective at visible wavelengths, a Lyman-alpha detector array will be used to monitor the recycling. To understand changes in edge transport, electron temperature and density measurements will be made with Langmuir probes mounted in PFC's near the LLD, and the edge sightlines of a multipoint Thomson scattering system. A frequency-scanning reflectometer will also provide scrapeoff layer electron density profiles. The LLD response to heat loads will be examined with infrared cameras and thermocouples. Diagnostics are also needed to measure the erosion and codeposition of lithium. They include quartz deposition monitors and a retractable probe for exposing samples to the plasma.

  14. Single-Crystal Growth of Cl-Doped n-Type SnS Using SnCl2 Self-Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yuki; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Sugiyama, Taiki; Yanagi, Hiroshi

    2018-06-05

    SnS is a promising photovoltaic semiconductor owing to its suitable band gap energy and high optical absorption coefficient for highly efficient thin film solar cells. The most significant carnage is demonstration of n-type SnS. In this study, Cl-doped n-type single crystals were grown using SnCl 2 self-flux method. The obtained crystal was lamellar, with length and width of a few millimeters and thickness ranging between 28 and 39 μm. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the single crystals had an orthorhombic unit cell. Since the ionic radii of S 2- and Cl - are similar, Cl doping did not result in substantial change in lattice parameter. All the elements were homogeneously distributed on a cleaved surface; the Sn/(S + Cl) ratio was 1.00. The crystal was an n-type degenerate semiconductor with a carrier concentration of ∼3 × 10 17 cm -3 . Hall mobility at 300 K was 252 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and reached 363 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 142 K.

  15. Ultraviolet emission from low resistance Cu2SnS3/SnO2 and CuInS2/Sn:In2O3 nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karageorgou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available SnO2 and Sn:In2O3 nanowires were grown on Si(001, and p-n junctions were fabricated in contact with p-type Cu2S which exhibited rectifying current–voltage characteristics. Core-shell Cu2SnS3/SnO2 and CuInS2/Sn:In2O3 nanowires were obtained by depositing copper and post-growth processing under H2S between 100 and 500 °C. These consist mainly of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and cubic bixbyite In2O3. We observe photoluminescence at 3.65 eV corresponding to band edge emission from SnO2 quantum dots in the Cu2SnS3/SnO2 nanowires due to electrostatic confinement. The Cu2SnS3/SnO2 nanowires assemblies had resistances of 100 Ω similar to CuInS2/In2O3 nanowires which exhibited photoluminescence at 3.0 eV.

  16. EXCESS RF POWER REQUIRED FOR RF CONTROL OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC, A PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.; Kwon, S.

    2001-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linac, such as that being planned for the SNS, requires accurate RF control of cavity fields for the entire pulse in order to avoid beam spill. The current design requirement for the SNS is RF field stability within ±0.5% and ±0.5 o [1]. This RF control capability is achieved by the control electronics using the excess RF power to correct disturbances. To minimize the initial capital costs, the RF system is designed with 'just enough' RF power. All the usual disturbances exist, such as beam noise, klystron/HVPS noise, coupler imperfections, transport losses, turn-on and turn-off transients, etc. As a superconducting linac, there are added disturbances of large magnitude, including Lorentz detuning and microphonics. The effects of these disturbances and the power required to correct them are estimated, and the result shows that the highest power systems in the SNS have just enough margin, with little or no excess margin

  17. Growth and characterization of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin film deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Sagade, A.A.; Gudage, Y.G.; Lokhande, C.D.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of tin disulfide (SnS 2 ) have been deposited by using low cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The deposition parameters such as SILAR cycles (60), immersion time (20 s), rinsing time (10 s) and deposition temperature (27 o C) were optimized to obtain good quality of films. Physical investigations were made to study the structural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the deposited SnS 2 thin films have hexagonal crystal structure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated elemental ratio close to those for tin disulfide (SnS (2.02) ). Uniform deposition of the material over the entire glass substrate was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the film is uniform and the substrate surface is well covered with small spherical grains merged in each other. A direct band gap of 2.22 eV was obtained. Photoluminescence (PL) showed two strong peaks corresponding to green and red emission. Ag/SnS 2 junction showed Schottky diode like I-V characteristics. The barrier height calculated was 0.22 eV. Thermoelectric power (TEP) properties showed that tin disulfide exhibits n-type conductivity

  18. Noble Gas Leak Detector for Use in the SNS Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Chad; Huffman, Paul; Leung, Kent; Korobkina, Ekaterina; White, Christian; nEDM Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Common practice for leak-checking high vacuum systems uses helium as the probing gas. However, helium may permeate some materials at room temperature, making leak characterization difficult. The experiment to find a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM), to be conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, will employ a large volume of liquid helium housed by such a helium-permeable composite material. It is desirable to construct a leak detector that can employ alternative test gases. The purpose of this experiment is to create a leak detector that can quantify the argon gas flux in a high vacuum environment and interpret this flux as a leak-rate. This apparatus will be used to check the nEDM volumes for leaks at room temperature before cooling down to cryogenic temperatures. Our leak detector uses a residual gas analyzer and a vacuum pumping station to characterize the gas present in an evacuated volume. The introduction of argon gas into the system is interpreted as a leak-rate into the volume. The device has been calibrated with NIST certified calibrated leaks and the machine's sensitivity has been calculated using background gas analysis. As a result of the device construction and software programming, we are able to leak-check composite and polyamide volumes This work was supported in part by the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER41042.

  19. Effects of deposition period on the chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Wee Tee, Tan; Soon Min, Ho.; Nagalingam, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Cu 4 SnS 4 thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The influence of deposition period on the structural, morphological and optical properties of films was studied. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the films were polycrystalline with prominent peak attributed to (221) plane of orthorhombic crystal structure. The films prepared at 80 min showed significant increased in the intensity of all diffractions. According to AFM images, these films indicated that the surface of substrate was covered completely. The obtained films also produced higher absorption characteristics when compared to the films prepared at other deposition periods based on optical absorption studies. The band gap values of films deposited at different deposition periods were in the range of 1.6-2.1 eV. Deposition for 80 min was found to be the optimum condition to produce good quality thin films under the current conditions. (author).

  20. Annealing of RF-magnetron sputtered SnS{sub 2} precursors as a new route for single phase SnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, M.G., E-mail: martasousa@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cunha, A.F. da, E-mail: antonio.cunha@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Fernandes, P.A., E-mail: pafernandes@ua.pt [AIN, I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-04-01

    Tin sulphide thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrates through the annealing of RF-magnetron sputtered SnS{sub 2} precursors. Three different approaches to the annealing were compared and the resulting films thoroughly studied. One series of precursors was annealed in a tubular furnace directly exposed to a flux of sulphur vapour plus forming gas, N{sub 2} + 5%H{sub 2}, and at a constant pressure of 500 mbar. The other two series of identical precursors were annealed in the same furnace but inside a graphite box with and without elemental sulphur evaporation again in the presence of N{sub 2} + 5%H{sub 2} and at the same pressure as for the sulphur flux experiments. Different maximum annealing temperatures for each set of samples, in the range of 300–570 °C, were tested to study their effects on the properties of the final films. The resulting phases were structurally investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in sulphur flux produced films where SnS{sub 2} was dominant for temperatures up to 480 °C. Increasing the temperature to 530 °C and 570 °C led to films where the dominant phase became Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in a graphite box with sulphur vapour at temperatures in the range between 300 °C and 480 °C the films are multi-phase, containing Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, SnS{sub 2} and SnS. For high annealing temperatures of 530 °C and 570 °C the films have SnS as the dominant phase. Annealing of SnS{sub 2} precursors in a graphite box without sulphur vapour at 300 °C and 360 °C the films are essentially amorphous, at 420 °C SnS{sub 2} is the dominant phase. For temperatures of 480 °C and 530 °C SnS is the dominant phase but also same residual SnS{sub 2} and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phases are observed. For annealing at 570 °C, according to the XRD results the films appear to be single phase SnS. The composition was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy being

  1. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  2. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  3. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly......Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  4. Liquidity Runs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matta, R.; Perotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Can the risk of losses upon premature liquidation produce bank runs? We show how a unique run equilibrium driven by asset liquidity risk arises even under minimal fundamental risk. To study the role of illiquidity we introduce realistic norms on bank default, such that mandatory stay is triggered

  5. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  6. A new singularity in the coherent coupling in Al/GaAs/Al SNS junctions at the bias voltage corresponding to the superconducting energy gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Kuhn, Oliver

    1998-01-01

    Particularly high transmittivity superconductor-semiconductor barriers formed by MBE growth have been used to form short Josephson planar type Superconductor-Normal-metal-Superconductor (SNS) Josephson junctions with lengths down to 1 mu m. In these junctions the quasiparticles move diffusively...... across the normal region and carry along the phase information given to them by Andreev reflections at both SN boundaries. In order to probe the importance of the coherent transport of quasiparticles in the normal region, we formed one of the superconducting electrodes of the junction as an open loop i...

  7. Coherence-enhanced phase-dependent dissipation in long SNS Josephson junctions: Revealing Andreev bound state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonneville, B.; Murani, A.; Ferrier, M.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.

    2018-05-01

    One of the best known causes of dissipation in ac-driven quantum systems stems from photon absorption causing transitions between levels. Dissipation can also be caused by the retarded response to the time-dependent excitation, and in general gives insight into the system's relaxation times and mechanisms. Here we address the dissipation in a mesoscopic normal wire with superconducting contacts, that sustains a dissipationless supercurrent at zero frequency and that may therefore naively be expected to remain dissipationless at a frequency lower than the superconducting gap. We probe the high-frequency linear response of such a normal metal/superconductor (NS) ring to a time-dependent flux by coupling it to a highly sensitive multimode microwave resonator. Far from being the simple, dissipationless derivative of the supercurrent-versus-phase relation, the ring's ac susceptibility also displays a dissipative component whose phase dependence is a signature of the dynamical processes occurring within the Andreev spectrum. We show how dissipation is driven by the competition between two mechanisms. The first is the relaxation of the Andreev level distribution function, while the second corresponds to microwave-induced transitions within the spectrum. Depending on the relative strength of those contributions, dissipation can be maximal at π , a phase at which the proximity-induced minigap closes, or can be maximal near π /2 , a phase at which the dc supercurrent is maximal. We also find that the dissipative response paradoxically increases at low temperature and can even exceed the normal-state conductance. The results are successfully confronted with theoretical predictions of the Kubo linear response and time-dependent Usadel equations, derived from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian describing the SNS junction. These experiments thus demonstrate the power of the ac susceptibility measurement of individual hybrid mesoscopic systems in probing in a controlled way

  8. Development of a 3He nuclear spin flip system on an in-situ SEOP 3He spin filter and demonstration for a neutron reflectometer and magnetic imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, H; Kira, H; Miyata, N; Akutsu, K; Mizusawa, M; Parker, J D; Matsumoto, Y; Oku, T; Sakai, K; Hiroi, K; Shinohara, T; Takeda, M; Yamazaki, D; Oikawa, K; Harada, M; Ino, T; Imagawa, T; Ohkawara, M; Ohoyama, K; Kakurai, K

    2016-01-01

    We have been developing a 3 He neutron spin filter (NSF) using the spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP) technique. The 3 He NSF provides a high-energy polarized neutron beam with large beam size. Moreover the 3 He NSF can work as a π-flipper for a polarized neutron beam by flipping the 3 He nuclear spin using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. For NMR with the in-situ SEOP technique, the polarization of the laser must be reversed simultaneously because a non-reversed laser reduces the polarization of the spin-flipped 3 He. To change the polarity of the laser, a half-wavelength plate was installed. The rotation angle of the half-wavelength plate was optimized, and a polarization of 97% was obtained for the circularly polarized laser. The 3 He polarization reached 70% and was stable over one week. A demonstration of the 3 He nuclear spin flip system was performed at the polarized neutron reflectometer SHARAKU (BL17) and NOBORU (BL10) at J-PARC. Off-specular measurement from a magnetic Fe/Cr thin film and magnetic imaging of a magnetic steel sheet were performed at BL17 and BL10, respectively. (paper)

  9. Narrow-gap physical vapour deposition synthesis of ultrathin SnS1-xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) two-dimensional alloys with unique polarized Raman spectra and high (opto)electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Li, Yongtao; Guo, Jianhua; Ni, Muxun; Liao, Ming; Mo, Haojie; Li, Jingbo

    2018-05-10

    Here we report ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets synthesized via a narrow-gap physical vapour deposition approach. The SnS1-xSex alloy presents a uniform quadrangle shape with a lateral size of 5-80 μm and a thickness of several nanometers. Clear orthorhombic symmetries and unique in-plane anisotropic properties of the 2D alloyed nanosheets were found with the help of X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and polarized Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, 2D alloyed field-effect transistors were fabricated, exhibiting a unipolar p-type semiconductor behavior. This study also provided a lesson that the thickness of the alloyed channels played the major role in the current on/off ratio, and the high ratio of 2.10 × 102 measured from a large ultrathin SnS1-xSex device was two orders of magnitude larger than that of previously reported SnS, SnSe nanosheet based transistors because of the capacitance shielding effect. Obviously enhanced Raman peaks were also found in the thinner nanosheets. Furthermore, the ultrathin SnS0.5Se0.5 based photodetector showed a highest responsivity of 1.69 A W-1 and a short response time of 40 ms under illumination of a 532 nm laser from 405 to 808 nm. Simultaneously, the corresponding highest external quantum efficiency of 392% and detectivity of 3.96 × 104 Jones were also achieved. Hopefully, the narrow-gap synthesis technique provides us with an improved strategy to obtain large ultrathin 2D nanosheets which may tend to grow into thicker ones for stronger interlayer van der Waals forces, and the enhanced physical and (opto)electrical performances in the obtained ultrathin SnS1-xSex alloyed nanosheets prove their great potential in the future applications for versatile devices.

  10. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  11. Using narrative inquiry to listen to the voices of adolescent mothers in relation to their use of social networking sites (SNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Samantha; Hendricks, Joyce; Williamson, Moira; Ferguson, Sally

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a discussion highlighting the relevance and strengths of using narrative inquiry to explore experiences of social networking site (SNS) use by adolescent mothers. Narrative inquiry as a method reveals truths about holistic human experience. Knowledge gleaned from personal narratives informs nursing knowledge and clinical practice. This approach gives voice to adolescent mothers in relation to their experiences with SNS as a means of providing social support. Discussion paper. This paper draws and reflects on the author's experiences using narrative inquiry and is supported by literature and theory. The following databases were searched: CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, ERIC, ProQuest, PsychINFO, Web of Science and Health Collection (Informit). Key terms and Boolean search operators were used to broaden the search criteria. Search terms included: adolescent mother, teenage mother, "social networking sites", online, social media, Facebook, social support, social capital and information. Dates for the search were limited to January 1995-June 2017. Narrative research inherently values the individual "story" of experience. This approach facilitates rapport building and methodological flexibility with an often difficult to engage sample group, adolescents. Narrative inquiry reveals a deep level of insight into social networking site use by adolescent mothers. The flexibility afforded by use of a narrative approach allows for fluidity and reflexivity in the research process. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Social Media Use and Well-Being in People with Physical Disabilities: Influence of SNS and Online Community Uses on Social Support, Depression, and Psychological Disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H Erin; Cho, Jaehee

    2018-04-13

    This study examined the relationships across social media use, social support, depression, and general psychological disposition among people with movement or mobility disabilities in Korea. First, with survey data (n = 91) collected from users of social network sites (SNSs) and online communities, hypotheses regarding positive associations between intensity of an individual's engagement in social media and four different types of social support-emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal support-were tested as well as hypotheses regarding mediation effects of the social support variables in the association between social media use and depression. Second, through focus group interviews (n = 15), influences of social media use on social support were more thoroughly explored as well as their influences on general psychological disposition. Results from hierarchical regression analyses confirmed that both intensity of SNS use and online community use significantly predicted instrumental, informational, and appraisal support, while they did not predict emotional support. Further regression and Sobel tests showed that higher levels of intensity of SNS use and of online community use both led to lower levels of depression through the mediation of instrumental and informational support. Analysis of the interviews further revealed the positive roles of social media use in building social support and healthy psychological dispositions. However, analysis also revealed some negative consequences of and limitations to social media use for those with physical disabilities. These findings expand our knowledge of the context and implications of engaging in online social activities for people with physical disabilities.

  13. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  14. Optimal Liquidation under Stochastic Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Becherer, Dirk; Bilarev, Todor; Frentrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We solve explicitly a two-dimensional singular control problem of finite fuel type for infinite time horizon. The problem stems from the optimal liquidation of an asset position in a financial market with multiplicative and transient price impact. Liquidity is stochastic in that the volume effect process, which determines the inter-temporal resilience of the market in spirit of Predoiu, Shaikhet and Shreve (2011), is taken to be stochastic, being driven by own random noise. The optimal contro...

  15. Liquidity risk and contagion for liquid funds

    OpenAIRE

    Darolles , Serge; Dudek , Jeremy; Le Fol , Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Fund managers face liquidity problems but they have to distinguish the market liquidity risk implied by their assets and the funding liquidity risk. This latter is due to both the liquidity mismatch between assets and liabilities and the redemption risk due to the possible outflows from clients. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of contagion looking at common market liquidity problems to detect funding liquidity problems. Using the CDS Bond Spread basis as a liquidity indica...

  16. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  17. Liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Paswan, Anil; Prakas, S

    2014-01-01

    Human have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids like fish. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV) is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. It is well-known that respiratory diseases are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit. During the past few years several new modalities of treatment have been introduced. One of them and probably the most fascinating, is of LV. Partial LV, on which much of the existing research has concentrated, requires partial filling of lungs with perfluorocarbons (PFC's) and ventilation with gas tidal volumes using conventional mechanical ventilators. Various physico-chemical properties of PFC's make them the ideal media. It results in a dramatic improvement in lung compliance and oxygenation and decline in mean airway pressure and oxygen requirements. No long-term side-effect reported.

  18. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem

    2012-12-01

    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  19. Development of a heterodyne micro-wave reflectometer with ultra-fast sweeping. The study of the plasma turbulence influence on the measurements of electron density profile; Developppement d`un reflectometre micro-onde heterodyne a balayage ultra rapide. Etude de l`influence de la turbulence du plasma sur la mesure des profils de densite electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, Philippe [Aix-Marseille-1 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-10-17

    The density profile of the fusion plasmas can be investigated by the reflectometry diagnostics. The measurement principle is based on the radar techniques which calculate the phase shift of a millimeter wave propagating into the plasma and reflected at a cut-off layer. However, this propagation is perturbed by the plasma turbulence. These phenomena affect the phase delay measurement by not well understood a process. In this work we have tried to find the mechanisms and origin of the turbulence which is responsible for the phase disturbance. We point out the role of collisionality and plasma radiation in controlling the instability and also, demonstrate that the phase delay of the probing wave is very sensitive to the plasma MHD phenomena and is less affected by the micro-turbulence. The second part of this work is the development and the use of a new heterodyne reflectometer. The principal characteristics are given. Its heterodyne detection allows the separation of phase and amplitude information from the detected signal and then to study their contribution to the mechanism of signal perturbation. The use of this reflectometer allows us to point out the following points: - a high dynamic availability, required by the large amplitude drops, often greater than 30 db; - fast sweep operation requirement to `freeze` the plasma turbulence; - multiple reflection effects which modulate the amplitude and phase of the probing wave if they are not suppressed by filtering the detected signal; - very good localisation of the measurement (of the order of millimeter). The heterodyne reflectometer developed during this work offers several advantages of different distinct reflectometry techniques (fast sweep, absolute and differential phase measurements, heterodyne detection). It could be developed to work over higher frequency range so as to measure density profile over larger radial extension with very high performances. (author) 93 refs., 101 figs., 8 tabs. 3 ills.

  20. Implementation of a Semantic Network Service (SNS) in the context of the German Environmental Information Network (gein trademark). Vol. 1 and 2; Erstellung eines semantischen Netzwerkservice (SNS) fuer das Umweltinformationsnetz Deutschland - German Environmental Information Network (gein trademark). Bd. 1 und 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandholtz, T.

    2003-05-01

    Encouraged by the success of the thesaurus-based automatic indexing of environmental information provided by the German Environmental Information Network (gein {sup trademark}, http://www.gein.de), the terminology collections of gein {sup trademark} have been integrated and cross-networked in a comprehensive Topic Map. On this base, the text analysis module could be considerably enhanced. Any access to the terminology and its methods has been provided by means of Web Services. gein {sup trademark} (starting with version 2003) incorporates these Web Services in the productive installation. Besides that, SNS provides basic functionality for terminology editors. (orig.)

  1. Experimental investigations into the spectral reflectivity and emissivity of liquid UO2, UC, ThO2, and Nd2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karow, H.U.; Bober, M.

    1979-01-01

    Fast reactor safety research requires knowledge of emissivity data of nuclear fuel materials up to temperatures of the liquid state. A special integrating sphere laser reflectometer has been used to measure the normal reflectivity and emissivity of UO 2 , UC, ThO 2 , and in addition of Nd 2 O 3 in the solid state (premolten, refrozen material) and in the liquid state up to temperatures of 4000 to 4800 K. The measuring wavelengths have been 0.63 μm and 10.6 μm. The emissivity curves of the oxidic specimens measured at 0.63 μm show the same characteristic course: little temperature dependence below the melting point, distinct increase in the liquid state. In the case of UO 2 the emissivity at the melting point (3120 K) is 0.84, at 4100 K it is 0.92. At 10.6 μm, a decrease has been measured for the liquid state of UO 2 and ThO 2 . UC shows in the solid and in the liquid state only a small temperature dependence with a marked drop, however, at the melting point (2780 K) from 0.54 to 0.45. The measuring results are presented by diagrams and by fit equations related to the true and the black temperature, respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Structural and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film absorbers from ZnS and Cu3SnS4 nanoparticle precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Kornhuber, Kai; Levcenko, Sergiu; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch.; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) has been considered as an alternative absorber layer to Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 due to its earth abundant and environmentally friendly constituents, optimal direct band gap of 1.4–1.6 eV and high absorption coefficient in the visible range. In this work, we propose a solution-based chemical route for the preparation of CZTS thin film absorbers by spin coating of the precursor inks composed of Cu 3 SnS 4 and ZnS NPs and annealing in Ar/H 2 S atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural properties. The chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical properties of the CZTS thin film absorbers were studied by transmission, reflection and photoluminescence spectroscopy

  3. Growth of amorphous Zn–Sn–O thin films by RF sputtering for buffer layers of CuInSe2 and SnS solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shao-Wei; Ishikawa, Kaoru; Sugiyama, Mutsumi

    2015-01-01

    We propose using amorphous Zn–Sn–O (α-ZTO) deposited by RF sputtering as an alternative n-type buffer layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and SnS solar cells. The order of the carrier density, n, is increased from the order of 10 15 to 10 17 cm −1 as the Sn/(Sn + Zn) atomic ratio increases from 0.29 to 0.40. On the other hand, the order of n decreased from 10 17 to 10 11 cm −1 as the oxygen partial pressure increased from 0 to 10%. Further, for the α-ZTO film with the Sn/(Sn + Zn) atomic ratio at 0.38 and the oxygen partial pressure at 0%, valence band discontinuities of α-ZTO/CuInSe 2 and α-ZTO/SnS were determined using photoelectron yield spectroscopy measurements. The band discontinuities of each of these interfaces form a spike structure in the conduction band offset, which enables a high-performance solar cell to be obtained. - Highlights: • We propose using amorphous Zn–Sn–O as a n-type layer for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 and SnS solar cells. • The carrier density was controlled by total and/or oxygen partial pressure during sputtering. • Valence band discontinuities of Zn–Sn–O/CuInSe 2 and Zn–Sn–O/SnS were determined. • The conduction band discontinuities of each of these interfaces form a spike structure

  4. 3D-QSAR and molecular docking studies on derivatives of MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 as inhibitors against Aurora B kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baidong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Huixiao; Ai, Chunzhi

    2010-11-02

    Development of anticancer drugs targeting Aurora B, an important member of the serine/threonine kinases family, has been extensively focused on in recent years. In this work, by applying an integrated computational method, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), homology modeling and molecular docking, we investigated the structural determinants of Aurora B inhibitors based on three different series of derivatives of 108 molecules. The resultant optimum 3D-QSAR models exhibited (q(2) = 0.605, r(2) (pred) = 0.826), (q(2) = 0.52, r(2) (pred) = 0.798) and (q(2) = 0.582, r(2) (pred) = 0.971) for MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 classes, respectively, and the 3D contour maps generated from these models were analyzed individually. The contour map analysis for the MK-0457 model revealed the relative importance of steric and electrostatic effects for Aurora B inhibition, whereas, the electronegative groups with hydrogen bond donating capacity showed a great impact on the inhibitory activity for the derivatives of GSK1070916. Additionally, the predictive model of the SNS-314 class revealed the great importance of hydrophobic favorable contour, since hydrophobic favorable substituents added to this region bind to a deep and narrow hydrophobic pocket composed of residues that are hydrophobic in nature and thus enhanced the inhibitory activity. Moreover, based on the docking study, a further comparison of the binding modes was accomplished to identify a set of critical residues that play a key role in stabilizing the drug-target interactions. Overall, the high level of consistency between the 3D contour maps and the topographical features of binding sites led to our identification of several key structural requirements for more potency inhibitors. Taken together, the results will serve as a basis for future drug development of inhibitors against Aurora B kinase for various tumors.

  5. 3D-QSAR and Molecular Docking Studies on Derivatives of MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 as Inhibitors against Aurora B Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhi Ai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of anticancer drugs targeting Aurora B, an important member of the serine/threonine kinases family, has been extensively focused on in recent years. In this work, by applying an integrated computational method, including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA, comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA, homology modeling and molecular docking, we investigated the structural determinants of Aurora B inhibitors based on three different series of derivatives of 108 molecules. The resultant optimum 3D-QSAR models exhibited (q2 = 0.605, r2pred = 0.826, (q2 = 0.52, r2pred = 0.798 and (q2 = 0.582, r2pred = 0.971 for MK-0457, GSK1070916 and SNS-314 classes, respectively, and the 3D contour maps generated from these models were analyzed individually. The contour map analysis for the MK-0457 model revealed the relative importance of steric and electrostatic effects for Aurora B inhibition, whereas, the electronegative groups with hydrogen bond donating capacity showed a great impact on the inhibitory activity for the derivatives of GSK1070916. Additionally, the predictive model of the SNS-314 class revealed the great importance of hydrophobic favorable contour, since hydrophobic favorable substituents added to this region bind to a deep and narrow hydrophobic pocket composed of residues that are hydrophobic in nature and thus enhanced the inhibitory activity. Moreover, based on the docking study, a further comparison of the binding modes was accomplished to identify a set of critical residues that play a key role in stabilizing the drug-target interactions. Overall, the high level of consistency between the 3D contour maps and the topographical features of binding sites led to our identification of several key structural requirements for more potency inhibitors. Taken together, the results will serve as a basis for future drug development of inhibitors against Aurora B kinase for various tumors.

  6. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R

    1959-01-01

    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  7. Liquid electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  8. Liquid diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The liquid diode is designed for a flowmeter chamber which has an inlet and an outlet duct, and a flow chamber with a cross-section which is greater than inlet. In the space between the inlet and outlet are two screens with a number of spheres, which may be of different sizes and weights. The screen on the inlet side is smaller than that at the outlet, so that the spheres are able to block the inlet under reverse flow conditions, but do not block the outlet. The system functions as a non-return valve. (G.C.)

  9. From Funding Liquidity to Market Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Lund, Jesper; Gyntelberg, Jacob

    This paper shows empirically that funding liquidity drives market liquidity. As it becomes harder to secure term funding in the money markets, liquidity deteriorates in the Danish bond market. We show that the first principal component of bond market liquidity is driven by the market makers...... for other European government bonds using MTS data. The findings suggest that regulatory bond based liquidity buffers for banks will have limited effectiveness....

  10. Grain size and lattice parameter's influence on band gap of SnS thin nano-crystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Yashika [Department of Electronics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi-South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India); Arun, P., E-mail: arunp92@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Electronics, S.G.T.B. Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Naudi, A.A.; Walz, M.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, 3101 Oro Verde (Argentina); Albanesi, E.A. [Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos, 3101 Oro Verde (Argentina); Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Guemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2016-08-01

    Tin sulphide nano-crystalline thin films were fabricated on glass and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) substrates by thermal evaporation method. The crystal structure orientation of the films was found to be dependent on the substrate. Residual stress existed in the films due to these orientations. This stress led to variation in lattice parameter. The nano-crystalline grain size was also found to vary with film thickness. A plot of band-gap with grain size or with lattice parameter showed the existence of a family of curves. This implied that band-gap of SnS films in the preview of the present study depends on two parameters, lattice parameter and grain size. The band-gap relation with grain size is well known in the nano regime. Experimental data fitted well with this relation for the given lattice constants. The manuscript uses theoretical structure calculations for different lattice constants and shows that the experimental data follows the trend. Thus, confirming that the band gap has a two variable dependency. - Highlights: • Tin sulphide films are grown on glass and ITO substrates. • Both substrates give differently oriented films. • The band-gap is found to depend on grain size and lattice parameter. • Using data from literature, E{sub g} is shown to be two parameter function. • Theoretical structure calculations are used to verify results.

  11. Non-vacuum mechanochemical route to the synthesis of Cu2SnS3 nano-ink for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanalakar, S.A.; Agawane, G.L.; Shin, S.W.; Yang, H.S.; Patil, P.S.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Cu-based ternary chalcogenides such as Cu 2 SnS 3 (CTS) are attracting increasing interest due to their outstanding opto-electronic properties. Herein, a simple, cost-effective non-vacuum mechanochemical synthetic route for preparing CTS nanocrystals with controlled size and composition is presented. CTS nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by ball milling and subsequent annealing in an H 2 S atmosphere. These nanocrystal samples were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (P-XRD), Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible optical spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Texture structures with cubic crystallinity were observed from the P-XRD of (1 1 2), (2 0 0) planes of CTS nanopowders. The EDS results confirmed that the synthesized powders had an appropriate chemical purity. According to TEM/FE-SEM observations, a nanostructure CTS was obtained after 36 h of mechanochemical processing followed by annealing. The average particle size of single phase CTS after 48 h of milling was ∼45 nm. Based on obtained data using characterization methods, reaction mechanism steps were proposed to clarify the reactions that occurred during the mechanochemical process. In order to prepare nanocrystal ink, ethanol was used as a solvent, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, which acts as an organic stabilizing agent, was added to the CTS powder to prepare a printable paste

  12. Van der Waals epitaxial growth and optoelectronics of large-scale WSe2/SnS2 vertical bilayer p-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiefeng; Zheng, Biyuan; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Tao; Pan, Chen; Zou, Juan; Zhang, Xuehong; Qi, Zhaoyang; Liu, Hongjun; Feng, Yexin; Hu, Weida; Miao, Feng; Sun, Litao; Duan, Xiangfeng; Pan, Anlian

    2017-12-04

    High-quality two-dimensional atomic layered p-n heterostructures are essential for high-performance integrated optoelectronics. The studies to date have been largely limited to exfoliated and restacked flakes, and the controlled growth of such heterostructures remains a significant challenge. Here we report the direct van der Waals epitaxial growth of large-scale WSe 2 /SnS 2 vertical bilayer p-n junctions on SiO 2 /Si substrates, with the lateral sizes reaching up to millimeter scale. Multi-electrode field-effect transistors have been integrated on a single heterostructure bilayer. Electrical transport measurements indicate that the field-effect transistors of the junction show an ultra-low off-state leakage current of 10 -14 A and a highest on-off ratio of up to 10 7 . Optoelectronic characterizations show prominent photoresponse, with a fast response time of 500 μs, faster than all the directly grown vertical 2D heterostructures. The direct growth of high-quality van der Waals junctions marks an important step toward high-performance integrated optoelectronic devices and systems.

  13. The Liquid State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    like iron, aluminium, lead, zinc, etc .. Metals are cast ... dropping molten liquid of the alloys on a rapidly spinning copper wheel. ... Ed. Computer simulation studies in ... liquids, modelling ofliquids and study of the dynamic behaviour of liquids ...

  14. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a

  15. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria of perfluorocarbons with fluorinated ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, S.; Araújo, J.M.M.; Rebelo, L.P.N.; Pereiro, A.B.; Marrucho, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • (Liquid + liquid) equilibria perfluorocarbons and fluorinated ionic liquids. • Non-Random Two Liquid model was successfully applied. • Thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the feasibility of partially replace perfluorocarbons (PFCs) with fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs) in PFCs-in-water emulsions, usually used for biomedical purposes, herein the (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of FILs containing fluorinated chains longer than four carbons with PFCs were carried out in a wide range of temperatures. With this goal in mind, two PFCs (perfluorooctane and perfluorodecalin) were selected and the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of the binary mixtures of these PFCs and FILs were studied at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range from T (293.15 to 343.15) K. For these studies, FILs containing ammonium, pyridinium and imidazolium cations and different anions with fluorocarbon alkyl chains between 4 and 8 were included. Additionally, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) thermodynamic model was successfully applied to correlate the behaviour of the PFCs + FILs binary mixtures. Moreover, thermodynamic functions that describe the solvation process were calculated from the experimental data

  16. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratios representing the liquidity as current assets, assets implied in the determination of liquidity ratios. The end of the paper consists of the conclusions drawn from the issues presented in the paper but also our views on this research topic.

  17. Implied liquidity : towards stochastic liquidity modeling and liquidity trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcuera, J.M.; Guillaume, F.M.Y.; Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of implied (il)liquidity of vanilla options. Implied liquidity is based on the fundamental theory of conic finance, in which the one-price model is abandoned and replaced by a two-price model giving bid and ask prices for traded assets. The pricing is done by

  18. Liquid waste sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    A liquid pumping pressure regulator is disposed on the midway of a pressure control tube which connects the upper portion of a sampling pot and the upper portion of a liquid waste storage vessel. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the sampling pot is made negative, and liquid wastes are sucked to the liquid pumping tube passing through the sampling pot, the difference between the pressure on the entrance of the liquid pumping pressure regulator of the pressure regulating tube and the pressure at the bottom of the liquid waste storage vessel is made constant. An opening degree controlling meter is disposed to control the degree of opening of a pressure regulating valve for sending actuation pressurized air to the liquid pumping pressure regulator. Accordingly, even if the liquid level of liquid wastes in the liquid waste storage vessel is changed, the height for the suction of the liquid wastes in the liquid pumping tube can be kept constant. With such procedures, sampling can be conducted correctly, and the discharge of the liquid wastes to the outside can be prevented. (T.M.)

  19. CASH AND LIQUIDITY/LIQUIDITY AND LIQUIDITY RATIO

    OpenAIRE

    ADELA BREUER; MIHAELA LESCONI FRUMUSANU; BEATRIX LIGHEZAN BREUER; ANDRA MANCIU

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to present the correlation as well as the differences between liquidity/cash and liquidity ratio in terms of economic entities. Researches on this topic are based on the opinions of some specialists in accounting and in the economic-financial analysis, as well as on the national legal stipulations and the ones set out in the International Accounting Standards, the Financial report, respectively. The object of this paper is represented by the correlation between liquidit...

  20. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  1. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  2. Liquid helium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Kitami, T.; Torikoshi, M.

    1984-12-01

    A liquid helium target system has been built and used for the experiment on the reaction 4 He(γ, p). The target system has worked satisfactorily; the consumption rate of liquid helium is 360 ml/h and the cryogenic system retains liquid helium for about ten hours. The structure, operation and performance of the target system are reported. (author)

  3. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  4. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  5. Liquid Wall Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  6. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  7. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  8. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  9. Liquid Sloshing Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raouf A.

    2005-06-01

    The problem of liquid sloshing in moving or stationary containers remains of great concern to aerospace, civil, and nuclear engineers; physicists; designers of road tankers and ship tankers; and mathematicians. Beginning with the fundamentals of liquid sloshing theory, this book takes the reader systematically from basic theory to advanced analytical and experimental results in a self-contained and coherent format. The book is divided into four sections. Part I deals with the theory of linear liquid sloshing dynamics; Part II addresses the nonlinear theory of liquid sloshing dynamics, Faraday waves, and sloshing impacts; Part III presents the problem of linear and nonlinear interaction of liquid sloshing dynamics with elastic containers and supported structures; and Part IV considers the fluid dynamics in spinning containers and microgravity sloshing. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in mechanical and aeronautical engineering, designers of liquid containers, and applied mathematicians.

  10. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  11. Ionic liquid marbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2007-10-09

    Liquid marbles have been reported during this decade and have been argued to be potentially useful for microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip applications. The liquid marbles described to date have been composed of either water or glycerol as the liquid and hydrophobized lycopodium or silica as the stabilizing particles. Both of these components are potentially reactive and do not permit the use of organic chemistry; the liquids are volatile. We report the use of perfluoroalkyl particles (oligomeric (OTFE) and polymeric (PTFE) tetrafluoroethylene, which are unreactive) to support/stabilize a range of ionic liquid marbles. Ionic liquids are not volatile and have been demonstrated to be versatile solvents for chemical transformations. Water marbles prepared with OTFE are much more robust than those prepared with hydrophobized lycopodium or silica.

  12. Quantum liquids get thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    A liquid exists when interactions that attract its constituent particles to each other are counterbalanced by a repulsion acting at higher densities. Other characteristics of liquids are short-range correlations and the existence of surface tension (1). Ultracold atom experiments provide a privileged platform with which to observe exotic states of matter, but the densities are far too low to obtain a conventional liquid because the atoms are too far apart to create repulsive forces arising from the Pauli exclusion principle of the atoms' internal electrons. The observation of quantum liquid droplets in an ultracold mixture of two quantum fluids is now reported on page 301 of this issue by Cabrera et al. (2) and a recent preprint by Semeghini et al. (3). Unlike conventional liquids, these liquids arise from a weak attraction and repulsive many-body correlations in the mixtures.

  13. Recovering volatile liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeat, J H

    1925-07-30

    The products of hydrogenation of alicyclic compounds, such as terpenes, for example, pinene or oil of turpentine, are used as washing liquids for absorbing vapours of volatile liquids from gases, such as natural gases from petroliferous regions, gases from the distillation of coal, lignite, schist, peat, etc. or from the cracking of heavy oils. Other liquids such as tar oils vaseline oils, cresols, etc. may be added.

  14. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  15. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  16. Liquid Metal Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series...

  17. Liquidity and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a framework to study the links between the supply of liquid assets for the financial market and the international allocation of economic activity. Private assets’ liquidity properties - their usefulness as collateral or media of exchange in financial transactions - affect assets’ values and interest rates, with consequences on firm entry, production, aggregate productivity, and total market capitalization. In a closed economy, the liquidity market increases the size and ...

  18. ROMANIAN BANKS LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATRANCEA MARIA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.

  19. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  20. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  1. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  2. PEP liquid level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing

  3. Remotely controllable liquid marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2012-07-26

    Liquid droplets encapsulated by self-organized hydrophobic particles at the liquid/air interface - liquid marbles - are prepared by encapsulating water droplets with novel core/shell-structured responsive magnetic particles, consisting of a responsive block copolymer-grafted mesoporous silica shell and magnetite core (see figure; P2VP-b-PDMS: poly(2-vinylpyridine-b- dimethylsiloxane)). Desirable properties of the liquid marbles include that they rupture upon ultraviolet illumination and can be remotely manipulated by an external magnetic field. 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. SNS vil høre om det supplerende materiale giver anledning til yderligere kommentarer eller ændrer risikovurderingen. Zea mays (1507). EFSAs udtalelse og vurdering af 1507 majsen. Modtaget 14-03-2005, deadline 29-03-2005, svar 23-03-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    "DMU har via EFSAs GMOnet indhentet de nye oplysninger (mail fra SNS d. 14-03-2005) til ansøgningen om godkendelse til markedsføring til import og videreforarbejdning af den genmodificerede majs (1507). DMU har først gennemgået materialet for at undersøge om det ændrer den risikovurdering vi tidl...

  5. Liquid-liquid displacement in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyar, Hanieh; Lv, Pengyu; Wood, Jeffery A.; Porada, Slawomir; Lohse, Detlef; Lammertink, Rob G. H.

    2018-01-01

    Liquid-infused membranes inspired by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) have been recently introduced to membrane technology. The gating mechanism of these membranes is expected to give rise to anti-fouling properties and multi-phase transport capabilities. However, the long-term retention of the infusion liquid has not yet been explored. To address this issue, we investigate the retention of the infusion liquid in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs) via liquid-liquid displ...

  6. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed. PMID:28879986

  7. Enantioseparation with liquid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gössi, Angelo; Riedl, Wolfgang; Schuur, Boelo

    Chiral resolution of racemic products is a challenging and important task in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, polymer and fragrances industries. One of the options for these challenging separations is to use liquid membranes. Although liquid membranes have been known for almost four decades

  8. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov, Kirill V; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-14

    The last five years' achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  9. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Axenov, Kirill V.; Laschat, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  10. The TIPS Liquidity Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Christensen, Jens H.E.; Simon Riddell, Simon

    We introduce an arbitrage-free term structure model of nominal and real yields that accounts for liquidity risk in Treasury inflation-protected securities (TIPS). The novel feature of our model is to identify liquidity risk from individual TIPS prices by accounting for the tendency that TIPS, lik...

  11. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  12. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  13. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  14. Liquid metal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Roach, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal monitor of the by-pass plugging meter kind described in British Patent 1,308,466, is further provided with a pump arranged to oppose flow through a by-pass thereby to provide a constant pressure difference across an orifice and improve the sensitivity of the instrument. The monitor estimates the impurity content in a liquid metal stream. (author)

  15. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  16. Liquid Chromatography in 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews trends in liquid chromatography including apparatus, factors affecting efficient separation of a mixture (peak sharpness and speed), simplified problem-solving, adsorption, bonded phase chromatography, ion selectivity, and size exclusion. The current trend is to control chemical selectivity by the liquid phase. (Author/JN)

  17. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  18. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  19. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  20. Microorganism mediated liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, Richard

    2018-03-20

    Herein disclosed is a method for producing liquid hydrocarbon product, the method comprising disintegrating a hydrocarbon source; pretreating the disintegrated hydrocarbon source; solubilizing the disintegrated hydrocarbon source to form a slurry comprising a reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source; admixing a biochemical liquor into the slurry, wherein the biochemical liquor comprises at least one conversion enzyme configured to facilitate bond selective photo-fragmentation of said reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source, to form liquid hydrocarbons via enzyme assisted bond selective photo-fragmentation, wherein said conversion enzyme comprises reactive sites configured to restrict said reactant molecule such that photo-fragmentation favorably targets a preselected internal bond of said reactant molecule; separating the liquid hydrocarbons from the slurry, wherein contaminants remain in the slurry; and enriching the liquid hydrocarbons to form a liquid hydrocarbon product. Various aspects of such method/process are also discussed.

  1. Fabrication of high quality Cu2SnS3 thin film solar cell with 1.12% power conversion efficiency obtain by low cost environment friendly sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, J. J.; Joshi, U. S.

    2018-03-01

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) is an emerging ternery chalcogenide material with great potential application in thin film solar cells. We present here high quality Cu2SnS3 thin films using a facile spin coating method. The as deposited films of CTS were sulphurized in a graphite box using tubular furnace at 520 °C for 60 min at the rate of 2.83 °C min-1 in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy studies confirm tetragonal phase and absence of any secondary phase in sulphurized CTS thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that Cu and Sn are in +1 and +4 oxidation state respectively. Surface morphology of CTS films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM), which revealed a smooth surface with roughness (RMS) of 6.32 nm for sulphurized CTS film. Hall measurements confirmed p-type conductivity with hole concentartion of sulphurized CTS thin film is of 6.5348 × 1020 cm-3. UV-vis spectra revealed a direct energy band gap varies from 1.45 eV to 1.01 eV for as-deposited and sulphurized CTS thin film respectively. Such band gap values are optimum for semiconductor material as an absorber layer of thin film solar cell. The CTS thin film solar cell had following structure: SLG/FTO/ZnO/CTS/Al with short circuit current density of (Jsc) of 11.6 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.276 V, active area of 0.16 cm2, fill factor (FF) of 35% and power conversion efficiency of 1.12% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination in simulated standard test conditions.

  2. Liquidity constraints, risk premia, and themacroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We study the transmission of liquidity shocks in a dynamic general equilibrium model where firms and households are subject to liquidity risk. The provision of liquidity services is undertaken by financial intermediaries that allocate the stock of liquid asset between the different sectors of the economy. We find that the macroeconomic effects of liquidity shocks are considerably larger in the model economy that generates a realistic equity premium. Liquidity constraints amplify business cycl...

  3. Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase

  4. Development of QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantifying flumethasone residues in beef muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Hun; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Abd El-Aty, A M; Cho, Soon-Kil; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Kwon, Ki Sung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Hyung Soo; Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Mi Ra; Shim, Jae-Han

    2012-12-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was developed and validated to quantify flumethasone residues in beef muscle. Methods were compared between the original as well as the EN quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction. Good linearity was achieved at concentration levels of 5-30 μg/kg. Estimated recovery rates at spiking levels of 5 and 10 μg/kg ranged from 72.1 to 84.6%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)noise ratios (S/Ns) of 3 and 10, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze real samples obtained from large markets throughout the Korean Peninsula. The method proved to be sensitive and reliable and, thus, rendered an appropriate means for residue analysis studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The risk components of liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Chollete, Lorán; Næs, Randi; Skjeltorp, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Does liquidity risk differ depending on our choice of liquidity proxy? Unlike literature that considers common liquidity variation, we focus on identifying different components of liquidity, statistically and economically, using more than a decade of US transaction data. We identify three main statistical liquidity factors which are utilized in a linear asset pricing framework. We motivate a correspondence of the statistical factors to traditional dimensions of liquidity as well as the notion...

  6. Illiquidity Contagion and Liquidity Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Cespa; Thierry Foucault

    2014-01-01

    Liquidity providers often learn information about an asset from prices of other assets. We show that this generates a self-reinforcing positive relationship between price informativeness and liquidity. This relationship causes liquidity spillovers and is a source of fragility: a small drop in the liquidity of one asset can, through a feedback loop, result in a very large drop in market liquidity and price informativeness (a liquidity crash). This feedback loop provides a new explanation for c...

  7. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  8. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  9. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  10. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Because of their outstanding versatility, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are utilized in an ever increasing number of novel and fascinating applications, making them the Holy Grail of modern materials science. In this Perspective, we address the fundamental research and prospective...... applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  11. Plate performance in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of perforated, nozzle, and burred plates from a capacity and extraction standpoint were studied in a pulsed liquid-liquid extraction system. The experiments were conducted in a 3.8 x 10 -2 m diameter column using a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, and uranyl nitrate as the aqueous phase, and tributyl phosphate dissolved in AMSCO 125-90 W as the organic phase. The uranium was extracted from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. A standard cartridge was made for each type of plate and consisted of an assembly of plates spaced 5.08 x 10 -2 m apart. Each plate had 3.2 x 10 -3 m holes spaced on 6.1 x 10 -3 -m centers, and contained 23% free area. 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  12. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kubiczek Artur; Kamiński Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liqu...

  13. Liquid filter for liquids containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohleder, N.; Schwarz, F.

    1986-01-01

    A device for filtering radioactive liquids loaded with solids is described, which has a pressure-resistant housing with a lid and an incomer for the turbid liquid and a collecting space and drain for the filtrate at the bottom of the housing. A filter cartridge is present in this housing. Such a filtering device must be suitable for use in nuclear plants, must be easy to replace by remote control and must minimise the carrying over of radioactive particles. This problem should be solved by the filter cartridge consisting of a large number of horizontal filter plates stacked above one another, which carry a deep layer filter material acting in the sub-micron range. The turbid liquid runs into the centre of the stack of filter plates via a vertical central duct. The intermediate spaces between the filter places are connected to this central duct via the layer of filter material. The filter plates are sealed against one another on the outer circumference and have radial drain openings for the filtrate on the outside. The central duct is sealed at the lower end by a plate. When the filter cartridge is replaced, the radioactive waste in the filter cartridge remains safely enclosed and can be conditioned in suitable containers. (orig.) [de

  14. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  15. Ionic Liquids in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Minami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  16. Ionic liquids in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro

    2009-06-24

    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  17. What is Liquid? Foreword

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henderson, D.; Holovko, M.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Trokhymchuk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2015), 10101-1-10101-4 ISSN 1607-324X Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : fluid * liquid * physics modelling Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.621, year: 2015

  18. Volatile liquid storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverman, R.J.; Winters, P.J.; Rinehart, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of collecting and abating emission from a volatile liquid in an above ground storage tank. It comprises the liquid storage tank having a bottom, a vertical cylindrical circular wall having a lower edge portion joined to the bottom, and an external fixed roof, the tank having an internal floating roof floating on a volatile liquid stored in the tank, and air vent means in the tank in communication with a vapor space in the tank constituting at least the space above the floating roof when the floating roof floats on a predetermined maximum volume of volatile liquid in the tank; permitting ambient air; pumping emission laden air from the tank vapor space above the floating roof; and by means of the emissions abatement apparatus eliminating most of the emission from the emissions laden air with formation of a gaseous effluent and then discharging the resulting gaseous effluent to the atmosphere

  19. Corporate governance and liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Derrabi, Mohamed; Naciri, Monir

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on liquidity in the MENA region, i.e. Morocco, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain. Using turnover as a proxy for liquidity, we document significant difference in liquidity between the pre......- and the post-crisis periods in the MENA region. In addition, our results show that bulk of this reduction in turnover can be explained due to weaknesses of corporate governance mechanisms. For example, that dividend payout ratio and choice of auditors – proxies for agency problems – can explain the entire...... difference in liquidity between the two periods. Furthermore, our results indicate that more than 50% of this difference between the two periods can be explained by operational and informational complexity of a firm – proxy for transparency. We argue that poor corporate governance mechanisms increase...

  20. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  1. Radioactive liquid containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Hironobu.

    1993-01-01

    Cooling jackets are coiled around the outer circumference of a container vessel, and the outer circumference thereof is covered with a surrounding plate. A liquid of good conductivity (for example, water) is filled between the cooling jackets and the surrounding plate. A radioactive liquid is supplied to the container vessel passing through a supply pipe and discharged passing through a discharge pipe. Cooling water at high pressure is passed through the cooling water jackets in order to remove the heat generated from the radioactive liquid. Since cooling water at high pressure is thus passed through the coiled pipes, the wall thickness of the container vessel and the cooling water jackets can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost. Further, even if the radioactive liquid is leaked, there is no worry of contaminating cooling water, to prevent contamination. (I.N.)

  2. Liquid Food Concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. For ease of transport & storage. For ease of transport & storage. Heat labile liquids. Natural Colors; Fruit Juices. Thermal Evaporation. Thermal deterioration; Loss of volatiles; High energy consumption.

  3. Liquid Crystal Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids are abundant in nature, science, and technology, with examples ranging from milk to quantum dots and the colloidal atom paradigm. Similarly, liquid crystal ordering is important in contexts ranging from biological membranes to laboratory models of cosmic strings and liquid crystal displays in consumer devices. Some of the most exciting recent developments in both of these soft matter fields emerge at their interface, in the fast-growing research arena of liquid crystal colloids. Mesoscale self-assembly in such systems may lead to artificial materials and to structures with emergent physical behavior arising from patterning of molecular order and nano- or microparticles into precisely controlled configurations. Liquid crystal colloids show exceptional promise for new discovery that may impinge on composite material fabrication, low-dimensional topology, photonics, and so on. Starting from physical underpinnings, I review the state of the art in this fast-growing field, with a focus on its scientific and technological potential.

  4. Liquid level controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies

  5. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Laschat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  6. Liquid Level Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  7. Nanoscale Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Technical Report 11 December 2005 - 30 November 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Nanoscale Ionic Liquids 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-06-1-0012...Title: Nanoscale Ionic Liquids Principal Investigator: Emmanuel P. Giannelis Address: Materials Science and Engineering, Bard Hall, Cornell University...based fluids exhibit high ionic conductivity. The NFs are typically synthesized by grafting a charged, oligomeric corona onto the nanoparticle cores

  8. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  9. Liquid scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The liquid scintillation solution described includes a mixture of: a liquid scintillation solvent, a primary scintillation solute, a secondary scintillation solute, a variety of appreciably different surfactants, and a dissolving and transparency agent. The dissolving and transparency agent is tetrahydrofuran, a cyclic ether. The scintillation solvent is toluene. The primary scintillation solute is PPO, and the secondary scintillation solute is dimethyl POPOP. The variety of appreciably different surfactants is composed of isooctylphenol-polyethoxyethanol and sodium dihexyl sulphosuccinate [fr

  10. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  11. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...

  12. Electrostatic levitation facility optimized for neutron diffraction studies of high temperature liquids at a spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, N. A., E-mail: namauro@noctrl.edu [Department of Physics, North Central College, Naperville, Illinois 60540 (United States); Vogt, A. J. [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Derendorf, K. S. [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Johnson, M. L.; Kelton, K. F. [Department of Physics and Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Washington University, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Rustan, G. E.; Quirinale, D. G.; Goldman, A. I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kreyssig, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Lokshin, K. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Neuefeind, J. C.; An, Ke [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, Xun-Li [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Ave., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Egami, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Neutron diffraction studies of metallic liquids provide valuable information about inherent topological and chemical ordering on multiple length scales as well as insight into dynamical processes at the level of a few atoms. However, there exist very few facilities in the world that allow such studies to be made of reactive metallic liquids in a containerless environment, and these are designed for use at reactor-based neutron sources. We present an electrostatic levitation facility, NESL (for Neutron ElectroStatic Levitator), which takes advantage of the enhanced capabilities and increased neutron flux available at spallation neutron sources (SNSs). NESL enables high quality elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments to be made of reactive metallic and other liquids in the equilibrium and supercooled temperature regime. The apparatus is comprised of a high vacuum chamber, external and internal neutron collimation optics, and a sample exchange mechanism that allows up to 30 samples to be processed between chamber openings. Two heating lasers allow excellent sample temperature homogeneity, even for samples approaching 500 mg, and an automated temperature control system allows isothermal measurements to be conducted for times approaching 2 h in the liquid state, with variations in the average sample temperature of less than 0.5%. To demonstrate the capabilities of the facility for elastic scattering studies of liquids, a high quality total structure factor for Zr{sub 64}Ni{sub 36} measured slightly above the liquidus temperature is presented from experiments conducted on the nanoscale-ordered materials diffractometer (NOMAD) beam line at the SNS after only 30 min of acquisition time for a small sample (∼100 mg)

  13. Vitrification and levitation of a liquid droplet on liquid nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Young S.; Adler, Douglas; Xu, Feng; Kayaalp, Emre; Nureddin, Aida; Anchan, Raymond M.; Maas, Richard L.; Demirci, Utkan

    2010-01-01

    The vitrification of a liquid occurs when ice crystal formation is prevented in the cryogenic environment through ultrarapid cooling. In general, vitrification entails a large temperature difference between the liquid and its surrounding medium. In our droplet vitrification experiments, we observed that such vitrification events are accompanied by a Leidenfrost phenomenon, which impedes the heat transfer to cool the liquid, when the liquid droplet comes into direct contact with liquid nitroge...

  14. Banks’ liquidity buffers and the role of liquidity regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zymek, Robert; van Lelyveld, Iman; Bonner, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    We assess the determinants of banks' liquidity holdings using balance sheet data for nearly 7000 banks from 30 OECD countries over a ten-year period. We highlight the role of several bank-specific, institutional and policy variables in shaping banks' liquidity risk management. Our main question is whether the presence of liquidity regulation substitutes or complements banks' incentives to hold liquid assets. Our results reveal that in the absence of liquidity regulation, the determinants of b...

  15. Liquidity Risk and Syndicate Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Gatev; Philip Strahan

    2008-01-01

    We offer a new explanation of loan syndicate structure based on banks' comparative advantage in managing systematic liquidity risk. When a syndicated loan to a rated borrower has systematic liquidity risk, the fraction of passive participant lenders that are banks is about 8% higher than for loans without liquidity risk. In contrast, liquidity risk does not explain the share of banks as lead lenders. Using a new measure of ex-ante liquidity risk exposure, we find further evidence that syndica...

  16. Ionizable polyethers as specific metal ion carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowiak, W.; Charewicz, W.A.; Bartsch, R.A.; Ndip, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into competitive extraction and penetration through a liquid membrane of alkali and alkaline earth cations from aqueous solutions by a series of lipophilic and ionizable acyclic polyethers of various molecular structure. It is shown that specificity and selectiviy of cation carriers in liquid-liquid extraction and liquid membrane separation depend on molecular structure of acyclic polyethers

  17. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  18. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr

  19. Liquid crystals in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Francisco-José; Martínez-Nicolás, Ginés; Iglesias, Patricia; Sanes, José; Bermúdez, María-Dolores

    2009-09-18

    Two decades ago, the literature dealing with the possible applications of low molar mass liquid crystals, also called monomer liquid crystals (MLCs), only included about 50 references. Today, thousands of papers, conference reports, books or book chapters and patents refer to the study and applications of MLCs as lubricants and lubricant additives and efforts are made to develop new commercial applications. The development of more efficient lubricants is of paramount technological and economic relevance as it is estimated that half the energy consumption is dissipated as friction. MLCs have shown their ability to form ordered boundary layers with good load-carrying capacity and to lower the friction coefficients, wear rates and contact temperature of sliding surfaces, thus contributing to increase the components service life and to save energy. This review includes the use of MLCs in lubrication, and dispersions of MLCs in conventional polymers (PDMLCs). Finally, new lubricating system composed of MLC blends with surfactants, ionic liquids or nanophases are considered.

  20. Magnetostriction of Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandia, Rishi; Cooley, Jason C.; Imhoff, Seth D.

    The study of magnetic field-driven microstructural effects is in its infancy, but results have been promising. Previous work showed that these effects are easily observable in some systems, suggesting that magnetic fields could be used to control and engineer various micro-structural properties. The energy scales for crystallite rotation in the liquid and on the viscosity of the melt are known. However, the fundamental energy scale of the magnetic field interaction with the liquid and solid near the melting point is not. In this talk, we present magnetostriction data on liquid elements and alloys that will help us understand the energy scale of these processes and develop a theoretical understanding of solidification in magnetic fields.

  1. Liquid crystalline dihydroazulene photoswitches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ugleholdt; Jevric, Martyn; Mandle, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A large selection of photochromic dihydroazulene (DHA) molecules incorporating various substituents at position 2 of the DHA core was prepared and investigated for their ability to form liquid crystalline phases. Incorporation of an octyloxy-substituted biphenyl substituent resulted in nematic...... phase behavior and it was possible to convert one such compound partly into its vinylheptafulvene (VHF) isomer upon irradiation with light when in the liquid crystalline phase. This conversion resulted in an increase in the molecular alignment of the phase. In time, the meta-stable VHF returns...... to the DHA where the alignment is maintained. The systematic structural variation has revealed that a biaryl spacer between the DHA and the alkyl chain is needed for liquid crystallinity and that the one aromatic ring in the spacer cannot be substituted by a triazole. This work presents an important step...

  2. Macromolecular sensing at the liquid-liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Flynn, Shane [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland); Arrigan, Damien W M, E-mail: gregoire.herzog@tyndall.ie [Nanochemistry Research Institute, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, Perth (Australia)

    2011-08-17

    We report here the electrochemical sensing of macromolecules, such as polyLysine dendrimers, at the polarised liquid | liquid interface. Electrochemistry at the liquid | liquid interface is a powerful analytical technique which allows the detection of non-redox active molecules via ion transfer reactions at a polarised water - oil interface. We demonstrate here that different parameters of the polyLysine dendrimers (charge number, molecular weight) have a strong influence on the sensitivity and limit of detection of these macromolecules. This work will help to the development of sensors based on charge transfer at the liquid | liquid interface.

  3. Macromolecular sensing at the liquid-liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Flynn, Shane; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2011-01-01

    We report here the electrochemical sensing of macromolecules, such as polyLysine dendrimers, at the polarised liquid | liquid interface. Electrochemistry at the liquid | liquid interface is a powerful analytical technique which allows the detection of non-redox active molecules via ion transfer reactions at a polarised water - oil interface. We demonstrate here that different parameters of the polyLysine dendrimers (charge number, molecular weight) have a strong influence on the sensitivity and limit of detection of these macromolecules. This work will help to the development of sensors based on charge transfer at the liquid | liquid interface.

  4. Conceptual design studies for the liquid metal target META:LIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, A.G.; Fazio, C.; Fetzer, J.R.; Gordeev, S.

    2014-01-01

    When the construction of ESS (European Spallation Source) in Sweden was initiated, the target station concept selection group decided to reevaluate a variety of target designs to respect new developments in their selection process. The META:LIC (MEgawatt TArget:Lead bIsmuth Cooled) target concept was developed following an extensive analysis of existing and new proposed designs and reached the level of proof of principle within only 2 years. ESS selected META:LIC as comparative target option for licensing purposes during the design update phase of ESS. The present work describes the design motivation of META:LIC referring to properties and design features of other targets. Therefore, META:LIC design is an evolutionary target which incorporates the extensive experience of liquid metal targets. The modular LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) target concept with focus on the target module is introduced. Both, a window target option for the start of operation and a windowless option with extended lifetime are foreseen. Thermohydraulic simulations show that adequate window cooling can be realized. The stability of the free surface in the windowless option has been shown. Robust target module instrumentation based on free surface levels and the MEGAPIE experience is proposed for target control. Since the META:LIC concept foresees a horizontal extraction for both moderators and target from the monolith a safety concept based on the SNS and JSNS experience is proposed

  5. The CENNS-10 liquid argon detector to measure CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayloe, R.

    2018-04-01

    The COHERENT collaboration is deploying a suite of low-energy detectors in a low-background corridor of the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on an array of nuclear targets employing different detector technologies. A measurement of CEvNS on different nuclei will test the N2-dependence of the CEvNS cross section and further the physics reach of the COHERENT effort. The first step of this program has been realized recently with the observation of CEvNS in a 14.6 kg CsI detector. Operation and deployment of Ge and NaI detectors are also underway. A 22 kg, single-phase, liquid argon detector (CENNS-10) started data-taking in Dec. 2016 and will provide results on CEvNS from a lighter nucleus. Initial results indicate that light output, pulse-shape discrimination, and background suppression are sufficient for a measurement of CEvNS on argon.

  6. Functional ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecker, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis at hand, new functional ionic liquids were investigated. Main focus was attended to their structure property relations and the structural features leading to a decrease of the melting point. New compounds of the type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(N,Ndialkyldithiocarbamato) uranylate with variously substituated dithiocarbamato ligands were synthesized and characterized. Ligands with asymmetrical substitution pattern proved to be most suitable for ionic liquid formation. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed the interactions in the solid state. Here, the first spectroscopic investigation of the U-S bond in sulfur donated uranyl complexes, up to now only observed in single-crystal X-ray structures, is presented, and the participation of the uranium f-orbitals is shown by theoretical calculations. Electrochemical investigations showed the accessibility of the respective U V O 2 + compounds. As well, ionic liquids with [FeCl 4 ] - and [Cl 3 FeOFeCl 3 ] 2- as anion were synthesized. Both of these anions contain high-spin Fe(III) centres in distorted tetrahedral environment, but exhibit different magnetic behaviour. The tetrachloroferrates show the usual paramagnetism, the m-oxobis(trichloroferrate) exhibits unexpectedly strong antiferromagnetic coupling, as was observed by NMR experiments and susceptibility measurements. To investigate structure-property relations in functionalized ionic liquids, a set of protic, primary alkylammonium and aprotic, quarternary trimethylalkylammonium based ionic liquids was synthesized, and characterized. The length of the alkyl chain was systematically varied, and all compounds were synthesized with and without hydroxyl group, as well as formate and bis(triflyl)amide salts, aiming at getting insight into the influence of the different structure parts on the respective ionic liquid's properties.

  7. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  8. Bicontinuous liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Mathew L

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceIntroduction AcknowledgmentsBicontinuous Cubic Liquid Crystalline Materials: A Historical Perspective and Modern Assessment; Kr̄e LarssonIntermediate Phases; Michael C. Holmes and Marc S. LeaverCubic Phases and Human Skin: Theory and Practice; Steven Hoath and Lars NorlňThe Relationship between Bicontinuous Inverted Cubic Phases and Membrane Fusion; D.P. SiegelAspects of the Differential Geometry and Topology of Bicontinuous Liquid-Crystalline Phases; Robert W. CorkeryNovel L3 Phases and Their Macroscopic Properties; R. Beck and H. HoffmannBicontinuous Cubic Phases of Lipids with Entra

  9. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z 0 decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z 0 events) is discussed

  10. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  11. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  12. Liquid air cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  13. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  14. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency......This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  15. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  16. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  17. Liquid crystalline order in polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Blumstein, Alexandre

    1978-01-01

    Liquid Crystalline Order in Polymers examines the topic of liquid crystalline order in systems containing rigid synthetic macromolecular chains. Each chapter of the book provides a review of one important area of the field. Chapter 1 discusses scattering in polymer systems with liquid crystalline order. It also introduces the field of liquid crystals. Chapter 2 treats the origin of liquid crystalline order in macromolecules by describing the in-depth study of conformation of such macromolecules in their unassociated state. The chapters that follow describe successively the liquid crystalli

  18. Use of micro-emulsions in liquid-liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komornicki, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    As liquid-liquid extraction of metallic cations is an important method of separation and concentration of metals present in diluted aqueous solutions, and as the extraction rate is limited by one or several steps of matter transfer at the liquid-liquid interface, the extraction kinetics can be improved by creating a wide surface interface and by allowing an increased reactivity between species. In this research thesis, the author aims at determining to which extent systems of interface with a wide surface obtained by using for example amphiphile molecules to create micro-emulsions, can be used as reaction media for physical-chemical processes of liquid-liquid extraction. He also aims at identifying their applicability limitations and problems which might arise with their application. The author notably focuses of the liquid-liquid extraction of metallic cations exhibiting particularly slow extraction kinetics

  19. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  20. Heavy liquid bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The CERN Heavy liquid bubble chamber being installed in the north experimental hall at the PS. On the left, the 1180 litre body; in the centre the magnet, which can produce a field of 26 800 gauss; on the right the expansion mechanism.