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Sample records for snack food problem

  1. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    In today's society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in suppressing overconsumption, which can lead to overweight and obesity. Thus, eating snacks between meals has the potential to promote satiety and suppress overconsumption at the subsequent meal. Numerous studies have explored the relation between snack foods and satiety. These studies concluded that whole foods high in protein, fiber, and whole grains (e.g., nuts, yogurt, prunes, and popcorn) enhance satiety when consumed as snacks. Other foods that are processed to include protein, fiber, or complex carbohydrates might also facilitate satiety when consumed as snacks. However, studies that examined the effects of snack foods on obesity did not always account for satiety and the dietary quality and portion size of the snacks consumed. Thus, the evidence concerning the effects of snack foods on obesity has been mixed, with a number of interventional and observational studies not finding a link between snack foods and increased weight status. Although further prospective studies are warranted to conclusively determine the effects of snack foods on obesity risk, the consumption of healthful snacks likely affects satiety and promotes appetite control, which could reduce obesity. PMID:27633103

  3. Snack Food, Satiety, and Weight123

    OpenAIRE

    Njike, Valentine Yanchou; Smith, Teresa M; Shuval, Omree; Shuval, Kerem; Edshteyn, Ingrid; Kalantari, Vahid; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    In today’s society, snacking contributes close to one-third of daily energy intake, with many snacks consisting of energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods. Choices made with regard to snacking are affected by a multitude of factors on individual, social, and environmental levels. Social norms, for example, that emphasize healthful eating are likely to increase the intake of nutrient-rich snacks. In addition, satiety, the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, is an important factor in s...

  4. Acrylamide content distribution and possible alternative ingredients for snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei Chih; Sun, De Chao; Chou, Shin Shou; Yeh, An I

    2012-12-01

    Acrylamide (AA) contents in 294 snack foods including cereal-based, root- and tuber-based, and seafood-based foods, nuts, dried beans, and dried fruits purchased in Taiwan were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. The highest levels of average AA content were found in root- and tuber-based snack foods (435 μg/kg), followed by cereal-based snack foods (299 μg/kg). Rice flour-based, seafood-based, and dried fruit snack foods had the lowest average AA content (snack foods in Taiwan. The results could provide important data regarding intake information from the snack foods. In addition, the results showed a great diversity of AA content in snack foods prepared from different ingredients. Rice- and seafood-based products had much lower AA than those made from other ingredients. This information could constitute a good reference for consumers to select products for healthy snacking.

  5. Campus-based snack food vending consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle L; Klein, Elizabeth G; Kaye, Gail

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the purchases of university vending machine clientele and to understand what consumers purchase, purchase motivations, and purchase frequency after implementation of a vending policy designed to promote access to healthier snack options. Cross-sectional data collection from consumers at 8 campus vending machines purposefully selected from a list of highest-grossing machines. Vending machines were stocked with 28.5% green (choose most often), 43% yellow (occasionally), and 28.5% red (least often) food items. Consumers were predominately students (86%) and persons aged 18-24 years (71%). Red vending choices were overwhelmingly selected over healthier vending options (59%). Vended snack food selections were most influenced by hunger (42%) and convenience (41%). Most consumers (51%) frequented vending machines at least 1 time per week. Despite decreased access to less healthful red snack food choices, consumers chose these snacks more frequently than healthier options in campus vending machines. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sodium content on processed foods for snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mariana Vieira dos Santos; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2016-04-01

    To assess the Na content reported on the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil that are usually consumed as snacks by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study that assessed Na content and serving size reporting on processed food labels. A supermarket that is part of a large chain in Brazil. All foods available for sale at the study's location and reported in the literature as snacks present in the diets of Brazilian children and adolescents. Of the 2945 processed foods, 87 % complied with the reference serving sizes, although variability in reporting was observed in most of the food subgroups. In addition, 21 % of the processed foods had high Na levels (>600 mg/100 g) and 35 % had medium Na levels (>120 and ≤600 mg/100 g). The meats, oils, fats and seeds groups as well as the prepared dishes had higher percentages of foods classified as high Na (81 %, 58 % and 53 %, respectively). Most of the processed foods had high or medium Na content. We emphasize the importance of revising Brazilian nutrition labelling legislation to standardize reference serving sizes to avoid variation. Besides, we point out the potential for reducing Na levels in most processed foods, as evidenced by the variability in Na content within subgroups. Finally, we have identified the need to develop a method to classify Na levels in processed foods with specific parameters for children and adolescents.

  7. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Osterholt, Kathrin M.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more- aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sess...

  8. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer Lauren E; Laurentz Sara; McCabe George P; Kranz Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches) served either in normal (round, square) or shaped (heart, hands, animals) form to preschoole...

  9. Taxing Snack Foods: Manipulating Diet Quality or Financing Information Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Kuchler; Abebayehu Tegene; J. Michael Harris

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates consumers' likely response to a proposed tax on snack foods that addresses public health issues generated by rising U.S. obesity rates. We estimate demands for particular snack foods and show they are price inelastic after accounting for quality variation. We calculate impacts of a range of ad valorem taxes on the demand for salty snack food. The impacts on dietary quality are small, and negligible at the lower tax rates. If taxes were earmarked for funding information...

  10. The influence of food packaging on children's snack food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    especially in the advertisement and packaging of high- calorie snack foods. ... marketing is one of the policy strategies proposed to address obesity in children. In order to ... explore the views of school-aged children toward child- oriented food ...

  11. Adolescent television viewing and unhealthy snack food consumption: the mediating role of home availability of unhealthy snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Williams, Lauren; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether home availability of energy-dense snack foods mediates the association between television (TV) viewing and energy-dense snack consumption among adolescents. Cross-sectional. Secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Adolescents (n 2984) from Years 7 and 9 of secondary school completed a web-based survey, between September 2004 and July 2005, assessing their energy-dense snack food consumption, school-day and weekend-day TV viewing and home availability of energy-dense snack foods. School-day and weekend-day TV viewing were positively associated with energy-dense snack consumption among adolescent boys (β = 0·003, P snack foods among adolescent boys and girls and home availability of energy-dense snack foods was positively associated with energy-dense snack food consumption among boys (β = 0·26, P snack consumption. The results of the present study suggest that TV viewing has a significant role to play in adolescent unhealthy eating behaviours. Future research should assess the efficacy of methods to reduce adolescent energy-dense snack food consumption by targeting parents to reduce home availability of energy-dense foods and by reducing TV viewing behaviours of adolescents.

  12. Incorporation of air into a snack food reduces energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholt, Kathrin M; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated how the air content of a familiar snack food affected energy intake and whether varying the method of serving the snack modified intake. We tested two versions of an extruded snack (cheese puffs) that were equal in energy density (5.7 kcal/g), but differed in energy per volume (less-aerated snack: 1.00 kcal/ml; more-aerated snack: 0.45 kcal/ml). In a within-subjects design, 16 women and 12 men consumed the snacks ad libitum in the laboratory during four afternoon sessions. A standard volume (1250 ml) of each snack was served once in a bowl and once in an opaque bag. Results showed significant differences in intake of the two snacks by energy (p=0.0003) and volume (psnack than the less-aerated snack, although they consumed a 73% greater volume of the more-aerated snack (239+/-24 ml). These findings suggest that subjects responded to both the weight and volume of the snack. Despite differences in intake, hunger and fullness ratings did not differ across conditions. The serving method did not significantly affect intake. Results from this study indicate that incorporating air into food provides a strategy to reduce energy intake from energy-dense snacks.

  13. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS: This...

  14. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyer Lauren E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches served either in normal (round, square or shaped (heart, hands, animals form to preschoolers 2–5 years old attending a local child care center (n = 21. The 9 weeks long, prospective, cross-over intervention study was designed to expose each child repeatedly to each snack in each shape (4 times per snack. Snacks were served as morning or afternoon snack and caretakers’ reports were used to account for the child’s consumption of a meal preceding the study snack (breakfast or lunch. Results There was no significant difference in snack consumption between the shaped and normal snacks. However, the mean energy intake from snacks was significantly greater for Caucasian children compared with Asian children. Further, Asian children consumed much less banana bread than the other two snacks. Overall, children who had not eaten breakfast or lunch prior to the morning or afternoon snack ate significantly more calories from the snacks (84.1 kcal, p-value  Conclusion Findings of this study confirm previous research that the shape of the foods does not affect snack consumption in children. However, we also report two unexpected findings: a the strong interaction between ethnicity and snack consumption and b that Asian children consumed much less banana bread than Caucasian children. The role of children’s ethnic background profoundly affects snack preference and must be considered in the study of children’s eating behaviors and in interventions to promote healthy eating habits.

  15. Snack frequency: associations with healthy and unhealthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine

    2013-08-01

    We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.

  16. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Food parenting and child snacking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Kachurak, Alexandria; Davison, Kirsten K; Klabunde, Rachel; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2017-11-03

    While the role of parenting in children's eating behaviors has been studied extensively, less attention has been given to its potential association with children's snacking habits. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review to describe associations between food parenting and child snacking, or consuming energy dense foods/foods in between meals. Six electronic databases were searched using standardized language to identify quantitative studies describing associations of general and feeding-specific parenting styles as well as food parenting practices with snacking behaviors of children aged 2-18 years. Eligible peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1980 and 2017 were included. Data were extracted using a standard protocol by three coders; all items were double coded to ensure consistency. Forty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Few studies focused on general feeding (n = 3) or parenting styles (n = 10). Most studies focused on controlling food parenting practices (n = 39) that were not specific to snacking. Parental restriction of food was positively associated with child snack intake in 13/23 studies, while pressure to eat and monitoring yielded inconsistent results. Home availability of unhealthy foods was positively associated with snack intake in 10/11 studies. Findings related to positive parent behaviors (e.g. role modeling) were limited and yielded mixed results (n = 9). Snacking was often assessed using food frequency items and defined post-hoc based on nutritional characteristics (e.g. energy-dense, sugary foods, unhealthy, etc.). Timing was rarely included in the definition of a snack (i.e. chips eaten between meals vs. with lunch). Restrictive feeding and home access to unhealthy foods were most consistently associated with snacking among young children. Research is needed to identify positive parenting behaviors around child snacking that may be used as targets for health promotion. Detailed definitions of snacking

  18. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Background Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Methods Within-store audits were used to ev...

  19. Energy, nutrient and food content of snacks in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Tichit, Christine; Péneau, Sandrine; Nechba, Anouar; Ducrot, Pauline; Lampuré, Aurélie; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2018-02-27

    Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Food intake was estimated using 24-h records of weekdays. For each eating occasion, nutrient density and energy content and density were computed. After weighting, 47.6% of our sample were men and mean age was 45.6 (15.3). Overall, 68% of participants ate at least one snack during the reported record, mainly in the morning or afternoon. Overall snack had a lower nutrient density [22.8 (SD = 278.3)] than main meals [25.8 (36.9) to 30.0 (30.4)]; but higher energy density [222.2 (163.3) kcal/100 g] than meals [133.9 (57.3) to 175.9 (99.6) kcal/100 g]. Morning snack was the snacking occasion with the lowest energy density [211 kcal/100 g], the lowest energy intake [104.1 kcal] and the highest nutrient density [60.1]. Afternoon and evening snacks had the highest energy loads [192.4 kcal and 207.6 kcal], but low nutrient scores [16 and 13, respectively]. The main food groups contributing to energy intake from snacks were fatty-sweet and sugary foods, fruit, hot beverages, and bread. Our findings highlight the frequency of snacking and the varying nutritional quality of snacks over the day. The morning snack was shown to be healthier than afternoon and evening snacks. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki, and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the

  20. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side

  2. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side

  3. The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Reutner, Leonie; Wänke, Michaela

    2012-04-01

    Based on evidence that the color red elicits avoidance motivation across contexts (Mehta & Zhu, 2009), two studies investigated the effect of the color red on snack food and soft drink consumption. In line with our hypothesis, participants drank less from a red labeled cup than from a blue labeled cup (Study 1), and ate less snack food from a red plate than from a blue or white plate (Study 2). The results suggest that red functions as a subtle stop signal that works outside of focused awareness and thereby reduces incidental food and drink intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Food Packaging on Children's Energy-dense Snack ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Childhood obesity is a major global public health concern. Rates of obese and overweight children have increased in low- and middle-income countries such as Guatemala. This research will study the influence of food packaging on Guatemalan preschool and school-aged children's energy-dense snack (EDS) food ...

  5. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Waterlander, Wilma E; Sodergren, Marita; Svastisalee, Chalida; Blanchard, Laurence; Liese, Angela D; Battersby, Sarah; Carter, Mary-Ann; Sheeshka, Judy; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Sherman, Sandy; Cowburn, Gill; Foster, Charlie; Crawford, David A

    2013-05-14

    Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets varies internationally. This study assessed variations in the display of snack foods and soft drinks within a sample of supermarkets across eight countries. Within-store audits were used to evaluate and compare the availability of potato chips (crisps), chocolate, confectionery and soft drinks. Displays measured included shelf length and the proportion of checkouts and end-of-aisle displays containing these products. Audits were conducted in a convenience sample of 170 supermarkets across eight developed nations (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US)). The mean total aisle length of snack foods (adjusted for store size) was greatest in supermarkets from the UK (56.4 m) and lowest in New Zealand (21.7 m). When assessed by individual item, the greatest aisle length devoted to chips, chocolate and confectionery was found in UK supermarkets while the greatest aisle length dedicated to soft drinks was in Australian supermarkets. Only stores from the Netherlands (41%) had less than 70% of checkouts featuring displays of snack foods or soft drinks. Whilst between-country variations were observed, overall results indicate high levels of snack food and soft drinks displays within supermarkets across the eight countries. Exposure to snack foods is largely unavoidable within supermarkets, increasing the likelihood of purchases and particularly those made impulsively.

  6. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Snack foods and dental caries. Investigations using laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenby, T H

    1990-05-05

    The nation's eating habits are undergoing major transformation, with a swing away from traditional meals to a huge increase in snack consumption, but very little is known of the nutritional and dental implications of this change. The research project reported here evaluated a range of snack foods in caries-active laboratory animals, comparing them, as dietary ingredients, with noncariogenic and cariogenic (sugar) diets. The findings showed the very low cariogenicity of salted peanuts, followed by ready-salted and salt and vinegar crisps, extruded maize, mixed-starch and prefabricated/fried potato products, and cheese-filled puffs. Other varieties of crisps (cheese and onion and special shapes) proved to be more cariogenic, not far short of semi-sweet biscuits in some cases. It is concluded that the severity of the processing undergone by the snack foods and the nature of the flavouring agents with which they are coated can influence their dental properties.

  8. Fresh Snack Food Channel Evaluation Model for Integrating Customers’ Perception of Transaction Costs in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to explore how food dealers develop methods that facilitate transaction efficiency and how they select the optimal food channels. This study establishes a model according to the impact of transaction cost factors on consumers’ decision-making regarding purchase of fresh snack foods. Using fresh snack foods in Taiwan as an example, this study employed a fuzzy analytic network process to solve decision-making problems with multiple criteria by comparing the interaction between each transaction cost factor to obtain the factor weightings as well as the weightings of the transaction costs at each decision stage. This study found that food safety assurance and providing sufficient nutrition information were the most essential topics; thus, the optimal choice for snack food producers is to develop retail outlets. This study construction process proposed is innovative and operational, and the results may provide a reference for snack food dealers or microfood enterprises to assist them in developing their food channels.

  9. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, L.E.; Cameron, A.J.; McNaughton, S.A.; Waterlander, W.E.; Sodergren, M.; Svastisalee, C.; Blanchard, L.; Liese, A.D.; Battersby, S.; Carter, M.A.; Sheeshka, J.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Sherman, S.; Cowburn, G.; Foster, C.; Crawford, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-country differences in dietary behaviours and obesity rates have been previously reported. Consumption of energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks are implicated as contributing to weight gain, however little is known about how the availability of these items within supermarkets

  10. Working harder to obtain more snack foods when wanting to eat less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Janneke C A H; Havermans, Remco C; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Strafaci, Silvana; Jansen, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates individual differences in the reinforcing value of snack food. More specifically, it was investigated whether differences in restraint status are associated with differences in working for high-caloric snack food. Thirty-six unrestrained non-dieters, twenty restrained non-dieters and fifteen current dieters performed a concurrent schedules task in which they had the option to work for points for either snack food or fruit and vegetables. By progressively increasing the "price" of the snack foods (i.e., the amount of work required to obtain extra snack points) the relative reinforcing value of snack food was determined. As hypothesized, restrained non-dieters worked harder and current dieters worked less hard to obtain snack food as compared to unrestrained non-dieters.

  11. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  12. Food cravings in everyday life: An EMA study on snack-related thoughts, cravings, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2017-06-01

    Food craving refers to an intense desire to consume a specific food and is regularly experienced by the majority of individuals. Yet, there are interindividual differences in the frequency and intensity of food craving experiences, which is often referred to as trait food craving. The characteristics and consequences of trait and state food craving have mainly been investigated in questionnaire-based and laboratory studies, which may not reflect individuals' behavior in daily life. In the present study, sixty-one participants completed the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait-reduced (FCQ-T-r) as measure of trait food craving, followed by seven days of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), during which they reported snack-related thoughts, craving intensity, and snack consumption at five times per day. Results showed that 86 percent of reported snacks were high-caloric, with chocolate-containing foods being the most often reported snacks. Individuals with high FCQ-T-r scores (high trait food cravers, HCs) thought more often about high-calorie than low-calorie snacks whereas no differences were found in individuals with low FCQ-T-r scores (low trait food cravers, LCs). Further, the relationship between craving intensity and snack-related thoughts was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Higher craving intensity was associated with more consumption of snacks and again this relationship was stronger in HCs than in LCs. Finally, more snack-related thoughts were related to more frequent consumption of snacks, independent of trait food craving. Thus, HCs are more prone to think about high-calorie snacks in their daily lives and to consume more snack foods when they experience intense cravings, which might be indicative of a heightened responding towards high-calorie foods. Thus, trait-level differences as well as snack-related thoughts should be targeted in dietary interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; van Strien, Tatjana

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  15. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  16. Targeting implicit approach reactions to snack food in children; Effects on intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, Frans; Veling, Harm; Hoeken, J.A.L.

    Objective: Implicit approach reactions to energy-dense snack food can facilitate unhealthy eating in children. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test whether modifying implicit reactions to snack food by means of a go/no-go task can reduce consumption of this food. The effectiveness of this

  17. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory self-control moderates the effect of changed implicit food evaluations on snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-07-01

    The current study used a modified implicit association test (IAT) to change implicit evaluations of unhealthy snack food and tested its effects on subsequent consumption. Furthermore, we investigated whether these effects were moderated by inhibitory self-control. A sample of 148 women (17-25 years) motivated to manage weight through healthy eating completed an IAT intervention, and pre- and post-intervention IATs assessing implicit evaluations of unhealthy food. The intervention IAT trained participants to pair unhealthy food stimuli with either positive or negative stimuli. A task disguised as a taste-test was used to assess consumption of unhealthy snack foods. Inhibitory self-control was measured using a self-report scale. As predicted, the implicit evaluation of unhealthy food became more negative from pre- to post-training among participants in the food negative pairing condition; however, there was no corresponding change in the food positive pairing condition. The effect of the training on snack consumption was moderated by inhibitory self-control with only participants low in inhibitory self-control having lower snack intake following the food negative training. This finding is consistent with dual-process models of behaviour which predict that self-control capacity renders impulses less influential on behaviour. Furthermore, it suggests that an intervention that retrains implicit food evaluations could be effective at reducing unhealthy eating, particularly among those with low inhibitory self-control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. College cafeteria snack food purchases become less healthy with each passing week of the semester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Cao, Ying; Saini, Prerna; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Just, David R

    2013-07-01

    Snacks, stress and parties all contribute to the weight gain – the elusive ‘Freshman 15’ – that some college-goers unfortunately experience. The present study examines how a` la carte snack choice changes on a university campus during each progressing week of the academic calendar. How a` la carte snack choices change on a university campus with each progressing week of the academic calendar was examined. The data were collected from three large cafeterias (or dining halls) on Cornell University’s campus during four semesters (Fall 2006, Spring 2007, Fall 2007 and Spring 2008), for 18 weeks in each semester. After the a` la carte snack items were divided into healthy snacks and unhealthy snacks, the percentage share for each food category was calculated. Within each semester, the unhealthy snack food choices increased consistently by 0?4% per week (b50?00418, P,0?01). Furthermore, a sharp (8 %) increase occurred in the final two weeks of the semester. In contrast, healthy snack food choices decreased by almost 4% (b520?0408, P,0?01) in the final two weeks during the fall semester. These results demonstrate an increased demand for hedonic, or unhealthy, snack foods as the college semester progresses and in particular at the very end of the semester. To counter this tendency towards unhealthy snacking, cafeterias and stores should make extra effort to promote healthy alternatives during the later weeks of the semester.

  20. An after-school snack of raisins lowers cumulative food intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Bellissimo, Nick; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Bennett, Lorianne J; Hurton, Evelyn; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    Snacks are an important part of children's dietary intake, but the role of dried fruit on energy intake in children is unknown. Therefore, the effect of ad libitum consumption of an after-school snack of raisins, grapes, potato chips, and chocolate chip cookies on appetite and energy intake in twenty-six 8- to 11-y-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children was examined. On 4 separate weekdays, 1 wk apart, children (11 M, 15 F) were given a standardized breakfast, morning snack (apple), and a standardized lunch. After school, children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum snacks and were instructed to eat until "comfortably full." Appetite was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 min after snack consumption. Children consumed the least calories from raisins and grapes and the most from cookies (P snack + lunch + after-school snack) (P snacks. Grapes lowered appetite compared to all other snacks (P snack. Ad libitum consumption of raisins has potential as an after-school snack to achieve low snack intake prior to dinner, similar to grapes, compared to potato chips, and cookies in children 8 to 11 y old. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and between-person variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for one's usual level was associated with higher snack food intake. Being near outlets that predominately sell snacks (e.g., convenience stores), while accounting for one's usual proximity to them, was associated with higher snack food intake. Accounting for one's usual daily hassle level, we found that on days with more frequent daily hassles snack food intake was higher. The positive association between within-person daily hassles frequency and snack food intake was stronger when foods were easily available. Public and private policies to curb ubiquitous food availability and mobile health interventions that take into account time-varying influences on food choices and provide real-time assistance in dealing with easy food availability and coping with stressors may be beneficial in improving African American women's day to day food choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reflective and impulsive influences on unhealthy snacking. The moderating effects of food related self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Verplanken, Bas; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2012-04-01

    This study proposes that snacking behaviour may be either reflective and deliberate or impulsive, thus following a dual-process account. We hypothesised that chronic individual differences in food related self-control would moderate the relationships between reflective and impulsive processes. The reflective route was represented by an attitude toward unhealthy snacking, while the impulsive route was represented by the tendency to buy snack on impulse. A web survey was conducted with 207 students and employees at a Norwegian university, and a moderated hierarchical regression analysis using structural equation modelling was used to estimate the theoretical model. The findings showed that both attitudes towards unhealthy snacking and impulsive snack buying tendency were positively related to snack consumption. Food related self-control moderated the relation between attitude and behaviour, as well as the relation between impulsive snack buying tendency and behaviour. The effect of attitude on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was strong, while the effect of impulsive snack buying on consumption was relatively strong when food related self-control was weak. The results thus suggest that while weak self-control exposes individuals vulnerable to impulsive tendencies, strong self-control does not necessarily lead to less unhealthy snacking, but this depends on the valence of an individual's attitude. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Nutrient Density of Snacks: A Comparison of Nutrient Profiles of Popular Snack Foods Using the Nutrient-Rich Foods Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie; Rao, Goutham; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF) Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data) in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3), milk (52.5), and fruit (30.1) emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (-4.4), pies and cakes (-11.1), and carbonated soft drinks (-17.2) emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  4. Storing empty calories and chronic disease risk: snack-food products, nutritive content, and manufacturers in Philadelphia corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-05-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child's food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day's recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention.

  5. Physical activity-equivalent label reduces consumption of discretionary snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Isabella E; Keast, Russell Sj; Liem, Dijn G

    2018-03-01

    The present research aimed to investigate the impact of the physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) front-of-pack label on consumption, prospective consumption and liking of familiar and unfamiliar discretionary snack foods. In a within-subject randomised design, participants tasted and rated liking (9-point hedonic scale) and prospective consumption (9-point category scale) of four different snack foods with four different labels (i.e. blank, fake, PACE, PACE doubled) and four control snack foods. The twenty snack foods were presented during two 45 min sessions (i.e. ten snack foods per session) which were separated by one week. The amount participants sampled of each snack food was measured. The study was conducted in the Centre for Advanced Sensory Sciences laboratory at Deakin University, Australia. The participants were 153 university students (126 females, twenty-seven males, mean age 24·3 (sd 4·9) years) currently enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition degree at Deakin University. When the PACE label was present on familiar snack foods, participants sampled 9·9 % (22·8 (sem 1·4) v. 25·3 (sem 1·5) g, P=0·03) less than when such label was not present. This was in line with a decreased prospective snack food consumption of 9·1 % (3·0 (sem 0·2) v. 3·3 (sem 0·2) servings, P=0·03). Such pattern was not seen in unfamiliar snacks. The PACE label appears to be a promising way to decrease familiar discretionary snack food consumption in young, health-minded participants.

  6. Copycat snacks: Can students differentiate between school and store snacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna

    2018-02-01

    In 2014, the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards placed regulations on all snack foods sold in schools. Many food companies reformulated common snack food products for sale in schools, called "copycat snacks", which look similar to nutritionally different foods sold in stores. It is possible that these snacks create consumer confusion among students. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle school students could differentiate, in taste and appearance, between school (copycat) and store versions of common snacks. Seventy-six middle school students evaluated three different food products offered in schools: Froot Loops, Rice Krispy Treats, and Doritos. Students tasted snacks in a series of triangle tests for difference, one for each snack food, including school and store versions. Students were also presented with packages, school and store versions of the same products, and asked to determine the expected taste, purchase intentions, and perceived healthfulness. Students could determine taste differences between school and store Rice Krispy Treats yet could not differentiate between Froot Loop and Dorito varieties. Students rated store versions of all three snacks with greater expected taste, higher intention to purchase, and as less healthy. While it seems product confusion concerning copycat snacks may not be severe in this sample, snack food brands are still a prominent feature in schools. It is possible that these copycat snacks can confuse students' perceptions of healthy foods. Alternative packaging for school foods or reformation of store versions of snack foods may be viable solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge of healthy foods does not translate to healthy snack consumption among exercise science undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura H; Valentino, Antonette; Holbert, Donald

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample). Chi-square and t-test analyses compared ES and NES students on snack correlates. Snacks consumed most often by the ES and NES students on-campus were health bars/squares ( n = 56 vs. n = 48) and savory snacks ( n = 55 vs. n = 71), and off-campus were savory snacks ( n = 60 vs. n = 71) and fruits ( n = 41 vs. n = 34). Over half of both samples believed their snack choices were a mix of unhealthy and healthy. Fruits were considered healthier snacks and chips less healthy by both samples, and fruits were the most often recommended snack. About 20% believed these choices would impact their health unfavorably, and about two thirds self-classified in the action stages for healthy snacking. Since knowledge about healthy food choices did not translate to healthy snack selection, these students would benefit from interventions that teach selection and preparation of healthy snacks on a restricted budget.

  8. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Lukar E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Melbourne. Methods Within-store audits of 35 Melbourne supermarkets. Supermarkets were sampled from the least and most socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs within 30 km of the Melbourne CBD. We measured the availability of crisps, chocolate, confectionery, and soft drinks (diet and regular at the checkouts, in end-of-aisle displays, and in island bin displays. Results Snack food displays were most prominent at checkouts with only five stores not having snack foods at 100% of their checkouts. Snack foods were also present at a number of end-of-aisle displays (at both the front (median 38% and back (median 33% of store, and in island bin displays (median number of island displays: 7; median total circumference of island displays: 19.4 metres. Chocolate items were the most common snack food item on display. There was no difference in the availability of these snack food displays by neighbourhood disadvantage. Conclusions As a result of the high availability of snack food displays, exposure to snack foods is almost unavoidable in Melbourne supermarkets, regardless of levels of neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage. Results of this study could promote awareness of the prominence of unhealthy food items in chain-brand supermarkets outlets.

  9. Effects of daily snack food intake on food reinforcement depend on body mass index and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erika N; Dewey, Amber M; Temple, Jennifer L

    2010-02-01

    The reinforcing value of food plays a role in food consumption. We have shown previously that daily intake of a high-energy-density (HED) snack food decreases food reinforcement and food liking in nonobese women but increases food reinforcement and decreases food liking in obese women. These previous studies were conducted with the use of only HED snack foods. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects generalize to low-energy-density (LED) foods. Participants (n = 53) had food reinforcement and food liking tested at baseline and then again after 2 wk of daily consumption of 60-g portions of an HED (n = 26) or an LED (n = 27) snack food. We observed a decrease in food reinforcement in women with a lower body mass index (BMI) and an increase in food reinforcement in women with a higher BMI after 14 d of consumption of an HED snack food. Food liking decreased in all women, regardless of BMI, after repeated consumption of HED foods. Conversely, all women, regardless of BMI, showed a decrease in food reinforcement after 14 d of LED snack food consumption. Women with a lower BMI who consumed LED snacks also showed a decrease in liking, but women with a higher BMI who consumed LED foods reported no change in liking. These findings suggest that changes in food reinforcement after daily snack food intake are influenced by both BMI and the energy density of the foods. In addition, changes in food reinforcement cannot be explained by changes in food liking.

  10. Multicontextual correlates of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack food consumption by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Miller, Jonathan M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Frequent consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods is an eating behavior of public health concern. This study was designed to inform strategies for reducing adolescent intake of energy-dense snack foods by identifying individual and environmental influences. Surveys were completed in 2009-2010 by 2540 adolescents (54% females, mean age = 14.5 ± 2.0, 80% nonwhite) in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Daily servings of energy-dense snack food was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire that asked about consumption of 21 common snack food items, such as potato chips, cookies, and candy. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, Geographic Information System sources, and a content analysis of favorite television shows. Linear regression was used to examine relationships between each individual or environmental characteristic and snack food consumption in separate models and also to examine relationships in a model including all of the characteristics simultaneously. The factors found to be significantly associated with higher energy-dense snack food intake represented individual attitudes/behaviors (e.g., snacking while watching television) and characteristics of home/family (e.g., home unhealthy food availability), peer (friends' energy-dense snack food consumption), and school (e.g., student snack consumption norms) environments. In total, 25.5% of the variance in adolescents' energy-dense snack food consumption was explained when factors from within each context were examined together. The results suggest that the design of interventions targeting improvement in the dietary quality of adolescents' snack food choices should address relevant individual factors (e.g., eating while watching television) along with characteristics of their home/family (e.g., limiting the availability of unhealthy foods), peer (e.g., guiding the efforts of a peer leader in

  11. The availability of snack food displays that may trigger impulse purchases in Melbourne supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lukar E; Cameron, Adrian J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Worsley, Anthony; Crawford, David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Supermarkets play a major role in influencing the food purchasing behaviours of most households. Snack food exposures within these stores may contribute to higher levels of consumption and ultimately to increasing levels of obesity, particularly within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. We aimed to examine the availability of snack food displays at checkouts, end-of-aisle displays and island displays in major supermarket chains in the least and most socioecono...

  12. Storing Empty Calories and Chronic Disease Risk: Snack-Food Products, Nutritive Content, and Manufacturers in Philadelphia Corner Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Lucan, Sean C.; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child’s food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, l...

  13. A premeal snack of raisins decreases mealtime food intake more than grapes in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Barkha P; Luhovyy, Bohdan; Mollard, Rebecca; Painter, James E; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-04-01

    The effect of a premeal snack of grapes, raisins, or a mix of almonds and raisins, compared with a water control, on food intake (FI) was examined in 8- to 11-year-old normal-weight (15th to 85th percentile) children. Children randomly received 1 of 4 ad libitum (Experiment 1: 13 boys, 13 girls) or fixed-calorie (150 kcal; Experiment 2: 13 boys, 13 girls) treatments, followed by an ad libitum pizza meal 30 min later. Appetite was measured throughout the study, and FI was measured at 30 min. The ad libitum consumption (Experiment 1) of raisins reduced pizza intake (p snack (15%). Cumulative energy intake (in kcal: snack + pizza) was lower after water and raisins than after either grapes or the mixed snack (p snack (Experiment 2), raisins reduced pizza intake, compared with water (∼11%, p = 0.005), and resulted in a cumulative intake similar to water; however, both grapes and the mixed snack resulted in higher cumulative intakes (p snacks (p snack (p consumption of a premeal snack of raisins, but not grapes or a mix of raisins and almonds, reduces meal-time energy intake and does not lead to increased cumulative energy intake in children.

  14. Smaller food item sizes of snack foods influence reduced portions and caloric intake in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Waroquier, Laurent; Klein, Olivier

    2011-05-01

    Studies considering the impact of food-size variations on consumption have predominantly focused on portion size, whereas very little research has investigated variations in food-item size, especially at snacking occasions, and results have been contradictory. This study evaluated the effect of altering the size of food items (ie, small vs large candies) of equal-size food portions on short-term energy intake while snacking. The study used a between-subjects design (n=33) in a randomized experiment conducted in spring 2008. In a psychology laboratory (separate cubicles), participants (undergraduate psychology students, 29 of 33 female, mean age 20.3±2 years, mean body mass index 21.7±3.7) were offered unlimited consumption of candies while participating in an unrelated computerized experiment. For half of the subjects, items were cut in two to make the small food-item size. Food intake (weight in grams, kilocalories, and number of food items) was examined using analysis of variance. Results showed that decreasing the item size of candies led participants to decrease by half their gram weight intake, resulting in an energy intake decrease of 60 kcal compared to the other group. Appetite ratings and subject and food characteristics had no moderating effect. A cognitive bias could explain why people tend to consider that one unit of food (eg, 10 candies) is the appropriate amount to consume, regardless of the size of the food items in the unit. This study suggests a simple dietary strategy, decreasing food-item size without having to alter the portion size offered, may reduce energy intake at snacking occasions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The ubiquity of energy-dense snack foods: a national multicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A; Baker, Erin T; Futrell, Lauren; Rice, Janet C

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the availability and accessibility of energy-dense snacks in retail stores whose primary merchandise was not food and whether these varied by store type, region, or socioeconomic factors. We conducted systematic observations of 1082 retail stores in 19 US cities and determined the availability and accessibility of 6 categories of energy-dense snack foods. Snack food was available in 41% of the stores; the most common forms were candy (33%), sweetened beverages (20%), and salty snacks (17%). These foods were often within arm's reach of the cash register queue. We observed snack foods in 96% of pharmacies, 94% of gasoline stations, 22% of furniture stores, 16% of apparel stores, and 29% to 65% of other types of stores. Availability varied somewhat by region but not by the racial or socioeconomic characteristics of nearby census tracts. Energy-dense snack foods and beverages, implicated as contributors to the obesity epidemic, are widely available in retail stores whose primary business is not food. The ubiquity of these products may contribute to excess energy consumption in the United States.

  16. Taxing Snack Foods: What to Expect for Diet and Tax Revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Fred; Tegene, Abebayehu; Harris, James Michael

    2004-01-01

    Health researchers and health policy advocates have proposed levying excise taxes on snack foods as a possible way to address the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight in the United States. Some proposals suggest higher prices alone will change consumers' diets. Others claim that change will be possible if earmarked taxes are used to fund an information program. This research examines the potential impact of excise taxes on snack foods, using baseline data from a household survey of fo...

  17. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Violeta; Letona, Paola; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-10-18

    Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children's food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as "healthy" or "less-healthy". We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children's television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word "child". We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as "healthy" or "less-healthy" according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as "less-healthy". In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic.

  18. Child-oriented marketing techniques in snack food packages in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight in Guatemala is now becoming a public health concern. Child-oriented marketing contributes to increase children’s food preference, purchase and consumption. This study sought to assess the availability of child-oriented snack foods sold in school kiosks and convenience stores near public schools in Guatemala, to identify the marketing techniques used in child-oriented snack food packages and to classify the snacks as “healthy” or “less-healthy”. Methods We purchased all child-oriented snacks found in stores inside and within 200 square meters from four schools in an urban community. Snacks were classified as child-oriented if the package had any promotional characters, premium offers, children′s television/movie tie-ins, sports references, or the word “child”. We used a checklist to assess child-oriented references and price. Snacks were classified as “healthy” or “less-healthy” according to the UK standards for the Nutritional Profiling Model. Results We analyzed 106 packages found in 55 stores. The most commonly used technique was promotional characters (92.5%) of which 32.7% were brand-specific characters. Premium offers were found in 34% of packages and were mostly collectibles (50%). Most marketing techniques were located on the front and covered nearly 25% of the package surface. Median (interquartile range) price was US$ 0.19 (0.25). Nutrition labels were found in 91 (86%) packages and 41% had a nutrition related health claim. Most snacks (97.1%) were classified as “less-healthy”. Conclusion In Guatemala, the food industry targets children through several marketing techniques promoting inexpensive and unhealthy snacks in the school environment. Evidence-based policies restricting the use of promotional characters in unhealthy snack food packages need to be explored as a contributing strategy to control the obesity epidemic. PMID:24139325

  19. Consistent relationships between sensory properties of savory snack foods and calories influence food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, S E; Doerflinger, A; Davidson, T L

    2006-11-01

    Determine the influence of experience with consistent or inconsistent relationships between the sensory properties of snack foods and their caloric consequences on the control of food intake or body weight in rats. Rats received plain and BBQ flavored potato chips as a dietary supplement, along with ad lib rat chow. For some rats the potato chips were a consistent source of high fat and high calories (regular potato chips). For other rats, the chips provided high fat and high calories on some occasions (regular potato chips) and provided no digestible fat and fewer calories at other times (light potato chips manufactured with a fat substitute). Thus, animals in the first group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were strong predictors of high calories, while animals in the second group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were not predictors of high calories. Juvenile and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following exposure to varying potato chip-calorie contingencies, intake of a novel, high-fat snack food and subsequent chow intake were assessed. Body weight gain and body composition as measured by DEXA were also measured. In juvenile animals, exposure to a consistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in reduced chow intake, both when no chips were provided and following consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip. Long-term experience with these contingencies did not affect body weight gain or body composition in juveniles. In adult rats, exposure to an inconsistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in increased consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip premeal along with impaired compensation for the calories contained in the premeal. Consumption of foods in which the sensory properties are poor predictors of caloric consequences may alter subsequent food intake.

  20. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  1. Differential effects of daily snack food intake on the reinforcing value of food in obese and nonobese women123

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Jennifer L; Bulkley, Alison M; Badawy, Rebecca L; Krause, Nicole; McCann, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food reinforcement, ie, motivation to obtain food, is associated with energy intake and obesity. Finding ways to decrease the reinforcing value of unhealthy foods may help with adherence to diets and maintenance of weight loss. Our previous study in nonobese adults showed that daily consumption of the same snack food (food consumed apart from meals) for 14 d significantly decreased its reinforcing value.

  2. 'Snack' versus 'meal': The impact of label and place on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Wood, Chloe; Payne, Elise; Fouracre, Hollie; Lammyman, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour is influenced by both cognitions and triggers in the environment. The potential difference between a 'snack' and a 'meal' illustrates these factors and the way in which they interact, particularly in terms of the label used to describe food and the way it is presented. To date no research has specifically explored the independent and combined impact of label and presentation on eating behaviour. Using a preload/taste test design this experimental study evaluated the impact of label ('snack' vs. 'meal') and place ('snack' vs. 'meal') of a preload on changes in desire to eat and subsequent food intake. Eighty female participants consumed a pasta preload which labelled as either a 'snack' or a 'meal' and presented as either a 'snack' (standing and eating from a container) or a 'meal' (eating at a table from a plate), generating four conditions. The results showed main effects of label and place with participants consuming significantly more sweet mass (specifically chocolate) at the taste test when the preload had been labelled a 'snack' and more total mass and calories when the preload had been presented as a 'snack'. No label by place interactions were found. The results also showed a combined effect of both label and place with those who had eaten the preload both labelled and presented as a 'snack' consuming significantly more in terms of nearly all measures of food intake than those in the other conditions. To conclude, label and presentation influence subsequent food intake both independently and combined which is pertinent given the increase in 'snacking' in contemporary culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition Quality of US School Snack Foods: A First Look at 2011-2014 Bid Records in 8 School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Claire; Hsiao, Amber; Chamberlin, Peter; Largay, McKenzie; Archibald, Abbie; Malone, Andrew; Stevelos, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Background:As part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, snacks, and desserts sold in K-12 schools as of the 2014-2015 school year are required to meet the "Smart Snacks" nutritional guidelines. Although studies exist in tracking progress in local and national efforts, the proportion of snack food procured by school districts compliant…

  4. Local food environments are associated with girls' energy, sugar-sweetened beverage and snack-food intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Galvez, Maida P; Yen, Irene H; Pinney, Susan M; Biro, Frank M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Teitelbaum, Susan; Wolff, Mary S

    2014-10-01

    To describe availability and frequency of use of local snack-food outlets and determine whether reported use of these outlets was associated with dietary intakes. Data were cross-sectional. Availability and frequency of use of three types of local snack-food outlets were reported. Daily dietary intakes were based on the average of up to four 24 h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression models estimated average daily intakes of energy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and snack foods/sweets associated with use of outlets. Multi-site, observational cohort study in the USA, 2004-2006. Girls aged 6-8 years (n 1010). Weekly frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increased with number of available types of outlets. Girls with access to only one type of outlet reported consuming food/beverage items less frequently than girls with access to two or three types of outlets (P snack foods/sweets intakes increased with greater use of outlets. Girls who reported using outlets>1 to 3 times/week consumed 0·27 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·40) servings of SSB more daily than girls who reported no use. Girls who reported using outlets>3 times/week consumed 449·61 (95 % CI 134·93, 764·29) kJ, 0·43 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·58) servings of SSB and 0·38 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·65) servings of snack foods/sweets more daily than those who reported no use. Girls' frequency of use of local snack-food outlets increases with the number of available types of outlets and is associated with greater daily intakes of energy and servings of SSB and snack foods/sweets.

  5. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged

  6. Clarifying concepts of food parenting practices. A Delphi study with an application to snacking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, D W M; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; van Assema, P

    2014-08-01

    Inconsistencies in measurements of food parenting practices continue to exist. Fundamental to this problem is the lack of clarity about what is understood by different concepts of food parenting practices. The purpose of this study was to clarify food parenting practice concepts related to snacking. A three round Delphi study among an international group of experts (n = 63) was conducted. In the first round, an open-ended survey was used to collect food parenting practice descriptions and concept labels associated with those practices. In the second round, participants were asked to match up descriptions with the appropriate concept labels. The third and final round allowed participants to reconsider how descriptions and concept labels were matched, taking into account the opinions expressed in round two. Round one produced 408 descriptions of food parenting practices and 110 different concept names. Round two started with 116 descriptions of food parenting practices and 20 concept names. On 40 descriptions, consensus regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round two. Of the remaining 76 descriptions, consensus on 47 descriptions regarding the underlying concept name was reached in round three. The present study supports the essential process of consensus development with respect to food parenting practices concepts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smarter snack ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for healthy eating Smarter snack ideas Smarter snack ideas Healthier eating doesn’t mean that you ... to cut out fun foods. Here are some snacks to keep your body and your mouth happy: ...

  8. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  9. Factors Affecting Relative Changes in U.S. Snack Foods Exports Among Countries: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Albert E.; Allen, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis to examine the competitiveness of U.S. snack food exports in terms of their revealed market shares and market potentials. The CMS analysis suggested that almost 99 percent of the gains in snack food exports were due to growth in world demand and 1.52 percent to the composition of snack food products between 2004 and 2008. Unfortunately, competitiveness of the world snack food market reduced U.S. exports by 1.52 percent during this same period.

  10. Patterns of Food Parenting Practices and Children's Intake of Energy-Dense Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2015-05-27

    Most previous studies of parental influences on children's diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4-12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children's intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: "high covert control and rewarding", "low covert control and non-rewarding", "high involvement and supportive" and "low involvement and indulgent". The "high involvement and supportive" cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children's intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children's diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting.

  11. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  12. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Renes, R.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers’ perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate

  13. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  14. The school food environment associations with adolescent soft drink and snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Roberts, Rebecca; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2008-09-01

    Because students may purchase food and drinks in and around their schools, the school food environment may be important for obesity-related eating behaviors such as soft drink and snack consumption. However, research exploring the associations between school environments and specific eating behaviors is sparse. Associations of the availability of canteen food and drinks, the presence of food stores around schools, and individual cognitions (attitudes, norms, modeling, perceived behavioral control, and intentions) with soft drink and snack consumption were examined in a cross-sectional study (2005-2006) among 1,293 adolescents aged 12-15 years. Soft drink and snack consumption and related cognitions were assessed with self-administered questionnaires. The presence of food stores and the distance to the nearest food store were calculated within a 500-meter buffer around each school. Data on the availability of soft drinks and snacks in school canteens were gathered by observation. In 2007, multilevel regression models were run to analyze associations and mediation pathways between cognitions, environmental factors, and behaviors. Adolescents' attitudes, subjective norms, parental and peer modeling, and intentions were positively associated with soft drink and snack consumption. There was an inverse association between the distance to the nearest store and the number of small food stores with soft drink consumption. These effects were mediated partly by cognitions. This study provided little evidence for associations of environmental factors in the school environment with soft drink and snack consumption. Individual cognitions appeared to be stronger correlates of intake than physical school-environmental factors. Longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Presence of Candy and Snack Food at Checkout in Chain Stores: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Menafro, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Community health professionals must use multiple strategies to address the rising rates of childhood obesity in the United States. One such strategy is to address the underlying causes of childhood obesity, including lack of exercise and the consumption of calorically-dense snack foods. This study examines the presence of candy and snack food in the checkout lines of all retail chain stores in a selected community to determine the presence of these products, the ways in which these products are promoted, and the type of physical environment through which customers navigate during the checkout process. The findings confirm that candy, soft drinks, snacks, and ice cream were present in a large majority of these retail stores. Further, this pilot study found that many of these stores "corral" customers through the check-out line in such a way that it is necessary to pass these snack foods directly. Three themes for discussion emerged from the review of the data collected, including product marketing, product packaging, and product placement. Implications for childhood health are presented in the context of these marketing strategies. The results and subsequent discussion provide important insight into the ways in which the presence of candy and snack food at checkout lines might contribute to childhood obesity rates.

  16. Parental control and overconsumption of snack foods in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, June; Matheson, Brittany E; Rhee, Kyung E; Peterson, Carol B; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2016-05-01

    The associations between snack food consumption, parent feeding practices and general parenting in overweight in obese children are largely unknown. Therefore, we examined these relationships in 117 treatment-seeking overweight and obese children (10.40 ± 1.35 years; 53% female; 52% Caucasian; BMI-z: 2.06 ± .39). Children consumed a dinner meal, completed an Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) free access paradigm (total EAH intake = EAH%-total; sweet food intake = EAH%-sweet), and completed the Child Report of Parent Behavior Inventory. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Child EAH%-total and EAH%-sweet were positively associated with dinner consumption (p's consumption of specific foods, EAH snack food, parent restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring, and maternal psychological control were positively correlated with intake of Hershey's(®) chocolate bars (p's snack food intake and maternal psychological control is associated with child total snack food consumption. Future research should evaluate the complex relationship between child eating and parenting, especially with regard to subgroups of foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotion-driven impulsiveness and snack food consumption of European adolescents: Results from the I.Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumans, Juul M J; Danner, Unna N; Intemann, Timm; De Decker, Annelies; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Hunsberger, Monica; Moreno, Luis A; Russo, Paola; Stomfai, Sarolta; Veidebaum, Toomas; Adan, Roger A H; Hebestreit, Antje

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between emotion-driven impulsiveness and snack food consumption in 1039 European adolescents aged 12-18 years. During the cross-sectional examination in 2013/2014, complete information was collected on: emotion-driven impulsiveness (using the negative urgency subscale from the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation seeking, and Positive urgency (UPPS-P) Impulsive Behaviour Scale) and snacking behaviour operationalised as 1) consumption frequency of daily snacks, 2) consumption frequency of energy-dense snacks (both measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire) and 3) usual energy intake of food consumed per snacking occasion in calories. The latter was measured using online self-administered 24-h dietary recalls and was estimated based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Method. Anthropometric variables were measured and BMI z-score (zBMI) calculated. Age, sex, highest education level of the family and country of residence were assessed using a questionnaire. Mixed-effect regression analyses were separately conducted for each snacking behaviour outcome with emotion-driven impulsiveness as the exposure. After controlling for zBMI, age, sex, country and socioeconomic status, emotion-driven impulsiveness was positively associated with daily consumption frequency of snacks (β = 0.07, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.02, 0.12]) and consumption frequency of energy-dense snacks (β = 0.25, 95% CI [0.19, 0.31]), but not with usual energy intake of food per snacking (β = 2.52, 95% CI [-0.55, 5.59]). Adolescents with a stronger emotion-driven impulsiveness tendency reported a higher snacking frequency and specifically more energy-dense snacks, whereas the energy intake of snack food seemed less important. These findings have implications for obesity prevention and treatment as they indicate the importance of targeting emotion-driven impulsiveness as a strategy to avoid excessive snacking. Copyright © 2018

  18. Guilty pleasures: The effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Helen K; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2018-02-01

    Despite being widely debated throughout the scientific community, the concept of food addiction remains a popular explanation for overeating and obesity amongst the lay public. Overeating is often accompanied by feelings of guilt and dietary concern, and this may lead people to attribute their eating to an addiction in order to minimise personal responsibility. Research also indicates that food addiction attributions and dietary concern may lead people to limit their exposure to tempting foods. To test these ideas, we examined the effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice. Subjective ratings of guilt and dietary concern were indirectly manipulated by leading female participants (N=90) to believe they had eaten more than (overeating condition), less than (undereating condition), or roughly the same (control condition) amount of palatable foods in relation to their own estimated consumption and to previous participants. Participants then rated the relative importance of a list of explanations for their eating (including "the foods were really addictive") and selected a snack to take home with them. Ratings of guilt and dietary concern were highest in the overeating condition, and lowest in the undereating condition, indicating that the manipulation had been successful. However, findings revealed no effect of condition on food addiction attributions. As predicted, participants in the overeating condition selected less tempting snacks than in the undereating condition. However, this effect was not mediated by guilt/dietary concern. There was also no association between food-addiction attributions and snack choice. These findings suggest that perceived overeating affects snack choice but not food addiction attributions. Future research should investigate whether food addiction attributions may be driven by feelings of guilt and dietary concern following longer-term disinhibited eating patterns. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  19. Weight loss strategies: association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Cross-sectional analysis of 24-h dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9440). Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (pPrice (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (psnack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Different circulating ghrelin responses to isoglucidic snack food in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, S; Codella, R; Caumo, A; Marangoni, F; Luzi, L

    2011-02-01

    The last decade has seen much debate on ghrelin as a potential target for treating obesity. Despite a close connection between snack food intake and obesity, snacking is controversially reviewed as a good habit in a healthy nutritional regimen. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a different nutrient composition influences postprandial ghrelin levels and glucose increments induced by 6 isoglucidic snack food. 20 healthy individuals (10 M/10 F; BMI 23.1 ± 0.5; age 33 ± 0.67 years, mean and SE) from H San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Milan University were enrolled. The subjects underwent OGTT (50 g) and 6 isoglucidic test-meal loads to assess the ghrelin circulating levels and the area under glycemic curves induced by 6 commercial snacks. 3 h after hazelnut chocolate intake, ghrelin was significantly lower than with wafer chocolate intake (psnacks, the glycemic curves were not different even though hazelnut chocolate showed the lowest glycemic curve. Moreover, snack fat content was found to be inversely correlated to 3-h plasma ghrelin levels (psnack food administered in equivalent glucidic loads elicits postprandial ghrelin suppression and satiety ratings in different ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of ghrelin as hunger-hormone in the regulation of energy balance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Development and validation of a quantitative snack and beverage food frequency questionnaire for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, N; Van Camp, J; Kolsteren, P; Lachat, C; Huybregts, L; Maes, L; Deforche, B; Verstraeten, R; Vangeel, J; Beullens, K; Eggermont, S; Van Lippevelde, W

    2017-04-01

    A short, reliable and valid tool to measure snack and beverage consumption in adolescents, taking into account the correct definitions, would benefit both epidemiological and intervention research. The present study aimed to develop a short quantitative beverage and snack food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to assess the reliability and validity of this FFQ against three 24-h recalls. Reliability was assessed by comparing estimates of the FFQ administered 14 days apart (FFQ1 and FFQ2) in a convenience sample of 179 adolescents [60.3% male; mean (SD) 14.7 (0.9) years]. Validity was assessed by comparing FFQ1 with three telephone-administered 24-h recalls in a convenience sample of 99 adolescents [52.5% male, mean (SD) 14.8 (0.9) years]. Reliability and validity were assessed using Bland-Altman plots, classification agreements and correlation coefficients for the amount and frequency of consumption of unhealthy snacks, healthy snacks, unhealthy beverages, healthy beverages, and for the healthy snack and beverage ratios. Small mean differences (FFQ1 versus FFQ2) were observed for reliability, ranking ability ranged from fair to substantial, and Spearman coefficients fell within normal ranges. For the validity, mean differences (FFQ1 versus recalls) were small for beverage intake but large for snack intake, except for the healthy snack ratio. Ranking ability ranged from slightly to moderate, and Spearman coefficients fell within normal ranges. Reliability and validity of the FFQ for all outcomes were found to be acceptable at a group level for epidemiological purposes, whereas for intervention purposes only the healthy snack and beverage ratios were found to be acceptable at a group level. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Daily exposure to either a high- or low-energy-dense snack food reduces its reinforcing value in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L; Van der Kloet, Erika; Atkins, Amanda M; Crandall, Amanda K; Ziegler, Amanda M

    2017-02-01

    To examine the impact of daily exposure to a low-energy-dense (LED) or a high-energy-dense (HED) snack food on its reinforcing value (RRV) in adolescents with healthy weight, overweight, or obesity. A parallel-group, randomized trial was used to assess RRV of LED or HED snack food at baseline and again after exposure to that snack food daily for 2 weeks in 77 adolescents, aged 13 to 17 years. Information on eating-related subject characteristics was also collected at baseline. After 2 weeks of daily exposure, the RRV of the snack foods was significantly reduced in all participants, regardless of energy density or participant weight status. Among individuals who were high in dietary restraint only, those randomized to LED food found their snack food less reinforcing at baseline than those who were randomized to HED food. Baseline eating-related variables also differed as a function of weight status. Daily exposure to snack food in adolescents reduces the RRV of that food regardless of snack food energy density or weight status of the adolescent. This finding differs from adults, suggesting that increases in RRV of HED food after repeated exposure may develop after adolescence. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Vitamin-Fortified Snack Food May Lead Consumers to Make Poor Dietary Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrill, Linda; Wood, Dallas; Cates, Sheryl; Lando, Amy; Zhang, Yuanting

    2017-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) fortification policy discourages the fortification of certain foods, including sugars and snack foods such as cookies, candies, cakes, chips, and carbonated beverages, yet manufacturers sometimes add vitamins and minerals to snack foods. To assess whether vitamin-fortified snack foods affect consumers' information-seeking, purchase decisions, and product-related health perceptions. For this experimental study, participants were randomly assigned to study conditions to compare products that varied in product type, nutrition profile, and fortification and nutrient claim status. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. US adults aged 18 years and older were randomly selected from Research Now's e-panel online household panel. Data were collected during fall 2014 (N=5,076). Participants were randomly assigned to one of 24 conditions: two products (vegetable chip/potato chip), two nutrition profiles (healthier/less healthy), two fortification scenarios (not fortified/fortified), and three nutrient claim conditions (two no claim/one with claim). The design was not balanced; claims were not shown on products that were not vitamin fortified. Outcome measures were information-seeking (viewed the Nutrition Facts label), purchase decisions, perception of product healthfulness, and correct selection of product with the healthier nutrient profile. Logistic regression was used to test all models. Analyses was adjusted for general label use, consumes product, health status, age, sex, level of education, presence of children in the household, and race/ethnicity. When the snack food carried a nutrient claim for vitamin fortification, participants were 1) less likely to look for nutrition information on the Nutrition Facts label, 2) more likely to select the product for purchase, 3) more likely to perceive the product as healthier, and 4) less likely to correctly choose the healthier product. Snack foods that have been vitamin

  4. Consumer perceptions of satiety-related snack food decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, E M; van Trijp, J C M; Renes, R J

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more insight into how consumers' perceptions of the satiety value of snack products influence their choice of such products and to get a better understanding of consumer terminology and perceptions about product-related satiety. Participants were asked to indicate their individual product choice in response to a scenario. Scenarios varied as a between-subject factor in terms of whether information on the time gap till the next meal occasion (favorite main dish) was provided or not, and whether this meal would be eaten after one hour or four hours. To get a better understanding of consumer terminology a repertory grid task was used to elicit consumer attributes relating to satiety. This research shows that, when consumers are confronted with situations that vary in satiety requirements, they do not make significantly different snack products choices. But they do have specific ideas about the product features that influence the perceived satiety level of a product. Products perceived as fat, high in protein, with a savory taste and in one piece are expected to have a higher level of satiety compared to sweet products and products that exist of multiple small items. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. USDA snack food and beverage standards: how big of a stretch for the states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-06-01

    The USDA snack food and beverage standards take effect in school year (SY) 2014-2015. Although the USDA standards will provide nationwide requirements, concerns exist about compliance. This study examined whether existing state laws are aligned with the USDA standards to determine whether some states may be better positioned to facilitate compliance. Codified state statutory and regulatory laws effective for SY 2012-2013 for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were identified through Boolean keyword searches using the Westlaw and LexisNexis databases. Laws were analyzed for alignment with 18 snack food and beverage provisions contained within the USDA standards. Thirty-eight states had snack food and beverage standards; 33 states' laws exceeded restrictions on foods of minimal nutritional value. Of the 33 states, no states' laws fully met the USDA's standards, 16 states' laws fully met and 10 states' laws partially met at least one USDA provision, and seven states' laws met no USDA provisions. One state's law met 9 of 18 provisions. On average, states met 4 of 18 provisions. States were more likely to meet individual USDA beverage than snack provisions. Implementation and compliance with the USDA standards may be facilitated in states with laws already containing provisions aligned with the USDA standards and may be more difficult in states with fewer or no provisions in alignment, suggesting possible geographic areas for the USDA to target with technical assistance and training efforts and for advocates to work in to facilitate compliance.

  6. Sex differences in snack food reinforcement in response to increasing dietary protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...

  7. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What factors are associated with frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Morley, Belinda; Baur, Louise; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-08-01

    To examine demographic and behavioural correlates of unhealthy snack-food consumption among Australian secondary-school students and the association between their perceptions of availability, convenience and intake with consumption. Cross-sectional survey of students' eating, physical activity and sedentary behaviours using validated instruments administered via an online questionnaire. Australian secondary schools across all states/territories. Secondary-school students aged 12-17 years participating in the 2009-10 National Secondary Students' Diet and Activity (NaSSDA) survey (n 12 188). Approximately one in five students (21 %) reported consuming unhealthy snack foods ≥14 times/week ('frequent snackers'). After adjusting for all covariates, older students and those with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m² were less likely to be frequent snackers, while students who reported high fast-food and high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and those who watched television for >2 h/d were more likely to snack frequently. Furthermore, after adjusting for all covariates and demographic factors, students who agreed that snack foods are usually available at home, convenient to buy and that they eat too many snack foods were more likely to be snacking frequently. Conversely, students who agreed that fruit is a convenient snack were less likely to be frequent snackers. Frequent unhealthy snack-food consumption appears to cluster with other poor health behaviours. Perceptions of availability and convenience are factors most readily amenable to change, and findings suggest interventions should focus on decreasing the availability of unhealthy snack foods in the home and promoting healthier options such as fruit as convenient snacks.

  10. A qualitative study of children's snack food packaging perceptions and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Chacon, Violeta; Roberto, Christina; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2014-12-15

    Food marketing is pervasive in high- and low/middle-income countries and is recognized as a significant risk factor for childhood obesity. Although food packaging is one of the most important marketing tools to persuade consumers at the point-of-sale, scant research has examined how it influences children's perceptions. This study was conducted in Guatemala and aimed to understand which snack foods are the most frequently purchased by children and how aspects of food packaging influence their product perceptions. Six activity-based focus groups were conducted in two elementary public schools with thirty-seven children (Grades 1 through 6, age range 7-12 years old). During each focus group, children participated in three activities: 1) list their most frequently purchased food products; 2) select the picture of their favorite product, the packaging they liked best, and the product they thought was the healthiest from eight choices; and 3) draw the package of a new snack. Children reported purchasing salty snacks most frequently. Most children chose their favorite product based on taste perceptions, which can be influenced by food packaging. Visual elements influenced children's selection of favorite packaging (i.e., characters, colors) and healthiest product (i.e., images), and persuaded some children to incorrectly think certain foods contained healthy ingredients. When children generated their own drawings of a new product, the most frequently included packaging elements in the drawings were product name, price, product image and characters, suggesting those aspects of the food packaging were most significant to them. Policies regulating package content and design are required to discourage consumption of unhealthy snacks. This might be another public health strategy that can aid to halt the obesity epidemic.

  11. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita

    2014-08-01

    Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings ("restraint condition"), eat as much as they like ("facilitation condition") or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.

  13. When snacks become meals: How hunger and environmental cues bias food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental and situational cues influence food intake, it is not always clear how they do so. We examine whether participants consume more when an eating occasion is associated with meal cues than with snack cues. We expect their perception of the type of eating occasion to mediate the amount of food they eat. In addition, we expect the effect of those cues on food intake to be strongest among those who are hungry. Methods One-hundred and twenty-two undergraduates (75 men, 47 women; mean BMI = 22.8, SD = 3.38 were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in which they were offered foods such as quesadillas and chicken wings in an environment that was associated with either meal cues (ceramic plates, glasses, silverware, and cloth napkins at a table, or snack cues (paper plates and napkins, plastic cups, and no utensils. After participants finished eating, they were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their hunger, satiety, perception of the foods, and included demographic and anthropometric questions. In addition, participants' total food intake was recorded. Results Participants who were in the presence of meal-related cues ate 27.9% more calories than those surrounded with snack cues (416 versus 532 calories. The amount participants ate was partially mediated by whether they perceived the eating occasion to be a meal or a snack. In addition, the effect of the environmental cues on intake was most pronounced among participants who were hungry. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that environmental and situational cues associated with an eating occasion could influence overall food intake. People were more likely to eat foods when they were associated with meal cues. Importantly, the present study reveals that the effect of these cues is uniquely intertwined with cognition and motivation. First, people were more likely to eat ambiguous foods when they perceived them as a meal rather than a

  14. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  15. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-05

    Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food.

  16. Influence of Food Packaging on Children's Energy-dense Snack ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As with tobacco, marketing plays a key role in the obesity epidemic. ... This research will support policymakers in their efforts to regulate food marketing in Guatemala ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  17. The relative reinforcing value of sweet versus savory snack foods after consumption of sugar- or non-nutritive sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Shanon L; Johnson, LuAnn; Roemmich, James N

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sugar-sweetened (SSB) and non-nutritive sweetened (NSB) beverages on the regulation of appetite, energy intake and body weight regulation remain controversial. Using a behavioral choice paradigm, we sought to determine the effects of consuming a SSB or NSB on appetite and the reinforcing value of sweet relative to salty/savory snack foods. In a randomized crossover study, 21 healthy weight adults consumed 360 ml of SSB (sucrose; 31 g) or NSB (sucralose; 4 g) with a standardized meal. Hedonic ratings for the sweet and salty/savory snack foods used for the reinforcement task were assessed prior to the start of the study. Satiety and the desire to eat foods with a specific taste profile were assessed before and every 30 min post-meal for 4 h. The relative reinforcing value of the snack foods was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent schedules of reinforcement) 4 h post-meal. Hedonic ratings did not differ between the most highly liked sweet and salty/savory snack foods. Beverage type did not influence measures of satiety or the desire to eat foods with a specific taste. However, sweet snacks were more (p snack foods after consuming a NSB than after a SSB. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that NSB can increase the motivation to gain access to sweet snacks relative to salty/savory snack foods later in the day. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Imitation of snack food intake among normal-weight and overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Hermans, Roel C J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether social modeling of palatable food intake might partially be explained by the direct imitation of a peer reaching for snack food and further, assessed the role of the children's own weight status on their likelihood of imitation during the social interaction. Real-time observations during a 10-min play situation in which 68 participants (27.9% overweight) interacted with normal-weight confederates (instructed peers) were conducted. Children's imitated and non-imitated responses to the confederate's food picking movements were compared using a paired sample t-test. In addition, the pattern of likelihood of imitation was tested using multilevel proportional hazard models in a survival analysis framework. Children were more likely to eat after observing a peer reaching for snack food than without such a cue [t (67) = 5.69, P imitation responses during a social interaction based on their weight status (HR = 2.6, P = 0.03, 95% CI = 1.09-6.20). Overweight children were almost twice as likely to imitate, whereas normal-weight children had a smaller chance to imitate at the end of the interaction. Further, the mean difference in the likelihood of imitation suggest that overweight children might be less likely to imitate in the beginning of the interaction than normal-weight children. The findings provide preliminary evidence that children's imitation food picking movements may partly contribute to social modeling effects on palatable food intake. That is, a peer reaching for food is likely to trigger children's snack intake. However, the influence of others on food intake is a complex process that might be explained by different theoretical perspectives.

  19. Price Trends Are Similar for Fruits, Vegetables, and Snack Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchler, Fred; Stewart, Hayden

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the price of fruits and vegetables relative to less healthy foods could reduce consumers’ incentives to purchase fruits and vegetables and result in less healthy diets. Whether such a change in relative prices and incentives has occurred in the United States is difficult to prove because of substantial quality improvements in many fresh fruits and vegetables. For commonly consumed fresh fruits and vegetables for which quality has remained fairly constant, analysis of price tren...

  20. Smart Snacks in School Legislation Does Not Change Self-Reported Snack Food and Beverage Intake of Middle School Students in Rural Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Hosig, Kathy; Zhang, Angang; Shen, Sumin; Serrano, Elena

    To assess the effects of the national Smart Snacks in School standards, which include nutrient and ingredient limitations for school competitive foods and beverages effective July, 2014, on student intake in low-income rural Appalachian middle schools. Food-frequency questionnaires were administered to students before and after implementation. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to examine effects from year of data collection, grade, and free or reduced price lunch participation rates. No significant changes were observed after implementation except a decrease in consumption of 1% or nonfat flavored milk at school. Smart Snacks in School standards did not result in significant dietary changes in this study. Longitudinal studies could evaluate long-term impacts of nutrition standards. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India: A Case Study of the Food Environments of Rural Villages and an Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna

    2016-04-01

    To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Cross-sectional. Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The benefits of defining "snacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2018-04-18

    Whether eating a "snack" is considered a beneficial or detrimental behavior is largely based on how "snack" is defined. The term "snack food" tends to connote energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods high in nutrients to limit (sugar, sodium, and/or saturated fat) like cakes, cookies, chips and other salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Eating a "snack food" is often conflated with eating a "snack," however, leading to an overall perception of snacks as a dietary negative. Yet the term "snack" can also refer simply to an eating occasion outside of breakfast, lunch, or dinner. With this definition, the evidence to support health benefits or detriments to eating a "snack" remains unclear, in part because relatively few well-designed studies that specifically focus on the impact of eating frequency on health have been conducted. Despite these inconsistencies and research gaps, in much of the nutrition literature, "snacking" is still referred to as detrimental to health. As discussed in this review, however, there are multiple factors that influence the health impacts of snacking, including the definition of "snack" itself, the motivation to snack, body mass index of snack eaters, and the food selected as a snack. Without a definition of "snack" and a body of research using methodologically rigorous protocols, determining the health impact of eating a "snack" will continue to elude the nutrition research community and prevent the development of evidence-based policies about snacking that support public health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of playing advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on actual food intake among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have focused on the effects of television advertising on the energy intake of children. However, the rapidly changing food-marketing landscape requires research to measure the effects of nontraditional forms of marketing on the health-related behaviors of children. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on children's ad libitum snack and fruit consumption and to examine whether this consumption differed according to brand and product type (energy-dense snacks and fruit). The second aim was to examine whether advergames can stimulate fruit intake. We used a randomized between-subject design with 270 children (age: 8-10 y) who played an advergame that promoted energy-dense snacks (n = 69), fruit (n = 67), or nonfood products (n = 65) or were in the control condition (n = 69). Subsequently, we measured the free intake of energy-dense snacks and fruit. The children then completed questionnaire measures, and we weighed and measured them. The main finding was that playing an advergame containing food cues increased general energy intake, regardless of the advertised brand or product type (energy-dense snacks or fruit), and this activity particularly increased the intake of energy-dense snack foods. Children who played the fruit version of the advergame did not eat significantly more fruit than did those in the other groups. The findings suggest that playing advergames that promote food, including either energy-dense snacks or fruit, increases energy intake in children.

  4. Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Thornton, Lukar E; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional supermarket audit. Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.

  5. An obesogenic bias in women's spatial memory for high calorie snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, K; Allan, J L

    2013-08-01

    To help maintain a positive energy balance in ancestral human habitats, evolution appears to have designed a functional bias in spatial memory that enhances our ability to remember the location of high-calorie foodstuffs. Here, we investigated whether this functional bias has obesogenic consequences for individuals living in a modern urban environment. Spatial memory, dietary intentions, and perceived desirability, for high-calorie snacks and lower-calorie fruits and vegetables were measured using a computer-based task in 41 women (age: 18-35, body mass index: 18.5-30.0). Using multiple linear regression, we analyzed whether enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks versus fruits and vegetables predicted BMI, controlling for dietary intention strength and perceived food desirability. We observed that enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks (both independently, and relative to that for fruits and vegetables), significantly predicted higher BMI. The evolved function of high-calorie bias in human spatial memory, to promote positive energy balance, would therefore appear to be intact. But our data reveal that this function may contribute to higher, less healthy BMI in individuals in whom the memory bias is most marked. Our findings reveal a novel cognitive marker of vulnerability to weight gain that, once the proximal mechanisms are understood, may offer new possibilities for weight control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of executive control in situational context: Effects of facilitating versus restraining cues on snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter; Tran, Betty; Lowe, Cassandra; Vincent, Corita; Mourtzakis, Marina; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Prapavessis, Harry; Gidron, Yori

    2015-05-01

    To examine the effects of executive function (EF) on objectively measured high-calorie snack food consumption in 2 age groups and to explore the moderating influence of environmental cues. In Study 1, 43 older adults (M(age) = 74.81) and in Study 2, 79 younger adults (M(age) = 18.71) completed measures of EF and subsequently participated in a bogus taste-test paradigm wherein they were required to rate 3 highly appetitive (but high-calorie) snack foods on taste and texture. Grams of snack food consumed was measured covertly in the presence randomly assigned contextual cues (explicit semantic cues in Study 1; implicit visual cues in Study 2) that were facilitating or restraining in nature. Findings indicated that in both age groups, stronger EF predicted lower consumption of snack foods across conditions, and the effects of EF were most pronounced in the presence of facilitating cues. Older and younger adults with weaker EF tend to consume more high-calorie snack food compared with their stronger EF counterparts. These tendencies appear to be especially amplified in the presence of facilitating cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Reduce temptation or resist it? Experienced temptation mediates the relationship between implicit evaluations of unhealthy snack foods and subsequent intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn; Mohr, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A more negative implicit evaluation of unhealthy food stimuli and a more positive implicit evaluation of a weight-management goal have been shown to predict lower consumption of unhealthy food. However, the associations between these evaluations, temptation to indulge and consumption of unhealthy food remain unclear. The current study investigated whether temptation would mediate the relationship between implicit food and goal evaluations and consumption (resembling an antecedent-focused route to self-control of eating), or whether those evaluations would moderate the relationship between temptation and consumption (resembling a response-focused route). A sample of 156 women (17-25 years), who tried to manage their weight through healthy eating, completed two implicit association tasks assessing implicit food and goal evaluations, respectively. Intake of four energy-dense snack foods was measured in a task disguised as a taste test, and participants reported the strength of experienced temptation to indulge in the snacks offered. Negative implicit food evaluation was associated with lower snack intake, and temptation mediated this relationship. Implicit goal evaluation was unrelated to both temptation strength and snack consumption. The findings contribute to an understanding of how negative implicit unhealthy food evaluation relates to lower consumption, namely through the mediation of temptation to indulge in those foods.

  8. Motivational differences in food orientation and the choice of snacks made from lentils, locusts, seaweed or "hybrid" meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Schösler, H.; Boersema, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The recently developed Food Choice Motives (FCMs) questionnaire was used in a survey among a sample from the general population in the Netherlands (n= 1083) to examine the relationship between motivational differences in food orientation and the choice of snacks made from environmentally-friendly

  9. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barker, Judith C

    2015-05-30

    Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisements recorded a convenience sample of 100 advertisements, including 53 from rural areas and 47 from urban areas in El Salvador. Advertisements were coded for location, type of product, visual details, placement and context. Qualitative methods were used to identify common themes used to appeal to consumers. Advertisements depicted "modern" fast foods, processed snacks and sugary beverages. Overall, the most prominent themes were: Cheap Price, Fast, Large Size, and Modern. Other themes used frequently in combination with these were Refreshment, Sports/Nationalism, Sex and Gender Roles, Fun/Happy Feelings, Family, Friendship and Community, and Health. In rural areas, beverage and snack food ads with the themes of cheap price, fast, and large size tended to predominate; in urban areas, ads for fast food restaurants and the theme of modernity tended to be more prominent. The advertisements represented a pervasive bombardment of the public with both explicit and subliminal messages to increase consumerism and shift dietary patterns to processed foods and beverages that are low in micronutrients and high in carbohydrates, sugar, fat and salt--dietary changes that are increasing rates of child and adult diseases including tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Global food and beverage industries must be held accountable for the adverse public health effects of their products, especially in low-middle income countries where there are fewer resources to prevent and treat the health

  10. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, C; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, C

    2016-01-01

    . There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program......BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity...... treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University...

  11. The world food problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A

    1974-07-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  12. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  13. Use of food labels by adolescents to make healthier choices on snacks: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talagala, Ishanka A; Arambepola, Carukshi

    2016-08-08

    Unhealthy snacking is commonly seen among adolescents. Therefore, use of food labels is promoted for making healthier choices on packaged snacks. This study was conducted to assess the use of food labels in making choices on packaged snack and its associated factors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 among 542 Grade 12 students in Sri Lanka. Eight classes were selected as 'clusters' for the study (two classes each from two schools that were selected randomly from each list of 'Girls only' and 'Boys only' schools in Colombo district). A self-administered questionnaire assessed their socio-demography, snacking behaviour, attitudes and nutrition knowledge related to food labels. Adolescents' use of labels was assessed by three practices (label reading frequency, attention paid to label contents and correct interpretation of six hypothetical labels of snacks). Based on total scores obtained for the three practices, 'satisfactory' (score ≥75(th) percentile mark) and 'unsatisfactory' (score pocket money at least once/week on packaged snacks; predominantly on biscuits (85 %) and cola-drinks (77 %) and 88 % selected snacks on their own. The majority (74.5 %) was frequent ('always' or 'most often') label readers with female predominance (p < 0.05). Over 74 % paid attention frequently to the brand name (75 %), price (85 %) and nutrition panel (81 %). Over 64 % were able to select the better food label when given a choice between two snacks, although some did it for reasons such as attractive label (63 %). The majority (84 %) had good knowledge (obtaining more than the 75(th) percentile mark) on interpreting labels. Although not statistically significant, 'unsatisfactory' label use was higher among males (73 %), purchasing power (70.4 %) and unhealthy snacking behaviour (73 %). In contrast, among the marketing strategies, identifying known brands (73.2 %) and imported products (75.8 %) as 'good' products were significantly

  14. Use of food labels by adolescents to make healthier choices on snacks: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishanka A. Talagala

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy snacking is commonly seen among adolescents. Therefore, use of food labels is promoted for making healthier choices on packaged snacks. This study was conducted to assess the use of food labels in making choices on packaged snack and its associated factors among adolescents. Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted in 2012 among 542 Grade 12 students in Sri Lanka. Eight classes were selected as ‘clusters’ for the study (two classes each from two schools that were selected randomly from each list of ‘Girls only’ and ‘Boys only’ schools in Colombo district. A self-administered questionnaire assessed their socio-demography, snacking behaviour, attitudes and nutrition knowledge related to food labels. Adolescents’ use of labels was assessed by three practices (label reading frequency, attention paid to label contents and correct interpretation of six hypothetical labels of snacks. Based on total scores obtained for the three practices, ‘satisfactory’ (score ≥75th percentile mark and ‘unsatisfactory’ (score <75th percentile mark label users were identified. Using SPSS, associations were assessed at 0.05 significance level using Chi-square-test. Results Of the participants, 51 % were males; 61 % spent their pocket money at least once/week on packaged snacks; predominantly on biscuits (85 % and cola-drinks (77 % and 88 % selected snacks on their own. The majority (74.5 % was frequent (‘always’ or ‘most often’ label readers with female predominance (p < 0.05. Over 74 % paid attention frequently to the brand name (75 %, price (85 % and nutrition panel (81 %. Over 64 % were able to select the better food label when given a choice between two snacks, although some did it for reasons such as attractive label (63 %. The majority (84 % had good knowledge (obtaining more than the 75th percentile mark on interpreting labels. Although not statistically significant,

  15. Healthier Standards for School Meals and Snacks: Impact on School Food Revenues and Lunch Participation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary T; Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the updated U.S. Department of Agriculture school meals standards and a competitive food law similar to the fully implemented version of the national Smart Snack standards went into effect in Massachusetts. This study evaluated the impact of these updated school meal standards and Massachusetts' comprehensive competitive food standards on school food revenues and school lunch participation. Revenue and participation data from 11 Massachusetts school districts were collected from 2011 to 2014 and analyzed in 2015 using multilevel modeling. The association between the change in compliance with the competitive food standards and revenues/participation was assessed using linear regression. Schools experienced declines in school food revenues of $15.40/student in Year 1 from baseline (p=0.05), due to competitive food revenue losses. In schools with 3 years of data, overall revenues rebounded by the second year post-implementation. Additionally, by Year 2, school lunch participation increased by 15% (p=0.0006) among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Better competitive food compliance was inversely associated with school food revenues in the first year only; an absolute change in compliance by 10% was associated with a $9.78/student decrease in food revenues over the entire school year (p=0.04). No association was seen between the change in compliance and school meal participation. Schools experienced initial revenue losses after implementation of the standards, yet longer-term school food revenues were not impacted and school meal participation increased among children eligible for reduced-price meals. Weakening the school meal or competitive food guidelines based on revenue concerns appears unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximity of snacks to beverages increases food consumption in the workplace: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Ernest; Gorlin, Margarita; Chance, Zoë; Novemsky, Nathan; Dhar, Ravi; Huskey, Kim; Hatzis, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to bolster employee satisfaction, many employers provide free snacks at the office. Unfortunately, keeping employees happy can conflict with the goal of keeping them healthy, since increased snacking at work can contribute to overeating and obesity. Building on the growing body of research in choice architecture, we tested one factor that might influence snack consumption without impacting satisfaction: the relative distance between snacks and beverages. In a large field study at Google, we measured snack consumption when snacks were closer to or farther from beverages. We found that employees who used the beverage station closer to the snack station were more likely to take a snack- the likelihood of snacking increased from 12% to 23% for men and from 13% to 17% for women when the beverage station closest to the snack station was used. These results imply that employers and even families could reduce snack consumption easily, cheaply, and without backlash, by increasing the relative distance between beverages and snacks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing the utility of the theory of planned behavior between boys and girls for predicting snack food consumption: implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior to explain two types of snack food consumption among boys and girls (girls n = 98; boys n = 69), which may have implications for future theory-based health promotion interventions. Between genders, there was a significant difference for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .002), but no difference for fruit and vegetable snacks. Using stepwise multiple regression, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms accounted for a large amount of the variance of intentions (girls = 43.3%; boys = 55.9%); however, for girls, subjective norms accounted for the most variance, whereas for boys, attitudes accounted for the most variance. Calories from calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks and fruit and vegetable snacks were also predicted by intentions. For boys, intentions predicted 6.4% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .03) but was not significant for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks, whereas for girls, intentions predicted 6.0% of the variance for fruit and vegetable snacks (p = .007), and 7.2% of the variance for calorie-dense/nutrient-poor snacks (p = .004). Results suggest that the theory of planned behavior is a useful framework for predicting snack foods among children; however, there are important differences between genders that should be considered in future health promotion interventions.

  18. [Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children who are overweight or obese compared to school children who are of normal weight in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra López, Marianela; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children, a sample of 80 Costa Rican elementary schoolchildren: 40 children who were overweight or obese (the case group) and 40 children with normal weight (the control group) were evaluated. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Food patterns were determined using a 3-day food diary. Snacks consumed throughout the day were classified and analyzed according to their place of preparation and location of consumption and to the time of the day in which they were consumed. The results of this study revealed that "afternoon snacks" and "snacks prepared and eaten at home" were the most frequently consumed snacks by both case and control groups. The girls in the case group had a significantly larger intake of energy and carbohydrates in their "afternoon snacks" and the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to girls in the control group. Boys in the case group showed a significantly greater consumption of saturated fat in the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to boys in the control group. It was concluded that the intake of "afternoon snacks" and of those "prepared and eaten at home" could be related with the incidence of overweight/obesity in the sample of study and therefore nutrition education aimed at parents and children is crucial and could play an important role in its prevention.

  19. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  20. Food Cravings, Appetite, and Snack-Food Consumption in Response to a Psychomotor Stimulant Drug: The Moderating Effect of ‘Food Addiction’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eDavis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that many highly processed foods have addictive properties, and that some cases of compulsive overeating are behavioral addictions. While support for the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS as a valid diagnostic tool has been impressive and continues to increase, to date, no research has examined the food-addiction construct in response to an actual food stimulus, and in relation to direct measures of appetite and food consumption. As part of a larger community-based study of overeating in healthy adults who were predominately overweight and obese (aged 25-50 years, 136 participants completed the YFAS, of whom 23 met the diagnostic criteria for food addiction. They took part in a 2-day, double-blind, cross-over, single-dose drug challenge using a psychomotor stimulant (methylphenidate and placebo. Participants were first assessed on ratings of appetite and food cravings after holding and tasting their favorite snack food, after which they were able to eat all or part of the snack, as they wished. Three separate repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA procedures were carried out, each with 2 between-subjects factors (Diagnosis: food addiction vs non-food addiction and (Sex: male vs female and 1 within-subjects factor (Days: drug vs placebo. As anticipated, for all three dependent variables, there was a significant main effect for Days with a response decrease from placebo to the drug condition. With respect to food cravings and appetite ratings, results indicated that the food-addiction group had significantly higher scores on both variables (p<0.0001. For food consumption, there was a significant Days x Diagnosis interaction (p=0.018 whereby the food-addiction group showed no food-intake suppression across days compared to the non-food-addiction group who demonstrated a significant decrease in snack-food consumption with methylphenidate. The finding that the food-addiction group was resistant to the food

  1. Is an Iranian Health Promoting School status associated with improving school food environment and snacking behaviors in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Omidvar, Nasrin; Keshavarz Mohammadi, Nastaran; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Rashidian, Arash

    2017-08-29

    The Iranian Health Promoting Schools (IHPS) program was first piloted and then formally established in Iran in 2011 as a framework to promote healthy environment and behaviors such as proper dietary practice among adolescents. This study examined the role of IHPS in improving the school food environment and snacking behaviors among adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, 1320 eighth grade students from 40 middle schools with IHPS and non-IHPS program were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. A modified 55-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy snacks in the studied adolescents. Mixed effect negative binomial regression models were used to analyze the data. The association was also adjusted for individual variables, including gender, socio-economic status, pocket money, family structure and nutritional knowledge level. No significant difference was observed between the average of healthy and unhealthy snack items in IHPS and non-IHPS schools (p > 0.05). On the basis of adjusted analysis, being from/in IHPS was not associated with weekly frequency consumption of unhealthy [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.85-1.16] and healthy (PRR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.96-1.2) snacks among the adolescents. There was no difference regarding school food environment and snacking behaviors in IHPS and non-IHPS schools. This might indicate that there has been a weakness in institutionalizing the comprehensive concepts of the HPS approach in the studied schools. Addressing the proper understanding of HPS approach and the need for development of HPS through matching and adaptability with health promotion actions to reach defined standards, is necessary. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks.

  3. Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout - a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Lise L; Christensen, Ulla; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy...... short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews). Findings were presented to food retailers and informed the decision to test a healthy checkout intervention. Sugar confectionery at one checkout counter was substituted with fruit and healthy snacking items...... intervention awareness was modest. Most participants believed that the intervention could help other consumers make healthier choices, while fewer expected to be influenced by the intervention themselves. Statistical analyses suggested an intervention effect on sales of carrot snack packs when compared...

  4. Navigating the obesogenic environment: how psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stok, F Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy snacking among adolescents. We also investigated whether self-regulatory competence could attenuate the negative effects of being sensitive to the food environment. A survey was completed by 11,392 European adolescents (10-17years old). The survey measured psychological sensitivity to the food environment, self-regulatory competence and self-reported unhealthy snack intake. Higher food environment sensitivity and lower self-regulatory competence were associated with more unhealthy snacking. The two factors also interacted, with self-regulatory competence attenuating the influence of high food environment sensitivity. Adolescents who are sensitive to the food environment reported higher unhealthy snack intake. More frequent use of self-regulation strategies on the other hand was associated with lower unhealthy snack intake. Moreover, self-regulatory competence was found to moderate the influence of psychological sensitivity to the food environment on unhealthy snacking, although the effect size was small. Fostering adolescents' self-regulatory competence can help enable them to better navigate the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Online prediction of organileptic data for snack food using color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honglu; MacGregor, John F.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, a study for the prediction of organileptic properties of snack food in real-time using RGB color images is presented. The so-called organileptic properties, which are properties based on texture, taste and sight, are generally measured either by human sensory response or by mechanical devices. Neither of these two methods can be used for on-line feedback control in high-speed production. In this situation, a vision-based soft sensor is very attractive. By taking images of the products, the samples remain untouched and the product properties can be predicted in real time from image data. Four types of organileptic properties are considered in this study: blister level, toast points, taste and peak break force. Wavelet transform are applied on the color images and the averaged absolute value for each filtered image is used as texture feature variable. In order to handle the high correlation among the feature variables, Partial Least Squares (PLS) is used to regress the extracted feature variables against the four response variables.

  6. [Problems of food authenticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2004-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning food authenticity were presented. Typical examples of food adulteration were described. The most known are adulteration of vegetable and fruit products, adulteration of wine, honeys, olive oil etc. The modern analytical techniques for detection of food adulteration were discussed. Among physicochemical methods isotopic techniques (SCIRA, IRMS, SNIF-NMR) were cited. The main spectral methods are: IACPAES, PyMs, FTIR, NIR. The chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC, HPAEC, HPTLC) with several kinds of detectors were described and the ELISA and PCR techniques are mentioned, too. The role of chemometrics as a way of several analytical data processing was highlighted. It was pointed out at the necessity of more rigorous control of food to support of all activity in area of fight with fraud in food industry.

  7. Investigation of aluminum content of imported candies and snack foods in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Candies, chewing gums, dried fruits, jellies, chocolate, and shredded squid pieces imported from 17 countries were surveyed for their aluminum content. The samples were bought from candy shops, supermarkets, and convenience stores, and through online shopping. Sample selection focused on imported candies and snacks. A total of 67 samples, including five chewing gums, seven dried fruits, 13 chocolates, two jellies, two dried squid pieces, and 38 candies, were analyzed. The content of aluminum was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES. The limit of quantitation for aluminum was 1.53 mg/kg. The content of aluminum ranged from not detected (ND to 828.9 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of aluminum in chewing gums, dried fruits, chocolate, jellies, dried squid pieces, and candies were 36.62 mg/kg, 300.06 mg/kg, 9.1 mg/kg, 2.3 mg/kg, 7.8 mg/kg, and 24.26 mg/kg, respectively. Some samples had relatively high aluminum content. The highest aluminum content of 828.9 mg/kg was found in dried papaya threads imported from Thailand. Candies imported from Thailand and Vietnam had aluminum contents of 265.7 mg/kg and 333.1 mg/kg, respectively. Exposure risk assessment based on data from the Taiwan National Food Consumption Database was employed to calculate the percent provisional tolerable weekly intake (%PTWI. The percent provisional tolerable weekly intake of aluminum for adults (19–50 years and children (3–6 years based on the consumption rate of the total population showed that candies and snacks did not contribute greatly to aluminum exposure. By contrast, in the exposure assessment based on the consumers-only consumption rate, the estimated values of weekly exposure to aluminum from dried papaya threads in adults (19–50 years and children (3–6 years were 4.18 mg/kg body weight (bw/wk and 7.93 mg/kg bw/wk, respectively, for 50th percentile consumers, and 6.26 mg/kg bw/wk and 12.88 mg/kg bw

  8. Food irradiation - Problems and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    It has been stated that food irradiation represents the most significant discovery in food processing since Nicholas Appert invented canning in 1810. Certainly it is a process with great future potential; it is attractive because it works without heating the product, it is effective within sealed containers as well as for bulk usage, and it does not leave chemical residues on the treated food. Of course, no one process can be expected to solve all problems relating to preservation of food. Ionizing radiation can be used effectively to solve many of these problems, but the process is no panacea to cure the world's food problems. Unfortunately, early ill-founded claims about irradiation led to expectations which have proved beyond the reasonable capabilities of the process. Nevertheless, the number of foods that have been successfully treated, and the broad range of effects that can be achieved by radiation processing is impressive. (author)

  9. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  10. Snacks for adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy snack between meals can also decrease your hunger and keep you from overeating at meal time. ... contain added sugar. Fresh fruit is a healthier choice than a fruit-flavored drink. Foods and drinks ...

  11. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  12. Students’ beliefs and behaviour regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks: are they affected by lessons on healthy food and by changes to school vending machines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Buijs, G.; Snel, J.; Dusseldorp, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents’ self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods,

  13. Co-extrusion of food grains-banana pulp for nutritious snacks: optimization of process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, D; Sethi, Swati; Tushir, Surya; Bhadwal, Sheetal; Gupta, R K; Nanda, S K

    2017-08-01

    Present study was undertaken to optimize the process conditions for development of food grains (maize, defatted soy flour, sesame seed)-banana based nutritious expanded snacks using extrusion processing. Experiments were designed using Box-Behnken design with banana pulp (8-24 g), screw speed (300-350 rpm) and feed moisture (14-16% w.b.). Seven responses viz. expansion ratio (ER), bulk density (BD), water absorption index (WAI), protein, minerals, iron and sensory acceptability were considered for optimizing independent parameters. ER, BD, WAI, protein content, total minerals, iron content, and overall acceptability ranged 2.69-3.36, 153.43-238.83 kg/m 3 , 4.56-4.88 g/g, 15.19-15.52%, 2.06-2.27%, 4.39-4.67 mg/100 g (w.b.) and 6.76-7.36, respectively. ER was significantly affected by all three process variables while BD was influenced by banana pulp and screw speed only. Studied process variables did not affected colour quality except 'a' value with banana pulp and screw speed. Banana pulp had positive correlation with water solubility index, total minerals and iron content and negative with WAI, protein and overall acceptability. Based upon multiple response analysis, optimized conditions were 8 g banana pulp, 350 rpm screw speed and 14% feed moisture indicating the protein, calorie, iron content and overall sensory acceptability in sample as 15.46%, 401 kcal/100 g, 4.48 mg/100 g and 7.6 respectively.

  14. Mercury concentrations in fish jerky snack food: marlin, ahi, and salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Jane M; Brown, David L

    2011-10-11

    Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main source of protein. Unfortunately, contaminants such as methylmercury can accumulate in some species of fish. The purpose of this research is to test commercially available fish jerky snack foods for mercury contamination. Fifteen bags of marlin jerky, three bags of ahi jerky, and three bags of salmon jerky were purchased from large retail stores in Hawaii and California, and directly from the proprietors' Internet websites. Five individual strips of jerky per bag were analyzed for a total of one hundred and five tests. From the seventy-five marlin jerky samples, mercury concentration ranged from 0.052-28.17 μg/g, with an average of 5.53 μg/g, median 4.1 μg/g. Fifty-six (75%) marlin samples had mercury concentrations that exceeded the FDA's current mercury action level of 1.0 μg/g, while six samples had greater than 10 μg/g. Fifteen samples of ahi had mercury concentrations ranging from 0.09-0.55 μg/g, while mercury concentrations in fifteen salmon samples ranged from 0.030-0.17 μg/g. This study found that mercury concentrations in some fish jerky can often exceed the FDA's allowable mercury limit and could be a significant source of mercury exposure.

  15. Mercury Concentrations in Fish Jerky Snack Food: Marlin, Ahi, and Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dried meat and fish have served as an important durable nutrition source for humans for centuries. Because omega 3 fatty acids in fish are recognized as having antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties found to be beneficial for good health, many consumers are looking to fish as their main source of protein. Unfortunately, contaminants such as methylmercury can accumulate in some species of fish. The purpose of this research is to test commercially available fish jerky snack foods for mercury contamination. Methods Fifteen bags of marlin jerky, three bags of ahi jerky, and three bags of salmon jerky were purchased from large retail stores in Hawaii and California, and directly from the proprietors' Internet websites. Five individual strips of jerky per bag were analyzed for a total of one hundred and five tests. Results From the seventy-five marlin jerky samples, mercury concentration ranged from 0.052-28.17 μg/g, with an average of 5.53 μg/g, median 4.1 μg/g. Fifty-six (75% marlin samples had mercury concentrations that exceeded the FDA's current mercury action level of 1.0 μg/g, while six samples had greater than 10 μg/g. Fifteen samples of ahi had mercury concentrations ranging from 0.09-0.55 μg/g, while mercury concentrations in fifteen salmon samples ranged from 0.030-0.17 μg/g. Conclusions This study found that mercury concentrations in some fish jerky can often exceed the FDA's allowable mercury limit and could be a significant source of mercury exposure.

  16. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; van der Lans, Ivo A; van Rijnsoever, Frank J; van Trijp, Hans Cm

    2016-06-01

    Employing Rothschild's Motivation-Opportunity-Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. Furthermore, the study investigates which dominant barrier profiles can be discerned. Data were obtained from a survey about participants' motivation, opportunity and ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks and an FFQ that measured habitual consumption of snack foods and beverages. Data were analysed using R packages lavaan and NbClust, and IBM SPSS Statistics. A representative sample (n 1318) of the Dutch population based on gender (686 women), age and education level. For both snack foods and beverages, motivation to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks was associated strongest with proportions of low-calorie choices. The perceived ability and perceived opportunity were also associated with proportions of low-calorie choices, albeit to a lesser extent. Furthermore, three dominant profiles of barriers were identified: the no-barrier profile, the lack-of-opportunity profile and the lack-of-motivation profile. These profiles differed significantly on proportions of low-calorie snack choices, daily meal consumption and sociodemographic characteristics. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. By identifying and appreciating heterogeneity in barriers, the present study provides further incentives for the tailoring of intervention strategies.

  17. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eEnax

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yoghurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  18. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  19. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions. PMID:26191012

  20. "Snacks" saludables (Smart Snacks)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    En este podcast para niños, los chicos de Kidtastics presentan algunas buenas ideas de refrigerios o “snacks” que ayudan a mantener al cuerpo con energía.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/29/2011.

  1. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult’s overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. Results OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food

  2. Independent and joint associations of TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components; a cross-sectional study in Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2013-08-09

    Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95% CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (p≤0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p snack food consumption are independently and

  3. Nucleus accumbens response to food cues predicts subsequent snack consumption in women and increased body mass index in those with reduced self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Natalia S; Hinton, Elanor C; Parkinson, John A; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2012-10-15

    Individuals have difficulty controlling their food consumption, which is due in part to the ubiquity of tempting food cues in the environment. Individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive (motivational) salience to and act on these cues may explain why some individuals eat more than others. Using fMRI in healthy women, we found that food cue related activity in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region for food motivation and reward, was related to subsequent snack food consumption. However, both nucleus accumbens activation and snack food consumption were unrelated to self-reported hunger, or explicit wanting and liking for the snack. In contrast, food cue reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was associated with subjective hunger/appetite, but not with consumption. Whilst the food cue reactivity in the nucleus accumbens that predicted snack consumption was not directly related to body mass index (BMI), it was associated with increased BMI in individuals reporting low self-control. Our findings reveal a neural substrate underpinning automatic environmental influences on consumption in humans and demonstrate how self-control interacts with this response to predict BMI. Our data provide support for theoretical models that advocate a 'dual hit' of increased incentive salience attribution to food cues and poor self-control in determining vulnerability to overeating and overweight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2015-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...

  5. Snacking Is Prevalent in Mexico123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snacking has increased globally, but little is known about how Mexicans consume foods outside meals. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and patterns of snacking behavior among Mexicans. Methods: We used data from children and adults (aged ≥2 y; n = 9937) from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 to examine the prevalence of snacking as well as amount (kcal) and contribution of snacks to total energy intake per day. Snacking was defined as eating outside of the 3 main meals. We calculated per capita (among the total population) and per consumer (“snackers”) estimates of the number of snacks per day, kilocalories per snack, kilocalories per day from snacks, and the percentage of energy from snacks. Top foods consumed during snack occasions were also examined for the NHNS 2012. All results were weighted to account for survey design and to be nationally representative. Results: In 2012, an estimated 73% of the population consumed snacks on a given day, with estimates ranging from 70% among ≥59 y olds to 77% among 2–11 y olds. An average of 1.6 snacks/d were consumed by the population. This value was slightly higher (2.1 snacks/d) among snackers. Snacks provided an average of 343 kcal/d per snacker (17% of total energy/d). Fruit was the most commonly consumed snack food by all ages except for 12–18 y olds. Salty snacks, sweet snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and milk were frequently in the top 5 categories across age groups. Differences were observed between age groups. Conclusions: Snacking is prevalent in the Mexican population. Many, but not all, of the foods consumed during snack occasions are foods considered “foods to limit” in the United States. PMID:25332484

  6. Impact of altering proximity on snack food intake in individuals with high and low executive function: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Hunter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite attempts to improve diet at population level, people living in material and social deprivation continue to consume unhealthy diets. Executive function - the ability to regulate behaviour and resist impulses – is weaker in individuals living in deprivation. Dietary interventions that educate and persuade people to reflect on and actively change behaviour may therefore disproportionately benefit individuals who are socioeconomically advantaged and have stronger executive function, thus exacerbating inequalities in health resulting from unhealthy diets. In contrast, manipulating environmental cues, such as how far away a food is placed, does not appeal to reasoned action and is thought to operate largely outside of awareness to influence behaviour. People eat more of a food when it is placed closer to them, an effect seemingly robust to context, food quality and body-weight status. However, previous studies of this ‘proximity effect’ are limited by small samples consisting mainly of university staff or students, biased towards higher socio-economic position and therefore likely stronger executive function. This study aims to test the hypothesis that placing food further away from a person decreases intake of that food regardless of executive function. Methods/Design 156 members of the general public, recruited from low and high socio-economic groups, will be randomised to one of two conditions varying in the proximity of a snack food relative to their position: 20 cm or 70 cm. Participants are told they will be taking part in a relaxation study – and are fully debriefed at the conclusion of the session. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants eating any amount of snack food and the secondary outcome is the mean amount eaten. Executive function is assessed using the Stroop task. Discussion The proposed study takes a novel step by investigating the effect of proximity on snack food intake in a

  7. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, C; Fonvig, C E; Bøjsøe, C; Mollerup, P M; Gamborg, M; Pedersen, O; Hansen, T; Holm, J-C

    2016-12-01

    Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. The children were evaluated at baseline and after up to 5.9 years of treatment (median 1.3 years). Both boys and girls decreased their BMI SDS during treatment with a mean decrease in boys of 0.35 (p fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program was not associated with the degree of obesity at baseline or the degree of weight loss during treatment. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W M Scholten

    Full Text Available Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight.This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight.Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations.Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores.No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  9. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Eline W M; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef P J; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT). Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  10. Energy compensation and nutrient displacement following regular consumption of hazelnuts and other energy-dense snack foods in non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Katherine R; Tey, Siew Ling; Gray, Andrew R; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-04-01

    Regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease risk, partly from improvements to dietary quality. Examining how individuals make dietary changes when consuming nuts may reveal key behavioural eating patterns beneficial for the development of dietary interventions. We examined the effects of nuts in comparison with other energy-dense snacks on energy compensation, nutrient displacement, and food group patterns. This was a 12-week randomised, controlled, parallel study with four arms: ~1100 kJ/day for each of hazelnuts (42 g), chocolate (50 g), potato crisps (50 g), or no added snack food. Diet records, body composition, and physical activity were measured at baseline and week 12, in 102 non-obese participants. Significant improvements in diet quality were observed in the hazelnut group, particularly when consumed as snacks. Intakes of monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and vitamin E were significantly higher (all P snacks in this non-obese population. Regular nut consumption significantly improves nutrient profiles compared to other snacks with changes occurring at the snack level.

  11. No consistent association between consumption of energy-dense snack foods and annual weight and waist circumference changes in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Boer, J.M.A.; Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence regarding an association between the consumption of energy-dense snack (EDS) foods and the development of overweight. Objective: In the current study, we examined whether there was an association between the intake of EDS foods and annual weight and waist

  12. Making food labels social: The impact of colour of nutritional labels and injunctive norms on perceptions and choice of snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Pechey, Rachel; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies report that using green labels to denote healthier foods, and red to denote less healthy foods increases consumption of green- and decreases consumption of red-labelled foods. Other symbols (e.g. emoticons conveying normative approval and disapproval) could also be used to signal the healthiness and/or acceptability of consuming such products. The present study tested the combined effects of using emoticons and colours on labels amongst a nationally representative sample of the UK population (n = 955). In a 3 (emoticon expression: smiling vs. frowning vs. no emoticon) × 3 (colour label: green vs. red vs. white) ×2 (food option: chocolate bar vs. cereal bar) between-subjects experiment, participants rated the level of desirability, healthiness, tastiness, and calorific content of a snack bar they had been randomised to view. At the end they were further randomised to view one of nine possible combinations of colour and emoticon labels and asked to choose between a chocolate and a cereal bar. Regardless of label, participants rated the chocolate as tastier and more desirable when compared to the cereal bar, and the cereal bar as healthier than the chocolate bar. A series of interactions revealed that a frowning emoticon on a white background decreased perceptions of healthiness and tastiness of the cereal bar, but not the chocolate bar. In the explicit choice task selection was unaffected by label. Overall nutritional labels had limited effects on perceptions and no effects on choice of snack foods. Emoticon labels yielded stronger effects on perceptions of taste and healthiness of snacks than colour labels. Frowning emoticons may be more potent than smiling emoticons at influencing the perceived healthiness and tastiness of foods carrying health halos. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  14. Comparison of waste pumpkin material and its potential use in extruded snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfezah, M N; Hardacre, A; Brennan, C S

    2011-08-01

    Material was produced from Crown pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) processed from fractions of the fruit which are regarded as waste stream products (peel, flesh and seed). The flour from the three different fractions (peel, flesh and seed) of Crown pumpkin flour was incorporated into an extruded snack product formulation at levels 10%, 30% and 50% (w/w with corn grit) and processed in a twin-screw extruder to make 10 expanded snack products. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the nutritional value of the raw pumpkin and pumpkin flour. A physical analysis of the product was used to determine its color, the expansion ratio, bulk density and texture. Inclusion of waste stream material (peel and seed) at 10%, yielded extruded products with similar expansion and density characteristics to the control sample; however, an inclusion of greater than 10% yielded significant challenges to product quality (hardness of the product).

  15. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Setting Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Participants Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Primary and secondary outcome measures Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Results Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Conclusions Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies—and research—concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. PMID:29700100

  16. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Cornelsen, Laura; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-04-26

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies-and research-concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  17. The Availability of Competitive Foods and Beverages to Middle School Students in Appalachian Virginia Before Implementation of the 2014 Smart Snacks in School Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Georgianna; Kraak, Vivica; Serrano, Elena

    2015-09-17

    The study objective was to examine the nutritional quality of competitive foods and beverages (foods and beverages from vending machines and à la carte foods) available to rural middle school students, before implementation of the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards in July 2014. In spring 2014, we audited vending machines and à la carte cafeteria foods and beverages in 8 rural Appalachian middle schools in Virginia. Few schools had vending machines. Few à la carte and vending machine foods met Smart Snacks in School standards (36.5%); however, most beverages did (78.2%). The major challenges to meeting standards were fat and sodium content of foods. Most competitive foods (62.2%) did not meet new standards, and rural schools with limited resources will likely require assistance to fully comply.

  18. Rich in vitamin C or just a convenient snack? Multiple-category reasoning with cross-classified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Kurniawan, Hendy; Newell, Ben R

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined multiple category reasoning in property induction with cross-classified foods. Pilot tests identified foods that were more typical of a taxonomic category (e.g., "fruit"; termed 'taxonomic primary') or a script based category (e.g., "snack foods"; termed 'script primary'). They also confirmed that taxonomic categories were perceived as more coherent than script categories. In Experiment 1 participants completed an induction task in which information from multiple categories could be searched and combined to generate a property prediction about a target food. Multiple categories were more often consulted and used in prediction for script primary than for taxonomic primary foods. Experiment 2 replicated this finding across a range of property types but found that multiple category reasoning was reduced in the presence of a concurrent cognitive load. Property type affected which categories were consulted first and how information from multiple categories was weighted. The results show that multiple categories are more likely to be used for property predictions about cross-classified objects when an object is primarily associated with a category that has low coherence.

  19. Neuromodulation directed at the prefrontal cortex of subjects with obesity reduces snack food intake and hunger in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, Sascha; Reinhardt, Martin; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Diaz, Enrique; Stinson, Emma J; Venti, Colleen; Votruba, Susanne B; Wassermann, Eric M; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity. Design: In a randomized parallel-design study combining inpatient and outpatient assessments over 31 d, 23 individuals with obesity [12 men; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 39.3 ± 8.42] received 15 sessions of anodal (i.e., enhancing cortical activity) or sham tDCS aimed at the left DLPFC. Ad libitum food intake was assessed through the use of a vending machine paradigm and snack food taste tests (SFTTs). Appetite was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Body weight was measured. We examined the effect of short-term (i.e., 3 sessions) and long-term (i.e., 15 sessions) tDCS on these variables. Results: Relative to sham tDCS, short-term anodal tDCS did not influence ad libitum intake of food from the vending machines. Accordingly, no effect on short-term or 4-wk weight change was observed. In the anodal tDCS group, compared with the sham group, VAS ratings for hunger and the urge to eat declined significantly more ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.05, respectively), and total energy intake during an SFTT was relatively lower in satiated individuals ( P = 0.01), after long-term tDCS. Conclusions: Short-term anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC did not have an immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or thereby weight change, relative to sham tDCS. Hunger and snack food intake were reduced only after a longer period

  20. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  1. Maternal educational level and preschool children's consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages: mediation by the family food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jansen, Pauline W; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2013-11-01

    To examine the associations between maternal educational level and preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages, and to assess the mediating effects of variables relating to the family food environment. We analyzed data from 2814 native Dutch preschoolers enrolled in a birth cohort study in Rotterdam (the Netherlands), between 2002 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios of snacking ≥ 2 times/day and consuming sugar-containing beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day for children of mothers with low, mid-low, and mid-high educational levels (reference group: high educational level), before and after adjustment for mediators. Children of low and mid-low educated mothers were significantly more likely to consume excessive amounts of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages compared with children of high educated mothers, with the highest odds in children of low educated mothers (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.84, 3.23 and OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.87, 3.24 respectively). Parental feeding practices, parental consumption of sugar-containing beverages, and children's television time partly explained these associations. Maternal educational level is inversely related to preschoolers' consumption of high-calorie snacks and sugar-containing beverages. Targeting the family food environment may be an effective way of reducing educational inequalities in children's unhealthy dietary behaviors. © 2013.

  2. A mid-morning snack of almonds generates satiety and appropriate adjustment of subsequent food intake in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Chambers, Lucy; Echaniz, Ana; Wickham, Martin S J

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effect of consuming a mid-morning almond snack (28 and 42 g) tested against a negative control of no almonds on acute satiety responses. On three test days, 32 healthy females consumed a standard breakfast followed by 0, 28 or 42 g of almonds as a mid-morning snack and then ad libitum meals at lunch and dinner. The effect of the almond snacks on satiety was assessed by measuring energy intake (kcal) at the two ad libitum meals and subjective appetite ratings (visual analogue scales) throughout the test days. Intake at lunch and dinner significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to the almond snacks. Overall, a similar amount of energy was consumed on all three test days indicating that participants compensated for the 173 and 259 kcals consumed as almonds on the 28 and 42 g test days, respectively. Subjective appetite ratings in the interval between the mid-morning snack and lunch were consistent with dose-dependent enhanced satiety following the almond snacks. However, in the interval between lunch and dinner, appetite ratings were not dependent on the mid-morning snack. Almonds might be a healthy snack option since their acute satiating effects are likely to result in no net increase in energy consumed over a day.

  3. Designing snacks to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural Kenyan schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.P.; Gewa, C.; Grillenberger, M.; Bwibo, N.O.; Neumann, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Three snacks were designed to improve nutrient intakes among school-age children living in rural Kenya. Snacks containing animal-source foods (milk and meat) provided more nutrients than an equicaloric vegetarian snack. The vegetarian snack provided extra vitamin A (primarily from fortified cooking

  4. Intake of energy-dense snack foods and drinks among Dutch children aged 7-12 years: how many, how much, when, where and which?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Nanne K; van Assema, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To describe the energy-dense snack food (EDSF) and energy-dense drink (EDD) consumption of children in the Netherlands and investigate subgroup differences. The amounts consumed, eating occasions, places of consumption and consumed types are reported. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data were used to describe the EDSF and EDD consumption. Subgroup differences concerning these intakes were identified with ANCOVA. Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Children (n 860) aged 7-12 years. The mean number of EDSF events was 3·3 (sd 1·6) per day, yielding 1569·7 (sd 928·7) kJ. Average EDD consumption was 594·2 (sd 342·3) ml/d, yielding 737·2 (sd 495·9) kJ. Over 90 % of the children consumed more energy from non-core foods per day than recommended. Differences in EDSF and EDD consumption were found between several subgroups. Most importantly, we found higher intakes among older children and children with low educated mothers. Almost half of the EDSF events took place in the afternoon and at home. Cookies and sweets were consumed during half of the EDSF events. Almost one-third of the EDD were consumed in the afternoon. The majority of these drinks were consumed at home and most were soft drinks. The results demonstrate that snack food and drink consumption is highly prevalent among Dutch children. Health promotion efforts addressing these behaviours are warranted and the present study could accelerate these initiatives. Focusing on children with low educated parents and on snacking at home after school offers the greatest potential to reduce snack food and drink intakes.

  5. School lunch and snacking patterns among high school students: Associations with school food environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Story Mary

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study examined associations between high school students' lunch patterns and vending machine purchases and the school food environment and policies. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1088 high school students from 20 schools completed surveys about their lunch practices and vending machine purchases. School food policies were assessed by principal and food director surveys. The number of vending machines and their hours of operation were assessed by trained research staff. Results Students at schools with open campus policies during lunchtime were significantly more likely to eat lunch at a fast food restaurant than students at schools with closed campus policies (0.7 days/week vs. 0.2 days/week, p Conclusion School food policies that decrease access to foods high in fats and sugars are associated with less frequent purchase of these items in school among high school students. Schools should examine their food-related policies and decrease access to foods that are low in nutrients and high in fats and sugars.

  6. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Snacks for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Snacks for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Snacks for Toddlers ... overdoing it at snack time. Stick to a Snack Schedule Kids do better with a routine, so ...

  8. Novel fiber-rich lentil flours as snack-type functional foods: an extrusion cooking effect on bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P; Berrios, J De J; Varela, A; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Muzquiz, M; Pedrosa, M M

    2015-09-01

    Novel snack-type functional foods based on extruded lentil flours could convey the related health benefit of their bioactive compounds, provide a gluten-free alternative to consumers, and potentially increase the consumption of pulses. Extrusion treatment promoted an increase in galactopinitol, ciceritol, raffinose, stachyose and total α-galactoside content, in most lentil flours. As α-galactosides may act as prebiotics, they could convey beneficial effects to human and monogastric animals. Conversely, extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the inositol hexaphosphate content to less phosphorylated phytates (inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate), which provide health effects. The gluten-free formulation (control formulation #3) presented the highest significant (p < 0.05) drop in the inositol hexaphosphate of 14.7-fold decrease, but had a large increase in inositol pentaphosphate, due to extrusion processing. These two results are desirable in the finished product. Extrusion also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the trypsin content and completely inactivated lectin, in all processed samples.

  9. The Nutrient Density of Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess BA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Americans receive almost a quarter of their daily energy from snacks, snacking remains a poorly defined and understood eating occasion. However, there is little dietary guidance about choosing snacks. Families, clinicians, and researchers need a comprehensive approach to assessing their nutritional value. Objective: To quantify and compare the nutrient density of commonly consumed snacks by their overall nutrient profiles using the Nutrient-Rich Foods (NRF Index 10.3. Methods: NRF Index scores were calculated for the top 3 selling products (based on 2014 market research data in different snack categories. These NRF scores were averaged to provide an overall nutrient-density score for each category. Results: Based on NRF scores, yogurt (55.3, milk (52.5, and fruit (30.1 emerged as the most nutrient-dense snacks. Ice cream (−4.4, pies and cakes (−11.1, and carbonated soft drinks (−17.2 emerged as the most nutrient-poor snacks. Conclusions: The NRF Index is a useful tool for assessing the overall nutritional value of snacks based on nutrients to limit and nutrients to encourage.

  10. Genotoxicity of processed food items and ready-to-eat snacks in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-11-01

    Processed foods are an insufficiently characterized source of chemical mutagens for consumers. Here, we evaluated the genotoxicity of selected food products in Finland. Mutagenicity was determined by the standard plate incorporation assay followed by methylcellulose overlay and treat-and-wash assays, using the Salmonella strains TA 100 and 98 with and without metabolic activation. Generally, the mutagenic activity of food samples was low, but exhibited lot-wise variation. Cold cuts of cold-smoked beef, grilled turkey, and smoked chicken (a single batch of each) were mutagenic in all three assays with the TA 100 strain with and without metabolic activation, indicating the mutagenic effect was not secondary to histidine release from the food products. However, none of the food extracts showing mutagenic potential induced DNA damage in vitro using the Comet Assay. Our findings imply that in Finland today, there are still products the production methods of which should be refined to reduce the potential risk of mutagenicity to consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acrilamida en patatas fritas y productos de aperitivo elaborados en la Comunidad Valenciana Acrylamide in potato crisps and snack foods produced in the autonomous Community of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Gomar Fayos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar el contenido de acrilamida en las patatas fritas y los productos de aperitivo elaborados en la Comunidad Valenciana y comparar los resultados con los de las principales organizaciones de seguridad alimentaria. Métodos: Se analizan 24 muestras de patatas fritas y 15 de productos de aperitivo. Se comparan los resultados con los procedentes de la Food and Drug Administration y de la Autoridad Europea de Seguridad Alimentaria. Resultados: El nivel medio (desviación estándar de acrilamida en las patatas fritas de la Comunidad Valenciana es de 916 (656 μg/kg y en los productos de aperitivo 262 (346 μg/kg. Hay diferencias significativas en las 3 poblaciones comparadas. Los niveles de acrilamida en las patatas fritas de la Comunidad Valenciana son los más elevados. Conclusiones: Hay una gran dispersión en el contenido de acrilamida para el mismo tipo de productos. Se requieren más investigaciones en métodos de muestreo y análisis y actuaciones para reducir los niveles de acrilamida.Objectives: To evaluate acrylamide content in potato crisps and snack foods produced in the Valencian Community and to compare the results with those published by the main food safety organizations. Methods: Twenty-four samples of potato crisps and 15 samples of snack foods were analyzed. The results were compared with those from the Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. Results: The mean (SD acrylamide level in the Valencian Community was 916 (656 μg/kg in potato crisps and 262 (346 μg/kg in snack foods. Significant differences were found in the 3 populations compared. Acrylamide levels in potato crisps in the Valencian Community were the highest. Conclusions: There was wide variation in acrylamide content for the same type of product. Further investigation into methods of sampling and analysis and steps to reduce acrylamide levels are required.

  12. PROP taster status, food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among 6-year-old ethnically diverse children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2017-04-01

    A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exploring implementation of the 2010 Institute of Medicine’s Child and Adult Food Care Program recommendations for after-school snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanney, Marilyn S; Glatt, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore the implementation of nutrition recommendations made in the 2010 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning Dietary Guidance for All, in school-based after-school snack programmes. Design A descriptive study. Setting One large suburban school district in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Subjects None. Results Major challenges to implementation included limited access to product labelling and specifications inconsistent with the IOM’s Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) recommendations, limited access to healthier foods due to current school district buying consortium agreement, and increased costs of wholegrain and lower-sodium foods and pre-packaged fruits and vegetables. Conclusions Opportunities for government and industry policy development and partnerships to support schools in their efforts to promote healthy after-school food environments remain. Several federal, state and industry leadership opportunities are proposed: provide product labelling that makes identifying snacks which comply with the 2010 IOM CACFP recommended standards easy; encourage compliance with recommendations by providing incentives to programmes; prioritize the implementation of paperwork and technology that simplifies enrolment and accountability systems; and provide support for food safety training and/or certification for non-food service personnel. PMID:22050891

  14. Smart Snacks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about some great snacks to munch on that will keep your body moving!  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  15. Associations between nutritional quality of meals and snacks assessed by the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system and overall diet quality and adiposity measures in British children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro

    2018-05-01

    This cross-sectional study examined how the nutritional quality of meals and snacks was associated with overall diet quality and adiposity measures. Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 06:00-09:00 h, 12:00-14:00 h, and 17:00-20:00 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (meals: ≥15%; snacks: quality of meals and snacks was assessed as the arithmetical energy intake-weighted means of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system score of each food and beverage consumed, based on the contents of energy, saturated fatty acid, total sugar, sodium, fruits/vegetables/nuts, dietary fiber, and protein. Regardless of the definition of meals and snacks, higher FSA score (lower nutritional quality) of meals was inversely associated with overall diet quality assessed by the Mediterranean diet score in both children and adolescents (P quality of meals, but not snacks, assessed by the FSA score was associated with lower overall diet quality, whereas no consistent associations were observed with regard to adiposity measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bayesian solutions for food science problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper starts with an overview of some typical food-science problems. In view of the development of safe and healthy food, the use of mathematical models in food science is much needed and the use of statistics is therefore indispensable. Because of the biological variability in the raw

  17. Value and production of novel legume pulses-based snack foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy eating has always been important for proper growth and development, but more recently it has been accepted that healthy eating is a significant factor in reducing the risk of developing nutrition-related heath problems including obesity, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, hypertension (high bl...

  18. Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children: Opportunity for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joy M; Watterworth, Jessica C; Haines, Jess; Duncan, Alison M; Mirotta, Julia A; Ma, David W L; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2018-03-01

    Dietary patterns established in childhood track into adulthood. Despite this, little research has explored preschoolers' snacking. This study examined snacking patterns (frequency, quality, quantity) of preschool-aged boys and girls. Cross-sectional data were collected on 52 children (23 males; 3.4 ± 1.1 years of age; BMI 16.1 ± 1.4 kg/m 2 ) enrolled in the Guelph Family Health Study pilot. Parent-reported 3-day food records were analyzed for children's snacking patterns including frequency (number of snacking occasions per day), quantity (percent energy from snacks) and quality (inclusion of food groups from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide, macronutrient distribution, sugary and salty snacks). Mann-Whitney U tests examined sex differences in snacking patterns. Ninety-six percent of children snacked daily, consuming a mean of 2.3 ± 0.7 snacks per day. Snacks accounted for one-third of daily energy. 78% of boys' versus 63% of girls' snacks contained a food group (P = 0.016). Boys consumed significantly fewer sugary snacks (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.6 snacks per day, P = 0.016), although the percent of snack calories from sugar for both boys and girls was high (group mean 37.2 ± 6.7%). Nearly all preschoolers in this study snacked daily, and consumed a variety of snack foods. Boys' and girls' snacking preferences begin to diverge early in life. Preschool children should be encouraged to consume healthful snacks.

  19. Food irradiation: current problems and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation is one of a set of processing technologies that can be used to increase the microbiological safety and shelf-life of a wide range of foods. Ionizing radiation is used to generate highly active chemical species within the food, which react with DNA. Under normal usage conditions, the food receives a pasteurizing treatment that gives a valuable reduction in common food-spoilage organisms and food pathogens. This review describes how the process is used in practice, including the benefits and limitations. The nature of changes to food components are outlined, together with the development of practical detection methods that utilize these changes. The legislative position of food irradiation is outlined, with the specific example of the introduction of the technology within the UK. The reasons for the slow uptake in the use of the technology are discussed, and the problem of consumer acceptance is addressed. (author)

  20. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  1. Food-specific response inhibition, dietary restraint and snack intake in lean and overweight/obese adults: a moderated-mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M; Lee, M; Higgs, S

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between response inhibition and obesity is currently unclear. This may be because of inconsistencies in methodology, design limitations and the use of narrow samples. In addition, dietary restraint has not been considered, yet restraint has been reported to moderate performance on behavioural tasks of response inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate performance on both a food-based and a neutral stimuli go/no-go task, which addresses current design limitations, in lean and overweight/obese adults. The moderating role of dietary restraint in the relationship between body composition, response inhibition and snack intake was also measured. Lean and overweight/obese, males and females (N=116) completed both a food-based and neutral category control go/no-go task, in a fully counterbalanced repeated-measures design. A bogus taste-test was then completed, followed by a self-report measure of dietary restraint. PROCESS moderated-mediation analysis showed that overweight/obese, compared with lean, participants made more errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task, but only when they were low in dietary restraint. Performance on the food-based go/no-go task predicted snack intake across the sample. Increased intake in the overweight, low restrainers was fully mediated by increased errors on the food-based (but not the neutral) go/no-go task. Distinguishing between high and low restrained eaters in the overweight/obese population is crucial in future obesity research incorporating food-based go/no-go tasks. Poor response inhibition to food cues predicts overeating across weight groups, suggesting weight loss interventions and obesity prevention programmes should target behavioural inhibition training in such individuals.

  2. New Approaches to the World Food Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, L. E.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses some possible solutions to the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the world. Suggested new approaches include (1) new cereal food products, (2) water plants as food sources, and (3) the use of microorganisms as a source of high protein materials. (LC)

  3. Snacking patterns of U.S. adults: What We Eat In America, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of this study were to track changes in snacking frequency over time, determine whether snacking is associated with food energy intake and weight status, identify foods and beverages that make the largest contributions to calories consumed at snacks, and measure the contribution of snacks t...

  4. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-05-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a "snack," it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between "meals" and "snacks" is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. How do we actually put smarter snacks in schools? NOURISH (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student Health) conversations with food-service directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lindsay E; Cohen, Juliana Fw; Gorski, Mary T; Lessing, Andrés J; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B; Hoffman, Jessica A

    2017-02-01

    In autumn 2012, Massachusetts schools implemented comprehensive competitive food and beverage standards similar to the US Department of Agriculture's Smart Snacks in School standards. We explored major themes raised by food-service directors (FSD) regarding their school-district-wide implementation of the standards. For this qualitative study, part of a larger mixed-methods study, compliance was measured via direct observation of foods and beverages during school site visits in spring 2013 and 2014, calculated to ascertain the percentage of compliant products available to students. Semi-structured interviews with school FSD conducted in each year were analysed for major implementation themes; those raised by more than two-thirds of participating school districts were explored in relationship to compliance. Massachusetts school districts (2013: n 26; 2014: n 21). Data collected from FSD. Seven major themes were raised by more than two-thirds of participating school districts (range 69-100 %): taking measures for successful transition; communicating with vendors/manufacturers; using tools to identify compliant foods and beverages; receiving support from leadership; grappling with issues not covered by the law; anticipating changes in sales of competitive foods and beverages; and anticipating changes in sales of school meals. Each theme was mentioned by the majority of more-compliant school districts (65-81 %), with themes being raised more frequently after the second year of implementation (range increase 4-14 %). FSD in more-compliant districts were more likely to talk about themes than those in less-compliant districts. Identified themes suggest best-practice recommendations likely useful for school districts implementing the final Smart Snacks in School standards, effective July 2016.

  6. Students' beliefs and behaviour regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks: are they affected by lessons on healthy food and by changes to school vending machines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Buijs, Goof; Snel, Jeltje; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2015-06-01

    To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents' self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods, food labelling and price reductions in school vending machines. A cluster-randomized controlled design was used to allocate schools to an experimental group (i.e. lessons and changes to school vending machines) and a control group (i.e. 'care as usual'). Questionnaires were used pre-test and post-test to assess students' self-reported purchase of extra products and their knowledge and beliefs regarding the consumption of low-calorie products. Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Twelve schools participated in the experimental group (303 students) and fourteen in the control group (311 students). The students' mean age was 13.6 years, 71.5% were of native Dutch origin and mean BMI was 18.9 kg/m(2). At post-test, the experimental group knew significantly more about healthy food than the control group. Fewer students in the experimental group (43%) than in the control group (56%) reported bringing soft drinks from home. There was no significant effect on attitude, social norm, perceived behavioural control and intention regarding the consumption of low-calorie extra products. The intervention had limited effects on students' knowledge and self-reported behaviour, and no effect on their beliefs regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks. We recommend a combined educational and environmental intervention of longer duration and engaging parents. More research into the effects of such interventions is needed.

  7. The impact of a low glycemic index (GI) breakfast and snack on daily blood glucose profiles and food intake in young Chinese adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Teh, Ai-Ling; Henry, C Jeya K

    2015-09-01

    Low glycemic index (GI) foods have been suggested to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and reduce food intake. However, the majority of studies have been conducted on Caucasian populations with limited data on Asians. The objective of this study was to investigate how the provision of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack affected daily blood glucose profiles and food intake. In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 11 healthy Chinese male adults (body mass index 22.4 ± 1.3 kg m -2 ) attended two sessions where they consumed either a high or low GI breakfast and afternoon snack, and a standardized buffet lunch. Daily changes in glycemic response (GR) were measured using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Glycemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and energy intake (kcal) was measured quantitatively at the buffet lunch. Compared to the high GI intervention, the low GI intervention significantly reduced the GR following breakfast ( p  = 0.02), lunch ( p  = 0.02) and dinner ( p  = 0.05). The low GI treatment showed a reduction in daily AUC ( p  = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in IAUC after a low GI breakfast compared to the high GI breakfast ( p  = 0.03). The low GI breakfast resulted in a significantly lower food intake at lunch and a resulting decreased energy intake of 285 kcal ( p  = 0.02). The MAGE was significantly lower during the entire low GI treatment ( p  = 0.03). Consumption of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack was capable of attenuating 24-h blood glucose profiles, minimize glycemic excursions and reduce food intake in healthy Asian males. This simple dietary intervention may be an acceptable approach in improving overall glycemia and energy balance in Asians. NCT02340507.

  8. Survey of trace element and dietetic fiber composition of “Leblebi” which is a local snack food consumed in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ÖZBEY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Turkey and several Middle East countries' people consume “leblebi” which is a traditional snack food made from chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.. Chickpea products are highly nutritive and a cheap food for human consumption and have become an essential part of daily diets in the world. The present study aims to determine the chemical, nutritional and dietary composition of fifty leblebi samples marketed in Turkey. Protein values of the leblebi ranged from 19.4 to 23.9% dehulled and 20.3 to 20.8% for nondehulled leblebi while a value of 19.1% was recorded for chickpeas. Mineral results showed that Potassium (K was the most abundant element in leblebi ranging from 6514 to 14431 mg/kg. The amount of dietary components neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL and cellulose did not vary much between the samples analyzed.

  9. What Is a Snack, Why Do We Snack, and How Can We Choose Better Snacks? A Review of the Definitions of Snacking, Motivations to Snack, Contributions to Dietary Intake, and Recommendations for Improvement12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, adults consume energy outside of traditional meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner. However, because there is no consistent definition of a “snack,” it is unclear whether those extra eating occasions represent additional meals or snacks. The manner in which an eating occasion is labeled (e.g., as a meal or a snack) may influence other food choices an individual makes on the same day and satiety after consumption. Therefore, a clear distinction between “meals” and “snacks” is important. This review aims to assess the definition of extra eating occasions, to understand why eating is initiated at these occasions, and to determine what food choices are common at these eating occasions in order to identify areas for dietary intervention and improvement. Part I of this review discusses how snacking is defined and the social, environmental, and individual influences on the desire to snack and choice of snack. The section concludes with a brief discussion of the associations of snacking with cardiometabolic health markers, especially lipid profiles and weight. Part II addresses popular snack choices, overall snacking frequencies, and the demographic characteristics of frequent snackers in several different countries. This review concludes with a recommendation for nutrition policymakers to encourage specific health-promoting snacks that address nutrient insufficiencies and excesses. PMID:27184274

  10. Photosynthesis and the world food problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the field of photosynthesis are particularly predisposed to play an important role in the solving of the main problem of today food for the world's growing population. The article presents data on the rate of population increase, the size of food production and yields of the most important crop plants. The relationship between the photosynthetic productivity of C3 and C4 plants and their yields is discussed. The problem of the rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and its influence on photosynthesis, photorespiration and accumulation of plant biomass is presented.

  11. Snacking for a Cause: Nutritional Insufficiencies and Excesses of U.S. Children, a Critical Review of Food Consumption Patterns and Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake of U.S. Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hess

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to identify dietary insufficiencies and excesses in children aged two to 11 in the United States (U.S. and eating habits that merit concern in terms of nutrient and energy density to improve overall diet quality. Data from the What We Eat in America (WWEIA tables from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were examined as well as survey data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA. Analysis of survey data revealed that children consume insufficient Vitamin D, calcium, and potassium and excess energy, carbohydrates, and sodium. Dietary modifications are necessary to prevent serious deficiencies and the development of chronic illness. Snacking has steadily increased in this population since the 1970s, and snacks provide necessary nutrients. However, carbohydrates and added sugars tend to be over-consumed at snacking occasions. Replacement of current snack choices with nutrient-dense foods could lower the risks of nutrient deficiencies and help lower excess nutrient consumption. Increased consumption of low sugar dairy foods, especially yogurt, at snack times could increase intake of important micronutrients without contributing to dietary excesses.

  12. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Mackinnon, David P; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors - binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes among 198 adolescents, ages 14 to 17. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific version directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Diet was assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making on the IGT, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This work extends research findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in habitual behaviors and their relationship to snack food consumption in an understudied population of diverse adolescents not

  13. Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-05-20

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) system to evaluate δ(13)C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared "vanilla" on the label showed data that permitted the declaration "vanilla" according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing "vanilla" or "natural flavoring" on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  14. Further Understanding of the Food Safety Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxing; MEI; Zhongchao; FENG; Pinghua; HE; Yawen; GAO; Yuqin; DAI

    2015-01-01

    Frequent occurrence of food quality and safety proves that it is not effective to solve the Problem only from mechanism and supervision mechanism. Instead,it may expand solution ideas from external environment inducing changes of social institutions. Edible agricultural products are raw materials of foods,so their quality and safety are decisive for food quality and safety. Combining with concept of quality and safety of edible agricultural products,from social economy,science,technology and culture,environment cognition,this paper made a further understanding of food quality and safety. It found that the quality and safety of domestic edible agricultural products are not completely resulted from human factor,and not completely quality and safety problem in practical sense. Design of problem solutions should consider such external factors as economic level and consumption concept,dual character of science and technology,cultural quality of the masses,and moral trait of the masses,and enhance matching of building of regulation tools with external environment.

  15. Effects of awareness that food intake is being measured by a universal eating monitor on the consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack in healthy female volunteers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.M.; Dourish, C.T.; Higgs, S.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been no studies that have explicitly examined the effect of awareness on the consumption of food from a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM – hidden balance interfaced to a computer which covertly records eating behaviour). We tested whether awareness of a UEM affected consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack. 39 female participants were randomly assigned to either an aware or unaware condition. After being informed of the presence of the UEM (aware) or not being told about its presence (unaware), participants consumed ad-libitum a pasta lunch from the UEM followed by a cookie snack. Awareness of the UEM did not significantly affect the amount of pasta or cookies eaten. However, awareness significantly reduced the rate of cookie consumption. These results suggest that awareness of being monitored by the UEM has no effect on the consumption of a pasta meal, but does influence the consumption of a cookie snack in the absence of hunger. Hence, energy dense snack foods consumed after a meal may be more susceptible to awareness of monitoring than staple food items. PMID:26048004

  16. Effects of awareness that food intake is being measured by a universal eating monitor on the consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Dourish, C T; Higgs, S

    2015-09-01

    To date, there have been no studies that have explicitly examined the effect of awareness on the consumption of food from a Universal Eating Monitor (UEM - hidden balance interfaced to a computer which covertly records eating behaviour). We tested whether awareness of a UEM affected consumption of a pasta lunch and a cookie snack. 39 female participants were randomly assigned to either an aware or unaware condition. After being informed of the presence of the UEM (aware) or not being told about its presence (unaware), participants consumed ad-libitum a pasta lunch from the UEM followed by a cookie snack. Awareness of the UEM did not significantly affect the amount of pasta or cookies eaten. However, awareness significantly reduced the rate of cookie consumption. These results suggest that awareness of being monitored by the UEM has no effect on the consumption of a pasta meal, but does influence the consumption of a cookie snack in the absence of hunger. Hence, energy dense snack foods consumed after a meal may be more susceptible to awareness of monitoring than staple food items. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing the reinforcing value of fruit and unhealthy snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, L; Clauwaert, A; Vandeweghe, L; Vangeel, J; Van Lippevelde, W; Goossens, L; Huybregts, L; Lachat, C; Eggermont, S; Beullens, K; Braet, C; De Cock, N

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the reinforcing value of healthy and unhealthy snack food in adolescents (n = 108, aged 14-16 years). Moderation by access to different foods, sex and the personality trait reward sensitivity is tested. In a computerized Food Reinforcement Task, adolescents could earn portions of a healthy and an unhealthy snack following an identical progressive reinforcement schedule for both food types. Reinforcing value of food was indexed by the number of button presses for each food type. Participants were allocated randomly to two-order condition: fruit-snack versus snack-fruit. Reward sensitivity was assessed with the Dutch age-downward version of Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale. Results showed that the reinforcing value of an unhealthy snack is higher than that of fruit, with participants making more button presses for unhealthy snacks, M = 1280.40, SD = 1203.53, than for fruit, M = 488.04, SD = 401.45, F(1,48) = 25.37, p present in the snack-fruit condition, not in the fruit-snack condition, indicating that access to food moderates the effect of food type. There is no evidence for moderation by reward sensitivity. Results point to the importance of simultaneously increasing barriers to obtain unhealthy food and promoting access to healthy food in order to facilitate healthy food choices.

  18. From the children's perspective: What are candy, snacks, and meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Elizabeth L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-09-01

    There remains a lack of consensus on what distinguishes candy (i.e. features sugar as a principal ingredient, also called sweets or lollies), snack foods, and foods served at meals; therefore, this study examined characteristics elementary-aged children use to distinguish between these food categories. Participants were children aged 5-8 years (N = 41). Children were given 39 cards, each containing an image of a common American food (e.g. ice cream, fruit). Children sorted each card into either a "snack" or "candy" pile followed by a semi-structured one-on-one interview to identify children's perceptions of candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals. Verbatim transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach to derive major themes. All children classified foods such as crackers and dry cereal as snacks; all children classified foods such as skittles and solid chocolate as candy. There was less agreement for "dessert like foods," such as cookies and ice cream, whereby some children classified these foods as candy and others as snacks. Specifically, more children categorized ice cream and chocolate chip cookies as candy (61% and 63%, respectively), than children who categorized these as snack foods (39% and 36%, respectively). Qualitative interviews revealed 4 overarching themes that distinguished among candy, snack foods, and food served at meals: (1) taste, texture, and type; (2) portion size; (3) perception of health; and (4) time of day. Children categorized a variety of foods as both a candy and a snack. Accurate measurement of candy and snack consumption is needed through the use of clear, consistent terminology and comprehensive diet assessment tools. Intervention messaging should clearly distinguish between candy, snack foods, and foods served at meals to improve children's eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    a lower body mass index and milk desserts were associated with a lower waist circumference. No snack patterns were associated with other CVRF studied. Conclusions Overall, several snacking patterns were associated with better diet quality than those consuming no snacks. Yet, the majority of the snacking patterns were not associated with CVRF. Education is needed to improve snacking patterns in terms of nutrients to limit in the diet along with more nutrient-dense foods to be included in snacks. PMID:24754905

  20. Status of the bioactive phytoceuticals during deep-fat frying of snack food using nutra-coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesh Kumar, M; Faiza, Sheema; Debnath, Sukumar; Nasirullah

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to study the physico-chemical changes that take place in both product and oil during the deep fat frying of a traditional savoury snack 'kodubale', at 120-160 °C for 120-600 s using coconut oil (CO) and nutra-coconut oil (NCO). Further, kinetic studies on moisture loss, oil uptake, color and degradation of β-carotene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity for kodubale was carried out during frying as a function of temperature and time. The study showed that the kinetic coefficients for above parameters increased with temperature and time and the data obtained were well fitted with first order kinetic model. The results also revealed that NCO fried product retained major phenolic acids due to the presence of antioxidants in the NCO which was enriched with flaxseed oil concentrate. The fatty acids profile of oil extracted from products obtained by frying using NCO was characterized with higher ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids content as compared to same obtained using CO. However, the breaking strength and sensory characteristics of CO and NCO fried kodubale was found to have no significant difference ( p  < 0.05).

  1. An exploration of adolescent snacking conventions and dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Pedersen, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Snacking has been characterized as normatively unrestricted and identified as one of the main causes of adolescent obesity. The purpose of this paper is not to question the relation between obesity and snacking, but to ask to which extent adolescent snacking is socially unrestricted...... and to explore adolescent perceptions of the potential conventions and dilemmas involved in snacking. Design/methodology/approach – Referring to previous research in food choice dilemmas and conventions, the paper starts out by discussing potential implications for adolescent snacking in different social...... contexts. Following this, the design, implementation and results of three focus groups, aiming at an exploration of adolescent snacking perceptions is described. Findings – By identifying two distinct forms of adolescent snacking, i.e. ‘‘in-between meals’’ and ‘‘fun snacks’’, the results of the focus...

  2. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-11-06

    The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.

  4. Can fortified foods and snacks increase the energy and protein intake of hospitalised older patients? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S R; Wilcox, C R; Ibrahim, K; Roberts, H C

    2018-01-10

    Undernutrition affects over 44% of hospitalised older people, who often dislike oral nutritional supplements (ONS). This review summarises the evidence for an alternative strategy, using energy and protein dense meals (via fortification) or snacks (supplementation) to increase the dietary energy and protein intake of older inpatients. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (May 1996 to May 2016) that used fortification or supplementation to increase the energy or protein intake of patients (mean age ≥60 years) in hospitals or rehabilitation centres. Ten articles (546 patients, mean age 60-83 years) were identified. Compared with usual nutritional care, six studies using either energy or protein based fortification and supplementation significantly increased intake of energy (250-450 kcal day -1 ) or protein (12-16 g day -1 ). Two studies enriched menus with both energy and protein, and significantly increased both energy (698 kcal day -1 and 21 kJ kg -1 ) and protein (16 g and 0.2 g kg -1 ) intake compared to usual care. ONS was similar to supplementation in one study but superior to fortification in another. Four studies reported good acceptability of enriched products and two studies that found they were cost-effective. Compared with usual nutritional care, energy- and protein-based fortification and supplementation could be employed as an effective, well-tolerated and cost-effective intervention to improve dietary intake amongst older inpatients. This strategy may be particularly useful for patients with cognitive impairment who struggle with ONS, and clinical trials are required to compare these approaches and establish their impact on functional outcomes. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  5. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  6. [Snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qinggang; Cao, Keke; Xu, Jiazhang; Yuan, Xueli; Zhuo, Zhipeng; Xu, Jian; Pan, Peng

    2014-07-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption among residents in Shenzhen. By a multiple stage probability proportionate to size sampling, 12 communities were randomly selected from 8 districts of Shenzhen based on population proportion. In the second stage, 30 households were randomly selected from each community. In each household, 2 years or older were invited to take dietary survey. There were 66.1% residents consuming snacks. More girls ate snacks than boys (chi2 = 11.552, P snacks than adults (chi2 = 27.207, P snacks were 107.8 kcal (451.5 kJ), 1.7 g, 0.8 g, 22.0 g, 1.1 g, 23.1 microg, 8.3 mg, 1.1 mg,17.0 mg, 9.3 mg, 21.0 mg, 0.8 mg and 0.4 mg. Food categories the most frequently consumed as snacks were fruit, pastry, milk and products, beverages and grains. It's important to strengthen the diet education among residents in Shenzhen, especially the knowledge how to select snacks correctly and rationally.

  7. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. Objective: This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Methods: Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis–St. Paul school classrooms in 2009–2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Results: Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. PMID:27281807

  8. Adolescent Snacking Behaviors Are Associated with Dietary Intake and Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I; Miller, Jonathan M; Watts, Allison W; Story, Mary T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-07-01

    Most adolescents consume ≥1 snack/d; exploring the relevance of snacking patterns for overall diet and weight status is important to guide dietary counseling and public health strategies for obesity prevention. This study examined intake of common energy-dense snack foods, total number of snacks consumed, frequency of consuming snacks prepared away from home, and frequency of snacking while watching television in adolescents and how these behaviors may be linked to diet and weight status. Relations were examined with attention to potential confounders that may help explain the mixed findings of previous research. Survey measures of snacking behavior, a food-frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were completed by 2793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 y) in Minneapolis-St. Paul school classrooms in 2009-2010. Linear regression was used to examine associations with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and other potential confounding factors, such as meal skipping, underreporting energy intake, dieting to lose weight, and physical activity. Adolescents reported consuming a mean of 2.2 energy-dense snack food servings/d and 4.3 snacks/d and purchasing snacks prepared away from home on 3.2 occasions/wk. More than two-thirds of adolescents reported that they sometimes, usually, or always consumed a snack while watching television. The measures of snacking were directly associated (P snack food servings were not related to sugar-sweetened beverage intake. A direct relation between daily servings of energy-dense snack foods and body mass index (BMI) z score was found; however, the snacking behaviors were inversely related to BMI z score (P snack consumption is a risk factor for poor diet, but unless energy-dense foods are consumed, snacking does not consistently contribute to overweight in US adolescents. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Ecological problems in the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In regard to the development of agricultural and food technologies Yugoslavia up till now has not had a developed strategy of "development of the environment" - an ecological strategy, nor has it in that respect had clearly defined political scientifically-based strategies. Current efforts to define developmental concepts are almost completely neglected, foremost in the "promotion of new ecologically justified technologies" and the formation of national programs of sustainable development. World trends in this area are already directed to the production and promotion of so-called "healthy food" which, designated in several ways, is becoming more and more present on the tables of developed countries. Yugoslavia, beside its current economic difficulties, has great potential and a elastic chance to follow world trends and completely satisfy the EU standards EVRO-EMA and world ecological standards ISO 14 000 by the quality implementation of well planned ecologically and economically rational programs. n order to undertake appropriate measures for "sustainable development", it s previously necessary to assess the problem and objectively establish the status.

  10. Snacking when you have diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy snacking - diabetes; Low blood sugar - snacking; Hypoglycemia - snacking ... When you have diabetes , you need to control your blood sugar. Insulin or diabetes medicines, as well as exercise in general, helps lower ...

  11. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded from Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0.25. The result is the formula which can produce best extruded food is pop corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:2:0.25 with Expansion Ratio (ER 2.22 and protein content 8.83%.

  12. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded From Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    OpenAIRE

    Salahudin, Farid; Syamsixman, Syamsixman

    2010-01-01

    Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0....

  13. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, MB; De Roos, NM

    2004-01-01

    "Functional" foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers

  14. Promises and problems of functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Roos, de N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Functional foods are branded foods, which claim, explicitly or implicitly, to improve health or well being. We review typical functional foods and their ingredients, efficacy, and safety. We also review regulations for health claims for foods worldwide. These regulations often allow manufacturers to

  15. The effect of playing advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on actual food intake among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anschutz, D.J.; Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have focused on the effects of television advertising on the energy intake of children. However, the rapidly changing food-marketing landscape requires research to measure the effects of nontraditional forms of marketing on the health-related behaviors of

  16. The effect of playing advergames that promote energy-dense snacks or fruit on actual food intake among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkvord, F.; Anschütz, D.J.; Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have focused on the effects of television advertising on the energy intake of children. However, the rapidly changing food-marketing landscape requires research to measure the effects of nontraditional forms of marketing on the health-related behaviors of children.

  17. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, K J; Pereira, R A; Popkin, B M

    2013-08-01

    Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥ 10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks). In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥ 10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥ 3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages. Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration.

  18. Drivers of liking for soy-based Indian-style extruded snack foods determined by U.S. and Indian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Erika A; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2010-08-01

    Although many researchers have studied potential ways to deliver soy in novel forms, little is known about specific sensory attributes associated with soy snacks, or how those attributes drive liking for consumers. The first objective of this study was to use sensory descriptive analysis to characterize 9 extruded soy snacks with varying soy levels and soy grits contents. A total of 12 trained panelists used a descriptive analysis method to evaluate the snacks and found 14 attributes to be significantly different across the samples. Furthermore, it is not known how preferences of Indian snack consumers living in the United States and India may vary for sensory attributes of soy snacks. The 2nd objective was to correlate descriptive profiling data and previously collected consumer data to construct preference maps illustrating consumers' attitudes toward the snacks. Results indicate that consumers generally accept samples characterized by attributes such as crunchy, cumin, curry, salty, and umami, but dislike samples with wheat, rough, or porous attributes. Indian consumers differed from the U.S. consumers in that their preferences were more varied, and they tended to be more tolerant of wheat and porous attributes. Therefore, different strategies should be utilized when developing products for these groups to cater to their specific inclinations.

  19. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  20. ESSENCE OF THE PROBLEM OF ENSURING FOOD SECURITY

    OpenAIRE

    Lalayan G. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we have revealed the essence of the problem of ensuring food security in detail. The components of economic safety at macroeconomic level are described, defining conditions of ensuring national food security are shown

  1. Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout - a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? a study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Lise L; Christensen, Ulla; Glümer, Charlotte; Bloch, Paul; Mikkelsen, Bent E; Wansink, Brian; Toft, Ulla

    2016-11-22

    The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy checkout supermarket intervention. The study was part of Project Sundhed & Lokalsamfund (Project SoL); a Danish participatory community-based health promotion intervention. Consumer attitudes towards unhealthy snack exposure in supermarkets were examined in a qualitative pre-intervention study (29 short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews). Findings were presented to food retailers and informed the decision to test a healthy checkout intervention. Sugar confectionery at one checkout counter was substituted with fruit and healthy snacking items in four stores for 4 weeks. The intervention was evaluated by 48 short exit interviews on consumer perceptions of the intervention and by linear mixed model analyses of supermarket sales data from the intervention area and a matched control area. The qualitative pre-intervention study identified consumer concern and annoyance with placement and promotion of unhealthy snacks in local stores. Store managers were willing to respond to local consumer concern and a healthy checkout intervention was therefore implemented. Exit interviews found positive attitudes towards the intervention, while intervention awareness was modest. Most participants believed that the intervention could help other consumers make healthier choices, while fewer expected to be influenced by the intervention themselves. Statistical analyses suggested an intervention effect on sales of carrot snack packs when compared with sales before the intervention in Bornholm control stores (P branding opportunity for supermarkets, thus representing a win-win strategy for store managers and consumers in the short term. However, the intervention

  2. [Associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainuki, Tomomi; Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-02-01

    To examine associations among appetite, snacking, and body type during infant development. We also investigated whether trends in appetite, snacking, and body type continue through time. Children (n=1313) born between April 2000 and March 2004, in Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, were enrolled. Data were collected during health checkups at 18 and 36 months of age. The items used for analysis were the child's appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and gender. The mothers commented on their child's appetite as good, normal, lacking, or irregular. The good and normal responses were grouped under the category good/normal appetite, while lacking and irregular were grouped under the category lacking/irregular appetite. Body types were calculated using an obesity index and classified as underweight, normal, or overweight. Fifteen kinds of snacks at 36 months were classified using cluster analysis. Appetite, snack content, snack-eating style, and body type at 18 and 36 months of age were compared using the McNemar test. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the appetite categories. There were 664 boys (50.6%) and 648 girls (49.4%) in the study (missing=1). The response rate was 56.5%. Snacks were classified by content as meal substitutes, snacks and sweet foods, or healthy snacks. There was no change in appetite at 18 and 36 months of age. By 36 months, snack content, snack-eating style had changed (e.g. solitary snacking increased.). The highest risk factor for appetite at 36 months was lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months (OR: 4.70, CI: 3.07-7.19), eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.81, CI: 1.24-2.65), followed by unsupervised snacking (OR: 2.92, CI: 1.45-5.87), and consuming few healthy snacks (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.48-1.00). The risk factors for lacking/irregular appetite at 18 months of age were eating snacks without time constraints (OR: 1.68, CI: 1.13-2.49), receiving snacks on-demand (OR: 1

  3. Snacking Behavior and Obesity among Female Adolescents in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Golshahi, Jafar; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in the pediatric age groups draws attention to lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity. Data on obesity in adolescents and their snacking behavior are conflicting. This study aimed to assess the association of snacking behavior and obesity among female adolescents in Isfahan, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 265 female Isfahanian students who were chosen by systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that included 53 food items. Snacking behavior was defined by healthy snack score in combination with the frequency of snack intake. Individuals who consumed more healthy snacks and those with snacking frequency of 4 times a day or more had significantly lower weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (p associated with a greater chance of being overweight, generally obese, and abdominally obese among adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-3.14, ptrend = 0.04 and OR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-3.13, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Frequency of snack intake was inversely related to overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity (OR = 3.23; 95% CI, 1.73-5.61, ptrend = 0.03 and OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20, ptrend = 0.04, respectively). Healthy snack score in combination with frequency of snacking showed that those in the lowest tertile of snacking who consumed snacks less than 4 times/day had the highest risk of obesity compared to other categories (OR = 2.09, 95% CI, 1.11-3.20, p associated with decreased prevalence of overweight, general obesity, and abdominal obesity in adolescents. Further studies, in particular of a prospective nature, are required to examine this association in other populations.

  4. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional Quality, Consumption, and Cost of Snacks Served in Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, Robert G.; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6?pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks…

  5. Food insecurity and child behavior problems in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Food insecurity remains a persistent problem in the United States. Several studies have shown that food insecurity is associated with child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. However, some potential methodological limitations remain. For example, most studies use a household measure of food insecurity while there is evidence that children, especially younger ones, tend to be shielded by their parents from experiencing food insecurity. In addition, the mechanisms through which food insecurity affects children are not well understood. This study uses longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to address these limitations. Fixed-effects models show that the association is even larger using a measure of child food insecurity instead of a household one. Correlated-random effects models show a large difference in child behavior problems between food secure and food insecure children due to unobserved heterogeneity. In addition, the association between child food insecurity and child externalizing behaviors remains largely unexplained while food insecurity among adults explains almost all the variation in the association with child internalizing behaviors. Food insecure children and parents are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, which may lead to behavior problems in young children. These findings underscore the need for greater focus on reducing the risk of food insecurity, especially for children in fragile families, in order to reduce behavior problems and improve their educational attainment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polyanskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concepts and factors of food security and food sovereignty of the Russian Federation. The composition of the consumer basket, the most significant of its components, and based on threshold values of self-sufficiency is calculated in the dynamics of the prevalence of food independence. The groups of products, which are in the country to be at a level below the thresholds, regulated by the food security doctrine of the Russian Federation. Identified the possible General trend of development of agricultural production in the country.

  7. Solving Microbial Spoilage Problems in Processed Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero, Rocelle

    This chapter surveys common microbial food spoilage processes. The chapter is organized by food products and includes sections addressing spoilage in meat, poultry, fish; dairy products (milk, butter, cheese); beverage products; bakery products; canned foods; fruit and confectionery products; and emulsions. It addresses the isolation and identification of spoilage organisms and provides several case studies as examples. It introduces various organisms responsible for spoilage including Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria, Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and fungal contaminants. Throughout the chapter, attention is given to when, where, and how spoilage organisms enter the food processing chain. Troubleshooting techniques are suggested. The effect (or lack of effect) of heating, dehydration, pH change, cooling, and sealing on various organisms is explained throughout. The chapter contains four tables that connect specific organisms to various spoilage manifestations in a variety of food products.

  8. On the problem of radioprotective foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The authors claim that purposely created food with anti-radiation effect (radioprotective food) is of no use for the Kozloduy NPP workers. Their reason is that internal radiation doses represent only 14-24% of the total dose while in cases with the highest content of radionuclides the activity is less than 10% of the annual intake limits. Measures to protect the respiratory tract are recommended instead. Radioprotective food can be used not only for protection of the population in case of accidents but also for disease treatment, rehabilitation and prophylactics. 11 refs

  9. On the problem of radioprotective foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiradzhiev, G; Paskalev, Z [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The authors claim that purposely created food with anti-radiation effect (radioprotective food) is of no use for the Kozloduy NPP workers. Their reason is that internal radiation doses represent only 14-24% of the total dose while in cases with the highest content of radionuclides the activity is less than 10% of the annual intake limits. Measures to protect the respiratory tract are recommended instead. Radioprotective food can be used not only for protection of the population in case of accidents but also for disease treatment, rehabilitation and prophylactics. 11 refs.

  10. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Blake, Christine E; Blaine, Rachel E; Younginer, Nicholas A; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2015-09-17

    Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92% mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit caregivers' definitions of snacking and strategies they use to decide what, when and how much snack their child eats. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an iterative theory-based and grounded approach. A conceptual model of food parenting specific to child snacking was developed to summarize the findings and inform future research. Caregivers' descriptions of food parenting practices specific to child snacking were consistent with previous models of food parenting developed based on expert opinion [1, 2]. A few noteworthy differences however emerged. More than half of participants mentioned permissive feeding approaches (e.g., my child is the boss when it comes to snacks). As a result, permissive feeding was included as a higher order feeding dimension in the resulting model. In addition, a number of novel feeding approaches specific to child snacking emerged including child-centered provision of snacks (i.e., responding to a child's hunger cues when making decisions about snacks), parent unilateral decision making (i.e., making decisions about a child's snacks without any input from the child), and excessive monitoring of snacks (i.e., monitoring all snacks provided to and consumed by the child). The resulting conceptual model includes four higher order feeding dimensions including autonomy support, coercive control, structure and permissiveness and 20 sub-dimensions. This study formulates a language around food parenting practices specific to child snacking

  11. The Tongzhou Festival of Dainty Snacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Tongzhou is located at the east end of the 100-li street in Beijing. The area is a hub which links Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan. It is also the starting point of the Great Beijing-Hangzhou Canal. A gathering place of merchants since ancient times, Tongzhou’s food culture continues to flourish. The snacks

  12. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  13. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, van F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employing Rothschild’s Motivation–Opportunity–Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the

  14. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control processes were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, a generic Go/No-Go task, and a food-specific Go/No-Go task. The food-specific Go/No-Go task directly ties the task to food cues that trigger responses, addressing an integral link between cue-habit processes. Dietary measures were assessed with self-administered food frequency and binge eating questionnaires. Results of latent variable models revealed marked gender differences. Inhibitory problems on the food-specific and generic Go/No-Go tasks were significantly correlated with binge eating only in females, whereas inhibitory problems measured with these tasks were the strongest correlates of sweet snack consumption in males. Higher BMI percentile and sedentary behavior also predicted binge eating in females and sweet snack consumption in males. Inhibitory problems on the generic Go/No-Go, poorer affective decision-making, assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task, and sedentary behavior were associated with sweetened beverage consumption in males, but not females. The food-specific Go/No-Go was not predictive in models evaluating sweetened beverage consumption, providing some initial discriminant validity for the task, which consisted of sweet/fatty snacks as no-go signals and no sugar-sweetened beverage signals. This research extends other study findings, revealing gender differences in inhibitory function relevant to behavioral control. Further, the findings contribute to research implicating the relevance of cues in

  15. Healthy Snacks: Using Nutrient Profiling to Evaluate the Nutrient-Density of Common Snacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julie M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2017-09-01

    To quantify and compare the nutrient-density of commonly consumed snacks using two nutrient-density measures, Nutrient Rich Foods Indices 9.3 (NRF 9.3) and 15.3 (NRF 15.3). Identify commonly consumed categories of snacks and individual snack foods, calculate NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores, rank snacks by category and by individual food based on nutrient density, compare and contrast scores generated by the two NRF Indices. NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores. Averages and standard deviations of nutrient-density scores for each snack category. Vegetables and coffee/tea received the highest category scores on both indices. Cakes/cookies/pastries and sweets had the lowest category scores. NRF 9.3 scores for individual snacks ranged from -46 (soda) to 524 (coffee). NRF 15.3 scores ranged from -45 (soda) to 736 (coffee). If added to food labels, NRF scores could help consumers identify more nutritious choices. The differences between NRF 9.3 and 15.3 scores generated for the same foods and the limitations of these indices highlight the need for careful consideration of which nutrient-density measure to include on food labels as well as consumer education. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Salty or sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Freedman, Darcy A

    2015-02-01

    Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3-6 pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1700 elementary age children. The number of days that snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. Programs served desserts and artificially flavored salty snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/week, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages were served 1.8 days/week. Of the children (N = 383) observed, 75% to 100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened beverages. Desserts and salty snacks cost $0.27-$0.32/snack vs $0.38-$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  17. [Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Liyun; Wang, Huijun

    2008-11-01

    To describe the status of snacks consumption, the characteristics, and the contribution to their diet and nutrients intake in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. Chinese health and nutritional survey (1991-2004), Chinese National nutrition and health survey (2002), and 2007 typical survey on snacks in Chinese residents were used in this report. The incidence of snacks consumption and snacking contribution were calculated by consecutive day 3 dietary recalls of the first 2 surveys. At least 1 snacks intake in 3 days was snacking consumption. The incidences of snacks consumption in Chinese population at the ages of 3-17 years were increased from 1991 (13.2%) to 2004 (19.3%). There were 35.1% of Chinese children and adolescents consuming snacks, 55.7% in urban and 29.6% in rural. Snacks provided 7.7% of total daily energy, 18.2% of fiber, 17.9% of VC, 9.9% of calcium, 9.7% of VE, 6.9% of iron and 6.3% of zinc. The snacks were mainly consumed in the evening. The main reasons were not nutrition of food but good taste, thirsty or hungry and food advertisement. The location of snacking was mainly at home and school. The snacks came from parents or other family members. They also buy snacks themselves. The consumption of candies and chocolate, jelly more than 4-6 day a week had a certain proportion. It was important to supervise snacks selection and consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years. The limitations of snacks consumption data perhaps lowed underestimate the effects of snacks to dietary intake.

  18. Salty or Sweet? Nutritional quality, consumption, and cost of snacks served in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Weaver, R. Glenn; Tilley, Falon; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S.; Freedman, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Snacks served in afterschool programs (ASPs, 3–6pm) represent an important opportunity to promote healthy eating. ASP policies suggest a fruit/vegetable is served daily, while sugar-sweetened foods/beverages and artificially-flavored snacks are eliminated. Limited information exists on the types of snacks served in ASPs, if snacks meet existing nutrition policies, whether children eat the snacks, and their cost. METHODS Direct observation of snacks served and consumed was collected in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The number of days snacks were served/week was evaluated for compliance with nutrition policies. Costs of snacks were collected via receipts. RESULTS Programs served desserts and artificially-flavored salty-snacks on 2.7 and 2.1 days/week. Fruits and vegetables were served 0.6 and 0.1 days/wk, respectively. Sugar-sweetened-beverages were served 1.8 days/wk. Of the children (N=383) observed, 75–100% consumed the snack served, with 95% and 100% of served fruits/vegetables consumed. No ASP served fruit/vegetables daily, 18 served sugar-sweetened foods, 16 served artificially-flavored snacks, and 14 served sugar-sweetened-beverages. Desserts and salty-snacks cost $0.27–$0.32/snack vs. $0.38–$0.40/snack for vegetables/fruits. CONCLUSIONS The quality of snacks failed to meet nutrition policies and consists of predominately high-sugar and artificially-flavored options. Strategies to improve snack offerings in ASPs while addressing price barriers are required. PMID:25564980

  19. The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Md Nor, Norfezah; Carr, Alistair; Hardacre, Allan; Brennan, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extrud...

  20. Pre-exposure to Tempting Food Reduces Subsequent Snack Consumption in Healthy-Weight but Not in Obese-Weight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Stamos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a severe worldwide problem. Compared to healthy-weight individuals, obese individuals seem to show an increased sensitivity to tempting food. In the present study, we test the pre-exposure effect, which implies that consumption of tempting food is decreased after exposure to tempting food cues in a context of a task that discourages food consumption. Healthy-weight and obese-weight participants were recruited via social media and university channels. Participants took part in a scrabble task with either candy letters or foam letters and subsequently engaged in a taste test. Results showed that in healthy-weight participants, consumption was reduced after solving the scrabble task with candy letters in comparison to foam letters. In obese-weight participants, consumption was reduced in the condition using foam letters (in comparison with healthy-weight participants. The pre-exposure effect was replicated in healthy-weight participants, but could not be observed in participants with obesity, since consumption was reduced in general in this group. Our results suggest that more work should be done to understand how food nudges work in the context of obesity.

  1. Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and influences snack preferences in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gaines, Brianna L; Kubas, Gabrielle C; Mitchell, Charlayne F; Russell, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some problems with the food packaging practices in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lack of standards and specifications and environmental issues have all been discussed. The effect of the increasing use of plastics as the main packaging material ... How these problems impact on the country's drive towards food security as ...

  3. Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout – a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores? a study on consumer attitudes and sales effects of a healthy supermarket intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise L. Winkler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy checkout supermarket intervention. The study was part of Project Sundhed & Lokalsamfund (Project SoL; a Danish participatory community-based health promotion intervention. Methods Consumer attitudes towards unhealthy snack exposure in supermarkets were examined in a qualitative pre-intervention study (29 short in-store interviews, 11 semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews. Findings were presented to food retailers and informed the decision to test a healthy checkout intervention. Sugar confectionery at one checkout counter was substituted with fruit and healthy snacking items in four stores for 4 weeks. The intervention was evaluated by 48 short exit interviews on consumer perceptions of the intervention and by linear mixed model analyses of supermarket sales data from the intervention area and a matched control area. Results The qualitative pre-intervention study identified consumer concern and annoyance with placement and promotion of unhealthy snacks in local stores. Store managers were willing to respond to local consumer concern and a healthy checkout intervention was therefore implemented. Exit interviews found positive attitudes towards the intervention, while intervention awareness was modest. Most participants believed that the intervention could help other consumers make healthier choices, while fewer expected to be influenced by the intervention themselves. Statistical analyses suggested an intervention effect on sales of carrot snack packs when compared with sales before the intervention in Bornholm control stores (P < 0.05. No significant intervention effect on sales of other intervention items or sugar

  4. Emerging Disparities in Dietary Sodium Intake from Snacking in the US Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-06-17

    The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014. Overall, patterns of snack food consumption, trends in sodium intake from snack food sources and trends in food and beverage sources of sodium from snack foods across race-ethnic, age, gender, body mass index, household education and income groups were examined. In all socio-demographic subgroups there was a significant increase in both per capita sodium intake, and the proportion of sodium intake derived from snacks from 1977-1978 to 2011-2014 ( p sodium intake from snacks. While in 1977-1978 Non-Hispanic Blacks had a lower sodium intake from snacks compared to Non-Hispanic Whites ( p sodium intake from snack sources in Non-Hispanic Blacks. Our findings have implications for future policy interventions targeting specific US population subgroups.

  5. Ritmos circadianos de consumo alimentar nos lanches e refeições de adultos: aplicação do semanário alimentar Food consumption circadian rhythms in adult snacks and meals: application to weekly menu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Gauche

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo descreve o perfil alimentar de indivíduos saudáveis, em seu ambiente natural, a partir da análise da ingestão de energia e macronutrientes nos lanches e refeições e sua distribuição circadiana. MÉTODOS: Dezessete voluntários, professores e funcionários técnico-administrativos de uma instituição de ensino de Florianópolis com idade média de 46,71 (±2,2 anos, e índice de massa corporal médio de 24,93 (±0,9 kg/m² registraram, durante sete dias consecutivos, o tipo e a quantidade de alimentos e bebidas consumidos, especificando o modo de preparo, o tipo de evento alimentar (refeição ou lanche, a hora do dia e o dia da semana. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se, em média, 2,7 refeições e 3,2 lanches diariamente. Os lanches e as refeições mostraram diferenças entre si, tanto em relação à proporção de macronutrientes quanto ao valor energético total. As refeições forneceram cerca de três vezes mais calorias que os lanches e foram compostas, predominantemente, por proteínas e lipídios, enquanto nos lanches predominaram os carboidratos. A hora do dia também mostrou exercer influência no consumo. CONCLUSÃO: No período das 12h às 15h59min, o consumo foi significativamente maior que nos demais momentos do dia, mas não se observou um aumento significativo do consumo energético total nos dias do fim de semana.OBJECTIVE: This study describes the food profile of healthy individuals in their natural environment, analyzing the energy and macronutrient ingestion during meals and snacks and their circadian distribution. METHODS: Seventeen volunteers, professors and administrative technicians of an educational institution in Florianópolis, Brazil, with an average age of 46.71 (±2.2 years, and average body mass index of 24.93 (±0.9 kg/m², registered the type and quantity of food and drink consumed during seven consecutive days, specifying the type of preparation, the eating event (meal or snack, the hour

  6. When planning is not enough: the self-regulatory effect of implementation intentions on changing snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Leona; Bagozzi, Richard P; Spanjol, Jelena

    2010-05-01

    This study examined whether matching implementation intentions to people's regulatory orientation affects the effectiveness of changing unhealthy snacking habits. Participants' regulatory orientation was either measured (as a chronic trait) or manipulated (as a situational state), and participants were randomly assigned to implementation intention conditions to eat more healthy snacks or avoid eating unhealthy ones. A self-reported online food diary of healthy and unhealthy snacks over a 2-day period. Participants with weak unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks when forming any type of implementation intentions (regardless of match or mismatch with their regulatory orientation), while participants with strong unhealthy snacking habits consumed more healthy snacks only when forming implementation intentions that matched their regulatory orientations. RESULTS suggest that implementation intentions that match regulatory orientation heighten motivation intensity and put snacking under intentional control for people with strong unhealthy snacking habits. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Meals and snacking, diet quality and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2014-07-01

    The present obesity "epidemic" has been attributed to a growing trend for snacking. Snacking may contribute to excess energy intake and weight gain through different ways, for example: context/environment of eating, frequency of consumption and quality of food choices. The present article reviews data and hypotheses about the role of snacks in diet quality and body weight control. One obvious difficulty in this field is the diversity of definitions and approaches used in cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies. A brief paragraph reviews the prevalence of snacking in various countries and its recent evolution. The literature addressing the contribution of snacks to daily energy and nutrient intake presents two contrasting pictures. In many reports, snacking appears to facilitate the adjustment of energy intake to needs, and to contribute carbohydrates, rather than fats, to the diet, in addition to valuable micronutrients. Such results are usually reported in healthy, normal-weight children and adults. By contrast, snacking often appears to contribute much energy but little nutrition in the diet of other consumers, particularly obese children and adults. In addition to selecting energy-dense foods, eating in the absence of hunger in response to external non-physiological cues, in an irregular fashion, in contexts (e.g. while watching television) that do not favor attention to the act of eating, might be crucial factors determining the nutritional effects of snacking. While efforts should be continued to harmonize definitions and minimize the influence of under-reporting, interventions aimed at decreasing detrimental snacking should address both food-related aspects and behavioral components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of nutrient-dense snack combinations with calories and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2013-01-01

    With other factors such as general diet and insufficient exercise, eating non-nutrient dense snack foods such as potato chips contributes to childhood obesity. We examined whether children consumed fewer calories when offered high-nutrient dense snacks consisting of cheese and vegetables than children who were offered non-nutrient dense snacks (ie, potato chips). Two hundred one children (115 girls) entering the third to sixth grades were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 snacking conditions: (1) potato chips only, (2) cheese-only, (3) vegetables only, and (4) cheese and vegetables. Children were allowed to eat snacks freely provided while watching 45-minute TV programs. Satiety was measured before they started eating snacks, in the middle of the study, and 20 minutes after they finished eating the snacks. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding their family environment. Children consumed 72% fewer calories when eating a combined snack compared with when they were served potato chips, P snack needed significantly fewer calories to achieve satiety than those who ate potato chips, P snack conditions on caloric intake were more pronounced among overweight or obese children (P = .02) and those from low-involvement families (P = .049) The combination snack of vegetables and cheese can be an effective means for children to reduce caloric intake while snacking. The effect was more pronounced among children who were overweight or obese and children from low-involvement families.

  9. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  10. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T; Torab, T; Yen, D; Boyland, EJ; Halford, JCG

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults’ snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of sna...

  11. Price and healthfulness of snacks in 32 YMCA after-school programs in 4 US metropolitan areas, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M; Wiecha, Jean L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations of healthful snacks and of beverage and food groups with price (n = 1,294 snack-days). We identified repeatedly served healthful snacks consistent with Child and Adult Care Food Program guidelines and reimbursement rate ($0.74/snack). On average, healthful snacks were approximately 50% more expensive than less healthful snacks ($0.26/snack; SE, 0.08; P = .003). Compared to water, 100% juice significantly increased average snack price, after controlling for other variables in the model. Similarly, compared to refined grains with trans fats, refined grains without trans fat significantly increased snack price, as did fruit and canned or frozen vegetables. Fresh vegetables (mostly carrots or celery) or whole grains did not alter price. Twenty-two repeatedly served snacks met nutrition guidelines and the reimbursement rate. In this sample of after-school programs, healthful snacks were typically more expensive than less healthful options; however, we identified many healthful snacks served at or below the price of less healthful options. Substituting tap water for 100% juice yielded price savings that could be used toward purchasing more healthful foods (eg, an apple). Our findings have practical implications for selecting snacks that meet health and reimbursement guidelines.

  12. Sensitivity to reward is associated with snack and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Vangeel, Jolien; Maes, Lea; Eggermont, Steven; Braet, Caroline; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Goossens, Lien; Beullens, Kathleen; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John

    2016-06-01

    High intake of palatable foods, such as energy-dense snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), is common among adolescents. An individual's sensitivity to reward (SR) may influence these intakes. The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between SR and both snack and SSB intake among adolescents. A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 14- to 16-year-olds (mean age = 14.7 ± 0.8 years; 50.9 % boys; 18.0 % overweight) in Flanders. Daily intakes were measured by a food frequency questionnaire. SR was assessed using the behavioral activation system (BAS) scales. Multilevel regression analyses (two level: adolescent school) were conducted using STATA version 13. BAS drive was positively associated with daily intakes of SSBs (13.79 %, p snacks (5.42 %, p snacks (p snacks (3.85 %, p snacks (6.41 %, p snacks. Interaction effects of gender and BAS RR (p snacks (6.48 %, p snacks (7.22 %, p snack and SSB consumption in adolescents, especially in girls. These findings suggest that SR should be taken into account when designing interventions to improve the snack and SSB intake of adolescents.

  13. Peer influence on youth's snack purchases: a laboratory analog of convenience store shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Nitecki, Lauren A; O'Connor, Briannon C

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of two experiments using a laboratory analog to examine the influence of taxes and subsidies on youth's snack food purchases when alone (Experiment 1) and when in the presence of a same-gender peer (Experiment 2). Adolescents (12-14-years-old) completed a purchasing task, during which prices of snack foods were manipulated, either alone in Experiment 1 (N=37) or in the presence of an unfamiliar peer in Experiment 2 (N=52). In both experiments, purchases of unhealthy snacks decreased and purchases of healthy snacks increased when the price of unhealthy snacks were taxed (increased). In Experiment 1 (alone), participants did not purchase more healthy snacks when the price of these snacks were subsidized (decreased). However, in Experiment 2 (when participants were in the presence of a peer), participants purchased more healthy snacks when these snacks were subsidized. Taxes and subsidies affect adolescents' snack purchasing, as does the presence of peers. The results of this study highlight factors that influence healthy and unhealthy snack purchasing behavior in young adolescents. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Food loss in a hungry world, a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Martínez Z.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mainly in developing countries, food loss and waste is a problem that is difficult to measure. Investigations have been conducted in industrialized countries; however, consistent evidence of how much is really being depleted is limited. The accessible data give the illusion of evidence, but are supported by very restricted facts. In recent years, food waste and loss have gained importance because more than 35% of food is wasted. Nevertheless, with this percentage of food, most of the 800 million people that go hungry every day in the world could be fed. This reflection paper aims to describe the different approaches and meanings of food waste, food loss and food wastage. Similarly, this article identifies the phases of the food supply chain where food is being lost and wasted. Based on the available data, developed and developing countries are compared. It was concluded that, in developed countries, the most important losses are in the consumption phase; in developing countries, the losses take place in the growing and harvesting phase. Changing consumption habits as well as the improvement of cropping and harvesting processes could be an option for reducing this problem, especially in developing countries.

  15. Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District. ... Finally, the paper highlights some of the major problems associated with land use for instance, labour shortages, lack of credit facilities, type of farm implements used, overutilization of land, limited extension services, and extinction of indigenous crops. Last but ...

  16. Produção de salgadinho extrusado de quirera de arroz para uso na indústria de alimentos Extruded snack broken rice production to the food industry usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o principal produtor de arroz fora do continente asiático. Durante seu beneficiamento, são gerados em média 14% de quirera, representando perda econômica para o setor arrozeiro do país. Porém, esse resíduo tem enorme potencial para ser utilizado na indústria alimentícia. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da quirera de arroz na produção de salgadinho extrusado. O salgadinho de quirera de arroz foi avaliado sensorialmente, através de testes de aceitabilidade e intenção de compra, e quimicamente, através da composição centesimal. O salgadinho extrusado de quirera de arroz sabor queijo apresentou boa aceitabilidade, apesar de perda nos escores de aparência e cor, quando comparado ao salgadinho extrusado de milho elaborado pela mesma empresa. Os salgadinhos extrusados demonstraram menor teor de umidade, mesmo teor de proteína e maior teor de cinza, lipídios e fibras, quando comparados à quirera de arroz nativa. As alterações promovidas na quirera de arroz pela extrusão possibilitam sua aplicação comercial.Brazil is the main producer of rice outside the Asiatic continent. During the manufacturing, about 14% of broken rice are generated, which represents economic loss for the country's rice industry. Nevertheless, this residual product has enormous potential for using in food industry. The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of broken rice in the extruded snack formulation. The snack was sensory evaluated by testing acceptability and purchase intent, and chemically, by centesimal composition. The snacks of broken rice cheese flavor showed good sensorial acceptability, in spite of the loss in appearance and color scores when compared to the corn ones prepared by the same company. The extruded snacks showed lower moisture content, equal levels of protein and higher levels of ash, fat and fiber when compared to native broken rice. The changes promoted in broken rice by

  17. A canned food scheduling problem with batch due date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tsui-Ping; Liao, Ching-Jong; Smith, Milton

    2014-09-01

    This article considers a canned food scheduling problem where jobs are grouped into several batches. Jobs can be sent to the next operation only when all the jobs in the same batch have finished their processing, i.e. jobs in a batch, have a common due date. This batch due date problem is quite common in canned food factories, but there is no efficient heuristic to solve the problem. The problem can be formulated as an identical parallel machine problem with batch due date to minimize the total tardiness. Since the problem is NP hard, two heuristics are proposed to find the near-optimal solution. Computational results comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of the two proposed heuristics with an existing heuristic are reported and discussed.

  18. Children's liking and wanting of snack products: Influence of shape and flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Djin G

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's food choices are guided by their preferences. However, these preferences may change due to repeated exposure. Methods This study investigated children's (n = 242, 7–12 yrs-old liking and wanting for snacks over 3 weeks of daily consumption. The snacks differed in size (small vs large or flavour (sweet vs sweet-sour. Two conditions were designed: 1 a monotonous group in which children continuously consumed the same snack across the 3 weeks, and 2 a free choice group in which children were allowed to freely choose amongst 3 different flavours of the snack each day during 3 weeks. Results Shape influenced long-term liking, i.e. small shaped snacks remained stable in liking over repeated consumption, whereas large shaped snacks with the same flavour decreased in liking. Mean wanting ratings for all snack products decreased over 3 weeks daily consumption. Flavour did not significantly influence liking and wanting over time. The ability to freely choose amongst different flavours tended to decrease children's liking (p Conclusion Wanting rather than liking was most affected by repeated daily consumption of snack foods over three weeks. In order to increase the likelihood that children will repeatedly eat a food product, smaller sized healthy snacks are preferred to larger sized snacks. Future research should focus on stabilizing wanting over repeated consumption.

  19. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight

    OpenAIRE

    Scholten, Eline W. M.; Schrijvers, Carola; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Kremers, Stef; Rodenburg, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. Objective: This study examines 1) the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition) and children's weight, 2) the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3) the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack co...

  20. The power of habits: unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Aukje A C; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2012-11-01

    Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour in a large representative community sample (N= 1,103). To test our hypothesis that habits are crucial when explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, their role was compared to the 'Power of Food', a related construct that addresses sensitivity to food cues in the environment. Moreover, the relation between Power of Food and unhealthy snacking habits was assessed. A prospective design was used to determine the impact of habits in relation to intention, Power of Food and a number of demographic variables. One month after filling out the questionnaire, including measures of habit strength and Power of Food, participants reported their unhealthy snacking behaviour by means of a 7-day snack diary. Results showed that habit strength was the most important predictor, outperforming all other variables in explaining unhealthy snack intake. The findings demonstrate that snacking habits provide a unique contribution in explaining unhealthy snacking behaviour, stressing the importance of addressing habit strength in further research and interventions concerning unhealthy snacking behaviour. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Impact of a Short-Term Nutrition Education Child Care Pilot Intervention on Preschool Children's Intention To Choose Healthy Snacks and Actual Snack Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laura S; Gorin, Amy A; Mobley, Stacey L; Mobley, Amy R

    2015-10-01

    Novel interventions within child care settings are needed for childhood obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a short-term nutrition education pilot intervention on preschool-age children's snack food choices. Children ages 3-5 years (n = 49) from one child care setting participated in a short-term nutrition education intervention (nine 30-minute interactive lessons) taught over a 2-week period. Pre-post assessments included snack knowledge and snack preference questionnaires and an observed snack selection trial to allow children to choose between a healthy and unhealthy snack choice similar to the current food environment. Children's height and weight were measured and BMI z-scores calculated. Parental reports of demographics and child's food preferences were also collected at baseline. Children significantly improved their preference of healthier snacks (p = 0.03) and the ability to distinguish them (p = 0.03) from other snacks. However, they did not significantly improve (p > 0.05) their snack choice between a healthy and unhealthy choice immediately after the short-term nutrition education program. Children who were younger (p = 0.003) or who had higher nutrition knowledge scores (p = 0.002) were more likely to select the healthy snack after the intervention. This study provides evidence that a short-term nutrition education program improves preschool children's knowledge about healthy snacks, but does not translate to immediate healthier snack selections for all children. Future research should investigate the optimal duration of a nutrition education program in a child care setting and other external influences (parents, policy) most influential on snack choice and eventual obesity risk.

  2. A qualitative study of parents' perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children's snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K

    2015-05-01

    Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children's snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents' conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children's snacking. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n = 60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents' child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Parents' commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children's snacks with phrases like "something small." Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ethnic groups and by household food security status. Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  4. Parenting around child snacking: development of a theoretically-guided, empirically informed conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Blake, Christine E.; Blaine, Rachel E.; Younginer, Nicholas A.; Orloski, Alexandria; Hamtil, Heather A.; Ganter, Claudia; Bruton, Yasmeen P.; Vaughn, Amber E; Fisher, Jennifer O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Snacking contributes to excessive energy intakes in children. Yet factors shaping child snacking are virtually unstudied. This study examines food parenting practices specific to child snacking among low-income caregivers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 60 low-income caregivers of preschool-aged children (18 non-Hispanic white, 22 African American/Black, 20 Hispanic; 92 % mothers). A structured interview guide was used to solicit care...

  5. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, E.J.M.; Geenen, Rinie; Kremers, Stef; Dagnelie, Pieter; Larsen, Junilla

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys, age 12.4 - 17.6 years), and their friends, and snack and soft drink availability at schools was measured. In regression analysis, consumption by friends, snack and soft drink availability within sch...

  6. A Study on Food Security Problems and Business Credit Crisis in Chinese Food Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yanni Li; Dan Cui; Wenxuan Zhao; Jiayin Li; Fuguang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Food security has become a big issue in China for some big incidents occurred in recent years. happened. This study has a survey on these cases and analyzes the reasons from the aspect of enterprises and government. Some solutions are put forward to solve the problems about food security and business credit crisis in China currently. The purpose is to guide enterprises to set up a sound operation system and gain long-term profits.

  7. Snack and beverage consumption and preferences in a sample of Chinese children - Are they influenced by advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yu, Yang; King, Lesley; Li, Mu

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of unhealthy snack and beverages can lead to childhood obesity, which has become a major concern globally. Television food advertisements may influence children's snack and beverages preferences. This article aims to explore children's snack and beverage consumption habits; examine the extent of television advertising for non-core (energy-dense, nutrient poor) snack and beverages; and assess the influence of television advertising on children's snack and beverages preferences in Harbin, China. The study consisted of two components, a recall survey on the snack and beverage consumption and preferences of 9-11 years old school children; and recording snack and beverage advertisements on three popular television channels. Odds Ratio (OR) was used to estimate the likelihood of children selecting particular snack and beverages as their top three choices according to whether their preferences were influenced by television advertisements. The majority of children consumed non-core snacks (100%) and beverages (80%) in the four weeks prior to the survey. Nearly 40% of television food advertisements were for non-core snacks and beverages. Non-core snacks (OR of 1.13) and non-core beverages (OR of 1.23) were more likely chosen as children's top three snack/beverage choices, particularly, "puffed food and tubers" snack and carbonated beverages (OR of 1.31 and 1.45, respectively). The snack and beverage preferences appeared to be influenced by television advertisements in this sample of Chinese children, highlighting the potential health and nutritional value of policy to reduce advertising of non-core foods in China.

  8. Assessment of Snacks Consumption among High School Students of Tehran during 2010-2011 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Eating snacks during the day can lead to energy distribution and improvement of the health status of students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of snack consumption among high school students in region 8 of Tehran. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed on 300 high school students in district 8 of Tehran educational board during 2010-2011. Cluster sampling was done as a random method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman, Pearson and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 16.2±0.9. 64.6% of students ate snacks everyday and 10.1% of them didn’t use any snack at school. Most students (14.8% ate sandwich as snack prepared by school’s buffet every day. Tea (12.4%, fruits (12%, cheese bread (10% and home -made sandwiches (7.9% were also used as snacks. Results showed that among food consumed as snack, sandwich consumption was negatively associated to the grade of previous semester. Moreover, the consumption of blowgun and cakes were increased in children with more educated fathers. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the consumption of snacks during school attendance is good in terms of quantity, but the quality and usefulness of food still need more attention Keyword: Snack, High school, Average, Student

  9. Location influences snacking behavior of US infants, toddlers and preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Emma F; Deming, Denise M; Eldridge, Alison L

    2018-06-13

    Compare at-home and away-from-home snacking patterns of US infants and young children. A secondary analysis was conducted using nationwide, cross-sectional dietary survey data from the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008. The sample included infants (6-11.9 months, n = 505), toddlers (12-23.9 months, n = 925), preschool children (24-47.9 months, n = 1461). Weighted population descriptive statistics (means and standard errors) were calculated using SAS. Significance was determined at P ≤ 0.05. The main outcome measures of the analyses were the percent of children consuming snacks by location (at home, away from home) and snacking period (morning, afternoon and evening), energy and food groups consumed during snacks. Snacking at home was more prevalent than snacking away from home (toddlers, 73% vs 27%; preschoolers, 67% vs 33%). Away-from-home snacks provided about 50 additional calories per day for toddlers (346 vs 298 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) and preschoolers (371 vs 326 kcal/day, P ≤ 0.05) versus snacks consumed at home. Caregivers made similar snack choices for toddlers and preschoolers (milk/milk products, fruit/juice, grains and sweets) but differed in frequency of consumption by location. Among toddlers, milk/milk products were the most frequently consumed snacks at home (66%), while sweets were the top snacks consumed away from home (69%). Among preschoolers, sweets were the top snacks both at home (60%) and away (83%). Location is an important factor influencing snacking patterns of young children and should be considered when developing feeding guidelines. This data may be of use in the upcoming development of dietary guidelines in the U.S. for the population aged 0-2 years.

  10. Effects of Offering Look-Alike Products as Smart Snacks in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Hyary, Maia; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, USDA established nutrition standards for snack foods sold in schools. Many manufacturers reformulated products to meet these Smart Snacks standards, but continue to advertise unhealthy versions of the same brands. Furthermore, Smart Snack packaging often looks similar to less nutritious versions sold outside of schools (look-alike products). This practice may confuse consumers about the nutritional quality of Smart Snacks and raise concerns about schools selling them. An online experiment with 659 students (13-17 years) and 859 parents (children ages 10-13) was performed. Participants randomly viewed information about snacks sold at a hypothetical school, including (1) look-alike Smart Snacks; (2) existing store versions of the same brands; (3) repackaged Smart Snacks (highlighting differences versus unhealthy versions); or (4) consistent brands (i.e., Smart Snack versions also sold in stores). They then rated the individual snacks offered and the school selling them. As hypothesized, students and parents rated look-alike and store versions similarly in taste, healthfulness, and purchase intent, while considering repackaged Smart Snacks as healthier, but less tasty. Most participants also inaccurately believed they had seen look-alike products for sale in stores. Furthermore, they rated schools offering look-alike Smart Snacks and store versions as less concerned about students' health and well-being than schools in the other two conditions. The nutritional quality of snacks sold in schools has improved, but many Smart Snacks are virtually indistinguishable from less nutritious versions widely sold outside of schools. This practice likely benefits the brands, but may not improve children's overall diet and undermines schools' ability to teach good nutrition.

  11. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-10-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6-23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscuits using data from four Living Standards Measurement Studies (LSMS). Consumption of sugary snack foods increased with the child's age and household wealth, and was generally higher in urban vs. rural areas. In one-third of countries, >20% of infants 6-8 months consumed sugary snacks. Up to 75% of Asian children and 46% of African children consumed these foods in the second year of life. The proportion of children consuming sugary snack foods was generally higher than the proportion consuming fortified infant cereals, eggs or fruit. Household per capita daily expenditures on soft drinks ranged from $0.03 to $0.11 in three countries for which LSMS data were available, and from $0.01 to $0.04 on biscuits in two LSMS. Future surveys should include quantitative data on the purchase and consumption of snack foods by infants and young children, using consistent definitions and methods for identifying and categorising snack foods across surveys. Researchers should assess associations between snack food consumption and stunting and overweight, and characterise household, maternal and child characteristics associated with snack food consumption. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of high-protein vs. high- fat snacks on appetite control, satiety, and eating initiation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-09-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a high-protein afternoon yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake compared to other commonly-consumed, energy dense, high-fat snacks. Twenty, healthy women (age: 27 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed the randomized crossover design study which included 3, 8-h testing days comparing the following 160 kcal afternoon snacks: high-protein yogurt (14 g protein/25 g CHO/0 g fat); high-fat crackers (0 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat); and high-fat chocolate (2 g protein/19 g CHO/9 g fat). Participants were acclimated to each snack for 3 consecutive days. On day 4, the participants consumed a standardized breakfast and lunch; the respective snack was consumed 3-h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested. An ad libitum dinner was then provided. The consumption of the yogurt snack led to greater reductions in afternoon hunger vs. chocolate (p snack also delayed eating initiation by approximately 30 min compared to the chocolate snack (p snack led to approximately 100 fewer kcals consumed at dinner vs. the crackers (p = 0.08) and chocolate (p snacks, eating less energy dense, high-protein snacks like yogurt improves appetite control, satiety, and reduces subsequent food intake in healthy women.

  13. Responsiveness to healthy advertisements in adults: An experiment assessing beyond brand snack selection and the impact of restrained eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Torab, Tina; Yen, Dorothy; Boyland, E J; Halford, Jason C G

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different advertising messages on adults' snack choice. Eighty participants (18-24 years old) were offered the choice between two snack packs following exposure to one of three advertising conditions. The snack packs contained either healthy or high fat, sugar or salt (HFSS) foods. Participants were exposed to commercials containing either non-food products, healthy food products or HFSS food products and their subsequent choice of snack pack was recorded. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) was used to assess the impact of external, restrained and emotional eating behaviour on snack pack selection following exposure to advertisements. The majority of unrestrained participants preferentially choose the HFSS snack pack irrespective of advertisement condition. In contrast, high restrained individuals exposed to the healthy eating advertisement condition preferentially selected the healthy snack pack while those in other advertisement conditions refused to take either snack pack. The healthy eating message, when distributed through mass media, resonated with restrained eaters only. Exposure to healthy food adverts provoked restrained eaters into choosing a snack pack; while exposure to other messages results in restrained eaters refusing to take any foods. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  15. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  16. Peer influence on snacking behavior in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters; Rinie Geenen; Stef Kremers; Pieter Dagnelie; Junilla Larsen

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of adolescents' snack and soft drink consumption with friendship group snack and soft drink consumption, availability of snacks and soft drinks at school, and personal characteristics, snack and soft drink consumption was assessed in 749 adolescents (398 girls, 351 boys,

  17. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  18. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  19. 3-MCPD: A Worldwide Problem of Food Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrkiewicz, Renata; Kupska, Magdalena; Głowacz, Agnieszka; Gromadzka, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-25

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-induced food contaminant that has been widely investigated for decades. This paper presents an overview of current knowledge about 3-MCPD, including its formation routes, occurrence in various foodstuffs, analytical approach, toxicological aspects, and future research perspectives. So far, 3-MCPD was determined in its free and bound form in thermally treated foods, edible oils and fats, and infant foods including human breast milk. Contaminants in infant foods and human breast milk were highlighted in this paper as a serious problem as they can pose a potential hazard for infants. The analytical approach of 3-MCPD determination has been modified for over a decade. Nowadays, the method based on determining the derivative of this compound by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is widely used. However, there is still a big need for developing new methods that would produce repeatable results. Some of the toxicologic aspects associated with 3-MCPD still remain unknown. A number of studies on the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of 3-MCPD were carried out on rodents; however, no clinical studies on humans have been reported so far. Moreover, both detrimental effect on kidneys and antifertility activity have been widely reported. The knowledge of 3-MCPD absorption into body fluids and tissues and its metabolic pathways is based on sometimes conflicting data derived from different studies. In conclusion, although a lot of research has been carried out on 3-MCPD, there is still a need for further research in this area.

  20. Reasons for eating 'unhealthy' snacks in overweight and obese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleobury, L; Tapper, K

    2014-08-01

    Snack foods are often high in fat and sugar. Thus, reducing snack consumption may be a useful weight management strategy. However, individuals may snack for a variety of reasons with different implications for intervention. The present study examined the perceived reasons for eating main meals, 'unhealthy' snacks (i.e. snacks high in fat or sugar) and 'healthy' snacks in overweight and obese participants. Over a period of 5 days, 28 males and 27 females completed a food diary every time they ate. As well as providing details about the type of eating episode and food eaten, they also rated their agreement with 13 different reasons for eating (identified from relevant literature and a pilot study). Across a total of 1084 eating episodes, 358 were coded as snacks, 79% of which were high in either fat or sugar. The results showed that hunger and temptation (external eating) were reported as a reason for eating unhealthy snacks in 49% and 55% of all episodes, respectively. Eating because the individual was feeling fed up, bored or stressed (emotional eating) was given as a reason in 26% of episodes. These findings point to the potential utility of intervention strategies that target cravings, enhance self-control or promote stimulus control. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Snacks, beverages, vending machines, and school stores: a comparison of alternative and regular schools in Minnesota, 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Davey, Cynthia; MacLehose, Richard F; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    In US secondary schools, vending machines and school stores are a common source of low-nutrient, energy-dense snacks and beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat salty snacks, and candy. However, little is known about the prevalence of these food practices in alternative schools, which are educational settings for students at risk of academic failure due to truancy, school expulsion, and behavior problems. Nationwide, more than 5,000 alternative schools enroll about one-half million students who are disproportionately minority and low-income youth. Principal survey data from a cross-sectional sample of alternative (n=104) and regular (n=339) schools collected biennially from 2002-2008 as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Minnesota School Health Profiles were used to assess and compare food practice prevalence over time. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate prevalence, adjusting for school demographics. Over time, food practice prevalence decreased significantly for both alternative and regular schools, although declines were mostly modest. However, the decrease in high-fat, salty snacks was significantly less for alternative than regular schools (-22.9% vs -42.2%; Pvending machines and school stores in alternative schools than regular schools, which may contribute to increased snacking behavior among students and extra consumption of salt, fat, and sugar. Study findings support the need to include alternative schools in future efforts that aim to reform the school food environment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition Value Of Development Of Snack Cireng Cassava And Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Rochimiwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Snack are ready-made foods that are self-produced or purchased from sellers or merchants. Snack sellers can be found along the roadside in stalls cake shops around the crowded places like schools offices colleges and so on. The Ministry of Health 2014 states that snack is a given or consumed between two time of meals with an energy value of about 200 Kilocalories and 5 grams of protein. Whereas PMT-US standard Supplementary Feeding of School Children requires 200-300 kilocalories and 5-7 grams of protein. Snacks are sold around the school by unsettled and non-resident sellers in the school stalls or canteens. Various snacks are sold as rice noodles sweet corn fried tempe tofu fried foods meatballs bread cracker potatos jelly cooked rice noodles cimol cilok cireng biscuits milk iced tea iced juices etc Alfid TA Retno I Setho and Yohanes K Bastianus DR Anasari M 2013 The BPOM Food and Drug Supervisory Agency research in Alfid in 2003 stated that from 9465 samples 80 contain harmful ingredients. Snack also has a contribution in the fulfillment of daily nutrition that is energy amounted to 233.11 28.41 Kcal and protein at 6.21 1.39 gram Rachmawati HN 2013. This type of research is experimental with cireng manufacture from cassava and fish cassava cireng Fish and tapioca and cireng original made from tapioca flour. The study aims to determine the taste nutritional value and large of serving portions. The results were obtained for all three products The weighing 50 gram serving portion nutritional value has not reached the standard of the nutritional value of snacks. From the aspect of approaching cireng original flavor is cireng tapioca plus cassava and fish while cireng cassava and fish not like cireng original. It is advisable to develop or further modify in order to achieve nutritional standards of snack and as a healthy and safe snacks and the characteristics of cireng are not lost.

  3. 2006 marketplace survey of trans-fatty acid content of margarines and butters, cookies and snack cakes, and savory snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Matthew J; Harnack, Lisa J; Steffen, Lyn M; Jacobs, David R

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, newer technologies have been developed to reduce the trans-fat content of fats and oils used in manufacturing food products. To examine the implications of these changes on foods in the marketplace, a survey was conducted to assess current levels of trans and saturated fat in three food categories: margarines and butters; cookies and snack cakes; and savory snacks. A sampling of products from each category was conducted at a Wal-Mart Supercenter in the Minneapolis-St Paul, MN, metropolitan area in July of 2006. All information was obtained from product labels, except price, which was recorded from price listings on product shelving. Most margarines and butters (21 of 29), cookies and snack cakes (34 of 44), and savory snacks (31 of 40) were labeled as containing 0 g trans fat. However, some products contained substantial amounts of trans fat. Most notably, 3 of 40 savory snack products were labeled as containing > or =3 g trans fat. Significant inverse correlations were found between product price and the saturated and trans-fat content of margarines (r=-0.45) and savory snacks (r=-0.32). In conclusion, it appears that the food industry has made progress in reducing the trans-fat content in a variety of products. Nonetheless, consumers need to read product labels because the trans-fat content of individual products can vary considerably. Products that are lower in trans and saturated fat tend to cost more, which may be a barrier to their purchase for price-conscious consumers.

  4. Report card on school snack food policies among the United States' largest school districts in 2004–2005: Room for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivara Frederick P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Federal nutritional guidelines apply to school foods provided through the national school lunch and breakfast programs, but few federal regulations apply to other foods and drinks sold in schools (labeled "competitive foods", which are often high in calories, fat and sugar. Competitive food policies among school districts are increasingly viewed as an important modifiable factor in the school nutrition environment, particularly to address rising rates of childhood overweight. Congress passed legislation in 2004 requiring all school districts to develop a Wellness Policy that includes nutrition guidelines for competitive foods starting in 2006–2007. In addition, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recently published recommendations for schools to address childhood obesity. Methods Representatives of school districts with the largest student enrollment in each state and D.C. (N = 51 were interviewed in October-November 2004 about each school district's nutrition policies on "competitive foods." District policies were examined and compared to the Institute of Medicine's recommendations for schools to address childhood obesity. Information about state competitive food policies was accessed via the Internet, and through state and district contacts. Results The 51 districts accounted for 5.9 million students, representing 11% of US students. Nineteen of the 51 districts (39% had competitive food policies beyond state or federal requirements. The majority of these district policies (79% were adopted since 2002. School district policies varied in scope and requirements. Ten districts (53% set different standards by grade level. Most district policies had criteria for food and beverage content (74% and prohibited the sale of soda in all schools (63%; fewer policies restricted portion size of foods (53% or beverages (47%. Restrictions more often applied to vending machines (95%, cafeteria à la carte (79%, and student stores (79% than

  5. The addition of peanuts to habitual diets is associated with lower consumption of savory non-core snacks by men and sweet non-core snacks by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Jayne A; Stojanovski, Emilija; Moran, Lisa J; Howe, Peter R C; Coates, Alison M

    2017-05-01

    Snacking is associated with intakes of non-core foods which may predispose to obesity. Peanuts have potential satiety benefits and may assist with weight management; we hypothesized that peanut consumption would reduce intake of non-core snack foods due to compensation. We investigated the effects of adding peanuts to a habitual diet on snacking habits and energy intake. Sixty-one healthy participants (65±7years, body mass index 31±4kg/m 2 ) consumed their habitual diet with or without peanuts (56g/d for 32 women, 84g/d for 29 men) for 12weeks each in a randomized crossover design. Food diaries were analyzed at baseline and after each 12-week period for meal and snack content and timing. Total energy intake was higher (17% for men [PSnacking occasions increased during the peanut phase (53% for men [P=.001], 14% for women [P=.01]). Servings of other snack foods did not change during the peanut phase (P=.6) compared with control. However, sex-specific analysis revealed that men and women consumed less savory (Psnacks, respectively, during the peanut phase. Despite increased energy intake and snacking frequency, peanuts may improve the diet through sex-specific reductions of non-core foods; for optimal energy balance, peanuts should be substituted rather than added to the diet. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving snacking patterns in overweight Mexican American adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle school students are known to eat at times other than regular meals, preferring to snack between classes or after school. These eating episodes often include high calorie foods with little nutritional value. Assisting adolescents to alter these patterns may be beneficial for weight management....

  7. An afternoon snack of berries reduces subsequent energy intake compared to an isoenergetic confectionary snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Funnell, Mark P; Milner, Samantha

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies suggest that increased fruit and vegetable consumption can contribute to weight maintenance and facilitate weight loss when substituted for other energy dense foods. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of berries on acute appetite and energy intake. Twelve unrestrained pre-menopausal women (age 21 ± 2 y; BMI 26.6 ± 2.6 kg m(-2); body fat 23 ± 3%) completed a familiarisation trial and two randomised experimental trials. Subjects arrived in the evening (~5pm) and consumed an isoenergetic snack (65 kcal) of mixed berries (BERRY) or confectionary sweets (CONF). Sixty min later, subjects consumed a homogenous pasta test meal until voluntary satiation, and energy intake was quantified. Subjective appetite (hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption) was assessed throughout trials, and for 120 min after the test meal. Energy intake was less (Psnack (691 ± 146 kcal) than after the CONF snack (824 ± 172 kcal); whilst water consumption was similar (P=0.925). There were no trial (P>0.095) or interaction (P>0.351) effects for any subjective appetite ratings. Time taken to eat the BERRY snack (4.05 ± 1.12 min) was greater (Psnack (0.93 ± 0.33 min). This study demonstrates that substituting an afternoon confectionary snack with mixed berries decreased subsequent energy intake at dinner, but did not affect subjective appetite. This dietary strategy could represent a simple method for reducing daily energy intake and aiding weight management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A qualitative study of parents’ perceptions and use of portion size strategies for preschool children’s snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Ganter, Claudia; Younginer, Nicholas; Orloski, Alexandria; Blaine, Rachel E.; Bruton, Yasmeen; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increases in childhood obesity correspond with shifts in children’s snacking behaviors and food portion sizes. This study examined parents’ conceptualizations of portion size and the strategies they use to portion snacks in the context of preschool-aged children’s snacking. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with non-Hispanic white (W), African American (AA), and Hispanic (H) low-income parents (n=60) of preschool-aged children living in Philadelphia and Boston. The interview examined parents’ child snacking definitions, purposes, contexts, and frequency. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Coding matrices compared responses by race/ethnicity, parent education, and household food security status. Results Parents’ commonly referenced portion sizes when describing children’s snacks with phrases like “something small.” Snack portion sizes were guided by considerations including healthfulness, location, hunger, and timing. Six strategies for portioning snacks were presented including use of small containers, subdividing large portions, buying prepackaged snacks, use of hand measurement, measuring cups, scales, and letting children determine portion size. Differences in considerations and strategies were seen between race/ ethnic groups and by household food security status. Conclusions Low-income parents of preschool-aged children described a diverse set of considerations and strategies related to portion sizes of snack foods offered to their children. Future studies should examine how these considerations and strategies influence child dietary quality. PMID:25447008

  9. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. Objective: This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. Design: In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3–5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Results: Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218. PMID:23902783

  10. Iranian Female Adolescent's Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6(th) to 8(th) grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12-15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the "framework" method. Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account.

  11. Iranian Female Adolescent’s Views on Unhealthy Snacks Consumption: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, A; Omidvar, N; Bazargan3, M; Rashidian, A; Majdzadeh, R; Shojaeizadeh, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing prevalence of obesity among Iranian adolescents and the role of consumption of unhealthy snacks in this issue, interventions that focus on factors influencing food choice are needed. This study was designed to delineate factors associated with unhealthy snack use among female Iranian adolescents. Methods: The theory of Planned Behavior served as the framework of the study. Qualitative data were collected via nine focus group discussions in two middle schools (6th to 8th grades) in a socio-economically diverse district in the city of Tehran in spring 2008. The study sample included 90 female adolescents aged 12–15 years. The sampling strategy was purposive method. Data analyzed using the “framework” method. Results: Major factors identified by the respondents were taste, peer pressure, parental influence, easy access to unhealthy snacks, limited availability of healthy snacks, appeal of snacks, habit, high price of healthy snacks, and media advertisements. Nutritional value and healthiness was not one of the first priorities when buying snacks, as adolescents thought it was too early for them to worry about illness and adverse consequences of eating junk foods. Conclusions: For developing culturally sensitive evidence-based interventions that can motivate adolescents to choose healthy snacks, a broad range of factors should be taken into account. PMID:23113027

  12. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3-5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218.

  13. Sweetened Drink and Snacking Cues in Adolescents: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Shiffman, Saul; Baraldi, Amanda N.; MacKinnon, David P.; Lockhart, Ginger; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Boyle, Sarah; Beleva, Yuliyana; Koprowski, Carol; Ames, Susan L.; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify physical, social, and intrapersonal cues that were associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and sweet and salty snacks among adolescents from lower SES neighborhoods. Students were recruited from high schools with a minimum level of 25% free or reduced cost lunches. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, participants (N=158) were trained to answer brief questionnaires on handheld PDA devices: (a) each time they ate or drank, (b) when prompted randomly, and (c) once each evening. Data were collected over 7 days for each participant. Participants reported their location (e.g., school grounds, home), mood, social environment, activities (e.g., watching TV, texting), cravings, food cues (e.g., saw a snack), and food choices. Results showed that having unhealthy snacks or sweet drinks among adolescents was associated with being at school, being with friends, feeling lonely or bored, craving a drink or snack, and being exposed to food cues. Surprisingly, sweet drink consumption was associated with exercising. Watching TV was associated with consuming sweet snacks but not with salty snacks or sweet drinks. These findings identify important environmental and intrapersonal cues to poor snacking choices that may be applied to interventions designed to disrupt these food-related, cue-behavior linked habits. PMID:23583312

  14. Navigating the obesogenic environment : How psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F. Marijn; De Vet, Emely; Wardle, Jane; Chu, Maria T.; De Wit, John; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy

  15. Navigating the obesogenic environment: How psychological sensitivity to the food environment and self-regulatory competence are associated with adolescent unhealthy snacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wardle, J.; Chu, M.T.; Wit, J.B.F.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Living in an obesogenic environment may not affect all adolescents to the same extent, depending on their psychological sensitivity to the food environment and their self-regulatory competence. The purpose of the current study was to examine associations of these two factors with unhealthy

  16. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  17. Babies, soft drinks and snacks: a concern in low- and middle-income countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Sandra L; Piwoz, Ellen G; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition in infants and young children is a global health priority while overweight is an emerging issue. Small-scale studies in low- and middle-income countries have demonstrated consumption of sugary and savoury snack foods and soft drinks by young children. We assessed the proportion of children 6?23 months of age consuming sugary snack foods in 18 countries in Asia and Africa using data from selected Demographic and Health Surveys and household expenditures on soft drinks and biscui...

  18. Studies on the Utilization of Deboned Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Frames in Fish Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidharan, S.

    1999-01-01

    Snack food development studies were conducted to iii utilize trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) frames, a by-product of the filleting operation, using extrusion and conventional technology. Twin screw extrusion studies were conducted to study the effect of fish mince, non-fat dry milk, process temperature, and moisture content on the physicochemical properties of the extruded snack food. Response surfaces were plotted to understand the effects of the independent variables on dependent variables such...

  19. European food and nutrition policies in action. Finland's food and nutrition policy: progress, problems and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, N

    1998-01-01

    Some progress has clearly been made in several aspects of Finland's food and nutrition policy: access to nutrition information and education, improvements in mass catering, increased availability of healthier food products, and pricing and quality requirements favourable to a healthy diet. Finnish eating patterns have improved in relation to some recommended foods and macronutrients. The structural changes in farm and food production are largely the result of new political and economic realities both in Finland and internationally, resulting in the Government focusing on fiscal efficiency, decentralization and a more competitive, consumer-oriented market. This new environment is creating pressures to reduce surplus animal fat production and to expand markets in new foods for Finns and other Europeans who, for reasons of demography, health or working or living arrangements, demand new and sometimes healthier foods. Within this context, some health leaders have been able to make and work for proposals that are consistent both with political and economic imperatives and with health needs. Although the populations health status is improving and in some respects is exemplary, diet-related death and illness rates and risk factors (such as serum cholesterol and obesity) are high and their decline, along with some healthy changes in eating patterns, has slowed since the mid-1980s (ironically, since the adoption of the nutrition policy). The more slowly improvements occur, the higher will be the social and economic costs. Major problems in policy implementation exist. Although much has been done in research and demonstration and in the development of national guidelines (in public catering and labeling, for example) there is an apparent lag in translating such soft technology into action and monitoring its implementation in order to develop corrective measures at the operational level. This problem may increase with decentralized budget control and a less regulated market

  20. [Content analysis of television commercials for snacks and of snack packaging targeted at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-06-01

    To describe the marketing of snacks and beverages to children in television (TV) commercials and on food packages. Study 1: For 5 weeks from April 1 to May 7, 2007, TV commercials were recorded from one of five channels each week (Nihon, TBS, Fuji, Asahi, and Tokyo). Study 2: The energy values of the products advertised in the TV commercials analyzed in Study 1 were determined, along with whether marketing information (e.g., presents, campaigns, and URLs) was included on the packages. The data were shown in frequency tables, and a chi2 test was conducted to examine the relationship between the energy values of the products (under or over 200 kcal) and descriptions concerning consumption of the products presented in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others). Five hours and 18 minutes of food commercials and 2 hours and 57 minutes of snack commercials were obtained from the 105 hours of recordings. Of the food commercials, 55.7% were for snacks. Commercials that were repeated or that targeted adults were excluded, leaving 197 commercials for analysis. There were many beverage commercials, most often associating products with mood, such as having fun and good times. No relationship between the energy value of the products (under or over 200 kcal), and the description of consuming the product in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others) was found (chi2 (2) = 2.2, P = 0.33). A scene showing someone eating alone was the most common depiction for products with energy levels both under and over 200 kcal. The analysis of 164 snack packages showed that most gave URLs. Although the present study had several limitations, such as the relatively short research period, as the first to describe TV commercials for snacks and beverages in Japan it provides new insights. It is now necessary to understand the current state of commercials in other media, and to consider the content of nutrition education for the future, including media literacy

  1. Formative Evaluation to Increase Availability of Healthy Snacks and Beverages in Stores Near Schools in Two Rural Oregon Counties, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Findholt, Nancy E.; Pickus, Hayley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children living in rural areas are at greater risk for obesity than their urban counterparts. Differences in healthy food access may contribute to this disparity. Most healthy food access initiatives target stores in urban areas. We conducted a formative evaluation to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores near schools in rural Oregon. Methods We assessed availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores (n = 15) using the SNACZ (Students N...

  2. Price and Healthfulness of Snacks in 32 YMCA After-School Programs in 4 US Metropolitan Areas, 2006-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S.; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Wiecha, Jean L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. Methods We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was...

  3. Problems Of The Land Use And Food Supply In Bashkortostan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Ravilovich Galiev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the problems of food supply of the population of the region. Subject matter of the research is the relations developed in the conditions of economic reforms in the field of agrarian land use in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Purpose of the work is to develop recommendations on improvement of a situation of the food self-sufficiency and effective land use in Bashkortostan. The research is based on the dialectic approach and economic-mathematical method of the research. The results of the research testify the need of revision of such land features as an indispensability and not susceptibility to obsolescence in the conditions of further growth and development of scientific and technical progress to prevent a lag between our country and developed foreign countries in the theory of rural economics and practice of the food supply. At the differentiation of subsidies for 1 liter of milk and on 1 head of uterine livestock of breeding cattle (on 1 cow, an ewe, a goat as a correcting indicator, it is expedient to use the cadastral cost of the farmland as an integrated indicator reflecting fertility of arable and fodder grounds, an spareness, rockiness, a slope corner, transport availability or remoteness. Results of the research are applicable in the scientific and educational sphere, connected with the rural economics theory, and also in state bodies agriculture at the distribution of subsidies between market participants. Land is replaceable and worn-out means of production in agriculture, and also a basis for the enterprise placement. Ignoring of the remoteness of lands, the soil qualities, and technological properties leads to the state regulation of agriculture without including the nature efficiency of agrarian landscapes.

  4. Influence of product placement in children's movies on children's snack choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Matherne, Camden E; Bulik, Cynthia M; Howard, Janna B; Ravanbakht, Sophie N; Skinner, Asheley C; Wood, Charles T; Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Brown, Jane D; Perrin, Andrew J; Levine, Cary; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2017-07-01

    Media exposure affects health, including obesity risk. Children's movies often contain food placements-frequently unhealthy foods. However, it is not known if these cues influence children's food choices or consumption after viewing. We explored whether children's snack choices or consumption differs based on: 1) recent exposure to movies with high versus low product placement of unhealthy foods; and 2) children's weight status. Children ages 9-11 were assigned to watch a high ("Alvin and the Chipmunks," n = 54) or low ("Stuart Little," n = 60) product-placement movie. After viewing, participants selected a snack choice from each of five categories, several of which were specifically featured in "Alvin." Uneaten snacks from each participant were weighed upon completion. Snack choice and amount consumed by movie were compared by t-tests, and differences in snack choices by movie were tested with logistic regression. Participants consumed an average of 800.8 kcal; mean kcal eaten did not vary by movie watched. Participants who watched the high product-placement movie had 3.1 times the odds (95% CI 1.3-7.2) of choosing cheese balls (most featured snack) compared to participants who watched the low product-placement movie. Children who were overweight or obese consumed a mean of 857 kcal (95% CI: 789-925) compared to 783 kcal (95% CI: 742-823, p = 0.09) for children who were underweight or healthy weight. Children's weight status did not significantly affect their choice of snack. Branding and obesogenic messaging in children's movies influenced some choices that children made about snack foods immediately following viewing, especially food with greatest exposure time in the film, but did not affect total calories consumed. Future studies should examine how the accumulation of these messages affects children's long-term food choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The contribution of snacks to dietary intake and their association with eating location among Norwegian adults - results from a cross-sectional dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Jannicke B; Løken, Elin B; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-04-12

    Snack consumption has been reported to increase over recent decades. Little is known about possible associations between snack composition and snack eating location. In the present study, we aimed to describe the contribution of snacks to dietary intake in Norwegian adults and to investigate whether the composition of snacks differed according to where they were eaten. Dietary data were collected in 2010 and 2011 using two telephone administered 24 h recalls about four weeks apart. In total, 1787 participants aged 18-70 years completed two recalls. The recorded eating locations were at home, other private household, work/school, restaurant/cafe/fast-food outlet and travel/meeting. Snacks contributed to 17% and 21% of the energy intake in men and women, respectively. Compared with main meals, snacks had a higher fiber density (g/MJ) and contained a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates, added sugars and alcohol, while the percentages of energy from fat and protein were lower. The top five energy-contributing food groups from snacks were cakes, fruits, sugar/sweets, bread and alcoholic beverages. Snacks were mostly eaten at home (58% of all snacks) or at work/school (23% of all snacks). Snacks consumed at work/school contained less energy, had a higher percentage of energy from carbohydrates and had lower percentages of energy from added sugars, alcohol and fat than snacks consumed at home. Snacks consumed during visits to private households and at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets contained more energy, had a higher percentage of energy from fat and had a lower fiber density than snacks consumed at home. We conclude that snacks are an important part of the diet and involve the consumption of both favorable and less favorable foods. Snacks eaten at home or at work/school were generally healthier than snacks consumed during visits to other private households or at restaurants/cafe/fast-food outlets. Nutritional educators should recommend healthy snack

  6. [SNACK HIGH WHEY PROTEIN IMPROVES THE LEVEL OF SATIETY AND REDUCES APPETITE HEALTHY WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Nadia; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Mendoza, Laura; Urdaneta, Andrés; Artigas, Carlos; Reyna, Eduardo; Cámara Martos, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    the nutritional content and energy density of foods is related to greater control of appetite, satiety and reducing food intake. the randomized crossover study included 20 healthy women, aged 20 and 30 years with a BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2 and who completed that included 3 day trial comparing 8 hours 130 kcal snacks consumed afternoon: yoghurt with added whey protein (PSL), biscuits and chocolate. Participants consumed a standardized menu; snack was consumed 3 hours after lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were evaluated during the afternoon until dinner voluntary intake ad libitum. They repeat the same snack 3 times. consumption of yogurt with PSL led to a further reduction of appetite in the afternoon in front of the snack of chocolate and biscuits (p snack, yogurt there was a significant reduction in caloric intake compared to other snacks (p snacks with less energy density and rich in protein (yogurt with PSL) improve the control of appetite, satiety and reduces food intake in healthy women later. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p snack food portion sizes (p snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour.

  8. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  9. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  10. Secular Trends in Meal and Snack Patterns among Adolescents from 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-02-01

    Linkages between snack patterns, diet, and obesity in adolescents likely depend on the consumption of main meals, how often snacks are prepared away from home, and whether energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack foods and sugary drinks are frequently consumed. Nutrition-based interventions need to be informed by an understanding of how secular changes in the contribution of snacks to dietary intake may be related to changes in meal frequency as well as how these trends differ by sociodemographic characteristics. To examine secular trends from 1999 to 2010 in meal and snack patterns among adolescents. A repeated cross-sectional design was used. Participants from Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, secondary schools completed classroom-administered surveys and food frequency questionnaires in 1999 (n=2,598) and 2010 (n=2,540). Weekly meal frequencies; number of snacks consumed on school and vacation/weekend days; frequent consumption of snacks prepared away from home (≥3 times/week); and daily servings of energy-dense, nutrient-poor food/drinks that are commonly consumed at snack occasions. Trends from 1999 to 2010 were examined using inverse probability weighting to control for differences in sociodemographic characteristics in the two samples. Mean frequencies of breakfast and lunch increased modestly in the overall population (both P values snacks consumed on schools days (Psnacks prepared away from home, there was a secular decrease in energy-dense, nutrient-poor food/drink consumption (Psnack trends among adolescents suggests the need for targeted efforts to ensure public health messages reach low-income and ethnic/racial minority population subgroups most vulnerable to poor nutrition and the development of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consuming High-Protein Soy Snacks Affects Appetite Control, Satiety, and Diet Quality in Young People and Influences Select Aspects of Mood and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Todd, Chelsie B; Zino, Adam Z; Immel, Jordan E; Mukherjea, Ratna; Shafer, Rebecca S; Ortinau, Laura C; Braun, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    Data concerning the effects of afternoon snacking on ingestive behavior, mood, and cognition are limited. The purpose of this study was to compare 1088 kJ of high-protein (HP) or high-fat (HF) afternoon snacks vs. no snacking on appetite, food intake, mood, and cognition in adolescents. Thirty-one healthy adolescents (age: 17 ± 1 y) consumed the following afternoon snacks (in randomized order) for 3 d: HP snack (26 g of protein/6 g of fat per 27 g of carbohydrates), HF snack (4 g of protein/12 g of fat per 32 g of carbohydrates), and no snack (NoS). On day 4 of each treatment, the participants completed an 8-h testing day containing pre- and postsnack appetite questionnaires, food cue-stimulated functional MRI brain scans, mood, cognitive function, and eating initiation. Ad libitum dinner and evening snacks were provided and assessed. HP, but not HF, delayed eating initiation vs. NoS (P snacks reduced appetite vs. NoS (P snacks than NoS (P snacking, particularly on HP soy foods, improves appetite, satiety, and diet quality in adolescents, while beneficially influencing aspects of mood and cognition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01781286. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Peer influence on adolescent snacking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Hansen, Kathrine Nørgaard; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the research presented in this paper is 1) To explore peer influence and the social and symbolic meaning that adolescents (10 to 16 years) attach to snacks; and 2) to investigate the relative influence of peer influence compared to personal factors in explaining perceived...... importance of snack attributes; and 3) To investigate age and gender differences in the peer influence process. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey distributed via email was combined with follow-up focus groups including adolescents aged 10 to 16 years in Denmark. Findings – The survey results...... show that the youngest adolescents and the girls perceived the highest influence from peers, and that peer social influence has more effect on what adolescents perceive as important snack attributes as compared to more personal factors. The focus group results show that adolescents purchase and consume...

  14. Identification of Genetically Modified Foods - problems and unsolved questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan W.; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    One of the points in the discussion of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is the consumers’ right to choose between foods from GMO (GM-foods) and traditionally produced foods. This discussion has led to the EU regulation requiring labelling of GM food products made from GM plants. However, since...

  15. Relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Nongbua Khamsaen school, Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangpiansamut, Juthamas; Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Muktabhant, Benja; Inthalohit, Warangkana

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo province, Thailand in 2011. The subjects included 111 children (57 boys and 54 girls), aged 11 and 12 years, who were studying in grades 4 to 6 in the year 2011. The data were collected through questionnaires, interview, and oral examination. Results were obtained by means of descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Prevalence of dental caries in the children was 82.9% with the mean DMFT of 2.28. The dental caries prevalence in permanent and primary dentitions was 69.4% and 34.2%, respectively. About 10.2% of the children were underweight, 13.0% were obese, and 7.5% were stunting. Findings from the final multiple logistic regression models showed that weight-for-age malnutrition as well as eating sweets before bedtime were significantly related to dental caries in primary dentition, with the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) being 6.68 (1.57, 28.41) and 5.34 (1.60, 17.77), respectively. Family income was significantly related to permanent dental caries with the odds ratio (95% CI) being 9.60 (1.89, 48.59). Nutritional status is associated with dental caries among these elementary schoolchildren. Larger studies extending to cover other elementary schools in Na Klang district should be conducted so that the results will be representative of all elementary schools in Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo province.

  16. Is Field of Study or Location Associated with College Students' Snacking Patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. McArthur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare on- and off-campus snacking patterns among college students pursuing degrees in health-related fields (HRFs and nonhealth-related fields (NHRFs. Materials and Methods. Snack frequency questionnaire, scales measuring barriers, self-efficacy, and stage of change for healthy snacking, and a snack knowledge test (SKT. Participants. 513 students, 46% HRFs, and 54% NHRFs. The students' mean±SD BMI was 24.1±4.3 kg/m2 (range 14.6 to 43.8, and 32.2% were overweight/obese. Results. Softdrinks (on-campus, lowfat milk (off-campus, and sports drinks were popular among HRFs and NHRFs. Cost and availability were barriers to healthy snacking, students felt least confident to choose healthy snacks when emotionally upset, and 75% (65% of HRFs (NHRFs self-classified in the action stage of change for healthy snacking. The HRFs scored higher on the SKT. Conclusions. Neither location nor field of study strongly influenced snacking patterns, which featured few high-fiber foods.

  17. [A measure of the motives underlying snack selection among Japanese junior high school students: the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2007-02-01

    To develop a measure of the motives underlying snack selection by Japanese junior high school students and to examine the characteristics of each motivating factor. Self-reported questionnaires were distributed in a cross-sectional study of 1,936 students in public junior high schools in Tokyo, Japan. The respondents answered the Snack Choice Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), which assess overeating, snacking behavior, the food environment, lifestyle, and demographics. Twenty-two items of the SCQ were factor-analyzed using varimax rotation. Three factors were extracted and labeled "fashion and sales promotion," "convenience and taste," "health and weight control." All factors demonstrated a satisfactory Cronbach's alpha coefficient of over 0.80, and scores for both "fashion and sales promotion" (r= 0.349, Pfoods frequently had high scores for "fashion and sales promotion" and "convenience and taste" but not for "health and weight control." The factor "fashion and sales promotion" was related to more TV viewing (beta = 0.060, Pmotives underlying snack food selection in junior high-schools in Japan suggest a need for comprehensive nutrition education, along with a focus on media literacy and consumer education.

  18. Self-crafting vegetable snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; Kleef, van Ellen; Vet, de Emely

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al., 2012) – better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others – can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. Design/methodology/approach: A

  19. Suplementasi Tepung Putih Telur untuk Memperbaiki Nilai Nutrisi Snack Ekstrusi Berbahan Grits Jagung

    OpenAIRE

    Budiman, C; Wulandari, Z; Suryati, T

    2009-01-01

    Snack is popular for children and adult. It could be made by extrusion process. Snack is low in protein content because it is made up of cereal such as rice and corn. On the basis of nutritional and functional properties, egg was used in food industries. The objectives of the research were to analyze the nutrient content and in vitro digestibility of extruded snack from corn grits which was supplemented by egg white powder as a protein source. Randomized complete block design was used in this...

  20. Socio-economic status and urbanization are linked to snacks and obesity in adolescents in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruapula, Segametsi D; Jackson, Jose C; Holsten, Joanna; Shaibu, Sheila; Malete, Leapetswe; Wrotniak, Brian; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Mokone, George G; Stettler, Nicolas; Compher, Charlene

    2011-12-01

    To describe patterns of food consumption associated with overweight/obesity (OW/OB) and their links to socio-economic status (SES) and urbanization. A nationwide cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in cities, towns and villages in Botswana, Africa. A total of 746 adolescent schoolchildren. OW/OB is associated with greater SES, city residence and a snack-food diet pattern. Students belonging to higher SES compared with those from a lower SES background reported significantly (P snack foods (1·55 v. 0·76) and fewer servings of traditional diet foods (0·99 v. 1·68) and also reported that they ate meals outside the home more often (90% v. 72%). Students in cities ate significantly (P snacks (1·69 v. 1·05 v. 0·51) and fewer servings of traditional foods (0·67 v. 1·52 v. 1·61) compared with those in urban and rural villages. The odds of OW/OB were increased 1·16-fold with a snack-food diet, a result that was diminished when controlled for SES. These data suggest that nutritional transition occurs at different rates across urbanization and SES levels in Botswana. In cities, increasing the availability of fruit while reducing access to or portion sizes of snack items is important. Emphasis on continued intake of traditional foods may also be helpful as rural areas undergo economic and infrastructural development.

  1. Eating patterns and composition of meals and snacks in elite Canadian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Tunnicliffe, Jasmine; Lun, Victor M; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (<18 yr) ate less often, especially their morning snack, than the older athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.

  2. BCAA-enriched snack improves nutritional state of cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yutaka; Okita, Kiwamu; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Kato, Akinobu; Miwa, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Okuda, Hiroaki; Onji, Morikazu; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Kato, Shinzo; Kaito, Masahiko; Watanabe, Akiharu; Habu, Daiki; Ito, Susumu; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Kawamura, Naohiro; Arakawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-02-01

    A late evening snack improves the catabolic state in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. We tested whether long-term (3 mo) late evening snacking that included a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-enriched nutrient mixture produces a better nutritional state and better quality of life than ordinary food in patients with hepatitis C virus-positive liver cirrhosis. In a multicenter, randomized study, 48 patients with liver cirrhosis received late-evening supplementation with the BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture or ordinary food, such as a rice ball or bread, for 3 mo. During the study period, each patient was instructed on energy and protein intake. Blood biochemical data, nitrogen balance, respiratory quotient, and health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 questionnaire) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total and late-evening energy intakes were similar in the two groups at 3 mo. Serum albumin level, nitrogen balance, and respiratory quotient were significantly improved by the BCAA mixture but not by ordinary food. The parameters of the Short Form 36 did not statistically significantly improve over 3 mo in either group. Long-term oral supplementation with a BCAA mixture is better than ordinary food in a late evening snack at improving the serum albumin level and the energy metabolism in patients with cirrhosis.

  3. Television Viewing and Snacking Behaviors of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Schoolchildren in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Vader, Amanda M.; Walters, Scott T.; Harris, T. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. Methods ...

  4. HPA AXIS RESPONSE TO STRESS PREDICTS SHORT-TERM SNACK INTAKE IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...

  5. The effect of learning climate on snack consumption and ego depletion among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, Christian; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben

    2013-10-01

    We explored the effect of controlled and autonomous learning choices on the consumption of a high-energy snack food, and also examined whether snack consumption during a controlled choice learning activity could 'up-regulate' subsequent performance on a self-regulation task. Participants were randomly assigned to a controlled choice learning condition in which food was provided, a controlled choice learning condition in which food was not provided, or an autonomous choice learning condition in which food was provided. Results indicated that the autonomous choice group consumed significantly less snack food than the controlled-choice-and-food group. Participants in the autonomous choice condition also performed better on the subsequent self-regulation task than the controlled-choice-and-food group, even after controlling for the amount of food consumed. Furthermore, within the controlled-choice-and-food condition, there was no association between food consumption and subsequent self-regulation task performance. Discussion focuses on the potential impact of a controlled learning climate on snack food consumption and on the degradation of self-regulation capacities. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes: a population study in Chilean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Orellana, Yasna; Ivanovic, Daniza

    2015-08-01

    We examined the association between unhealthy snacking at school and academic outcomes in students from the Santiago Metropolitan Region (Chile). Cross-sectional population-based study. We measured the nutritional quality of snacks at school using an FFQ, and accounting for the amounts of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, and academic outcomes using national standardized test scores in Language and Mathematics. Multivariate regression analyses modelled the relationship between unhealthy snacking at school (exposure), potential confounders and performance in Mathematics and Language (outcomes). Random sample of 1073 students (13.1 (SD 2.3) years old) attending public, partially subsidized and private schools. Fifty-six per cent of students ate items at snack time that were high in fat, sugar, salt and energy, and thus were considered to have unhealthy snaking. Thirty-six per cent and 8% were considered to have poor-to-fair and healthy snacking, respectively. Unhealthy snacking significantly lowered the odds of good academic performance in both domains. Students having unhealthy snacks were 56% less likely to pass in Language (fully adjusted OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.23, 0.85) and 66% less likely to pass in Mathematics (fully adjusted OR = 0.34; 95% CI 0.19, 0.64) compared with students having healthy snack items. Schoolchildren eating unhealthy foods at snack time had worse academic performance in Language and Mathematics, as measured by a standardized test. Although association does not imply causation, these findings support the notion that academic and health-related behaviours are linked. More research is needed on the effect of school health programmes on educational outcomes.

  7. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE WORLD FOOD SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.

    2000-01-01

    Although world food and agricultural production, based on current trends, will be sufficient to meet demand in the decades ahead, the world still faces a serious food crisis, at least as perilous and life-threatening for millions of poor people as those of the past. To this end, the main objective of this paper is to illuminate the world food situation and to provide a critical analysis of the core causes of world food insecurity by identifying the various misconceptions surrounding our under...

  8. The effect of cassava and corn flour utilization on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava leaves snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Endrasari, R.; Oktaningrum, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    Cassava leaves are nutritious vegetable, but often regarded as an inferior commodity. One of the efforts increasing in the benefit of cassava leaves is through processing it into snack. In order to support the food diversification program and to reduce the dependence on imported commodities, the development of cassava leaves snack could be accompanied by optimizing the use of local materials to minimize the use of wheat flour. The aim of this assessment was to learn the effects of cassava and corn flour substitution on the physicochemical characteristics of cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of local flour (cassava and corn) on the snack production was carried on three levels at 15, 30, and 45%. A control treatment was using 100% wheat flour. The results showed that cassava and corn flour were potential to substitute wheat flour for making cassava-leaves snack. The substitution of cassava and corn flour as much as 45% was able to produce crispy products with a brighter color. The substitution of corn flour was resulting in snacks with the lower content of lipid than the other substitution snacks.

  9. Intellectual Nutrition for the Snack Food Junkie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    When writing projects have an authentic reader beyond the classroom teacher, students can see a direct connection between their lives and their literacy development. That connection is key to learning engagement and motivation. Using the inquiry model to teach technical writing is also important since students' lives outside school are filled…

  10. Household Food Insecurity and Children's Behaviour Problems: New Evidence from a Trajectories-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between household food insecurity (insufficient access to adequate and nutritious food) and trajectories of externalising and internalising behaviour problems in children from kindergarten to fifth grade using longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally representative study in the USA. Household food insecurity was assessed using the eighteen-item standard food security scale, and children's behaviour problems were reported by teachers. Latent growth curve analysis was conducted on 7,348 children in the ECLS-K, separately for boys and girls. Following adjustment for an extensive array of confounding variables, results suggest that food insecurity generally was not associated with developmental change in children's behaviour problems. The impact of food insecurity on behaviour problems may be episodic or interact with certain developmental stages. PMID:27559210

  11. Effects of a healthier snack on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c): a 6-week intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Rush, Elaine C

    2016-12-01

    Dietary behaviour modification may change eating habits and reduce the impact of poor nutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a healthier snack bar on snacking habits and glycated Hb (HbA1c) within a 6-week intervention. In all, twenty-eight participants were randomly allocated to two groups to either consume the bars as the main snack for 6 weeks (n 14) or receipt of the bars was delayed for 6 weeks (n 14) following a stepped-wedge design. All participants had HbA1c concentrations measured at weeks -1, 0, 4, 6, 10 and 12. A short dietary habits questionnaire was self-completed at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Participants consumed the bars they received instead of other snacks, and found that the healthier snack bar was acceptable as part of their daily dietary pattern. Over the 12 weeks, there was a significant reduction in intake of biscuits, cakes and pies (approximately 2 servings/week, Psnack intervention and a trend towards a favourable effect on glucose homoeostasis. Habitual snacking behaviour has the potential to be improved through changes in the food supply, and in the longer term may reduce the impact of poor nutrition on public health.

  12. Nutritional assessment for primary school children in tehran: an evaluation of dietary pattern with emphasis on snacks and meals consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Dadkhah-Piraghaj, Monireh; Abtahi, Mitra; Abdollahi, Morteza; Houshiarrad, Anahita; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    In order to provide better advice for prevention of obesity and eating disorders among children, there is a need to have more knowledge of their dietary patterns. This study examined meal and snacking patterns of primary school children in Tehran. A total of 761 male and female primary school children from all educational areas in Tehran were recruited in a cross-sectional survey. The data was collected by interviewing the students and their mothers or caregivers. Information on food consumption patterns was collected by one 24-h-recall and one snack-oriented food frequency questionnaire which covered a period of 1 month. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, percentages, energy and nutrient analyzes and nutrient densities were reported. All of the students snacked at least once on the day of the survey. Snacks provided 38% of total energy intake by the students. Fruits and sweet snacks were consumed by almost all of the students during a week. Energy and most nutrient intakes from meals were greater than those consumed from snacks. Snacks had a higher density of fiber, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamin C, riboflavin and thiamin and had a lower density of protein, fat and niacin, compared with main meals. Salty snacks such as extruded cheese curls (Cheetos) and chips were not consumed so often. Results provide detailed information about dietary patterns, which in turn enable development of targeted messages and/or interventions to improve nutritional status of school children.

  13. Formative Evaluation to Increase Availability of Healthy Snacks and Beverages in Stores Near Schools in Two Rural Oregon Counties, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Betty T; Findholt, Nancy E; Pickus, Hayley A

    2015-12-03

    Children living in rural areas are at greater risk for obesity than their urban counterparts. Differences in healthy food access may contribute to this disparity. Most healthy food access initiatives target stores in urban areas. We conducted a formative evaluation to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores near schools in rural Oregon. We assessed availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores (n = 15) using the SNACZ (Students Now Advocating to Create Healthy Snacking Zones) checklist and conducted in-depth interviews with food store owners (n = 6). Frequency distributions were computed for SNACZ checklist items, and interview data were analyzed by using applied thematic analysis. Overall, availability of healthy snacks and beverages in study communities was low. Four interrelated themes regarding store owner perspectives on stocking healthy snacks and beverages emerged from the interviews: customer demand, space constraints, vendor influence, and perishability. In addition to working with food store owners, efforts to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in rural areas should engage young people, food buyers (eg, schools), and vendors as stakeholders for identifying strategies to increase demand for and availability of these items. Further research will be needed to determine which strategies or combinations of strategies are feasible to implement in the study communities.

  14. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is “snack” food. Snack food is made with twin corotating screw extruders, in which raw materials are submitted to high temperatures and short time, with intensive expansion and rapid pressure drop. For the production of this category of food products, basic ingredients like corn, wheat, rye and rice, with the maximum of 9 % of proteins, are used. With the development of extrusion technology, special attention is focused on the enrichment of extruded products with different types of proteins, including proteins. In this paper, review of the newest research and achievements in embedding various types of whey concentrates in snack food will be represented. This category of food products for direct consummation is constantly increasing, and addition of whey protein concentrate adds better nutritional value and increased functionality.

  15. Snacks, sweetened beverages, added sugars, and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concern over childhood obesity has generated a decade-long reformation of school nutrition policies. Food is available in school in 3 venues: federally sponsored school meal programs; items sold in competition to school meals, such as a la carte, vending machines, and school stores; and foods available in myriad informal settings, including packed meals and snacks, bake sales, fundraisers, sports booster sales, in-class parties, or other school celebrations. High-energy, low-nutrient beverages, in particular, contribute substantial calories, but little nutrient content, to a student's diet. In 2004, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that sweetened drinks be replaced in school by water, white and flavored milks, or 100% fruit and vegetable beverages. Since then, school nutrition has undergone a significant transformation. Federal, state, and local regulations and policies, along with alternative products developed by industry, have helped decrease the availability of nutrient-poor foods and beverages in school. However, regular access to foods of high energy and low quality remains a school issue, much of it attributable to students, parents, and staff. Pediatricians, aligning with experts on child nutrition, are in a position to offer a perspective promoting nutrient-rich foods within calorie guidelines to improve those foods brought into or sold in schools. A positive emphasis on nutritional value, variety, appropriate portion, and encouragement for a steady improvement in quality will be a more effective approach for improving nutrition and health than simply advocating for the elimination of added sugars. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Daya Terima Proporsi Kacang Hijau (Phaseolus Radiata L) Dan Bekatul (Rice Bran) Terhadap Kandungan Serat Pada Snack Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Pricilya, Vyatri; Wirjatmadi, Bambang; Andriani, Merryana

    2015-01-01

    Snack bar is a product made from cereal and nuts that usually consumed between meals. Commercial snack bar contains energy, protein, and fiber. The fiber content in it is usually 1 gram per 25 grams serving. The fiber content is relatively low because food categorized as high fi ber if it has 5 grams per 100 gram products. Therefore, a new innovation to improve its fi ber content is required. Green bean and rice bran are type of food with high fiber content that possible to be added in snack bar. T...

  17. DAYA TERIMA PROPORSI KACANG HIJAU (PHASEOLUS RADIATA L) DAN BEKATUL (RICE BRAN) TERHADAP KANDUNGAN SERAT PADA SNACK BAR

    OpenAIRE

    Pricilya, Vyatri; Wirjatmadi, Bambang; Andriani, Merryana

    2017-01-01

    Snack bar is a product made from cereal and nuts that usually consumed between meals. Commercial snack bar contains energy, protein, and fiber. The fiber content in it is usually 1 gram per 25 grams serving. The fiber content is relatively low because food categorized as high fi ber if it has 5 grams per 100 gram products. Therefore, a new innovation to improve its fi ber content is required. Green bean and rice bran are type of food with high fiber content that possible to be added in snack bar. T...

  18. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  19. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 ± 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 ± 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 ± 62.8 kcal, p snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SNACK BAR TINGGI SERAT BERBASIS TEPUNG AMPAS TAHU (OKARA DAN TEPUNG UBI UNGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Rachmayani 1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced dietary consumption, lack of dietary fiber intake and low physical activity could lead to excessive nutrients resulting in obesity. This research aims to create high-fiber snack food in the form of snack bar made from pulp of tofu flour (okara, purple sweet potato flour, and cornstarch. The experimental design was a complete factorial randomized design with two variables and two replications. Two variables tested were the ratio between purple sweet potato flour and cornstarch of 1:1 and 1:2 (w/w, and the addition okara of 20, 25, and 30%. As a control, a snack bar was made from wheat flour. The analysis performed include sensory and physicochemical analysis. The recommended high-fiber healthy snack bar was the snack bar made from 20% okara, with a ratio of purple sweet potato flour to cornstarch of 1:2 (w/w. This snack bar had a sensory score of 4.31 on the overall attribute which means neutral. The anthocyanin level of the cookies was 1.97 mg/100 g (db and dietary fiber level was 13.87% (db, therefore they can be categorized as high fiber okara food according to the head of BPOM regulation number HK 03.1.23.11.11.09909 year 2011.

  1. Food insecurity and mental health problems among a community sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Laura; Lioret, Sandrine; van der Waerden, Judith; Fombonne, Éric; Falissard, Bruno; Melchior, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Food insecurity has been found to be related to anxiety and depression; however, the association with other psychiatric disorders, particularly among young adults, is not well known. We examined whether food insecurity is independently associated with four common mental health problems among a community sample of young adults in France. Data are from the TEMPO longitudinal cohort study. In 1991, participants' parents provided information on health and family socioeconomic characteristics. In 2011, participants' (18-35 years) reported food insecurity, mental health symptoms, and socioeconomic conditions (n = 1214). Mental health problems ascertained included major depressive episode, suicidal ideation, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and substance abuse and/or dependence (nicotine, alcohol and cannabis). Cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and mental health problems were tested using modified Poisson regressions, weighted by inverse probability weights (IPW) of exposure. This makes food insecure and not food insecure participants comparable on all characteristics including socioeconomic factors and past mental health problems. 8.5 % of young adults were food insecure. In IPW-controlled analyses, food insecurity was associated with increased levels of depression (RR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.01-4.02), suicidal ideation (RR = 3.23, 95 % CI 1.55-6.75) and substance use problems (RR = 1.68, 95 % CI 1.15-2.46). Food insecurity co-occurs with depression, suicidal ideation and substance use problems in young adulthood. Our findings suggest that reductions in food insecurity during this important life period may help prevent mental health problems. Policies aiming to alleviate food insecurity should also address individuals' psychiatric problems, to prevent a lifelong vicious circle of poor mental health and low socioeconomic attainment.

  2. The Impact of Removing Snacks of Low Nutritional Value from Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B.; Novak, Sarah A.; Fiore, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    Removing low nutrition snacks from schools is controversial. Although the objective is to decrease the consumption of these foods at school, some critics argue that children will compensate by eating more of these foods at home. Others worry that school-based obesity prevention programs will increase student preoccupation with weight. The present…

  3. Television viewing and snacking behaviors of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, Amanda M; Walters, Scott T; Harris, T Robert; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2009-07-01

    Child and adolescent overweight is a serious health issue. Both snacking and television watching have been associated with childhood overweight, but the relationships have not been well examined in a multiethnic population. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between weekday television viewing, snack consumption, consumption of foods advertised on television, and overweight status of a multiethnic sample of fourth- and eighth-grade schoolchildren in Texas. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition monitoring system, a validated survey with objective measures of height and weight. The sample of 11,594 children in the fourth and eighth grades was weighted to provide data representative of children in Texas public schools. Children were categorized on the basis of self-reported daily television viewing, snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze, by grade level, the differences in the prevalence of overweight by category. Television viewing, frequency of snack consumption, and consumption of foods advertised on television were all positively related to one another. In general, both consuming more snacks and foods advertised on television were associated with reduced odds of overweight regardless of the amount of television watched. The results suggest that the relationships between weekday snacking behaviors and television viewing in a multiethnic population are complicated. When these behaviors are clustered, overweight status may be related more to the number of snacks consumed than to the amount of television watched. To determine the exact relationship, additional research, especially among Hispanic children, is warranted.

  4. China's new problems of food security revealed by the Food Equivalent Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilong LIN,Ruichao LI,Cangyu JIN,Chong WANG,Maohong WEI,Jizhou REN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available China's food security has a great influence on the world, and has always been the top priority in China. In recent years, as the concept of food security is evolving into one of nutrition security and the importance of food diversity is increasing, research based on nutrition security and broad food systems are increasingly needed in today's China. Thus, not only grain for human consumption, but also animal foods have been integrated into the Food Equivalent, which is used to analyze China's current agriculture system and reveal the water resource distribution. The results indicated that the average animal food consumption has risen by 78.6%, and now China's daily supply of animal food per capita has reached about 50% of that in the USA and 80% of that in the South Korea. So there exist an obvious disparity in animal food supply between China and these two countries. It is impossible for the China's current agricultural system to achieve the level in the USA. Under China's current agricultural system, the consumption proportion of feed grain had surpassed the consumption of food grain, increased sharply from 33% in 1992 to 67% in 2011. However, the growth potential of total grain output is approaching an upper limit, so the continued growth of feed grain demand exerts great pressure on the China's food supply. The discordance of the spatial distribution of water resource and virtual water revealed that China's current agriculture system had a low efficiency in being able to achieve food and nutrition security. China's current "grain farming" cannot meet the demand of increasing nutrition and appropriate resource utilization. The implementation of grassland agriculture appears feasible and necessary for saving feed grain, providing a large number of high-quality animal foods and appropriate water resource utilization.

  5. Eating on nightshift: A big vs small snack impairs glucose response to breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Centofanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes. Food choice may play a role, however simply eating at night when the body is primed for sleep may have implications for health. This study examined the impact of consuming a big versus small snack at night on glucose metabolism. N = 31 healthy subjects (21–35 y; 18 F participated in a simulated nightshift laboratory study that included one baseline night of sleep (22:00 h-07:00 h and one night awake with allocation to either a big snack (2100 kJ or small snack (840 kJ group. The snack was consumed between 00:00–00:30 h and consisted of low fat milk, a sandwich, chips and fruit (big snack or half sandwich and fruit (small snack. Subjects ate an identical mixed meal breakfast (2100 kJ at 08:30 h after one full night of sleep and a simulated nightshift. Interstitial glucose was measured continuously during the entire study using Medtronic Continual Glucose Monitors. Only subjects with identical breakfast consumption and complete datasets were analysed (N = 20. Glucose data were averaged into 5-minute bins and area under the curve (AUC was calculated for 90 min post-breakfast. Pre-breakfast, glucose levels were not significantly different between Day1 and Day2, nor were they different between snack groups (p > 0.05. A snack group by day interaction effect was found (F1,16 = 5.36, p = 0.034 and post-hocs revealed that in the big snack group, AUC response to breakfast was significantly higher following nightshift (Day2 compared to Day1 (p = 0.001. This translated to a 20.8% (SEM 5.6 increase. AUC was not significantly different between days in the small snack group. Consuming a big snack at 00:00 h impaired the glucose response to breakfast at 08:30 h, compared to a smaller snack. Further research in this area will inform dietary advice for shift workers, which could include recommendations on how much to eat as well as content.

  6. Problems of Rural Food Safety and Strategies of Constructing Supervision System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper expounds the practical necessity of constructing diversified rural food safety supervision system as follows: it is the necessary requirements of guaranteeing people’s health and life safety; it is an important component of governmental function of social management and the logical extension of administrative responsibilities; it is the basis of maintaining order of rural society and constructing harmonious society. The main problems existing in the supervision of rural food safety are analyzed as follows: first, the legislative work of rural food safety lags behind to some extent; second, the supervision of governmental departments on rural food safety is insufficient; third, the industrial supervision mechanism of rural food security is not perfect; fourth, the role of rural social organizations in supervising food safety is limited; fifth, the farmers’ awareness of food safety supervision is not strong. Based on these problems, the targeted strategies of constructing diversified rural food safety supervision system are put forward as follows: accelerate the legislation of rural food safety, and ensure that there are laws to go by; give play to the dominant role of government, and strengthen administrative supervision on rural food safety; perfect industrial convention of rural food safety, and improve industrial supervision mechanism; actively support the fostering of social organizations, and give play to the role of supervision of organizations; cultivate correct concept of rights and obligations of farmers, and form awareness of food safety supervision.

  7. Distal and proximal predictors of snacking at work: A daily-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Pundt, Alexander; Venz, Laura

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive. The health motive, in turn, predicted consuming more fruits and more cereal bars and less sweet snacks; the affect-regulation motive predicted consuming more sweet snacks. Findings highlight the importance of a health-promoting eating climate within the organization and point to the potential harm of high self-control demands at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Statistical problems raised by data processing of food surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourly, Nancy

    1974-01-01

    The methods used for the analysis of dietary habits of national populations - food surveys - have been studied. S. Lederman's linear model for the estimation of the average individual consumptions from the total family diets was in the light of a food survey carried on with 250 Roman families in 1969. An important bias in the estimates thus obtained was shown out by a simulation assuming 'housewife's dictatorship'; these assumptions should contribute to set up an unbiased model. Several techniques of multidimensional analysis were therefore used and the theoretical aspect of linear regression for some particular situations had to be investigated: quasi-colinear 'independent variables', measurements with errors, positive constraints on regression coefficients. A new survey methodology was developed taking account of the new 'Integrated Information Systems', which have incidence on all the stages of a consumption survey: organization, data collection, constitution of an information bank and data processing. (author) [fr

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Taste Receptor Genes Are Associated with Snacking Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children in the Guelph Family Health Study: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Chamoun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers’ diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables. This study seeks to determine the cross-sectional associations between three taste receptor SNPs and snacking patterns among preschoolers in the Guelph Family Health Study. Preschoolers’ snack quality, quantity, and frequency were assessed using three-day food records and saliva was collected for SNP genotyping (n = 47. Children with the TT genotype in TAS1R2 consumed snacks with significantly more calories from sugar, and these snacks were consumed mostly in the evening. Total energy density of snacks was highest in the CC and CG genotypes compared to the GG genotype in TAS2R38, and also greater in the AA genotype in CD36 compared to G allele carriers, however this difference was not individually attributable to energy from fat, carbohydrates, sugar, or protein. Genetic variation in taste receptors may influence snacking patterns of preschoolers.

  10. A randomized, controlled, crossover study of appetite-related sensations after consuming snacks made from buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defries, Danielle M; Petkau, Jay C; Gregor, Terri; Blewett, Heather

    2018-02-01

    With the rising incidence of overweight and obesity in developed countries, there is an interest in developing food products that may aid in satiety and reduce energy intake. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a gluten-free edible seed that has been previously shown to induce changes in postprandial concentrations of satiety hormones; however, subjective measures of appetite-related sensations and objective measures of energy intake at subsequent meals following buckwheat consumption have not been measured. Thirty-eight healthy adults were recruited to participate in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial with the main objective to determine if consuming snacks made from buckwheat would increase satiety and reduce energy intake compared with snacks comparable in serving size, physical characteristics, and nutrient composition. Water was included as a no-kilocalorie control. Participants received each of the treatments once separated by at least 7 days. Appetite related sensations were assessed using visual analog scales at fasting and after consuming the snack at 30-min intervals for 180 min. Lunch was provided at the clinic and the amount of food consumed was weighed. Participants recorded food intake for the rest of the day. Consuming buckwheat groats (32 g serving; 141 kcal) or pita bread made from buckwheat flour (50 g serving; 135 kcal) was not associated with changes in appetite related sensations or energy consumption compared with reference snack products made from corn or rice flour. Sensory questionnaires revealed that snacks made from buckwheat were liked to a similar degree or more as reference snack products, which shows commercial promise for developing buckwheat-containing snacks.

  11. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  12. BUSINESS CLIMATE OF FOOD FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PROBLEMS FACED BY FOOD MANUFACTURERS, WHOLESALERS, RETAILERS AND SERVICE INSTITUTIONS IN NEW JERSEY

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.; Tank, Karen Rose; Schilling, Brian J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the problems facing food firms using information from focus groups of industry executives from New Jersey. The leading problems for food manufacturers are related to regulation, taxation, economic development, and high business costs. For food wholesalers the leading problems are transportation, regulation, labor quality, training and education, and public relations. Food retailers cite litigation and liability, high business costs, regulation, and insurance costs as leadi...

  13. The impact of coaches providing healthy snacks at junior sport training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belski, Regina; Staley, Kiera; Keenan, Stephen; Skiadopoulos, Anne; Randle, Erica; Donaldson, Alex; O'Halloran, Paul; Kappelides, Pam; O'Neil, Stacey; Nicholson, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Sports clubs provide an opportunity to tackle childhood obesity rates through targeted interventions. Our study aimed to investigate if coaches providing healthy snacks to participants before junior netball sessions at five clubs in Melbourne, Australia, increased consumption of healthy foods and influenced coach perceptions of participants' attention/participation levels. Coaches provided healthy snacks to participants before each netball session for one school term. Children's food consumption was observed at one session before, during and after the intervention. Parents attending the observed session completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Coaches rated participants' attention/participation at the observed sessions before and during the intervention, and completed a questionnaire post-intervention. Baseline: Ice cream and cake were the most frequently consumed snacks. During intervention: Fruit, cheese and crackers and vegetables were the most frequently consumed snacks. Coaches ratings of participants' attention/participation increased significantly (baseline: 6.4 ± 0.17, intervention: 7.5 ± 0.36; p=0.02) where the same coach undertook ratings at both time points. Coaches providing healthy snacks before sessions at sports clubs increased consumption of nutrient-dense foods at the session, and may have positively affected participants' attention/participation. Implications for public health: This study highlights how a simple intervention could improve the diet of Australian children. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. A Food Chain Algorithm for Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Recycling in Reverse Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Gao, Xuexia; Santos, Emmanuel T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces the capacitated vehicle routing problem with recycling in reverse logistics, and designs a food chain algorithm for it. Some illustrative examples are selected to conduct simulation and comparison. Numerical results show that the performance of the food chain algorithm is better than the genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization as well as quantum evolutionary algorithm.

  15. Supply chain management problems in the food processing industry: Implications for business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Nguegan Nguegan

    2017-11-01

    Contribution or value-add: Practically, the study enables supply chain professionals in the food processing industry to understand the sources of problems and use this information to develop solutions for the improvement of business performance. Theoretically, the study endorses the view that part of the key to resolving business performance complications in the food processing industry involves streamlining supply chain management by resolving its identifiable problems.

  16. Is Living near Healthier Food Stores Associated with Better Food Intake in Regional Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayyed, Hamid; Kelly, Bridget; Feng, Xiaoqi; Flood, Victoria

    2017-08-07

    High prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases is a global public health problem, in which the quality of food environments is thought to play an important role. Current scientific evidence is not consistent regarding the impact of food environments on diet. The relationship between local food environments and diet quality was assessed across 10 Australian suburbs, using Australian-based indices devised to measure the two parameters. Data of dietary habits from the participants was gathered using a short questionnaire. The suburbs' Food Environment Score (higher being healthier) was associated with higher consumption of fruit (χ² (40, 230) = 58.8, p = 0.04), and vegetables (χ² (40, 230) = 81.3, p = 0.03). The Food Environment Score identified a significant positive correlation with four of the diet scores: individual total diet score (r s = 0.30, p food score (r s = 0.15, p Food Environment Index, higher being unhealthier) showed a significant association with higher consumption of salty snacks (χ² (24, 230) = 43.9, p = 0.04). Food environments dominated by food outlets considered as 'healthier' were associated with healthier population food intakes, as indicated by a higher consumption of fruit, vegetables, and water, as well as a lower consumption of junk food, salty snacks, and sugary drinks. This association suggests that healthier diet quality is associated with healthier food environments in regional Australia.

  17. Loss and waste in the food supply chain: an introduction to the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stępień

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of food waste is particularly relevant in the twenty-first century. According to the data from the Food Banks, 1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year around the world. This represents a third of the total food production. In Europe, there are almost 100 million tonnes and in Poland there are some 9 million tonnes per annum (Food Banks 2016. The data on Europe do not include losses in agriculture and fisheries, which, in fact, make this figure much higher. However, the scale of waste in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia is much lower and there is a chronic problem of malnutrition and even starvation. As reported by UNICEF, malnutrition is the cause of death of over 5 million children annually (UNICEF 2016. It is therefore necessary to develop strategies to effectively combat this phenomenon. Such attempts are taken by the European Union, which pays attention to the problem in the strategy ‘Europe 2020’. In 2011, the European Parliament adopted a resolution ‘How to avoid food waste: a strategy for improving the efficiency of the food chain in the EU’. At the same time a large part of the EU population (including Poles declare that they are not aware of the situation, do not notice information campaigns and programmes that aim to reduce food waste. Struggle with this twenty-first century problem should therefore start from building attitudes and awareness of individual households and firms engaged in food production and distribution. The purpose of this article is to point to the problem of food waste, its causes and manifestations, and to identify possible strategies to combat this phenomenon. Research methods used in this work include a critical literature analysis and meta-analysis with elements of deductive reasoning based on available literature and reports.

  18. Acrylamide in deep-fried snacks of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide content in deep-fried snacks from 20 different production sites of South Indian province of Kerala (80 samples representing 4 important product categories) were determined using a modified high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD) method. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 1.04 and 3.17 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged between 90% and 103%, which shows good extraction efficiency. Acrylamide concentrations in the four groups of snacks ranged from 82.0 to 4245.6 µg/kg for potato chips, 46.2-2431.4 µg/kg for jack chips, 24.8-1959.8 µg/kg for sweet plantain chips and 14.7-1690.5 µg/kg for plantain chips. These are the most widely consumed snacks in South India, and the results revealed reasonable levels of acrylamide in these foods, which indicated the general risk of consumer exposure.

  19. Personal and situational predictors of everyday snacking: An application of temporal self-regulation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliston, Katherine G; Ferguson, Stuart G; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation. A mixed event-based and time-based (Ecological Momentary Assessment) study in 61 adults aged between 18 and 64, with a BMI range between 18.34 and 39.78 (M = 25.66, SD = 4.82) over two weeks. Participants recorded their food and drink intake for two weeks in real time using electronic diaries. Participants also responded to non-consumption assessments at random intervals throughout each day. Momentary cues (individual, situational, and environmental factors) were assessed both during food logs and non-consumption assessments. Motivational factors, past behaviour, and trait self-regulation were assessed during baseline. Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that across all snack types, environmental cues and negative affect were associated with an increased likelihood of snacking. Perceiving a cost of healthy eating to occur before eating was associated with an increased likelihood of snacking, whereas intentions and self-regulation were not. Discretionary food intake is largely guided by momentary cues, and motivational-level factors, such as intention and self-regulation, are less important in the initiation of discretionary food intake. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Overweight and obesity are a result of prolonged periods of energy imbalance between energy intake and expenditure (Hill & Peters, ). One of the key behavioural determinants of energy imbalances results from food intake

  20. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  1. Emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and young adults with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A; Van Lieshout, R J; Ohayon, J; Scott, J G

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents with food allergy have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared with their nonallergic counterparts; however, few studies have prospectively examined the mental health of adolescents and young adults in this vulnerable population. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in an epidemiological sample of adolescents and young adults with food allergy; determine whether food allergy is associated with adolescent and maternal reports of such problems; and examine the patterns of change in emotional and behavioral problems from adolescence to young adulthood among individuals with and without food allergy. Data came from 1303 participants at 14 and 21 years of age in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using self- and maternal-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Maternal, but not self-reports suggested that emotional and behavioral problems were higher among adolescents with food allergy. Food allergy was associated with increased odds of elevated levels of maternal-reported symptoms of depression [OR = 4.50 (1.83, 11.07)], anxiety [OR = 2.68 (1.12, 6.44)], and ADHD [OR = 3.14 (1.07, 9.19)] in adolescence. Food allergy was also associated with depressive symptoms that persisted from adolescence to young adulthood [OR = 2.05 (1.04, 4.03)]. Emotional and behavioral problems, particularly symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD, are common among adolescents with food allergy in the general population and, in the case of elevated levels of depressive symptoms, persist into young adulthood. Healthcare professionals should seek adolescent and parental perspectives when assessing emotional and behavioral problems and monitor mental health during the transition to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A medium-term intervention study on the impact of high- and low-fat snacks varying in sweetness and fat content: large shifts in daily fat intake but good compensation for daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, C L; Delargy, H J; Smith, F C; Hamilton, V; Blundell, J E

    1998-08-01

    Thirty-six normal-weight, habitual snackers (eighteen males, eighteen females) completed a medium-term intervention study designed to examine the tendency of four different types of snacks, varying in nutrient (low- (LF) or high-fat (HF) and sensory properties (sweet (SW) or non-sweet (NSW)), to influence the control of appetite and to adjust daily energy intake. Subjects were exposed to each snack category for a 3-week period and were asked to consume a minimum number of snacks each day so that at least 25% of their daily energy intake would be derived from the test snacks. Energy and macronutrient intakes from the test snacks were calculated every day and also from other eating episodes (using 3 d food diary records) during the third week of snack exposure. Subjects consumed more energy/d from the SW snacks than from the NSW snacks, with most energy being consumed from the HF/SW snacks (3213 kJ) and least energy from the LF/NSW snacks (1628 kJ). This differential snack intake remained stable across the whole snack exposure period. Total daily energy intake did not differ significantly during exposure to any of the four snack types. Furthermore, the encouragement to eat freely from the test snacks did not lead to daily overconsumption of energy when compared with pre-study intakes. Hence, the level of snack consumption was largely compensated for by the energy consumed from the rest of the eating pattern. Although daily energy intake during exposure to the HF snacks was an average of 364 kJ higher (NS) than that during exposure to the LF snacks, the clearest and most significant effect of snack consumption was on daily macronutrient intake. Appreciable consumption of the HF snacks raised the percentage of total daily energy intake consumed as fat from 37 to 41% (P snacks reduced daily fat intake to 33.5% (LF/SW, P snacks, when compared with HF snacks, is an effective strategy to reduce fat intake so that it approaches the recommendations of dietary guidelines

  3. Increased Snacking and Eating Occasions Are Associated with Higher Energy Intake among Mexican Children Aged 2-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Afeiche, Myriam C; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the dietary behaviors of Mexican children with regard to frequency, amount, and quality of foods consumed at eating occasions and their impact on total daily energy intake. The objectives were to 1) describe foods consumed across eating occasions and 2) examine whether the number or type of total eating occasions was associated with increased total daily energy intake and differed between 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old Mexican children. A nationally representative sample of 5031 children from the 2012 ENSANUT (Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición) was used to examine the percentage of meals and snacks consumed, mean energy intake from meals and snacks, and the top food groups contributing to meals and snacks. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the association between meals, snacks, and total eating occasions with daily energy intake for 2- to 5-y-old and 6- to 13-y-old children. Eating patterns were similar across age groups (per capita mean intake of 3 meals and 1.4-1.6 snacks/d). Each additional snack was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+191-289 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+102-130 kcal/d; P < 0.01). Likewise, each additional eating occasion was associated with greater increases in mean daily energy for older children (+323 kcal/d; P < 0.01) relative to younger children (+166-261 kcal/d; P < 0.01). In both younger and older children, snacking was prevalent (75% and 68%, respectively). Top food contributors to snacks included fruit, salty snacks, candy, sweetened breads, and cookies. Among older children, whole milk as a snack was partially replaced with soda and sweetened fruit drinks. Snacks represent an area for potential improvement in the diets of Mexican children, especially among those aged 6 to 13 y, for whom each additional snack or eating occasion was linked to even greater increases in total daily energy intake. © 2015 American Society for

  4. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  5. Studies on soft centered coated snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavithra, A S; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Babylatha, R; Archana, S N; Bhat, K K

    2013-04-01

    Roasted groundnut seeds, amaranth and dates pulp formed the center filling which was coated with sugar, breadings, desiccated coconut and roasted Bengalgram flour (BGF) to get 4 coated snacks. Physicochemical characteristics, microbiological profile, sorption behaviour and sensory quality of 4 coated snacks were determined. Centre filling to coating ratio of the products were in the range of 3:2-7:1, the product having BGF coating had the thinnest coating. Center filling had soft texture and the moisture content was 10.2-16.2% coating had lower moisture content (4.4-8.6%) except for Bengal gram coating, which had 11.1% moisture. Sugar coated snack has lowest fat (11.6%) and protein (7.2%) contents. Desiccated coconut coated snack has highest fat (25.4%) and Bengal gram flour coated snack had highest protein content (15.4%). Sorption studies showed that the coated snack had critical moisture content of 11.2-13.5%. The products were moisture sensitive and hence require packaging in films having higher moisture barrier property. In freshly prepared snacks coliforms, yeast and mold were absent. Mesophillic aerobes count did not show significant change during 90 days of storage at 27 °C and 37 °C. Sensory analysis showed that products had a unique texture due to combined effect of fairly hard coating and soft center. Flavour and overall quality of all the products were rated as very good.

  6. Genetically modified foods: A critical review of their promise and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “genetic modified organisms (GMO” has become a controversial topic as its benefits for both food producers and consumers are companied by potential biomedical risks and environmental side effects. Increasing concerns from the public about GMO, particularly in the form of genetic modified (GM foods, are aimed at the short- and long-lasting health problems that may result from this advanced biotechnology. Complex studies are being carried out around the world independently to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM foods. In this paper, we attempt to summarize up-to-date knowledge about the benefits and potential problems of GM food. We also introduce some recent technological developments in GM foods and their impact in the field.

  7. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. INTESTINAL MICROBIOCENOSIS, FOOD TOLERANCE AND FOOD ALLERGY. CURRENT STATE OF A PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review of modern literature the influence of a bacterial factor, first of all — indigenous microflora — on formation of food tolerance and immune answer of a child as a whole is in detail considered. Formation of a microbiocenosis, food and autogenic tolerance happens under the general laws. In this process the primary colonization of intestines and formation of a microflora variety which, as results of the last researches show, comes to an end by 2–4 years of life of a child has special value. In the review the major factors influencing the formation of a child intestinal microbiota both antenatal and postnatal and for the first years of life, and also their interaction are considered. The influence of a bacterial factor on formation of food tolerance and sensibilization processes, and also mechanisms of this influence is in detail discussed. The data on features of a structure of intestinal microflora at children with food allergy including the results of own researches devoted to microbiocenosis at children with food allergy and to development of tactics of management of children with this pathology are provided. The main directions and possibilities of dietary influence on biocenosis structure at children with this pathology are considered.

  9. Students' Perception of Interdisciplinary, Problem-Based Learning in a Food Biotechnology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Betsy L. L.; Yap, Kueh C.; Hoh, Yin K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students' perception of 8 criteria (rationale of the problem; interdisciplinary learning; facilitator asked essential questions; learner's skills; assessments; facilitation procedures; team's use of resources [team collaboration], and facilitator within a problem-based learning context) were assessed for a food biotechnology course that…

  10. Snacks containing whey protein and polydextrose induce a sustained reduction in daily energy intake over 2 wk under free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Nerys M; Taylor, Moira A; French, Stephen J; Macdonald, Ian A

    2014-05-01

    The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as between-meal snacks may aid daily energy restriction. We compared the effects of the consumption of 2 energy-matched snack bars on appetite, energy intake (EI), and metabolic and endocrine responses. In addition, we investigated whether the acute effects of the consumption of snacks were maintained under free-living conditions and whether the habitual daily consumption of the snack over 14 d influenced these effects. Ten lean men [mean ± SD age: 30.7 ± 9.7 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.2 ± 2.8] consumed a whey protein and polydextrose (PPX) snack bar or an isoenergetic control snack bar as a midmorning, between-meal snack for 14 consecutive days in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. The two 14-d intervention phases were separated by a 14-d washout period. On the first (day 1) and last (day 15) days of each intervention phase, appetite, food intake, and blood metabolite and endocrine responses were assessed under laboratory conditions. Free-living EI was recorded on days 4, 8, and 12 of interventions. Total daily EI was significantly lower when the PPX snack was consumed during experimental days (10,149 ± 831 compared with 11,931 ± 896 kJ; P snack was consumed during the free-living part of the intervention (7904 ± 610 compared with 9041 ± 928 kJ; P snack was associated with lower glucose and ghrelin and higher glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine responses. The manipulation of the composition of foods consumed as snacks is an effective way to limit subsequent EI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01927926.

  11. Properties of extruded snacks supplemented with amaranth grain grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev Miroslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food, supplement in breakfast cereals, or as raw material for further processing. Extruded products of corn-amaranth grits blends, containing 20% or 50% amaranth grain grits, were produced by extrusion-cooking using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Extrudates with various texture were obtained. During extrusion process starch granules are partially degraded, hence rheological properties were examined. All samples exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. Those samples in which part of the corn grits was replaced with amaranth one had lower viscosity and exhibited lower level of structuration during storage.

  12. Snacking between main meals is associated with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN Project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Gea, Alfredo; Sayón-Orea, Carmen; Zazpe, Itziar; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association of snacking between main meals with the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Snack consumption was evaluated using the question: 'Do you have the habit of snacking between main meals?' Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) of metabolic syndrome and their 95 % confidence intervals using Poisson regression models. An exploratory factor analysis was also used to identify patterns of snacking. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 6851 university graduates, initially free of metabolic syndrome, and followed-up them for a median of 8·3 years. Among our participants, 34·6% reported usual snacking between main meals. The cumulative incidence of metabolic syndrome was 5·1 % (9·5% among men and 2·8% among women). Snacking between main meals was significantly associated with higher risk for developing metabolic syndrome after multivariable adjustment (RR=1·44; 95%CI 1·18, 1·77). Higher adherence to an 'unhealthy snacking pattern' was also independently associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (fourth quartile of adherence compared with non-snacking: RR=1·68; 95% CI 1·23, 2·29; P for trend metabolic syndrome development, especially when snacks contain foods of poor nutritional quality.

  13. Quality and storage stability of extruded puffed corn-fish snacks during 6-month storage at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Rafipour, Fereidon; Sigurgisladottir, Sjofn

    2011-03-30

    Cereal-based snacks are usually low in protein and other nutrients. Increased health awareness of consumers has led the food industry to develop fortified snacks with functional ingredients. Three types of extruded corn-fish snacks, containing 150 g kg(-1) carp mince and 150 g kg(-1) trout mince, 30 g kg(-1) freeze-dried saithe protein and a regular corn snack (control). were produced to study quality changes and storage stability of the products during 6-month storage at 27±2 °C. All products had the same level of water activity and proximate composition except for protein. Fortified snacks had a protein content of 93-98 g kg(-1) , compared with 65 g kg(-1) in the control. A significant increase was observed for peroxide value during storage (0.0 to 2.8 meq kg(-1)). Scores for attributes describing oxidation and off odors and flavors increased after 5-6 months' storage but attributes describing puffed corn snack odor and flavor did not change during storage of any of the products. Extrusion of corn grits with fish flesh/fish protein can be used to produce high-protein products that would be an option to provide nutrient snacks for consumers and to increase fish consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The influence of calorie and physical activity labelling on snack and beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, U; Christiansen, P; Boyland, E J

    2017-05-01

    Much research suggests nutrition labelling does not influence lower energy food choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical activity based and kilocalorie (Kcal) based labels on the energy content of snack food and beverage choices made. An independent-groups design, utilizing an online questionnaire platform tested 458 UK adults (87 men), aged 18-64 years (mean: 30 years) whose BMI ranged from 16 to 41 kg/m 2 (mean: 24 kg/m 2 ). Participants were randomized to one of four label information conditions (no label, Kcal label, physical activity label [duration of walking required to burn the Kcal in the product], Kcal and physical activity label) and were asked to choose from higher and lower energy options for a series of items. Label condition significantly affected low vs. high-energy product selection of snack foods (p snack and beverage choices than the Kcal label condition (p snack food and beverage items, when compared with no information or Kcal information. These findings could inform the debate around potential legislative policies to facilitate healthier nutritional choices at a population level. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  16. Best Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... Cut back on high calorie snack foods and desserts. Reduce intake of chips, cookies, cakes, full-fat ...

  17. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  18. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovič, Marko; Swenson, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990–2010. We compared patterns between areas with (Slovenia) and without supplemental feeding (Sweden) of bears relative to 2 hypotheses. The food-search/food-competition hypothesis predicts that problem bears should have a higher BCI (e.g., exploiting easily accessible and/or nutritious human-derived foods) or lower BCI (e.g., because of food shortage) than nonproblem bears, that BCI and human density should have a positive correlation, and problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears should have a negative correlation (i.e., more problem bears during years of low food availability). Food competition among bears additionally predicts an inverse relationship between BCI and bear density. The safety-search/naivety hypothesis (i.e., avoiding other bears or lack of human experience) predicts no relationship between BCI and human density, provided no dietary differences due to spatiotemporal habitat use among bears, no relationship between problem bear occurrence and seasonal mean BCI of nonproblem bears, and does not necessarily predict a difference between BCI for problem/nonproblem bears. If food competition or predation avoidance explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted younger problem than nonproblem bears and a negative correlation between age and human density. However, if only food search explained bear occurrence near settlements, we predicted no relation between age and problem or nonproblem bear status, or between age and human density. We found

  20. Meal Frequency but Not Snack Frequency Is Associated with Micronutrient Intakes and Overall Diet Quality in Australian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Rebecca M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; Timperio, Anna; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Skipping breakfast is associated with poorer diet quality among adults, but evidence of associations for other eating patterns [e.g., eating occasion (EO), meal, or snack frequency] is equivocal. An understanding of how eating patterns are associated with diet quality is needed to inform population-level dietary recommendations. We aimed in this cross-sectional study to determine the relation between frequency of meals, snacks, and all EOs with nutrient intakes and diet quality in a representative sample of Australian adults. Dietary data for 5242 adults aged ≥19 y collected via two 24-h recalls during the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. EO, meal, and snack frequency was calculated. Adherence to recommendations for healthy eating was assessed with the use of the 2013 Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) and its subcomponents. Linear regression, adjusted for covariates and energy misreporting, was used to examine associations between eating patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, and the DGI-2013. The frequency of meals, but not of snacks, was positively associated with micronutrient intakes, overall diet quality [men: β = 5.6 (95% CI: 3.9, 7.3); women: β = 4.1 (95% CI: 2.2, 5.9); P snacks was positively associated with DGI-2013 scores for food variety, fruits, and dairy foods (P snack frequency was associated with a lower compliance with guidelines for discretionary foods and added sugars among men (P snack frequency suggest that the quality of snack choices is variable. More research examining the dietary profiles of eating patterns and their relations with diet quality is needed to inform the development of meal-based guidelines and messages that encourage healthy eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Development and preliminary validation of the Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, K K; Blake, C E; Kachurak, A; Lumeng, J C; Coffman, D L; Miller, A L; Hughes, S O; Power, T G; Vaughn, A F; Blaine, R E; Younginer, N; Fisher, J O

    2018-06-01

    Snacking makes significant contributions to children's dietary intake but is poorly understood from a parenting perspective. This research was designed to develop and evaluate the psychometrics of a theoretically grounded, empirically-informed measure of snack parenting. The Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire (P-SNAQ) was developed using a conceptual model derived from current theory and mixed-methods research to include 20 hypothesized snack parenting practices along 4 parenting dimensions (autonomy support, structure, coercive control and permissiveness). Expert panel evaluation and cognitive interviews were used to refine items and construct definitions. The initial instrument of 105 items was administered to an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 305 parents (92% mothers) of children aged 1-6 y participating in three existing cohort studies. The sample was randomly split into two equal samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with the first sample to identify snack parenting practices within each parenting dimension, followed by confirmatory factor analysis with the second sample to test the hypothesized factor structure. Internal consistency of sub-scales and associations with existing measures of food parenting practices and styles and child weight status were evaluated. The final P-SNAQ scale included 51 items reflecting 14 snack parenting practices across four parenting dimensions. The factor structure of the P-SNAQ was consistent with prior theoretical frameworks. Internal consistency coefficients were good to very good for 12 out of 14 scales and subscale scores were moderately correlated with previously validated measures. In conclusion, initial evidence suggests that P-SNAQ is a psychometrically sound measure for evaluating a wide range of snack parenting practices in young children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sweet and salty. An assessment of the snacks and beverages sold in vending machines on US post-secondary institution campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Michelle; Quick, Virginia M; Walsh, Jennifer; Greene, Geoffrey W; Hoerr, Sharon; Colby, Sarah M; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Phillips, Beatrice W; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the nutritional quality of snacks and beverages sold in vending machines. The contents of snack and beverage vending machines in 78 buildings on 11 US post-secondary education campuses were surveyed. Of the 2607 snack machine slots surveyed, the most common snacks vended were salty snacks (e.g., chips, pretzels) and sweets (i.e., candy and candy bars). The 1650 beverage machine slots assessed contained twice as many sugar-sweetened beverages as non-calorie-containing beverages. Only two institutions sold both milk and 100% juice in vending machines. The portion of snacks and beverages sold averaged more than 200 cal. Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient dense. The majority of snacks were low in fiber and high in calories and fat and almost half were high in sugar. Most beverages were high in calories and sugar. This study's findings suggest that vending machines provide limited healthful choices. Findings from benchmark assessments of components of the food environment, like the vending options reported here, can provide valuable input to campus administrators, health services, food service, and students who want to establish campus policies to promote healthful eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What is a nutritious snack? Level of processing and macronutrient content influences young adults' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, Nienke M; Collins, Clare; Bucher, Tamara

    2017-07-01

    Snacking has become more prevalent in developed countries. While poor food choices pose health risks, nutritious choices contribute important nutrients to overall dietary intakes. Young adults consumer snacks frequently and nutritious choices should be promoted among this group. However, how young adults define the term 'nutritious' currently and how they evaluate the nutritiousness of various snack foods required further investigation. The current study used a mixed methods design with 115 young adults invited to sort 32 commonly available snack foods into a line ranging from 'not nutritious' to 'very nutritious'. The sorting data was analysed by hierarchical cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Participants were also asked to define the word 'nutritious', with definitions then categorized and number of counts per category analysed. Predictors of perceived snack nutritiousness were sugar (β = -0.45, P < 0.005), fat (β = -0.43, P < 0.05), nut (β = 0.45, P < 0.05) and fruit/vegetable (β = 0.33, P < 0.05) content. Level of food processing was significantly related to perceived nutritiousness (β = 0.79, P=<0.05). The terms given within the definitions most frequently were: 'vitamins' (40%), 'good for body/body needs' (40%), 'minerals' (39%), 'low in sugars' (36%), 'protein' (32%), 'healthy' (28%) and 'long lasting source of energy' (27%). Results of the current study provide first insight into how young adults interpret the term 'nutritious'. This could help in the design of more effective nutrition education materials and food product labels to guide healthy choices in this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FOOD PROBLEM AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS SOLUTION IN VLADIMIR REGION DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И С Тряхов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hierarchy of human needs, food takes fi rst place. Therefore the relevance of this topic during the intransient shocks. The article discusses the complexity of the food problem during the Great Patriotic War (on materials of the Vladimir region. The author examines the strategies for solving the food problem, the inhabitants of which were used in the edge of the war years. The material for the study is based on documentary sources of local supplies and memoirs of contemporaries. The author has reviled that supply of urban population with food conducted by cards, and all the inhabitants were divided into categories with different supplies. The card system is not fully secure the large mass of the population needs in food, but because they had to look for different ways of obtaining additional products. Special attention is paid to the creation of individual farms residents and farms businesses that became essential for survival of the people of that time. The study of the problem historian draws attention to other ways to ensure yourself of food the population of the region. These include assistance for the inhabitants of the cities from rural relatives, exchange things for food and work in the collective farms, that is a tempo-rary move from the city to the countryside. It was a process of reverse trend to mobilize the So-viet authorities on youth enterprise in the city. Permanent deterioration of the food situation in the war years becoming a signifi cant part of the population on the brink of survival. The author has come to the conclusion that the country’s leadership could only provide a minimum level of survival for people with any serious deterioration of the situation at the front could lead to the most dramatic consequences in the rear.

  5. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

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    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  6. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Talwinder S; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2016-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41-0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6-3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70-79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  7. Is snack consumption associated with meal skipping in children and adolescents? The CASPIAN-IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Mozafarian, Nafiseh; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Safiri, Saeid; Ardalan, Gelayol; Keikhah, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Heshmat, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    The present inquiry set to assess the relationship between snack consumption and meal skipping in Iranian children and adolescents. Overall, 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected via multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. A validated questionnaire of food behaviors including questions on snacks consumption and taking/skipping meals was completed. Consuming and skipping meals and their related factors were reported in both crude and adjusted models. Overall, 13,486 students with a mean age of 12.47 ± 3.36 years completed the study (90.6% participation rate). Among them, 32.08, 8.89, and 10.90% skipped breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Compared to their counterpart groups, the frequency of meal skipping was higher in girls, urban inhabitants, and students in higher school grades (P Snack consumption was associated with an increased odds ratio of meal skipping in many types of snack groups. Meal skipping and snack consumption were frequent among Iranian children and adolescents. Evidence based interventions are proposed to improve the students' eating habits.

  8. Situation-specific social norms as mediators of social influence on snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Benjamin; Papadakis, Thalia; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2018-02-01

    Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life. We applied ecological momentary assessment to study 61 individuals in the normal-obese weight range (M BMI = 24.97 kg/m²; SD = 4.07) over a 14-day monitoring period. We used a combination of event-based snacking reports and randomly timed assessments. The presence of others eating and momentary perceptions of injunctive norms (facets of perceived appropriateness and encouragement) were measured for both assessment types. Mediated, multilevel logistic regression showed that social cues predict snacking (OR = 3.06), and that momentary perceptions of appropriateness (a*b = 0.14) and encouragement (a*b = 0.18) partially mediated these effects. Perceptions of momentary norms mediated the effects of social influence on everyday snacking, which highlights the importance of the social environment for understanding eating behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Dietary patterns of obese high school girls: snack consumption and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Sook; Lee, Nan-Jo

    2010-10-01

    In order to develop an obesity management program for teenagers, we compared obese and non-obese girls attending high schools in terms of their dietary practices related to snack consumption. Dietary records were collected for 7 days. No significant differences were found for the average daily energy intake between obese and non-obese girls. However, the highest energy intake was greater for obese girls while not much difference was found for the lowest amount of energy intake. Obese girls had significantly lower intakes in calcium (P snack (594.1 ± 312.1kcal) was significantly higher for obese girls than for non-obese girls (360.1 ± 173.1kcal) (P snack and total daily energy intake (r = 0.34 P obese girls. In case of dietary behaviors, obese adolescent girls consumed significantly greater number of items for snacks and fewer foods for regular meals compared to non-obese girls (P obesity management programs for adolescents should focus on providing strategies to reduce snack through enhancing balanced regular meals.

  10. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  11. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kasprzak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol’s activity.

  12. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans -caffeic, cis -caffeic, trans -p-coumaric, cis -p-coumaric, trans -ferulic, cis -ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans -sinapic, and cis -sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea . Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity.

  13. Understanding the influence of the snack definition on the association between snacking and obesity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Foltran, Francesca; Ghidina, Marco; Berchialla, Paola

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study is to understand how different definitions of snacking influence the estimated probability of obesity in the presence of concurrent risk factors. Factors influencing obesity were evaluated by reviewing the relevant literature through a PUBMED search. Six different modalities to define snack consumption were identified. A Bayesian network model in which nodes represent the variables that the retrieved studies indicate as affecting the probability of obesity was implemented and used to estimate the individual risk of developing obesity taking into account the concurrent effect of the considered risk factors. For a subject with a given profile of factors, the probability of obesity varies according to the chosen definition of snacking, up to maximum of 70%. The variability of the probability of obesity attributable to the chosen definition of snacking is very high and may threaten any conclusion about the effect of snacking, which may be related to the specific definitions adopted in the study.

  14. The habitual meal and snacking patterns of university students in two countries and their use of vending machines.

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    Spanos, D; Hankey, C R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary patterns and food choices in western and northern European countries can differ from those in countries that surround the Mediterranean basin. However, irregular meal patterns and the consumption of high-energy snacks tend to become common in most countries and their association with the prevalence of obesity has been examined in many studies. The first aim of the present study was to describe the habitual meal and snack intakes, including the use of vending machines, for two groups of first-year university students in two countries of different cultural backgrounds. The second aim was to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and snacking for these two groups. One hundred and sixty first-year undergraduate university students from two defined universities in Greece (n = 80) and Scotland (n = 80) volunteered to complete a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ comprised 16 questions assessing their meal and snacking habits. Self-assessed height and weight data were collected. The majority of the 160 students reported a BMI in the healthy range (vending machines (P vending machines and the consumption of crisps and low fat yogurts were related to BMI (P < 0.05) for both groups. University students living in different countries report similar dietary patterns but differ in their snacking habits. No relationships were found between BMI and snacking. There is a need to carry out research to further our understanding of this relationship.

  15. Children’s and Adolescents’ Snacking: Interplay between the Individual and the School Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge eGiese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In schools, perceived norms of classmates facilitate but can also inhibit unhealthy food intake in children and adolescents. However, the role of actual class behaviors and attitudes is less established. Thus, the present study examined classmates’ actual eating behavior and food preferences in relation to actual food intake. In addition, it tested whether these normative effects are facilitated by corresponding individual and class food preferences or a positive social self-concept.Methods: The food preferences, social self-concept, and unhealthy snacking frequency of 734 Finnish, 829 German, and 555 Romanian children and adolescents (aged 8-19 from 127 school-classes were assessed.Results: Multilevel analysis at individual and class level showed that classmates shared similar snacking habits (14.7% variance. Moreover, the unhealthy food preference of a school-class was associated with its collective snacking (χ²(1 = 54.67, p < .001, PRV = .32. This effect was facilitated by individual, unhealthy food preferences (χ²(1 = 16.72, p < .001, PRV = .57 and a positive social self-concept (χ²(1 = 5.91, p = .015, PRV = .12.Conclusions: Actual class norms are related to children’s and adolescents’ eating, but their impact depends on individual differences in preferences and social self-concept.

  16. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack.

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    Patil, Swapnil S; Brennan, Margaret A; Mason, Susan L; Brennan, Charles S

    2016-04-06

    Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%-1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%-62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  17. Assessment of Important Sensory Attributes of Millet Based Snacks and Biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Duizer, Lisa M; Seetharaman, Koushik; Dan Ramdath, D

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing push by consumers for new food products that can provide health benefits. To develop these products, sometimes it is necessary to look to alternative crops, 1 of which is millet. For millet to be successfully adopted by consumers, it is necessary to identify and develop product types that are acceptable to North Americans. Biscuits and extruded snacks were produced using varying amounts of refined proso millet flour (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%). Sensory analysis was conducted on 8 products (4 types of biscuits and 4 types of extruded snack) in 2 separate tests (1 for biscuits and 1 for snacks). Preferred Attribute Elicitation (PAE), a relatively new sensory method, was used to determine attributes affecting liking of the products. Results indicated that as the amount of millet in the biscuits and extruded snacks increased, the liking of the flavor, texture and overall liking decreased. Millet contributed to a bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, and resulted in gritty and dry food products. Further work is required to refine the products tested as well as to identify further products that can be added to the diet in order to take advantage of the health benefits that millet provides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  19. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

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    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  20. Importance of fish behaviour in modelling conservation problems: food limitation as an example

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    Steven Railsback; Bret Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Simulation experiments using the inSTREAM individual-based brown trout Salmo trutta population model explored the role of individual adaptive behaviour in food limitation, as an example of how behaviour can affect managers’ understanding of conservation problems. The model includes many natural complexities in habitat (spatial and temporal variation in characteristics...

  1. Triple Value System Dynamics Modeling to Help Stakeholders Engage with Food-Energy-Water Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triple Value (3V) Community scoping projects and Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models help decision makers and stakeholders apply systems-analysis methodology to complex problems related to food production, water quality, and energy use. 3VS models are decision support tools that...

  2. Inhibitory control effects in adolescent binge eating and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Susan L.; Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; Reynolds, Kim D.; Boyle, Sarah; Cappelli, Christopher; Cox, Matthew G.; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L.; Mackinnon, David P.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control and sensitivity to reward are relevant to the food choices individuals make frequently. An imbalance of these systems can lead to deficits in decision-making that are relevant to food ingestion. This study evaluated the relationship between dietary behaviors – binge eating and consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks - and behavioral control processes, among 198 ethnically diverse adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17, in Southern California. Neurocognitive control...

  3. PROBLEM OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS SAFETY: A TOXICOLOGIST’S VIEW

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    E. L. Levitsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the published literature regarding the problem of safety of consuming food products containing genetically modified organisms. Genetically modified food products are given a brief definition, purpose and methods of their production are described, and the pro- and contra- arguments for their consumption are presented. The discussion is mostly focused on results of evaluating possible toxicity of such foods and their safety for macroorganism using traditional methods of toxicological analysis. Test results for long-term toxic effects, namely allergenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, and the possibility of mutagenic effects of these food products on the human body and the intestinal microflora are discussed separately. These data are based on the current understanding of the laws of the penetration and functioning of foreign genetic material outside the body, its entry and the possibility of integration into the genome during intake of foods manufactured by genetic engineering. The basic principles of the toxicological and hygienic regulation of these food products are also considered. An analysis of published experimental results allowed to draw a general conclusion about the absence of reliable scientific information indicating the presence of the toxic properties of genetically modified foods, and therefore of credible evidence of the dangers of consuming for humans and pets.

  4. Impact of dietary fibre-enriched ready-to-eat extruded snacks on the postprandial glycaemic response of non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma J; Brennan, Charles S; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2012-05-01

    Food intervention is a financially sensible way for prevention and treatment of diabetes. Extruded snack foods are considered high glycaemic products. Our previous research illustrated that postprandial glycaemic responses to snacks are manipulated by altering dietary fibre and starch contents. The current research assessed the effect of psyllium and oat bran on postprandial glycaemia and in vitro digestibility. Addition of psyllium fibre to extruded snack products significantly reduced both the in vitro and in vivo glycaemic responses of products compared to a control snack product recipe. Oat bran inclusion reduced in vitro starch digestibility but not in vivo glycaemic response. The inclusion of oat bran into the snack products appeared to extend the glycaemic response of individuals compared to the control snack, suggesting a possibility of prolonging glucose release and potentially affecting satiety responses. The positive effect in attenuating glucose response means that psyllium fibre could be a target for inclusion by the snack food industry to effectively manipulate postprandial glucose response of individuals. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Perceptual changes and drivers of liking in high protein extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, Joseph W; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-04-01

    Increasing the amount of protein in snack foods can add to their satiating ability, which aligns with many health-based trends currently seen in the food industry. Understanding the effect of adding high levels of protein in a food matrix is essential for product development. The objective for this research was to determine the effects of varying protein type and level on the sensory-related aspects of a model extruded snack food. Independent variables in the design of the snacks were the level of total protein and the protein type in the formulation. The level of protein ranged from 28% to 43% (w/w) in 5% increments. The protein type varied in the ratio of whey to soy protein ranging from 0: 100 to 100: 0, in 25% increments. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the samples to profile their sensory characteristics. Protein type was found to be the predominant variable in differentiating the sensory characteristics of the samples. Soy protein imparted nutty, grainy aromas-by-mouth, and increased expansion during processing, resulting in a lighter, crispier texture. Whey protein imparted dairy related aromas-by-mouth and inhibited expansion during processing, resulting in a more dense, crunchy texture. Separately, 100 consumers rated their acceptance of the samples using the 9-point hedonic scale. It was found that protein type was also the predominant variable in affecting acceptance, with some clusters of consumers preferring samples comprised of soy protein, and others preferring samples with whey. Food product developers can use these findings to predict changes in a similar food product by varying protein level or protein type. This work shows how the perceivable appearance, aroma, and texture characteristics of puffed snack foods change when adding protein or changing the protein type. The type of protein incorporated was shown to have major effects on the characteristics of the snacks, partially because of their impact on how much the snacks puffed during

  6. Extrusion cooking technology: Principal mechanism and effect on direct expanded snacks – An overview

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    Ajita Tiwari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The snack industry is one of the fastest growing food sectors and is an important contributor within the global convenience food market. Nowadays snacks and convenience foods are also consumed regularly in India. Properly designed convenience foods can make an important contribution to nutrition in societies where social changes are altering traditional patterns of food preparation. Extrusion cooking as a popular means of preparing snack foods based on cereals and plant protein foodstuff has elicited considerable interest and attention over the past 30 years. Several studies on the extrusion of cereals and pulses, using various proportions, have been conducted because blends of cereals and pulses produce protein enriched products. Special importance is placed on the physicochemical and chemical modifications of protein, starch and dietary fibre. Extruded products can be categorized for a particular application based on their functional properties such as water absorption and water solubility index, expansion ratio, bulk density and viscosity of the dough.Therefore, the literature was reviewed for effect of extrusion processing on product parameters, and nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of extruded products.

  7. Vocational High School Students’ Creativity in Food Additives with Problem Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasari, D.; Supriyanti, T.; Rosbiono, M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the creativity of vocational students through Problem Based Learning approach in the food additives. The method which used quasi-experiment with one group posttest design. The research subjects were 32 students in grade XII of a vocational high school students courses chemical analysis in Bandung city. Instrument of creativity were essay, Student Worksheet, and observation sheets. Creativity measured include creative thinking skills and creative act skills. The results showed creative thinking skills and creative act skills are good. Research showed that the problem based learning approach can be applied to develop creativity of vocational students in the food additives well, because the students are given the opportunity to determine their own experiment procedure that will be used. It is recommended to often implement Problem Based Learning approach in other chemical concepts so that students’ creativity is sustainable.

  8. Childhood Reports of Food Neglect and Impulse Control Problems and Violence in Adulthood

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    Michael G. Vaughn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity and hunger during childhood are associated with an array of developmental problems in multiple domains, including impulse control problems and violence. Unfortunately, extant research is based primarily on small convenience samples and an epidemiological assessment of the hunger-violence link is lacking. The current study employed data from Wave 1 (2001–2002 and Wave 2 (2004–2005 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC. The NESARC is a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 18 years and older. Participants who experienced frequent hunger during childhood had significantly greater impulsivity, worse self-control, and greater involvement in several forms of interpersonal violence. These effects were stronger among whites, Hispanics, and males. The findings support general theoretical models implicating impulse control problems as a key correlate of crime and violence and add another facet to the importance of ameliorating food neglect in the United States.

  9. 20 healthy snacks with 100 calories or less

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 4, 2015. U.S.Department of Health and Human Services website. Healthy snacks: quick tips for parents. healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/nutrition-and-physical-activity/nutrition/healthy-snacks-quick-tips- ...

  10. 4 Top Healthy Snacks | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity 4 Top Healthy Snacks Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... vegetables. Always watch your toddler during meals and snacks. —Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...

  11. Problems Analysis on Increasing Rice Production Through Food Estate Program in Bulungan Regency, North Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyo, P.; Elly, J.

    2018-05-01

    To increase rice production in the Province of North Kalimantan, the provincial government has launched a Food Estate Program. The program is also a central government program in relation to government policies on food security. One of the food estate development areas is the Delta Kayan Food Estate of 50,000 hectares in Bulungan Regency, where about 30,000 hectares area is a tidal land with a very fertile alluvial soil type. This policy study aims to identify and analyze problems of increasing rice production through food estate development in North Kalimantan Province and formulate priority programs as recommendations for policy making in increasing rice production. The study has identified a number of problems of increasing rice production, such as land tenure, land suitability, water system, infrastructure, accessibility of production factors, institutional, and capacity of human resources. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied to develop priority programs, resulting in the three most important programs being water management, improving access to production factors, and improving the capacity of human resources. Action plans related to priority programs have also been identified.

  12. 'Junk food' diet and childhood behavioural problems: results from the ALSPAC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, N J; Northstone, K; Emmett, P; Lewis, G

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether a 'junk food' diet at age 4(1/2) is associated with behavioural problems at age 7. Data on approximately 4000 children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a birth cohort recruited in Avon, UK in 1991/92 were used. Behavioural problems were measured at age 7 using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; maternal completion). Total difficulties and scores for the five sub-scales (hyperactivity, conduct and peer problems, emotional symptoms and pro-social behaviour) were calculated. Principal components analysis of dietary data (frequency of consumption of 57 foods/drinks) collected at age 4(1/2) by maternal report was used to generate a 'junk food' factor. Data on confounders were available from questionnaires. A one standard deviation increase in 'junk food' intake at age 4(1/2) years was associated with increased hyperactivity at age 7 (odds ratio: 1.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29). This persisted after adjustment for confounders including intelligence quotient score (odds ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.15). There was little evidence to support an association between 'junk food' intake and overall behavioural difficulties or other sub-scales of the SDQ. Children eating a diet high in 'junk food' in early childhood were more likely to be in the top 33% on the SDQ hyperactivity sub-scale at age 7. This may reflect a long-term nutritional imbalance, or differences in parenting style. This finding requires replication before it can provide an avenue for intervention.

  13. Enrichment of extruded snack products with coproducts from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) production: interactions between dietary fiber, physicochemical characteristics, and glycemic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-05-02

    Mushrooms are a common vegetable product that have also been linked to pharmaceutical and medicinal uses. However, the production of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms results in a large quantity of food waste in the form of spent compost. Hyphae and the base of fruit bodies from Agrocybe aegerita were retrieved from spent mushroom compost and refined as a freeze-dried powder. This fiber-rich ingredient was used in the manufacture of ready-to-eat extruded cereal snack products. Inclusions rates were 0, 5, 10, and 15% w/w replacement levels for wheat flour from a control recipe. Inclusion of mushroom coproduct material (MCM) was significantly correlated to increased product expansion (r = 0.848) and density (r = 0.949) but negatively correlated to water absorption index (WAI; r = -0.928) and water solubility index (WSI; r = -0.729). Fiber content could not be correlated to differences in pasting properties of extruded snacks even though snack products with MCM showed significantly lower final viscosity values compared to the control. The potential glycemic response of foods was significantly lowered by including MCM (p extruded snacks (r = 0.916, 0.851, and 0.878. respectively). The results illustrate a reduction in the potential glycemic response from including 5% (w/w) of MCM in extruded snacks exceeds 20%. Thus, the incorporation of MCM in ready-to-eat snack foods may be of considerable interest to the food industry in trying to regulate the glycemic response of foods.

  14. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8–11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Holmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8–11 year-old Danish (n=134 and Swedish (n=109 children.Design: A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results: The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions: Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance.

  15. Schools′ cafeteria status: Does it affect snack patterns? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfarjani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of students′ snacks habits regarding to their schools′ cafeteria status in Tehran by focus group discussion (FGD technique. Methods: Participants were 240 students (12-15 years old, selected from12 middle-schools in Tehran. The field study consisted of 24 FGDs sessions; involving 8-10 participants. Collected data were coded, categorized and analyzed using constant comparative method. Results: Over half of the students believed that snack consumption is necessary. Although, majority of students believed that their schools′ cafeterias are not acceptable, they noted them as one of the necessary parts of school. Nearly half of the children were complaining of unvaried and expensive food items. The most purchased items were: Cookies, sandwiches with mayonnaise and ketchup, soft drinks and chocolate milk. Most of the students were interested in having roles in their cafeterias. Conclusions: Schools′ cafeteria are significant sources of supplying adolescents′ snacks, so developing hygienic stores containing healthy and nutritious food items is a key element to affect their snack selection positively. Reaching this goal requires a multi disciplinary approach through participation of students, school staff, parents, and the support of community and media.

  16. Effortless Inhibition: Habit Mediates the Relation Between Self-Control and Unhealthy Snack Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eAdriaanse

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to prevailing beliefs, recent research suggests that trait self-control promotes health behavior not because those high in self-control are more successful at resisting single temptations, but rather because they develop adaptive habits. The present paper presents a first empirical test of this novel suggestion by investigating the mediating role of habit in explaining the relation between self-control and unhealthy snacking behavior. Results showed that self-control was negatively associated with unhealthy snack consumption and unhealthy snacking habits. As hypothesized, the relation between self-control and unhealthy snack intake was mediated by habit strength. Self-control was not associated with fruit consumption or fruit consumption habits. These results provide the first evidence for the notion that high self-control may influence the formation of habits and in turn affect behavior. Moreover, results imply that self-control may be particularly influential in case of inhibiting unhealthy food intake rather than promoting healthy food intake.

  17. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8-11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Anna; Hausner, Helene; Reinbach, Helene C; Bredie, Wender L P; Wendin, Karin

    2012-01-01

    A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8-11 year-old Danish (n=134) and Swedish (n=109) children. A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance.

  18. Interrelationships of child appetite, weight and snacking among Hispanic preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snacking among US preschoolers has increased in recent decades, raising questions about whether snacking contributes to dietary excess. This research aimed to characterize snacking contributions to dietary excess and to evaluate associations with appetite and weight among preschool-aged children. Th...

  19. Optimization of extrusion variables for the production of snacks from by-products of rice and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lairy Silva Coutinho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to define the process conditions to obtain snacks from the by-products of rice and soybean with physical characteristics suitable for marketing. Therefore, the effects of moisture and extrusion temperature on the expansion and color of the products obtained experimentally obtained were evaluated, and the proximate composition of the by-products and that of the snack with greater desirability were determined. Response surface methodology and rotational central composite design were used, and desirability test based on the regression models adjusted was applied. The most desirable snack, with the highest expansion index (3.39, specific volume (13.5 mL.g-1, and the chromaticity coordinate a* (2.79, was obtained under 12 g.100 g-1 moisture and 85ºC of temperature in the third zone of the extruder. The snack produced under these conditions attained content of protein and lipid content 41 and 64% higher than that of the traditional corn snack. It can be concluded that producing extruded snack made form a mixture of broken grains, rice bran, and soybean okara (81:9:10 is technologically feasible, enabling the development of a new product with good nutritional value that can improve the diet of children, the main consumers of this type of food.

  20. The Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ: Development and Test-Retest Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorus W. M. Gevers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The narrow focus of existing food parenting instruments led us to develop a food parenting practices instrument measuring the full range of food practices constructs with a focus on snacking behavior. We present the development of the questionnaire and our research on the test-retest reliability. The developed Comprehensive Snack Parenting Questionnaire (CSPQ covers 21 constructs. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating intra class correlation coefficients and percentage agreement after two administrations of the CSPQ among a sample of 66 Dutch parents. Test-retest reliability analysis revealed acceptable intra class correlation coefficients (≥0.41 or agreement scores (≥0.60 for all items. These results, together with earlier work, suggest sufficient psychometric characteristics. The comprehensive, but brief CSPQ opens up chances for highly essential but unstudied research questions to understand and predict children’s snack intake. Example applications include studying the interactional nature of food parenting practices or interactions of food parenting with general parenting or child characteristics.

  1. Feasibility and impact study of a reward-based mobile application to improve adolescents' snacking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Nathalie; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vangeel, Jolien; Notebaert, Melissa; Beullens, Kathleen; Eggermont, Steven; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Goossens, Lien; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Vervoort, Leentje; Braet, Caroline; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Camp, John; Lachat, Carl

    2018-04-02

    Adolescents' snacking habits are driven by both explicit reflective and implicit hedonic processes. Hedonic pathways and differences in sensitivity to food rewards in addition to reflective determinants should be considered. The present study evaluated the feasibility and impact of a mobile phone-delivered intervention, incorporating explicit reflective and implicit rewarding strategies, on adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents (n 988; mean age 14·9 (sd 0·70) years, 59·4 % boys) completed a non-randomized clustered controlled trial. Adolescents (n 416) in the intervention schools (n 3) were provided with the intervention application for four weeks, while adolescents (n 572) in the control schools (n 3) followed the regular curriculum. Outcomes were differences in healthy snacking ratio and key determinants (awareness, intention, attitude, self-efficacy, habits and knowledge). Process evaluation data were collected via questionnaires and through log data of the app. No significant positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio (b=-3·52 (se 1·82), P>0·05) or targeted determinants were observed. Only 268 adolescents started using the app, of whom only fifty-five (20·5 %) still logged in after four weeks. Within the group of users, higher exposure to the app was not significantly associated with positive intervention effects. App satisfaction ratings were low in both high and low user groups. Moderation analyses revealed small positive intervention effects on the healthy snack ratio in high compared with low reward-sensitive boys (b=1·38 (se 0·59), P<0·05). The intervention was not able to improve adolescents' snack choices, due to low reach and exposure. Future interventions should consider multicomponent interventions, teacher engagement, exhaustive participatory app content development and tailoring.

  2. Self-crafting vegetable snacks: testing the IKEA-effect in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; van Kleef, Ellen; de Vet, Emely

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al. , 2012) - better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others - can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. A between-subjects experiment was conducted at an after school care facility. In total, 86 children aged four to six either crafted a peacock with vegetables or with non-food objects following an example. After the task, children ate snack vegetables ad libitum, and rated their liking for the vegetables and pride in crafting the peacock. No significant main effect of the vegetable snack creation on consumption and liking was observed. Also, perceived pride did not mediate the effect of self-crafting vegetable snacks on consumption of and liking for vegetables. Vegetable consumption did not differ between children who were either simply exposed to vegetable snacks while crafting or those who were crafting the vegetable snacks themselves. The equal consumption might suggest that this is caused by simple exposure, but more research is needed comparing self-crafting and exposure to a condition where there is no initial exposure to vegetables. Although the IKEA-effect has been demonstrated in adults, this is one of the first studies evaluating the IKEA-effect in children and as a means to increase liking for a generally disliked product in this target group, i.e. vegetables. The IKEA-effect could not be replicated under these more stringent conditions, where the experimental set-up enabled disentangling exposure and crafting effects.

  3. Mindful decision making and inhibitory control training as complementary means to decrease snack consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Evan M; Shaw, Jena A; Goldstein, Stephanie P; Butryn, Meghan L; Martin, Lindsay M; Meiran, Nachshon; Crosby, Ross D; Manasse, Stephanie M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is largely attributable to excess caloric intake, in particular from "junk" foods, including salty snack foods. Evidence suggests that neurobiological preferences to consume highly hedonic foods translate (via implicit processes) into poor eating choices, unless overturned by inhibitory mechanisms or interrupted by explicit processes. The primary aim of the current study was to test the independent and combinatory effects of a computerized inhibitory control training (ICT) and a mindful decision-making training (MDT) designed to facilitate de-automatization. We randomized 119 habitual salty snack food eaters to one of four short, training conditions: MDT, ICT, both MDT and ICT, or neither (i.e., psychoeducation). For 7 days prior to the intervention and 7 days following the intervention, participants reported on their salty snack food consumption 2 times per day, on 3 portions of their days, using a smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment system. Susceptibility to emotional eating cues was measured at baseline. Results indicated that the effect of MDT was consistent across levels of trait emotional eating, whereas the benefit of ICT was apparent only at lower levels of emotional eating. No synergistic effect of MDT and ICT was detected. These results provide qualified support for the efficacy of both types of training for decreasing hedonically-motivated eating. Moderation effects suggest that those who eat snack foods for reasons unconnected to affective experiences (i.e., lower in emotional eating) may derive benefit from a combination of ICT and MDT. Future research should investigate the additive benefit of de-automization training to standard weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between general parenting, restrictive snacking rules, and adolescent's snack intake. The roles of fathers and mothers and interparental congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dorus W M; van Assema, Patricia; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-04-01

    Little research has been done on the role of fathers and parenting congruence between mothers and fathers. This study aimed to clarify the roles of general parenting and restrictive snacking rules set by fathers and mothers, and to explore parenting congruence in explaining adolescents' snack intake. Adolescents aged 11 to 15 completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of general parenting constructs (i.e. nurturance, structure, behavioral control, coercive control, and overprotection), restrictive snacking rules set by their fathers and mothers, and their own energy-dense snack intakes between meals. Scores for mothers were significantly higher on all constructs than for fathers, except for coercive control. Generally, higher scores on general parenting constructs were associated with higher scores on restrictive snacking rules (most of the associations being significant). Most general parenting constructs were unrelated to the respondents' number of snacks consumed. The use of restrictive snacking rules by both fathers and mothers was significantly and negatively related to respondents' snack intake. Moderation analyses indicated that high levels of incongruence between parents attenuated the favorable impact of fathers' rules and nurturance on their children's snacking, but interactions of congruence with three other paternal scales and all maternal scales were absent. Our findings indicate that both paternal and maternal general parenting and restrictive snacking rules play important roles in adolescents' snacking, and that high parental incongruence regarding restrictive snacking rules and nurturance could be undesirable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Snacking behavior in adolescence: the influence of peer group members and school availability of snacks and soft drinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Frequent high caloric intake (snacking) induces overweight. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of social and physical environmental factors on the snacking behavior of adolescents. Design: cross-sectional population based study Method: Snacking behavior of individuals and

  6. Character Apps for Children's Snacks: Effects of Character Awareness on Snack Selection and Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Marisa M; Cotto, Caroline E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2018-04-01

    Media characters are used to market snacks that are typically of poor nutritional value, which has been linked to childhood obesity. This study examines whether children's snack selections and consumption patterns are influenced by an app depicting a popular children's media character, as well as the role that children's awareness of the character plays. The results can increase our understanding of how to encourage healthier snack selection and consumption in newer game-based marketing venues, such as apps. Four- and 5-year-old children (N = 132) played a bowling game on an iPad with no character or with a character holding either healthier or unhealthy snacks. After app-play, children selected and consumed healthier or unhealthy snacks. Children's awareness of the character was measured by children's verbalizations of the character's name during or after app-play. An ordered logistic regression found no significant effect of treatment conditions compared with the control group. Within treatment conditions, awareness of the character led to selection and consumption of more healthy snacks in the healthier condition (odds ratio β = 10.340, P = 0.008), and of unhealthy snacks in the unhealthy condition (odds ratio β = 0.228, P = 0.033), but children were unaware that the character influenced their decisions. Results suggest that young children will choose and consume healthier, not just unhealthy, products when they are aware that a popular character in an app is associated with the snack, potentially leading to healthier eating patterns.

  7. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Fennis, Bob M.; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose

  8. Children's snack consumption: role of parents, peers and child snack-purchasing behaviour. Results from the INPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke J C; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2015-12-01

    Parents and peers are both likely to influence children's dietary behaviour. However, their actual influence may depend on the age and life stage of the individual child. Therefore, this study examined the influence of parents (home snack availability and consumption rules) and peers on 11-year-old children's snack consumption, and whether these associations were mediated by children's snack-purchasing behaviour. It was hypothesized that children are more likely to buy unhealthy snacks if these are not always available at home, if restrictive rules apply to their consumption and if a child is sensitive to peer influence. It was also assumed that children who buy snacks out of their pocket money would consume more snacks. Data were taken from 1203 parent-child dyads who completed a questionnaire in the INPACT study (IVO Physical Activity Child cohorT). Multivariable regression models were used to (i) analyze associations between children's consumption and parents' and peers' influence and (ii) determine whether these associations were mediated by children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Of the parental factors, home availability of snacks was associated with higher snack consumption (B = 1.03, P snack-purchasing behaviour were not associated. Children who were sensitive to peer influence consumed more snacks (B = 3ċ07, P snacks out of their pocket money (odds ratio 3.27, P snack-purchasing behaviour explained part (8.6%) of the association between peer influence and children's snack consumption. As these findings indicate that both parents and peers influence children's snack consumption, health promotion may benefit from targeting the broader social environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of red palm oil in local snacks can increase intake of provitamin A carotenoids in young aborigines children: a Malaysian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T K W; Low, C X; Kong, J P; Cho, Y L

    2012-12-01

    Carotenoid-rich red palm oil (RPO)-based snacks have been provided to children in impoverished communities to improve their vitamin A status. The non-availabilty of information on the acceptability of RPO-based snacks by Malaysian aborigines (Orang Asli) children forms the basis of this study. Twenty-one Orang Asli children, majority of whom had normal body mass index for age (BMI-for-age) and aged 4.73 +/- 0.92 years in Sungai Tekir, Negeri Sembilan were provided with three freshly-prepared snacks (springroll, curry puff or doughnut) each containing one teaspoon or 5 ml of RPO per serving, on separate mornings. On the fourth morning, one serving each of all 3 different snacks was provided together on a plate to every child for consumption and preference for the snacks recorded. The children's habitual vitamin A intakes were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and carotenoid retention tests for the prepared snacks were performed by column chromatography. Fifty-four percent of the children did not meet their RNI for vitamin A. Based on acceptance criterion of consuming at least one-half serving of the snacks provided, springroll and curry puff recorded 100% acceptability while doughnut had 82% acceptability. Preference of snack was in the order, springroll (47%) > doughtnut (35%) > curry puff (18%), but a Z-test test for proportions showed no statistical significance. Carotenoid retention tests showed great variation between snacks namely, doughnut (100%) > springroll (84%) > curry puff (45%). The overall findings indicate that the RPO-based snacks are highly acceptable and can be used to improve the dietary intake of provitamin A carotenoids of Malaysian Orang Asli children.

  10. Predictors of changes in adolescents' consumption of fruits, vegetables and energy-dense snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the predictors of developmental changes in adolescent eating behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined associations between individual, social and physical environmental factors and changes in adolescent eating behaviours over 2 years. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and energy-dense snacks was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 1850 adolescents from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia, at baseline and 2 years later. Perceived value of healthy eating, self-efficacy for healthy eating, social modelling and support, and home availability and accessibility of foods were assessed at baseline. Self-efficacy for increasing fruit consumption was positively associated with the change in fruit and vegetable consumption, while self-efficacy for decreasing junk food consumption was inversely associated with the change in energy-dense snack consumption. Home availability of energy-dense foods was inversely associated with the change in fruit consumption and positively associated with the change in energy-dense snack consumption, while home availability of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with the change in vegetable consumption. Perceived value of healthy eating and modelling of healthy eating by mothers were positively associated with the change in fruit consumption. Support of best friends for healthy eating was positively associated with the change in vegetable consumption. Self-efficacy and home availability of foods appear to be consistent predictors of change in fruit, vegetable and energy-dense snack consumption. Future study should assess the effectiveness of methods to increase self-efficacy for healthy eating and to improve home availability of healthy food options in programmes promoting healthy eating among adolescents.

  11. Priming Effects of Television Food Advertising on Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. Design In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Main Outcome Measures Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Results Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. Conclusion These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. PMID:19594263

  12. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Bargh, John A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-07-01

    Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during TV viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-age children watched a cartoon that contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a TV program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits, or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to snack food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone.

  13. Overweight in adolescent, psychiatric inpatients: A problem of general or food-specific impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deux, Natalie; Schlarb, Angelika A; Martin, Franziska; Holtmann, Martin; Hebebrand, Johannes; Legenbauer, Tanja

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent psychiatric patients are vulnerable to weight problems and show an overrepresentation of overweight compared to the healthy population. One potential factor that can contribute to the etiology of overweight is higher impulsivity. As of yet, it is unclear whether it is a general impulse control deficit or weight-related aspects such as lower impulse control in response to food that have an impact on body weight. As this may have therapeutic implications, the current study investigated differences between overweight and non-overweight adolescent psychiatric inpatients (N = 98; aged 12-20) in relation to trait impulsivity and behavioral inhibition performance. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and two go/no-go paradigms with neutral and food-related stimulus materials were applied. Results indicated no significant differences concerning trait impulsivity, but revealed that overweight inpatients had significantly more difficulties in inhibition performance (i.e. they reacted more impulsively) in response to both food and neutral stimuli compared to non-overweight inpatients. Furthermore, no specific inhibition deficit for high-caloric vs. low-caloric food cues emerged in overweight inpatients, whereas non-overweight participants showed significantly lower inhibition skills in response to high-caloric than low-caloric food stimuli. The results highlight a rather general, non-food-specific reduced inhibition performance in an overweight adolescent psychiatric population. Further research is necessary to enhance the understanding of the role of impulsivity in terms of body weight status in this high-risk group of adolescent inpatients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Correa-Burrows

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA, the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: −40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI: −59.2, −16.9, d = 0.41, significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25–0.88, and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31–0.88. Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  15. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs ( M difference: -40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): -59.2, -16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25-0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  16. From policy to practice: Addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a community partnership between afterschool programs (ASPs) and grocery store to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit/vegetable (FV) daily, while eliminating sugar-based foods/beverages. Methods A single-group, pre- with multiple post-test design (Spring 2011–2013) in four large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/day was used along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. Results At baseline FV, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and desserts were served 0.1±0.5, 1.7±2.0, and 2.0±1.4 days/wk. By Spring 2013, FV increased to 5.0±0.0 days/wk, while SSB and desserts were eliminated. Eighty-four percent of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000–$3,000 savings over a standard 180day school year. Conclusions and Implications This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. PMID:24268299

  17. From policy to practice: addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Moore, Justin B; Webster, Collin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a community partnership between after-school programs (ASPs) and grocery stores to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit or vegetable (FV) daily while eliminating sugar-based foods and beverages. A single-group, pretest with multiple posttest design (spring, 2011-2013) in 4 large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/d was used, along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. At baseline, FV, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts were served 0.1 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 2.0, and 2.0 ± 1.4 d/wk. By spring, 2013, FV increased to 5.0 ± 0.0 d/wk, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. A total of 84% of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000-$3,000 savings over a standard 180-day school year. This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  18. Snacks With Nutrition Labels: Tastiness Perception, Healthiness Perception, and Willingness to Pay by Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    Consumers tend to have the perception that healthy equals less tasty. This study aimed to identify whether information provided by the Keyhole symbol, a widely used front-of-package symbol in Nordic countries to indicate nutritional content, and percent daily values (%DVs) affect Norwegian adolescents' perception of the healthiness of snacks and their intention to buy them. Two tasks were used to evaluate adolescents' perception of snacks with the Keyhole symbol: with %DVs or with no nutrition label. A third task was used to test their abilities to use %DVs (pairwise selections). A survey obtained personal attributes. A total of 566 Norwegian adolescents. Taste perception, health perception, and ability to use %DVs. Linear mixed models and logistic models that tested effects of labels and personal attributes on main outcome measures. The Keyhole symbol increased health perception without influencing taste perception of snacks. Norwegian adolescents had limited abilities to use information from the %DVs correctly to identify healthier foods. Norwegian adolescents had a positive perception of the Keyhole symbols. Keyhole symbols as a simple, heuristic front-of-package label have potential as an information strategy that may influence self-efficacy in promoting healthy snack choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on lipid metabolism of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Chávez-Jáuregui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on plasma lipids in moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Twenty-two subjects [30-65 years old, 11 males, with total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg.dL-1, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c 160-190 mg.dL-1 and plasma triglycerides (TG < 400 mg.dL-1] were randomized in a double blind clinical trial to receive an amaranth snack (50 g/day or equivalent corn snack (placebo for 2 months. There were no differences between amaranth and placebo on TC and LDL-c, and TG respectively: -8.4 and -5.7% (p = 0.17; -12.3 and -9.7% (p = 0.41 and -0.6 and -7.3% (p = 0.47. However, amaranth snacks significantly reduced high-density cholesterol (HDL-c: -15.2 vs. -4% (p = 0.03. In conclusion, the intake of 50 g of extruded amaranth daily during 60 days did not significantly reduce LDL-c in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects; furthermore there was a significant reduction in HDL-c. Studies with greater number of subjects and greater quantity of this food are necessary to test the effects of amaranth on lipid metabolism in humans.

  20. Suplementasi Tepung Putih Telur untuk Memperbaiki Nilai Nutrisi Snack Ekstrusi Berbahan Grits Jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Snack is popular for children and adult. It could be made by extrusion process. Snack is low in protein content because it is made up of cereal such as rice and corn. On the basis of nutritional and functional properties, egg was used in food industries. The objectives of the research were to analyze the nutrient content and in vitro digestibility of extruded snack from corn grits which was supplemented by egg white powder as a protein source. Randomized complete block design was used in this experiment with production periods as block. Water content was not significantly different between treatments. Supplementation with 10% egg white powder significantly increased the fat content of extrusion snack. Protein content and digestible protein increased significantly as increasing of egg white powder added. Protein digestibility of products with 10%, 15%, and 20% of egg white addition was significantly lower than those added with 0% and 5% egg white. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate linkage had formed porous product. This linkage affects product nutritive content and digestibility.

  1. Novel method for the determination of added annatto colour in extruded corn snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Rios, A; Mercadante, A Z

    2004-02-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the added levels of the natural dye annatto in foods like snack products, particularly because they are mostly consumed by young people. The objective was to use response surface methodology to develop a new method to analyse annatto in extruded snacks. A pretreatment of the samples was necessary, digesting the ground sample with alpha-amylase at room temperature. The pigment was extracted by shaking with ethyl acetate at room temperature, eight extractions being necessary for completion extract the pigment. Lipids were removed by alkaline saponification. Under these conditions, 100% of the bixin was converted into norbixin, which was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method had a mean recovery of 97% and a coefficient of variation for duplicate analysis of 1%. Using this method, of the 13 commercial samples analysed, a parmesan cheese-flavoured snack product showed the highest level of dye expressed as norbixin (15.5 mg kg(-1)), whilst other brands of onion-flavoured snack products had the lowest levels (0.7 and 0.4 mg kg(-1), respectively).

  2. Food safety and ecologization: practical solutions to problems at the regional level in current economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysochenko Alla, A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security and greening both at the level of the country, and at the level of regions are main objectives of modern agroeconomic policy. The state support creates favorable conditions for dynamic development of agrarian and industrial complex, raises investment opportunities and competitiveness of agricultural producers. A realization of the actions directed on assistance to the enterprises making import-substituting production of the regional agro-industrial complex is actual in modern economic conditions. The solution of this problem consists of investment projects implementation and production expansion of the operating enterprises. Considering new economic conditions, the ensuring financial stability of agricultural producers, availability of the food to needy segments of the population, production of valeologically safe food, and also increase efficiency of use of natural resources and conditions along with preservation of quality of environment at the local, regional and global levels are particularly acute challenges. State regulation of development of an agrofood complex of Russia remains a necessary condition for its reproduction functioning, and the social and economic policy has to provide economic availability of the food to all groups of the population that causes need of standard and legal fixing of mechanisms offood security achievement at the regional level.

  3. How Can Asian Snack FuLoi Plan Successful Entering to Greater Helsinki Area? : Market research

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Loc

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces the significant factors of market research and its importance when considering doing international business. Furthermore, it could be useful for investors who have same favour to enter Finnish market. The case company is Asian Snack FuLoi- a German food industry company looking for new market. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility for a company to enter Finland in general and Greater Helsinki in particular. The thesis was structured with theor...

  4. Correlates of fruit, vegetable, soft drink, and snack intake among adolescents: the ESSENS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekdes K. Gebremariam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying modifiable correlates of dietary behaviors is of utmost importance for the promotion of healthy dietary behaviors. Objective: This study explores individual, home, and school/neighborhood environmental correlates of dietary behaviors (intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks, and unhealthy snacks among adolescents. Methods: In total, 742 adolescents with a mean age of 13.6 (SD=0.3 were included in this cross-sectional study conducted in 11 secondary schools located in the eastern part of Norway. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with the dietary behaviors included. Results: A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in the school canteen was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks and snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around schools during break or recess was related to a higher consumption of snacks. A higher frequency of food/drink purchase in shops around the neighborhood on the way to and from school was related to a higher consumption of soft drinks. Perceived parental modeling and perceived accessibility at home were found to be positively associated with all dietary behaviors. Perceived parental rules were inversely associated with soft drink and snack consumption; self-efficacy related to healthy eating was positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Other included school and neighborhood environmental correlates were not associated with the dietary behaviors. Conclusions: There is a need to address the food purchasing behavior of the adolescents using different approaches. The findings also highlight the important role of parents and the home environment for healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors of adolescents.

  5. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p breakfast. This breakfast model differs from the prototype of a healthy diet through an excessive consumption of sweet foods (early breakfast) and meat and derivatives (snack). Half of interviewee did not a mid-morning snack and the morning caloric intake was below recommended. In the case of university students concerned about the potentially negative effect it may have on academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of amaranth addition on the pro-vitamin A content, and physical and antioxidant properties of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswa, Daniso; Dlamini, Nomusa R; Amonsou, Eric O; Siwela, Muthulisi; Derera, John

    2016-01-15

    Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks with added leafy vegetable may have a potential as nutritious and health-promoting products, especially in addressing vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing regions. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of adding amaranth leaf powder on the physical, antioxidant properties and pro-vitamin A content of extruded pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize snacks. Extruded snacks were processed using four pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize varieties that were composited with amaranth leaf powder at 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) substitution levels. At higher amaranth concentration, the expansion ratio of the snacks decreased, while their hardness increased by as much as 93%. The physical quality of the snacks may therefore need improvement. As amaranth was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the snacks increased as well as the pro-vitamin A content. Pro-vitamin A-biofortified maize with added amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks. There are limited studies reporting on processing pro-vitamin A maize with complementary plant foods, which is common with white maize in southern Africa; thus the current study serves as a baseline. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The attraction of sugar : An association between body mass index and impaired avoidance action tendencies of sweet snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Woud, M.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E. S.; Wiers, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated implicit approach-avoidance action tendencies towards snack foods (pictorial Approach-Avoidance Task), and implicit approach-avoidance associations (verbal approach-avoidance Single-Target IAT) and affective associations (verbal positive-negative Single-Target IAT)

  8. Impact of an Organizational Intervention Designed to Improve Snack and Beverage Quality in YMCA After-School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S.; Roth, Barbara A.; Nelson, Toben F.; Lee, Rebekka M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the quality of snacks and beverages served at YMCA after-school programs before and after the programs' participation in a YMCA Learning Collaborative. Methods. We collected data on the types and brands of snacks and beverages (including fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, foods with trans fats, water, and sugar-sweetened beverages) served daily during 3 different time periods spanning 14 months in total, and the components of the healthy eating standards. We compared snack and beverage quality before and after the intervention. Results. Weekly servings of fresh fruits and vegetables (1.3 vs 3.9; P = .02) and weekly servings of fruits and vegetables as a whole (1.9 vs 5.2; P = .009) increased from baseline to postintervention; weekly servings of desserts (1.3 vs 0.5; P = .049), foods with added sugars (3.9 vs 2.4; P = .03), and foods containing trans fats (2.6 vs 0.7; P = .01) decreased. After the intervention, all YMCAs offered water daily, and none served sugar-sweetened beverages. The percentage of calories from fruits and vegetables significantly increased after the intervention, whereas the percentage of calories from foods containing trans fats and added sugars decreased. Conclusions. A learning collaborative can disseminate healthy eating standards among participating organizations and facilitate improvements in the quality of after-school snacks and beverages. PMID:19833987

  9. Does despotic behavior or food search explain the occurrence of problem brown bears in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Elfström, Marcus; Zedrosser, Andreas; Jerina, Klemen; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Kindberg, Jonas; Budic, Lara; Jonozovic, Marko; Swenson, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Bears foraging near human developments are often presumed to be responding to food shortage, but this explanation ignores social factors, in particular despotism in bears. We analyzed the age distribution and body condition index (BCI) of shot brown bears in relation to densities of bears and people, and whether the shot bears were killed by managers (i.e., problem bears; n = 149), in self-defense (n = 51), or were hunter-killed nonproblem bears (n = 1,896) during 1990–2010. We compared patte...

  10. The home food environment of overweight gatekeepers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, M.P.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.; Velema, E.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain insight into (i) processed snack-food availability, (ii) processed snack-food salience and (iii) the size of dinnerware among households with overweight gatekeepers. Moreover, associations between gatekeepers' characteristics and in-home

  11. Identifying sources of children's consumption of junk food in Boston after-school programs, April-May 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Austin, S Bryn; Cradock, Angie L; Giles, Catherine M; Lee, Rebekka M; Davison, Kirsten K; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2014-11-20

    Little is known about how the nutrition environment in after-school settings may affect children's dietary intake. We measured the nutritional quality of after-school snacks provided by programs participating in the National School Lunch Program or the Child and Adult Care Food Program and compared them with snacks brought from home or purchased elsewhere (nonprogram snacks). We quantified the effect of nonprogram snacks on the dietary intake of children who also received program-provided snacks during after-school time. Our study objective was to determine how different sources of snacks affect children's snack consumption in after-school settings. We recorded snacks served to and brought in by 298 children in 18 after-school programs in Boston, Massachusetts, on 5 program days in April and May 2011. We measured children's snack consumption on 2 program days using a validated observation protocol. We then calculated within-child change-in-change models to estimate the effect of nonprogram snacks on children's dietary intake after school. Nonprogram snacks contained more sugary beverages and candy than program-provided snacks. Having a nonprogram snack was associated with significantly higher consumption of total calories (+114.7 kcal, P < .001), sugar-sweetened beverages (+0.5 oz, P = .01), desserts (+0.3 servings, P < .001), and foods with added sugars (+0.5 servings; P < .001) during the snack period. On days when children brought their own after-school snack, they consumed more salty and sugary foods and nearly twice as many calories than on days when they consumed only program-provided snacks. Policy strategies limiting nonprogram snacks or setting nutritional standards for them in after-school settings should be explored further as a way to promote child health.

  12. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P extruded snack products.

  13. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills Within Food Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, J.; Gruppen, H.; Hartog, R.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related

  14. Eating patterns of US adults: Meals, snacks, and time of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this paper is to update knowledge of eating patterns of US adults with sex and ethnicity specific estimates and discuss the implications of reported patterns with respect to current resurgence of interest in the topic. The eating patterns data were from the NHANES 2009-2014 (n = 15,341 adults). Overall, American adults reported 4.96 ± 0.03 eating episodes in the recall. Women were more likely to report each of the three main meals and all three meals plus one or more snacks relative to men (P < 0.0001). Relative to other ethnic groups, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to report each meal or a snack or all three meals, and the foods reported for meals and snacks were higher in energy density (P = 0.0001). Of the three meals, the dinner meal, and among snacks, the after-dinner snack, were reported by the highest percentage of Americans; these two eating episodes provided nearly 45% of the 24-h energy intake. The average dinnertime was 6:24 pm, and the average time of the last eating episode of the 24-h ingestive period was 8:18 pm. Given these findings, adoption of eating patterns that advocate less frequent eating and shift in the time of eating are likely to present a challenge. We know little about the validity of eating patterns determined from 24-h recalls or questionnaire instruments. The extent of within person variability and reporting errors in different eating pattern components also need further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy-dense snacks can have the same expected satiation as sugar-containing beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ashley A.; Hamill, Liam R.; Davies, Sarah; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are thought to be problematic for weight management because energy delivered in liquid form may be less effective at suppressing appetite than solid foods. However, little is known about the relative ‘expected satiation’ (anticipated fullness) of SSBs and solid foods. This is relevant because expected satiation is an important determinant of portion selection and energy intake. Here, we used a method of constant stimuli to assess the expected satiation of test meals that were presented in combination with different caloric and non-caloric beverages (500 ml) (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as with high-energy solid snack foods (Experiment 2). All energy-containing beverages and snack foods were presented in 210 kcal portions. Both experiments found that expected satiation was greater for meals containing caloric versus non-caloric beverages (201.3 ± 17.3 vs. 185.4 ± 14.1 kcal in Experiment 2; p beverages, indicating a role for learning. Notably, we failed to observe a significant difference in expected satiation between any of the caloric beverages and snack foods in Experiment 2 (range: 192.5–205.2 kcal; p = 0.87). This finding suggests that it may be more appropriate to consider beverages and solid foods on the same continuum, recognizing that the expected satiation of some solid foods is as weak as some beverages. PMID:26122755

  16. Development and validation of a beverage and snack questionnaire for use in evaluation of school nutrition policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhouser, Marian L; Lilley, Sonya; Lund, Anne; Johnson, Donna B

    2009-09-01

    School nutrition policies limiting access to sweetened beverages, candy, and salty snacks have the potential to improve the health of children. To effectively evaluate policy success, appropriate and validated dietary assessment instruments are needed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a beverage and snack questionnaire suitable for use among young adolescents. A new 19-item Beverage and Snack Questionnaire (BSQ) was administered to middle school students on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure test-retest reliability. The questionnaire inquired about frequency of consumption, both at school and away from school, of soft drinks, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruits and vegetables. Students also completed 4-day food records. To assess validity, food-record data were compared with BSQ data. Forty-six students of diverse backgrounds from metropolitan Seattle, WA, participated in this study. Participants answered the BSQ during class time and completed the food record at home. Pearson correlation coefficients assessed test-retest reliability and validity. Using frequency per week data, the test-retest reliability coefficients were r=0.85 for fruits and vegetables consumed at school and r=0.74 and r=0.72 for beverages and sweets/snacks, respectively, consumed at school. Correlations ranged from r=0.73 to 0.77 for foods consumed outside of school. Compared with the criterion food record, validity coefficients were very good: r=0.69 to 0.71 for foods consumed at school and r=0.63 to 0.70 for foods consumed away from school. The validity coefficients for the 19 individual food items ranged from r=0.56 to 0.87. This easy-to-administer 19-item questionnaire captures data on sugar-sweetened beverages, salty snacks, sweets, milk, and fruit and vegetables as well as a more lengthy and expensive food record does. The BSQ can be used by nutrition researchers and practitioners to accurately evaluate student consumption of foods that are the focus of

  17. Storage stability of snacks with reduced saturated and trans fatty acids contents Estabilidade de snacks com teores reduzidos de ácidos graxos saturados e trans durante o armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dias Capriles

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil has been used in snack flavoring for its ability to entrap hydrophobic aroma compounds. However, increasing concerns about the health risks of saturated and trans fatty acids (TFA consumption led to the development of alternative agents for this use. We studied the use of rapeseed oil (O as a replacement for partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (F in snack flavoring. Products with several different rapeseed oil contents were designed, packed, and then stored for twenty weeks at room temperature. Fatty acids compositions, TBA reactive substances (TBARS, shear strength and sensory acceptability were assessed throughout storage time. Total replacement reduced saturated fat by 72.5% in relation to market available snacks. TFA were initially absent in these products, but their production occurred spontaneously on the 8th week with gradual increase during storage up to levels still lower than those observed in commercially available snacks. Low TBARS levels and stability of shear strength during the twenty-week of storage were also observed. Snacks flavored with F or O were equally well accepted during the storage period. It is feasible to develop a storage stable snack with reduced saturated and trans fatty acid contents while maintaining the high sensory acceptability typical of this food product.A gordura vegetal parcialmente hidrogenada tem sido utilizada na aromatização de snacks. Entretanto, o risco à saúde ocasionado pelo elevado consumo de ácidos graxos saturados e trans (AGT vem estimulando o desenvolvimento de abordagens alternativas a essa gordura. Substituímos a gordura vegetal parcialmente hidrogenada (F por óleo de canola (O na aromatização de snacks. Snacks com diferentes níveis de O foram produzidos, embalados e armazenados em temperatura ambiente durante vinte semanas. Monitoramos o perfil de ácidos graxos, o teor de substâncias reativas ao TBA (TBARS, a força de cisalhamento e a

  18. Children's purchase behavior in the snack market: Can branding or lower prices motivate healthier choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Monika; Cash, Sean B; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Landwehr, Stefanie C; McAlister, Anna R

    2017-10-01

    Children's dietary-related diseases and their associated costs have expanded dramatically in many countries, making children's food choice a policy issue of increasing relevance. As children spend a considerable amount of money on energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) products, a better understanding of the main drivers of children's independent food purchase decisions is crucial to move this behavior toward healthier options. The objective of the study is to investigate the role of branding and price in motivating children to choose healthier snack options. The study investigates snack choices of children ages 8 to 11, using a survey and a purchase experiment. The research took place in after-school programs of selected schools in the Boston area. Participants included 116 children. Products in the choice experiment differed on three factors: product type, brand, and price. Data were analyzed using aggregated and mixed logit models. Children's purchase decisions are primarily determined by product type (Importance Value (IV) 56.6%), while brand (IV 22.8%) and price (IV 20.6%) prove to be of less relevance. Only those children who state that they like the familiar brand reveal a preference for the branded product in their purchase decision. Price is a significant predictor of choice when controlling for whether or not children obtain an allowance. It is not simple brand awareness but a child's liking of the brand that determines whether a brand is successful in motivating a child to choose a product. The extent of children's experience with money influences their price responsiveness. To the extent that children who receive an allowance are primarily the ones buying food snacks, higher prices for EDNP snacks could be successful in motivating children to choose a healthier option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Kahlon, Talwinder S.; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J.; Chiu, Mei-Chen M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% c...

  20. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  2. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  3. Consumption of highly processed snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages and child feeding practices in a rural area of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate feeding behaviours are important for child growth and development. In societies undergoing nutrition transition, new food items are introduced that may be unfavourable for child health. Set in rural Nicaragua, the aim of this study was to describe the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices as well as the consumption of highly processed snack foods (HP snacks) and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). All households with at least one child 0- to 35-month-old (n = 1371) were visited to collect information on current IYCF practices in the youngest child as well as consumption of SSBs and HP snacks. Breastfeeding was dominant (98%) among 0- to 1-month-olds and continued to be prevalent (60%) in the second year, while only 34% of the 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed. Complementary feeding practices were deemed acceptable for only 59% of the 6- to 11-month-old infants, with low dietary diversity reported for 50% and inadequate meal frequency reported for 30%. Consumption of HP snacks and SSBs was frequent and started early; among 6- to 8-month-olds, 42% and 32% had consumed HP snacks and SSBs, respectively. The difference between the observed IYCF behaviours and World Health Organization recommendations raises concern of increased risk of infections and insufficient intake of micronutrients that may impair linear growth. The concurrent high consumption of SSBs and HP snacks may increase the risk of displacing the recommended feeding behaviours. To promote immediate and long-term health, growth and development, there is a need to both promote recommended IYCF practices as well as discourage unfavourable feeding behaviours. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Snack intake is reduced using an implicit, high-level construal cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Priming a high level construal has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce preference for indulgent food. Subtle visual cues have been shown to enhance the effects of a priming procedure. The current study therefore examined the combined impact of construal level and a visual cue reminder on the consumption of energy-dense snacks. A student and community-based adult sample with a wide age and body mass index (BMI) range (N = 176) were randomly assigned to a high or low construal condition in which a novel symbol was embedded. Afterward participants completed a taste test of ad libitum snack foods in the presence or absence of the symbol. The high (vs. the low) construal level prime successfully generated more abstra