WorldWideScience

Sample records for smooth function spaces

  1. Smooth analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hájek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This bookis aboutthe subject of higher smoothness in separable real Banach spaces.It brings together several angles of view on polynomials, both in finite and infinite setting.Also a rather thorough and systematic view of the more recent results, and the authors work is given. The book revolves around two main broad questions: What is the best smoothness of a given Banach space, and its structural consequences? How large is a supply of smooth functions in the sense of approximating continuous functions in the uniform topology, i.e. how does the Stone-Weierstrass theorem generalize into in

  2. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 1 ... We show that when the space of compact operators is an -ideal in the space of bounded operators, a very smooth operator attains its norm at a unique vector (up to a constant multiple) and ( ) is a very smooth point of the range space.

  3. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    or Y has the compact metric approximation property (CMAP), then it is easy to see that K (X, Y ) ⊂ L(X, Y ) satisfies the above condition (see [R6]). Thus for a compact operator that is a very smooth point, directional derivatives exist in the direction of all bounded operators. Smooth points of operator spaces has been ...

  4. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using a generalized spherical mean operator, we define generalized modulus of smoothness in the space L k 2 ( R d ) . Based on the Dunkl operator we define Sobolev-type space and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the ...

  5. Estimate of K-functionals and modulus of smoothness constructed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction and preliminaries. In [2], Belkina and Platonov proved the equivalence theorem for a K-functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform in the Hilbert space L2(R, |x|2α+1. ), α > −1/2, using a Dunkl translation operator. In this paper, we prove the analog of this result (see [2]) in the Hilbert space.

  6. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  7. Radial Basis Function Based Quadrature over Smooth Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Stieltjessche Integrale und Harmonische Analyse,” Math . Ann., vol. 108, pp. 378–410, 1933. 12. I. J. Schoenberg, “Metric Spaces and Positive Definite Functions ...Fornberg, “Interpolation in the Limit of Increasingly Flat Radial Basis Functions ,” Comput. Math . Appl., vol. 43, pp. 413–422, 2002. 83 REPORT...Radial Basis Function Based Quadrature over Smooth Surfaces THESIS March 2016 Maloupu L. Watts, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENC-MS-16-M-003

  8. ON THE DERIVATIVE OF SMOOTH MEANINGFUL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The derivative of a function f in n variables at a point x* is one of the most important tools in mathematical modelling. If this object exists, it is represented by the row n-tuple f(x* = [∂f/∂xi(x*] called the gradient of f at x*, abbreviated: “the gradient”. The evaluation of f(x* is usually done in two stages, first by calculating the n partials and then their values at x = x*. In this talk we give an alternative approach. We show that one can characterize the gradient without differentiation! The idea is to fix an arbitrary row n-tuple G and answer the following question: What is a necessary and sufficient condition such that G is the gradient of a given f at a given x*? The answer is given after adjusting the quadratic envelope property introduced in [3]. We work with smooth, i.e., continuously differentiable, functions with a Lipschitz derivative on a compact convex set with a non-empty interior. Working with this class of functions is not a serious restriction. In fact, loosely speaking, “almost all” smooth meaningful functions used in modelling of real life situations are expected to have a bounded “acceleration” hence they belong to this class. In particular, the class contains all twice differentiable functions [1]. An important property of the functions from this class is that every f can be represented as the difference of some convex function and a convex quadratic function. This decomposition was used in [3] to characterize the zero derivative points. There we obtained reformulations and augmentations of some well known classic results on optimality such as Fermats extreme value theorem (known from high school and the Lagrange multiplier theorem from calculus [2, 3]. In this talk we extend the results on zero derivative points to characterize the relation G = f(x*, where G is an arbitrary n-tuple. Some special cases: If G = O, we recover the results on zero derivative points. For functions of a single

  9. Bandwidth selection in smoothing functions | Kibua | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inexpensive and, hence, worth adopting. We argue that the bandwidth parameter is determined by two factors: the kernel function and the length of the smoothing region. We give an illustrative example of its application using real data. Keywords: Kernel, Smoothing functions, Bandwidth > East African Journal of Statistics ...

  10. Dissimilarity for functional data clustering based on smoothing parameter commutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, ShengLi; Hennig, Christian; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Chien-Ju

    2017-01-01

    Many studies measure the same type of information longitudinally on the same subject at multiple time points, and clustering of such functional data has many important applications. We propose a novel and easy method to implement dissimilarity measure for functional data clustering based on smoothing splines and smoothing parameter commutation. This method handles data observed at regular or irregular time points in the same way. We measure the dissimilarity between subjects based on varying curve estimates with pairwise commutation of smoothing parameters. The intuition is that smoothing parameters of smoothing splines reflect the inverse of the signal-to-noise ratios and that when applying an identical smoothing parameter the smoothed curves for two similar subjects are expected to be close. Our method takes into account the estimation uncertainty using smoothing parameter commutation and is not strongly affected by outliers. It can also be used for outlier detection. The effectiveness of our proposal is shown by simulations comparing it to other dissimilarity measures and by a real application to methadone dosage maintenance levels.

  11. Sparse Signal Reconstruction Based on Multiparameter Approximation Function with Smoothed l0 Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The smoothed l0 norm algorithm is a reconstruction algorithm in compressive sensing based on approximate smoothed l0 norm. It introduces a sequence of smoothed functions to approximate the l0 norm and approaches the solution using the specific iteration process with the steepest method. In order to choose an appropriate sequence of smoothed function and solve the optimization problem effectively, we employ approximate hyperbolic tangent multiparameter function as the approximation to the big “steep nature” in l0 norm. Simultaneously, we propose an algorithm based on minimizing a reweighted approximate l0 norm in the null space of the measurement matrix. The unconstrained optimization involved is performed by using a modified quasi-Newton algorithm. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed algorithms yield improved signal reconstruction quality and performance.

  12. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  13. On the vanishing rate of smooth CR functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Della Sala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a lineally convex hypersurface of ℂⁿ of finite type, 0∈. Then there exist non-trivial smooth CR functions on that are flat at 0, i.e. whose Taylor expansion about 0 vanishes identically. Our aim is to characterize the rate at which flat CR functions can decrease without vanishing identically. As it turns out, non-trivial CR functions cannot decay arbitrarily fast, and a possible way of expressing the critical rate is by comparison with a suitable exponential of the modulus of a local peak function.

  14. Theory of function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart

  15. Localized Gravitons, Gauge Bosons and Chiral Fermions in Smooth Spaces Generated by a Bounce

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, A A

    2001-01-01

    We study five-dimensional solutions to Einstein equations coupled to a scalar field. Bounce-type solutions for the scalar field are associated with AdS_5 spaces with smooth warp functions. Gravitons are dynamically localized in this framework in analogy to the Randall-Sundrum solution whereas, a bulk fermion gives rise to a single chiral zero mode localized at the bounce. Additional bulk scalar fields are incorporated in this picture. The dilaton, as a bulk scalar leads, through its coupling, to localized gauge boson fields, something that holds also in the case that the bounce system is replaced by a brane.

  16. Function valued metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Mirzavaziri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notion of an ℱ-metric, as a function valued distance mapping, on a set X and we investigate the theory of ℱ-metrics paces. We show that every metric space may be viewed as an F-metric space and every ℱ-metric space (X,δ can be regarded as a topological space (X,τδ. In addition, we prove that the category of the so-called extended F-metric spaces properly contains the category of metric spaces. We also introduce the concept of an `ℱ-metric space as a completion of an ℱ-metric space and, as an application to topology, we prove that each normal topological space is `ℱ-metrizable.

  17. A remark on smooth images of Banach spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr Pavel; Johanis, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 458, č. 2 (2018), s. 1307-1313 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : smooth surjections Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X17309186?via%3Dihub

  18. Components of the Hilbert scheme of space curves on low-degree smooth surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kleppe, Jan Oddvar; Ottem, John Christian

    2015-01-01

    We study maximal families W of the Hilbert scheme, H(d, g)sc, of smooth connected space curves whose general curve C lies on a smooth surface S of degree s. We give conditions on C under which W is a generically smooth component of H(d, g)sc and we determine dim W. If s = 4 and W is an irreducible component of H(d, g)sc, then the Picard number of S is at most 2 and we explicitly describe, also for s ≥ 5, non-reduced and generically smooth components in the case Pic(S) is generated by the clas...

  19. Smooth Approximation of Lipschitz Functions on Finsler Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the smooth approximation of Lipschitz functions on Finsler manifolds, keeping control on the corresponding Lipschitz constants. We prove that, given a Lipschitz function f:M→ℝ defined on a connected, second countable Finsler manifold M, for each positive continuous function ε:M→(0,∞ and each r>0, there exists a C1-smooth Lipschitz function g:M→ℝ such that |f(x-g(x|≤ε(x, for every x∈M, and Lip(g≤Lip(f+r. As a consequence, we derive a completeness criterium in the class of what we call quasi-reversible Finsler manifolds. Finally, considering the normed algebra Cb1(M of all C1 functions with bounded derivative on a complete quasi-reversible Finsler manifold M, we obtain a characterization of algebra isomorphisms T:Cb1(N→Cb1(M as composition operators. From this we obtain a variant of Myers-Nakai Theorem in the context of complete reversible Finsler manifolds.

  20. Space race functional responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey...

  1. Menthol inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Liu, Shao-Cheng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is used as a constituent of food and drink, tobacco and cosmetics nowadays. This cold receptor agonist has been used as a nasal inhalation solution in the daily life. The effect of menthol on nasal mucosa in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has been rarely explored. Therefore, during administration of the drug for nasal symptoms, it might also affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation. We used our preparation to test the effectiveness of menthol on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle. A 5 mm long portion of rat trachea was submersed in 30 ml Krebs solution in a muscle bath at 37ºC. Changes in tracheal contractility in response to the application of a parasympathetic mimetic agent were measured using a transducer connected to a Pentium III computer equipped with polygraph software. The following assessments of menthol were performed: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10 -6 M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; (3) effect of the drug on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results indicated that addition of a parasympathetic mimetic to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of menthol at doses of 10 -5 M or above elicited a relaxation response to 10 -6 M methacholine-induced contraction. Menthol could also inhibit electrical field stimulation (EFS) induced spike contraction. However, it alone had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. We concluded that the degree of drug-induced tracheal contraction or relaxation was dose-dependent. In addition, this study indicated that high concentrations of menthol might actually inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea.

  2. Trigonometric polynomial approximation, K-functionals and generalized moduli of smoothness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runovskii, K. V.

    2017-02-01

    Best approximation and approximation by families of linear polynomial operators (FLPO) in the spaces L_p, 0, are investigated for periodic functions of an arbitrary number of variables in terms of the generalized modulus of smoothness generated by a periodic generator which, near the origin, is assumed to be close in a certain sense to some homogeneous function of positive order. Direct and inverse theorems (Jackson- and Bernstein-type estimates) are proved; conditions on the generators are obtained under which the approximation error by an FLPO is equivalent to an appropriate modulus of smoothness. These problems are solved by going over from the modulus to an equivalent K-functional. The general results obtained are applied to classical objects in the theory of approximation and smoothness. In particular, they are applied to the methods of approximation generated by Fejér, Riesz and Bochner-Riesz kernels, and also to the moduli of smoothness and K-functionals corresponding to the conventional, Weyl and Riesz derivatives and to the Laplace operator. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  3. International Conference on Function Spaces and Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Schmeisser, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This book features original research and survey articles on the topics of function spaces and inequalities. It focuses on (variable/grand/small) Lebesgue spaces, Orlicz spaces, Lorentz spaces, and Morrey spaces and deals with mapping properties of operators, (weighted) inequalities, pointwise multipliers and interpolation. Moreover, it considers Sobolev–Besov and Triebel–Lizorkin type smoothness spaces. The book includes papers by leading international researchers, presented at the International Conference on Function Spaces and Inequalities, held at the South Asian University, New Delhi, India, on 11–15 December 2015, which focused on recent developments in the theory of spaces with variable exponents. It also offers further investigations concerning Sobolev-type embeddings, discrete inequalities and harmonic analysis. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific topic and written by leading experts, providing an overview of the subject and stimulating future research.

  4. Vascular smooth muscle function: defining the diabetic vascular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2013-10-01

    In this issue of Diabetologia, a meta-analysis performed by Montero and co-authors (Diabetologia doi 10.1007/s00125-013-2974-1 ) demonstrates a significant impairment of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) function in type 2 diabetic patients. Endothelial function and VSM function between type 2 diabetic and healthy individuals were associated, especially in the microcirculation, confirming the hypothesis that unresponsiveness of VSM cells to NO may amplify the consequences of reduced NO availability. This study suggests a novel interpretation for endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients, indicating VSM cells as key players. Causative mechanisms of VSM dysfunction, which seems to be a feature of the vascular phenotype of type 2 diabetes mellitus, are largely unexplored in humans. Future studies should also address the crucial issue of the prognostic significance of VSM dysfunction in diabetic patients, and possibly in other conditions characterised by high cardiovascular risk.

  5. Dry Lubricant Smooths the Way for Space Travel, Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reviving industry standards for coating parts in tungsten disulfide, a dry lubricant developed for the Mariner space probes managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the 1960s and '70s, Applied Tungstenite, a relatively new Temecula, California-based company, has found a client base in the mushrooming commercial space industry, as well as other manufacturers.

  6. The Jacobian Consistency of a One-Parametric Class of Smoothing Functions for SOCCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoni Chi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Second-order cone (SOC complementarity functions and their smoothing functions have been much studied in the solution of second-order cone complementarity problems (SOCCP. In this paper, we study the directional derivative and B-subdifferential of the one-parametric class of SOC complementarity functions, propose its smoothing function, and derive the computable formula for the Jacobian of the smoothing function. Based on these results, we prove the Jacobian consistency of the one-parametric class of smoothing functions, which will play an important role for achieving the rapid convergence of smoothing methods. Moreover, we estimate the distance between the subgradient of the one-parametric class of the SOC complementarity functions and the gradient of its smoothing function, which will help to adjust a parameter appropriately in smoothing methods.

  7. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  8. Space race functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Köthe-Bochner Spaces and Some Geometric Properties Related to Rotundity and Smoothness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-David Hardtke

    2013-01-01

    rotundity and smoothness properties of Banach spaces. In a recent paper, the author introduced some further related notions and investigated the behaviour of these geometric properties under the formation of absolute sums. The present paper is in a sense a continuation of this work. Here we will study the behaviour of the said properties under the formation of Köthe-Bochner spaces, thereby generalising some results of G. Sirotkin on the acs, luacs, and uacs properties of -Bochner spaces.

  10. Space Deformation for Character Deformation using Multi-Domain Smooth Embedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Zhiping; Veltkamp, Remco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984; Egges, Arjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822779

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel space deformation method based on domain-decomposition to animate character skin. The method supports smoothness and local controllability of deformations, and can achieve interactive interpolating rates. Given a character, we partition it into multiple domains according to

  11. Impaired arterial smooth muscle cell vasodilatory function in methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabaei, Ghaemeh; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2016-11-15

    Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD) independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD) CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84). Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impaired Arterial Smooth Muscle Cell Vasodilatory Function In Methamphetamine Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaemeh Nabaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Methamphetamine use is a strong risk factor for stroke. This study was designed to evaluate arterial function and structure in methamphetamine users ultrasonographically. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 20 methamphetamine users and 21 controls, aged between 20 and 40years, were enrolled. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT marker of early atherogenesis, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD determinants of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD independent marker of vasodilation were measured in two groups. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic and metabolic characteristics. The mean (±SD CCA-IMT in methamphetamine users was 0.58±0.09mm, versus 0.59±0.07mm in the controls (p=0.84. Likewise, FMD% was not significantly different between the two groups [7.6±6.1% in methamphetamine users vs. 8.2±5.1% in the controls; p=0.72], nor were peak flow and shear rate after hyperemia. However, NMD% was considerably decreased in the methamphetamine users [8.5±7.8% in methamphetamine users vs. 13.4±6.2% in controls; p=0.03]. Conclusion: According to our results, NMD is reduced among otherwise healthy methamphetamine users, which represents smooth muscle dysfunction in this group. This may contribute to the high risk of stroke among methamphetamine users.

  13. Functional consequences of human airway smooth muscle phenotype plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G J; Bos, I Sophie T; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) phenotype plasticity, characterized by reversible switching between contractile and proliferative phenotypes, is considered to contribute to increased ASM mass and airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Further, increased expression of collagen I

  14. Human airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less

  15. Interpolation in Spaces of Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mosaleheh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the interpolation by certain functions such as trigonometric and rational functions for finite dimensional linear space X. Then we extend this to infinite dimensional linear spaces

  16. A three critical point theorem for non-smooth functionals with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A variety of three-critical-point theorems have been established for non- smooth functionals, based on a minimax inequality. In this paper, a generalized form of a recent result due to Ricceri is introduced for non-smooth functionals and by a few hypotheses, without any minimax inequality, the existence of at least ...

  17. Isometries on Banach spaces function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental to the study of any mathematical structure is an understanding of its symmetries. In the class of Banach spaces, this leads naturally to a study of isometries-the linear transformations that preserve distances. In his foundational treatise, Banach showed that every linear isometry on the space of continuous functions on a compact metric space must transform a continuous function x into a continuous function y satisfying y(t) = h(t)x(p(t)), where p is a homeomorphism and |h| is identically one.Isometries on Banach Spaces: Function Spaces is the first of two planned volumes that survey investigations of Banach-space isometries. This volume emphasizes the characterization of isometries and focuses on establishing the type of explicit, canonical form given above in a variety of settings. After an introductory discussion of isometries in general, four chapters are devoted to describing the isometries on classical function spaces. The final chapter explores isometries on Banach algebras.This treatment p...

  18. Theory of function spaces II

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Theory of Function Spaces II deals with the theory of function spaces of type Bspq and Fspq as it stands at the present. These two scales of spaces cover many well-known function spaces such as Hölder-Zygmund spaces, (fractional) Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, inhomogeneous Hardy spaces, spaces of BMO-type and local approximation spaces which are closely connected with Morrey-Campanato spaces. Theory of Function Spaces II is self-contained, although it may be considered an update of the author’s earlier book of the same title. The book’s 7 chapters start with a historical survey of the subject, and then analyze the theory of function spaces in Rn and in domains, applications to (exotic) pseudo-differential operators, and function spaces on Riemannian manifolds. ------ Reviews The first chapter deserves special attention. This chapter is both an outstanding historical survey of function spaces treated in the book and a remarkable survey of rather different techniques developed in the last 50 years. It is s...

  19. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra

    2013-01-01

    Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. In order to explain this performance, we develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning

  20. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Dehne, F.; Iacono, J.; Sack, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. We develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning algorithms for Euclidean optimization problems.

  1. Effects of age and exercise training on coronary microvascular smooth muscle phenotype and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Delp, Judy M; Hotta, Kazuki; Chen, Bei; Behnke, Bradley Jon; Maraj, Joshua J; Delp, Michael D; Lucero, Tiffani R; Bramy, Jeremy A; Alarcon, David B; Morgan, Hannah E; Cowan, Morgan R; Haynes, Anthony D

    2017-10-12

    Coronary microvascular function and blood flow responses during acute exercise are impaired in the aged heart, but can be restored by exercise training. Coronary microvascular resistance is directly dependent on vascular smooth muscle function in coronary resistance arterioles; therefore, we hypothesized that age impairs contractile function and alters the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle in coronary arterioles. We further hypothesized that exercise training restores contractile function and reverses age-induced phenotypic alterations of arteriolar smooth muscle. Young and old Fischer 344 rats underwent 10 weeks of treadmill exercise training or remained sedentary. At the end of training or cage-confinement, contractile responses, vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and expression of contractile proteins were assessed in isolated coronary arterioles. Both receptor- and non-receptor-mediated contractile function were impaired in coronary arterioles from aged rats. Vascular smooth muscle shifted from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a secretory phenotype with associated proliferation of smooth muscle in the arteriolar wall. Expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 1 (SM1) was decreased in arterioles from aged rats; whereas expression of phospho-histone H3 and of the synthetic protein, ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), were increased. Exercise training improved contractile responses, reduced smooth muscle proliferation and expression of rpS6, and increased expression of SM1 in arterioles from old rats. Thus, age-induced contractile dysfunction of coronary arterioles and emergence of a secretory smooth muscle phenotype may contribute to impaired coronary blood flow responses, but arteriolar contractile responsiveness and a younger smooth muscle phenotype can be restored with late-life exercise training. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  2. On the tangent space to the space of algebraic cycles on a smooth algebraic variety

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Mark

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been made in studying algebraic cycles using infinitesimal methods. These methods have usually been applied to Hodge-theoretic constructions such as the cycle class and the Abel-Jacobi map. Substantial advances have also occurred in the infinitesimal theory for subvarieties of a given smooth variety, centered around the normal bundle and the obstructions coming from the normal bundle's first cohomology group. Here, Mark Green and Phillip Griffiths set forth the initial stages of an infinitesimal theory for algebraic cycles. The book aims in p

  3. On Approximations by Trigonometric Polynomials of Classes of Functions Defined by Moduli of Smoothness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimete Sh. Berisha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a characterization of Nikol’skiĭ-Besov type classes of functions, given by integral representations of moduli of smoothness, in terms of series over the moduli of smoothness. Also, necessary and sufficient conditions in terms of monotone or lacunary Fourier coefficients for a function to belong to such a class are given. In order to prove our results, we make use of certain recent reverse Copson-type and Leindler-type inequalities.

  4. Unexpected properties of bandwidth choice when smoothing discrete data for constructing a functional data classifier

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-12-01

    The data functions that are studied in the course of functional data analysis are assembled from discrete data, and the level of smoothing that is used is generally that which is appropriate for accurate approximation of the conceptually smooth functions that were not actually observed. Existing literature shows that this approach is effective, and even optimal, when using functional data methods for prediction or hypothesis testing. However, in the present paper we show that this approach is not effective in classification problems. There a useful rule of thumb is that undersmoothing is often desirable, but there are several surprising qualifications to that approach. First, the effect of smoothing the training data can be more significant than that of smoothing the new data set to be classified; second, undersmoothing is not always the right approach, and in fact in some cases using a relatively large bandwidth can be more effective; and third, these perverse results are the consequence of very unusual properties of error rates, expressed as functions of smoothing parameters. For example, the orders of magnitude of optimal smoothing parameter choices depend on the signs and sizes of terms in an expansion of error rate, and those signs and sizes can vary dramatically from one setting to another, even for the same classifier.

  5. State Space Models and the Kalman-Filter in Stochastic Claims Reserving: Forecasting, Filtering and Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Chukhrova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed overview of the current state of research in relation to the use of state space models and the Kalman-filter in the field of stochastic claims reserving. Most of these state space representations are matrix-based, which complicates their applications. Therefore, to facilitate the implementation of state space models in practice, we present a scalar state space model for cumulative payments, which is an extension of the well-known chain ladder (CL method. The presented model is distribution-free, forms a basis for determining the entire unobservable lower and upper run-off triangles and can easily be applied in practice using the Kalman-filter for prediction, filtering and smoothing of cumulative payments. In addition, the model provides an easy way to find outliers in the data and to determine outlier effects. Finally, an empirical comparison of the scalar state space model, promising prior state space models and some popular stochastic claims reserving methods is performed.

  6. Quillen equivalences between the model categories of smooth spaces, simplicial sets, and arc-gengerated spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In the preceding paper, we have constructed a compactly generated model structure on the category $\\dcal$ of diffeological spaces together with the adjoint pairs $|\\ |_\\dcal : \\scal \\rightleftarrows \\dcal : S^\\dcal$ and $\\tilde{\\cdot} : \\dcal \\rightleftarrows \\ccal^0 : R$, where $\\scal$ and $\\ccal^0$ denote the category of simplicial sets and that of arc-generated spaces, respectively. In this paper, we show that $(|\\ |_\\dcal, S^\\dcal)$ and $(\\tilde{\\cdot}, R)$ are pairs of Quillen equivalenc...

  7. On the finite termination of an entropy function based smoothing Newton method for vertical linear complementarity problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.-C. Fang; J. Han; Z. Huang (Zhen); S.I. Birbil (Ilker)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBy using a smooth entropy function to approximate the non-smooth max-type function, a vertical linear complementarity problem (VLCP) can be treated as a family of parameterized smooth equations. A Newton-type method with a testing procedure is proposed to solve such a system. We show

  8. On the Finite Termination of An Entropy Function Based Smoothing Newton Method for Vertical Linear Complementarity Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. Birbil (Ilker); S-C. Fang (Shu-Cherng); J. Han

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBy using a smooth entropy function to approximate the non-smooth max-type function, a vertical linear complementarity problem (VLCP) can be treated as a family of parameterized smooth equations. A Newton-type method with a testing procedure is proposed to solve such a system. We show

  9. Vergence neurons identified in the rostral superior colliculus code smooth eye movements in 3D space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Marion R; Waitzman, David M; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2013-04-24

    The rostral superior colliculus (rSC) encodes position errors for multiple types of eye movements, including microsaccades, small saccades, smooth pursuit, and fixation. Here we address whether the rSC contributes to the development of neural signals that are suitable for controlling vergence eye movements. We use both single-unit recording and microstimulation techniques in monkey to answer this question. We found that vergence eye movements can be evoked using microstimulation in the rSC. Moreover, among the previously described neurons in rSC, we recorded a novel population of neurons that either increased (i.e., convergence neurons) or decreased (i.e., divergence neurons) their activity during vergence eye movements. In particular, these neurons dynamically encoded changes in vergence angle during vergence tracking, fixation in 3D space and the slow binocular realignment that occurs after disconjugate saccades, but were completely unresponsive during conjugate or the rapid component of disconjugate saccades (i.e., fast vergence) and conjugate smooth pursuit. Together, our microstimulation and single-neuron results suggest that the SC plays a role in the generation of signals required to precisely align the eyes toward targets in 3D space. We propose that accurate maintenance of 3D eye position, critical for the perception of stereopsis, may be mediated via the rSC.

  10. Accurate and efficient method for smoothly space-variant Gaussian blurring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Timothy; Cavallaro, Andrea; Hands, David

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for smoothly space-variant Gaussian blurring of images. The proposed algorithm uses a specialized filter bank with optimal filters computed through principal component analysis. This filter bank approximates perfect space-variant Gaussian blurring to arbitrarily high accuracy and at greatly reduced computational cost compared to the brute force approach of employing a separate low-pass filter at each image location. This is particularly important for spatially variant image processing such as foveated coding. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides typically 10 to 15 dB better approximation of perfect Gaussian blurring than the blended Gaussian pyramid blurring approach when using a bank of just eight filters.

  11. Smooth approximation model of dispersion with strong space charge for continuous beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Venturini-Reiser (V-R envelope-dispersion equations [M. Venturini and M. Reiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 96 (1998PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.81.96] to a continuous beam in a uniform focusing/bending lattice to study the combined effects of linear dispersion and space charge. Within this simple model we investigate the scaling of average dispersion and the effects on beam dimensions and show that the V-R equations lead to the correct zero-current limits. We also introduce a generalization of the space charge intensity parameter and apply it to the University of Maryland Electron Ring and other machines. In addition, we present results of calculations to test the smooth approximation by solving the V-R original equations and also through simulations with the matrix code ELEGANT.

  12. Modeling the Flux-Charge Relation of Memristor with Neural Network of Smooth Hinge Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Mu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The memristor was proposed to characterize the flux-charge relation. We propose the generalized flux-charge relation model of memristor with neural network of smooth hinge functions. There is effective identification algorithm for the neural network of smooth hinge functions. The representation capability of this model is theoretically guaranteed. Any functional flux-charge relation of a memristor can be approximated by the model. We also give application examples to show that the given model can approximate the flux-charge relation of existing piecewise linear memristor model, window function memristor model, and a physical memristor device.

  13. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    between Hilbert spaces. Fredholm operators are of interest far beyond mathematical analysis, they also play a significant role in theoretical physics, differential geometry and topology with the famous Index Theorem proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer in 1963 as a highlight. With the addition...... of the new material on normed vector spaces and their operators, the book can hopefully serve as a general introduction to functional analysis viewed as a theory of infinite dimensional linear spaces and linear operators acting on them....

  14. Compactness in fuzzy function spaces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In [3] we defined a notion of compactness in FCS, the category of fuzzy convergence spaces as defined by Lowen/Lowen/Wuyts [8]. In their paper the latter also introduced a fuzzy convergence structure c-lim for fuzzy function spaces thus proving that FCS is a topological quasitopos. In this paper we start the investigation of ...

  15. Effect of Spatial Smoothing on Task fMRI ICA and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2018-01-01

    Spatial smoothing is a widely used preprocessing step in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. In this work, we report on the spatial smoothing effect on task-evoked fMRI brain functional mapping and functional connectivity. Initially, we decomposed the task fMRI data into a collection of components or networks by independent component analysis (ICA). The designed task paradigm helps identify task-modulated ICA components (highly correlated with the task stimuli). For the ICA-extracted primary task component, we then measured the task activation volume at the task response foci. We used the task timecourse (designed) as a reference to order the ICA components according to the task correlations of the ICA timecourses. With the re-ordered ICA components, we calculated the inter-component function connectivity (FC) matrix (correlations among the ICA timecourses). By repeating the spatial smoothing of fMRI data with a Gaussian smoothing kernel with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of {1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35} mm, we measured the spatial smoothing effects. Our results show spatial smoothing reveals the following effects: (1) It decreases the task extraction performance of single-subject ICA more than that of multi-subject ICA; (2) It increases the task volume of multi-subject ICA more than that of single-subject ICA; (3) It strengthens the functional connectivity of single-subject ICA more than that of multi-subject ICA; and (4) It impacts the positive-negative imbalance of single-subject ICA more than that of multi-subject ICA. Our experimental results suggest a 2~3 voxel FWHM spatial smoothing for single-subject ICA in achieving an optimal balance of functional connectivity, and a wide range (2~5 voxels) of FWHM for multi-subject ICA.

  16. Human airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Jongste, Johan

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe function of airway smooth muscle in normal subjects is not evident. Possible physiological roles include maintenance of optimal regional ventilation/perfusion ratios, reduction of anatomic dead space, stabilisation of cartilaginous bronchi, defense against impurities and, less likely, squeezing mucus out of mucous glands and pulling open the alveoli next to the airways1 . Any role of airway smooth muscle is necessarily limited, because an important degree of contraction will l...

  17. Approximation of classes of functions defined by a generalized $r$-th modulus of smoothness

    OpenAIRE

    Potapov, Mikhail K.; Berisha, Faton M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a $k$-th generalized modulus of smoothness is defined based on an asymmetric operator of generalized translation and a theorem is proved about the coincidence of class of functions defined by this modulus and a class of functions having given order of best approximation by algebraic polynomials.

  18. Laplacians on smooth distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyukov, Yu. A.

    2017-10-01

    Let M be a compact smooth manifold equipped with a positive smooth density μ and let H be a smooth distribution endowed with a fibrewise inner product g. We define the Laplacian Δ_H associated with (H,μ,g) and prove that it gives rise to an unbounded self-adjoint operator in L^2(M,μ). Then, assuming that H generates a singular foliation \\mathscr F, we prove that, for any function \\varphi in the Schwartz space \\mathscr S( R), the operator \\varphi(Δ_H) is a smoothing operator in the scale of longitudinal Sobolev spaces associated with \\mathscr F. The proofs are based on pseudodifferential calculus on singular foliations, which was developed by Androulidakis and Skandalis, and on subelliptic estimates for Δ_H. Bibliography: 35 titles.

  19. Denoising functional MR images: a comparison of wavelet denoising and Gaussian smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Alle Meije; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2004-03-01

    We present a general wavelet-based denoising scheme for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and compare it to Gaussian smoothing, the traditional denoising method used in fMRI analysis. One-dimensional WaveLab thresholding routines were adapted to two-dimensional (2-D) images, and applied to 2-D wavelet coefficients. To test the effect of these methods on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we compared the SNR of 2-D fMRI images before and after denoising, using both Gaussian smoothing and wavelet-based methods. We simulated a fMRI series with a time signal in an active spot, and tested the methods on noisy copies of it. The denoising methods were evaluated in two ways: by the average temporal SNR inside the original activated spot, and by the shape of the spot detected by thresholding the temporal SNR maps. Denoising methods that introduce much smoothness are better suited for low SNRs, but for images of reasonable quality they are not preferable, because they introduce heavy deformations. Wavelet-based denoising methods that introduce less smoothing preserve the sharpness of the images and retain the original shapes of active regions. We also performed statistical parametric mapping on the denoised simulated time series, as well as on a real fMRI data set. False discovery rate control was used to correct for multiple comparisons. The results show that the methods that produce smooth images introduce more false positives. The less smoothing wavelet-based methods, although generating more false negatives, produce a smaller total number of errors than Gaussian smoothing or wavelet-based methods with a large smoothing effect.

  20. Banach spaces of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A classic of pure mathematics, this advanced graduate-level text explores the intersection of functional analysis and analytic function theory. Close in spirit to abstract harmonic analysis, it is confined to Banach spaces of analytic functions in the unit disc.The author devotes the first four chapters to proofs of classical theorems on boundary values and boundary integral representations of analytic functions in the unit disc, including generalizations to Dirichlet algebras. The fifth chapter contains the factorization theory of Hp functions, a discussion of some partial extensions of the f

  1. Approximating Smooth Step Functions Using Partial Fourier Series Sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    interp1(xt(ii), smoothstepbez( t(ii), min(t(ii)), max(t(ii)), ’y’), t(ii), ’linear’, ’ extrap ’); ii = find( abs(t - tau/2) <= epi ); iii = t(ii...interp1( xt(ii), smoothstepbez( rt, min(rt), max(rt), ’y’), t(ii), ’linear’, ’ extrap ’ ); % stepm(ii) = 1 - interp1(xt(ii), smoothstepbez( t(ii...min(t(ii)), max(t(ii)), ’y’), t(ii), ’linear’, ’ extrap ’); In this case, because x is also defined as a function of the independent parameter

  2. Vascular smooth muscle function of renal glomerular and interlobar arteries predicts renal damage in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavrinec, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Goris, Maaike; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Buikema, Hendrik; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2012-01-01

    Vavrinec P, Henning RH, Goris M, Vavrincova-Yaghi D, Buikema H, van Dokkum RP. Vascular smooth muscle function of renal glomerular and interlobar arteries predicts renal damage in rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 303: F1187-F1195, 2012. First published July 11, 2012;

  3. Denoising functional MR images : A comparison of wavelet denoising and Gaussian smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Alle Meije; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    We present a general wavelet-based denoising scheme for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and compare it to Gaussian smoothing, the traditional denoising method used in fMRI analysis. One-dimensional WaveLab thresholding routines were adapted to two-dimensional images, and applied to

  4. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in airway smooth muscle : Binding, transduction, and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, Adriaan Frans

    1990-01-01

    The present thesis deals with investigations concerning binding properties, transductional properties as well as functional properties of these muscarinic receptors in airway smooth muscle (in comparison with cardiac and brain tissue), in view of the notion emerged during the past decade that

  5. Extracellular matrix in airway smooth muscle is associated with dynamics of airway function in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yick, C. Y.; Ferreira, D. S.; Annoni, R.; von der Thüsen, J. H.; Kunst, P. W.; Bel, E. H.; Lutter, R.; Mauad, T.; Sterk, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Altered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the airway smooth muscle (ASM) layer as observed in asthma may influence ASM mechanical properties. We hypothesized that ECM in ASM is associated with airway function in asthma. First, we investigated the difference in ECM expression in

  6. Denoising functional MR images: A comparison of wavelet denoising and Gaussian smoothing

    OpenAIRE

    Wink, Alle Meije; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a general wavelet-based denoising scheme for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and compare it to Gaussian smoothing, the traditional denoising method used in fMRI analysis. One-dimensional WaveLab thresholding routines were adapted to two-dimensional images, and applied to 2D wavelet coefficients. To test the effect of these methods on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we compared the SNR of 2D fMRI images before and after denoising, using both Gaussian smoothing and...

  7. Disturbance of smooth muscle regulatory function by Eisenia foetida toxin lysenin: insight into the mechanism of smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuryło, Edward A; Kulikova, Natalia; Sobota, Andrzej

    2008-05-01

    Lysenin, a toxin present in the coelomic fluid of the earthworm Eisenia foetida, is known to cause a long-lasting contraction of rat aorta smooth muscle strips. We addressed the mechanisms underlying its action on smooth muscle cells and present the first report demonstrating a completely new property of lysenin unrelated to its basic sphingomyelin-binding ability. Here we report lysenin enhancement effect on smooth muscle actomyosin ATPase activity and the ability of networking the actin filaments. The maximum enhancement of the ATPase activity of actomyosin at 120 mM KCl was observed at a molar ratio of lysenin to actin of about 1:10(5), while at 70 mM KCl at the ratio of about 1:10(6). The effect of lysenin became most pronounced only when both smooth muscle regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and caldesmon, were present. Co-sedimentation experiments indicated that lysenin did not displace neither tropomyosin nor caldesmon from the thin filament. Thus, the lysenin-dependent abolishment of the inhibitory effect of caldesmon on the ATPase activity was related rather to the modification of the filament structure. The ability of the toxin to exert its stimulatory effect at extremely low concentrations (as low as one molecule of lysenin per 10(6) actin molecules) may result from the long-range cooperative transitions in the entire thin filament with an involvement of smooth muscle tropomyosin, while the role of caldesmon may be limited exclusively to the inhibition of ATPase activity.

  8. Trabecular smooth muscle modulates the capacitor function of the penis. Studies on a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz de Tejada, I; Moroukian, P; Tessier, J; Kim, J J; Goldstein, I; Frohrib, D

    1991-05-01

    We investigated the role of trabecular smooth muscle tone in regulation of intracavernosal pressure, venous outflow resistance, and penile capacitance. In an isolated rabbit whole penis model, corpora cavernosa were infused with either contracting (high K(+)-norepinephrine combination) or relaxing (no added Ca(2+)-papaverine combination) physiological salt solutions while intracavernosal pressure was recorded. An infusion pump regulated by an intracavernosal pressure feedback mechanism enabled the measurement of flow necessary to maintain intracavernosal pressures at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mmHg under steady-state conditions (inflow = outflow). These experiments allowed resistance to outflow from corpora to be calculated when trabecular smooth muscle was either constricted or relaxed. Decay in intracavernosal pressure over time from various predetermined intracavernosal pressures (150, 120, 90, 60, and 30 mmHg) was studied under conditions of zero inflow following contraction or relaxation of trabecular smooth muscle. This permitted calculation of the time constant, which together with the outflow resistance, permitted the calculation of penile capacitance. When smooth muscle is relaxed, venous outflow resistance is high, constant, and independent of intracavernosal pressure. Furthermore, relaxation of smooth muscle allows expansion of corpora with accumulation of volume under pressure, enabling the penis to act as a capacitor. This capacitor function is limited in the presence of constant high outflow resistance by stiffness of the fibroelastic elements of penis, tunica, and fibroelastic frame, which exhibit nonlinear deflection trends. Analysis of these variables has led us to propose a model for penile erection.

  9. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  10. Exact Filling of Figures with the Derivatives of Smooth Mappings Between Banach Spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Azagra, D.; Fabian, Marián; Jiménez-Sevilla, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2005), s. 481-499 ISSN 0008-4395 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019003; GA ČR(CZ) GA201/01/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : n-times smooth * Fréchet smooth * Gateaux smooth bump Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2005

  11. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    in a new chapter on Fredholm theory (Chapter 6). Fredholm theory originates in pioneering work of the Swedish mathematician Erik Ivar Fred-holm on integral equations, which inspired the study of a new class of bounded linear operators, known as Fredholm operators. Chapter 6 presents the basic elements...... between Hilbert spaces. Fredholm operators are of interest far beyond mathematical analysis, they also play a significant role in theoretical physics, differential geometry and topology with the famous Index Theorem proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer in 1963 as a highlight. With the addition...... of the new material on normed vector spaces and their operators, the book can hopefully serve as a general introduction to functional analysis viewed as a theory of infinite dimensional linear spaces and linear operators acting on them....

  12. Smooth manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Rajnikant

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to the theory of smooth manifolds, helping students to familiarize themselves with the tools they will need for mathematical research on smooth manifolds and differential geometry. The book primarily focuses on topics concerning differential manifolds, tangent spaces, multivariable differential calculus, topological properties of smooth manifolds, embedded submanifolds, Sard’s theorem and Whitney embedding theorem. It is clearly structured, amply illustrated and includes solved examples for all concepts discussed. Several difficult theorems have been broken into many lemmas and notes (equivalent to sub-lemmas) to enhance the readability of the book. Further, once a concept has been introduced, it reoccurs throughout the book to ensure comprehension. Rank theorem, a vital aspect of smooth manifolds theory, occurs in many manifestations, including rank theorem for Euclidean space and global rank theorem. Though primarily intended for graduate students of mathematics, the book ...

  13. Distinct function of estrogen receptor α in smooth muscle and fibroblast cells in prostate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkus, Spencer; Yeh, Chiuan-Ren; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Hsu, Iawen; Yu, Jiangzhou; Chen, Ming; Yeh, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen signaling, through estrogen receptor (ER)α, has been shown to cause hypertrophy in the prostate. Our recent report has shown that epithelial ERα knockout (KO) will not affect the normal prostate development or homeostasis. However, it remains unclear whether ERα in different types of stromal cells has distinct roles in prostate development. This study proposed to elucidate how KO of ERα in the stromal smooth muscle or fibroblast cells may interrupt cross talk between prostate stromal and epithelial cells. Smooth muscle ERαKO (smERαKO) mice showed decreased glandular infolding with the proximal area exhibiting a significant decrease. Fibroblast ERαKO mouse prostates did not exhibit this phenotype but showed a decrease in the number of ductal tips. Additionally, the amount of collagen observed in the basement membrane was reduced in smERαKO prostates. Interestingly, these phenotypes were found to be mutually exclusive among smERαKO or fibroblast ERαKO mice. Compound KO of ERα in both fibroblast and smooth muscle showed combined phenotypes from each of the single KO. Further mechanistic studies showed that IGF-I and epidermal growth factor were down-regulated in prostate smooth muscle PS-1 cells lacking ERα. Together, our results indicate the distinct functions of fibroblast vs. smERα in prostate development.

  14. Smoothed perturbation analysis algorithms for estimating the derivatives of occupancy-related functions in serial queueing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardi, Y.; Gong, W.-B.; Cassandras, C. G.; Kallmes, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present smoothed perturbation analysis (SPA) estimators for the derivative of a number of occupancy-related functions in serial queuing networks with finite buffer spaces. The functions are the average number of customers at a network as seen by an arrival, the probability that a customer is blocked at a particular queue, and the probability that a customer leaves a queue empty. In all three cases, the variable is a parameter of the distribution of service times at one of the queues. The derivative estimators considered are very simple and flexible, and they easily lend themselves to analysis of unbiasedness. Unlike most of the established SPA estimators, the present ones are not based on the computation of hazard rates.

  15. A class of Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on a sphere

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2015-02-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. There have been noticeable advancements in developing parametric covariance models for spatial and spatio-temporal data with various applications to environmental problems. However, literature on covariance models for processes defined on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance as a distance metric is still sparse, due to its mathematical difficulties. It is known that the popular Matérn covariance function, with smoothness parameter greater than 0.5, is not valid for processes on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance. We introduce an approach to produce Matérn-like covariance functions for smooth processes on the surface of a sphere that are valid with great circle distance. The resulting model is isotropic and positive definite on the surface of a sphere with great circle distance, with a natural extension for nonstationarity case. We present extensive numerical comparisons of our model, with a Matérn covariance model using great circle distance as well as chordal distance. We apply our new covariance model class to sea level pressure data, known to be smooth compared to other climate variables, from the CMIP5 climate model outputs.

  16. Autonomic neural functions in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, T

    2005-08-01

    Autonomic neural functions are important to regulate vital functions in the living body. There are different methods to evaluate indirectly and directly autonomic, sympathetic and parasympathetic, neural functions of human body. Among various methods, microneurography is a technique to evaluate directly sympathetic neural functions in humans. Using this technique sympathetic neural traffic leading to skeletal muscles (muscle sympathetic nerve activity; MSNA) can be recorded from human peripheral nerves in situ. MSNA plays essentially important roles to maintain blood pressure homeostasis against gravity. Orthostatic intolerance is an important problem as an autonomic dysfunction encountered after exposure of human beings to microgravity. There exist at least two different types of sympathetic neural responses, low and high responders to orthostatic stress in orthostatic hypotension seen in neurological disorders. To answer the question if post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance is induced by low or high MSNA responses to orthostatic stress, MSNA was microneurographically recorded for the first time before, during and after spaceflight in 1998 under Neurolab international research project. The same activity has been recorded during and/or after ground-based short- and long-term simulations of microgravity. MSNA was rather enhanced on the 12(th) and 13(th) day of spaceflight and just after landing day. Postflight MSNA response to head-up tilt was well preserved in astronauts who were orthostatically well tolerant. MSNA was suppressed during short-term simulation of microgravity less than 2 hours but was enhanced after long-term simulation of microgravity more than 3 days. Orthostatic intolerance after exposure to long-term simulation of microgravity was associated with reduced MSNA response to orthostatic stress with impaired baroreflex functions. These findings obtained from MSNA recordings in subjects exposed to space as well as short- and long-term simulations of

  17. Edge-preserving smoothing and segmentation of 4D images via transversely isotropic scale-space processing and fingerprint analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Gullberg, Grant T.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2004-05-01

    Enhancements are described for an approach that unifies edge preserving smoothing with segmentation of time sequences of volumetric images, based on differential edge detection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Potential applications of these 4-D methods include segmentation of respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) transmission images to improve accuracy of attenuation correction for imaging heart and lung lesions, and segmentation of dynamic cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to facilitate unbiased estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic parameters for left ventricular volumes of interest. Improved segmentation of lung surfaces in simulated respiratory gated cardiac PET transmission images is achieved with a 4-D edge detection operator composed of edge preserving 1-D operators applied in various spatial and temporal directions. Smoothing along the axis of a 1-D operator is driven by structure separation seen in the scale-space fingerprint, rather than by image contrast. Spurious noise structures are reduced with use of small-scale isotropic smoothing in directions transverse to the 1-D operator axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for directional derivatives of the smoothed, edge preserved image, and the expressions are used to compose a 4-D operator that detects edges as zero-crossings in the second derivative in the direction of the image intensity gradient. Additional improvement in segmentation is anticipated with use of multiscale transversely isotropic smoothing and a novel interpolation method that improves the behavior of the directional derivatives. The interpolation method is demonstrated on a simulated 1-D edge and incorporation of the method into the 4-D algorithm is described.

  18. Edge preserving smoothing and segmentation of 4-D images via transversely isotropic scale-space processing and fingerprint analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutter, Bryan W.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Gullberg, Grant T; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2004-01-19

    Enhancements are described for an approach that unifies edge preserving smoothing with segmentation of time sequences of volumetric images, based on differential edge detection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Potential applications of these 4-D methods include segmentation of respiratory gated positron emission tomography (PET) transmission images to improve accuracy of attenuation correction for imaging heart and lung lesions, and segmentation of dynamic cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images to facilitate unbiased estimation of time-activity curves and kinetic parameters for left ventricular volumes of interest. Improved segmentation of lung surfaces in simulated respiratory gated cardiac PET transmission images is achieved with a 4-D edge detection operator composed of edge preserving 1-D operators applied in various spatial and temporal directions. Smoothing along the axis of a 1-D operator is driven by structure separation seen in the scale-space fingerprint, rather than by image contrast. Spurious noise structures are reduced with use of small-scale isotropic smoothing in directions transverse to the 1-D operator axis. Analytic expressions are obtained for directional derivatives of the smoothed, edge preserved image, and the expressions are used to compose a 4-D operator that detects edges as zero-crossings in the second derivative in the direction of the image intensity gradient. Additional improvement in segmentation is anticipated with use of multiscale transversely isotropic smoothing and a novel interpolation method that improves the behavior of the directional derivatives. The interpolation method is demonstrated on a simulated 1-D edge and incorporation of the method into the 4-D algorithm is described.

  19. A method for the accurate and smooth approximation of standard thermodynamic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal, O.

    2013-01-01

    A method is proposed for the calculation of approximations of standard thermodynamic functions. The method is consistent with the physical properties of standard thermodynamic functions. This means that the approximation functions are, in contrast to the hitherto used approximations, continuous and smooth in every temperature interval in which no phase transformations take place. The calculation algorithm was implemented by the SmoothSTF program in the C++ language which is part of this paper. Program summaryProgram title:SmoothSTF Catalogue identifier: AENH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3807 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 131965 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: Any computer with gcc version 4.3.2 compiler. Operating system: Debian GNU Linux 6.0. The program can be run in operating systems in which the gcc compiler can be installed, see http://gcc.gnu.org/install/specific.html. RAM: 256 MB are sufficient for the table of standard thermodynamic functions with 500 lines Classification: 4.9. Nature of problem: Standard thermodynamic functions (STF) of individual substances are given by thermal capacity at constant pressure, entropy and enthalpy. STF are continuous and smooth in every temperature interval in which no phase transformations take place. The temperature dependence of STF as expressed by the table of its values is for further application approximated by temperature functions. In the paper, a method is proposed for calculating approximation functions which, in contrast to the hitherto used approximations, are continuous and smooth in every temperature interval. Solution method: The approximation functions are

  20. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    of the theory of Fredholm operators on general Banach spaces, not only on Hilbert spaces, since this is important for applications of the theory. The more general setting with Banach spaces requires that we develop the theory of dual operators between Banach spaces to replace the use of adjoint operators...... between Hilbert spaces. Fredholm operators are of interest far beyond mathematical analysis, they also play a significant role in theoretical physics, differential geometry and topology with the famous Index Theorem proved by Michael Atiyah and Isadore Singer in 1963 as a highlight. With the addition......In the second edition, I have expanded the material on normed vector spaces and their operators presented in Chapter 1 to include proofs of the Open Map-ping Theorem, the Closed Graph Theorem and the Hahn-Banach The orem. The material on operators between normed vector spaces is further expanded...

  1. A marginal approach to reduced-rank penalized spline smoothing with application to multilevel functional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaihou; Wang, Yuanjia; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Choi, H Alex

    2013-10-01

    Multilevel functional data is collected in many biomedical studies. For example, in a study of the effect of Nimodipine on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients underwent multiple 4-hour treatment cycles. Within each treatment cycle, subjects' vital signs were reported every 10 minutes. This data has a natural multilevel structure with treatment cycles nested within subjects and measurements nested within cycles. Most literature on nonparametric analysis of such multilevel functional data focus on conditional approaches using functional mixed effects models. However, parameters obtained from the conditional models do not have direct interpretations as population average effects. When population effects are of interest, we may employ marginal regression models. In this work, we propose marginal approaches to fit multilevel functional data through penalized spline generalized estimating equation (penalized spline GEE). The procedure is effective for modeling multilevel correlated generalized outcomes as well as continuous outcomes without suffering from numerical difficulties. We provide a variance estimator robust to misspecification of correlation structure. We investigate the large sample properties of the penalized spline GEE estimator with multilevel continuous data and show that the asymptotics falls into two categories. In the small knots scenario, the estimated mean function is asymptotically efficient when the true correlation function is used and the asymptotic bias does not depend on the working correlation matrix. In the large knots scenario, both the asymptotic bias and variance depend on the working correlation. We propose a new method to select the smoothing parameter for penalized spline GEE based on an estimate of the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE). We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine property of the proposed estimator under different correlation structures and sensitivity of the variance estimation to the choice

  2. A Coarea Formula for Smooth Contact Mappings of Carnot--Carath\\'{e}odory Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Karmanova, M.; Vodopyanov, S.

    2011-01-01

    We prove the coarea formula for sufficiently smooth contact mappings of Carnot manifolds. In particular, we investigate level surfaces of these mappings, and compare Riemannian and sub-Riemannian measures on them. Our main tool is the sharp asymptotic behavior of the Riemannian measure of the intersection of a tangent plane to a level surface and a sub-Riemannian ball. This calculation in particular implies that the sub-Riemannian measure of the set of characteristic points (i.\\,e., the point...

  3. Functional Analysis: Entering Hilbert Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    In the second edition, I have expanded the material on normed vector spaces and their operators presented in Chapter 1 to include proofs of the Open Map-ping Theorem, the Closed Graph Theorem and the Hahn-Banach The orem. The material on operators between normed vector spaces is further expanded...... in a new chapter on Fredholm theory (Chapter 6). Fredholm theory originates in pioneering work of the Swedish mathematician Erik Ivar Fred-holm on integral equations, which inspired the study of a new class of bounded linear operators, known as Fredholm operators. Chapter 6 presents the basic elements...... of the theory of Fredholm operators on general Banach spaces, not only on Hilbert spaces, since this is important for applications of the theory. The more general setting with Banach spaces requires that we develop the theory of dual operators between Banach spaces to replace the use of adjoint operators...

  4. Smooth Muscle-Targeted Overexpression of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ Disrupts Vascular Wall Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Kleinhenz

    Full Text Available Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor, PPARγ, with pharmacological agonists promotes a contractile vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype and reduces oxidative stress and cell proliferation, particularly under pathological conditions including vascular injury, restenosis, and atherosclerosis. However, pharmacological agonists activate both PPARγ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in multiple cell types confounding efforts to clarify the precise role of PPARγ in smooth muscle cell structure and function in vivo. We, therefore, designed and characterized a mouse model with smooth muscle cell-targeted PPARγ overexpression (smPPARγOE. Our results demonstrate that smPPARγOE attenuated contractile responses in aortic rings, increased aortic compliance, caused aortic dilatation, and reduced mean arterial pressure. Molecular characterization revealed that compared to littermate control mice, aortas from smPPARγOE mice expressed lower levels of contractile proteins and increased levels of adipocyte-specific transcripts. Morphological analysis demonstrated increased lipid deposition in the vascular media and in smooth muscle of extravascular tissues. In vitro adenoviral-mediated PPARγ overexpression in human aortic smooth muscle cells similarly increased adipocyte markers and lipid uptake. The findings demonstrate that smooth muscle PPARγ overexpression disrupts vascular wall structure and function, emphasizing that balanced PPARγ activity is essential for vascular smooth muscle homeostasis.

  5. On PAC learning of functions with smoothness properties using feedforward sigmoidal networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-04-01

    We consider Probably and Approximately Corrct (PAC) learning of an unknown function f: [0,1]{sup d} {r_arrow} [0,1], based on finite samples using feedforward sigmoidal networks. The unknown function f is chosen from the family F{intersection}C([0,1]{sup d}) or F{intersection}L{sup {infinity}}([0,1]{sup d}), where F has either bounded modulus of smoothness or bounded capacity or both. The learning sample is given by (X{sub 1},f(X{sub 1})),(X{sub 2},f(X{sub 2})),{hor_ellipsis},(X{sub n},f(X{sub n})), where X{sub 1},X{sub 2},{hor_ellipsis},X{sub n} are independently and identically distributed according to an unknown distribution. We consider the feedforward networks with a a single hidden layer of 1/(1 + e{sup {minus}{gamma}z})-units and bounded parameters, but the results can be extended to other neural networks where the hidden units satisfy suitable smoothness conditions. We analyze three function estimators based on nearest neighbor rule, local averaging, and Nadaraya-Watson estimator, all computed using the Haar system. It is shown that given a sufficiently large sample, each of these estimators approximates the best neural network to any given error with arbitrarily high probability. This result is crucical for establishing the essentially equivalent capabilities of neural networks and the above estimators for PAC learning from finite samples. Practical importance of this ``equivalence`` stems from the fact that computing a neural network which approximates the best possible one is computationally difficult, whereas the three estimators are linear-time computable in terms of sample size.

  6. Enhancing the smoothness of joint motion induced by functional electrical stimulation using co-activation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruppel Mirjana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The motor precision of today’s neuroprosthetic devices that use artificial generation of limb motion using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES is generally low. We investigate the adoption of natural co-activation strategies as present in antagonistic muscle pairs aiming to improve motor precision produced by FES. In a test in which artificial knee-joint movements were generated, we could improve the smoothness of FES-induced motion by 513% when applying co-activation during the phases in which torque production is switched between muscles – compared to no co-activation. We further demonstrated how the co-activation level influences the joint stiffness in a pendulum test.

  7. On the Modeling of Polar Component of Solvation Energy using Smooth Gaussian-Based Dielectric Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Chuan; Alexov, Emil

    2014-05-01

    Traditional implicit methods for modeling electrostatics in biomolecules use a two-dielectric approach: a biomolecule is assigned low dielectric constant while the water phase is considered as a high dielectric constant medium. However, such an approach treats the biomolecule-water interface as a sharp dielectric border between two homogeneous dielectric media and does not account for inhomogeneous dielectric properties of the macromolecule as well. Recently we reported a new development, a smooth Gaussian-based dielectric function which treats the entire system, the solute and the water phase, as inhomogeneous dielectric medium (J Chem Theory Comput. 2013 Apr 9; 9(4): 2126-2136.). Here we examine various aspects of the modeling of polar solvation energy in such inhomogeneous systems in terms of the solute-water boundary and the inhomogeneity of the solute in the absence of water surrounding. The smooth Gaussian-based dielectric function is implemented in the DelPhi finite-difference program, and therefore the sensitivity of the results with respect to the grid parameters is investigated, and it is shown that the calculated polar solvation energy is almost grid independent. Furthermore, the results are compared with the standard two-media model and it is demonstrated that on average, the standard method overestimates the magnitude of the polar solvation energy by a factor 2.5. Lastly, the possibility of the solute to have local dielectric constant larger than of a bulk water is investigated in a benchmarking test against experimentally determined set of pKa's and it is speculated that side chain rearrangements could result in local dielectric constant larger than 80.

  8. Matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we study the matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces and discuss their applications in semigroups for solving the abstract. Cauchy problem. Keywords. Banach function spaces; closed operators; compact operators; Fredholm operators; matrix multiplication operators; semigroups. 1.

  9. Minimization of Tikhonov Functionals in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bonesky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tikhonov functionals are known to be well suited for obtaining regularized solutions of linear operator equations. We analyze two iterative methods for finding the minimizer of norm-based Tikhonov functionals in Banach spaces. One is the steepest descent method, whereby the iterations are directly carried out in the underlying space, and the other one performs iterations in the dual space. We prove strong convergence of both methods.

  10. On coincidence of classes of functions defined by a generalised modulus of smoothness and the appropriate inverse theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Berisha, Faton M.

    2012-01-01

    We give the theorem of coincidence of a class of functions defined by a generalised modulus of smoothness with a class of functions defined by the order of the best approximation by algebraic polynomials. We also prove the appropriate inverse theorem in approximation theory.

  11. Proposal of smoothing space: disputes around the “modern Manaus”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia Rodrigues Silva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article presents a reflection on projects for the so-called area of “Modern Manaus” in the city of Manaus/Amazonas, Brazil, which aim to create activities to define the uses of space as scenarios...

  12. Bioengineering functional human aortic vascular smooth-muscle strips in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Louise; Khait, Luda; Welsh, Michael J; Birla, Ravi

    2008-07-01

    The contraction and relaxation of VSM (vascular smooth muscle) are responsible for the maintenance of vascular tone, which is a major determinant of blood pressure. However, the molecular events leading to the contraction and relaxation of VSM are poorly understood. The development of three-dimensional bioengineered tissues provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular events controlling vascular tone in vitro. In the present study we used fibrin-gel casting to bioengineer functional VSM strips from primary human aortic VSM cells. Our bioengineered VSM strips are functionally similar to VSM in vivo and remained viable in culture for up to 5 weeks. VSM strips demonstrate spontaneous basal tone and can generate an active force (contraction) of up to 85.2 microN on stimulation with phenylephrine. Bioengineered VSM strips exhibited Ca(2+)-dependent contraction and calcium-independent relaxation. The development of functional bioengineered VSM tissue provides a new in vitro model system that can be used to investigate the molecular events controlling vascular tone.

  13. A Note on Some Uniform Algebra Generated by Smooth Functions in the Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Mortini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We determine, via classroom proofs, the maximal ideal space, the Bass stable rank as well as the topological and dense stable rank of the uniform closure of all complex-valued functions continuously differentiable on neighborhoods of a compact planar set and holomorphic in the interior ∘ of . In this spirit, we also give elementary approaches to the calculation of these stable ranks for some classical function algebras on .

  14. Armstrong Laboratory Space Visual Function Tester Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Melvin R.; Task, H. Lee; Gleason, Gerald A.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space visual function tester program are presented. Many astronauts and cosmonauts have commented on apparent changes in their vision while on-orbit. Comments have included descriptions of earth features and objects that would suggest enhanced distance visual acuity. In contrast, some cosmonaut observations suggest a slight loss in their object discrimination during initial space flight. Astronauts have also mentioned a decreased near vision capability that did not recover to normal until return to earth. Duntley space vision experiment, USSR space vision experiments, and visual function testers are described.

  15. A function for filamentous alpha-smooth muscle actin: Retardation of motility in human breast fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Petersen, Ole William

    1996-01-01

    Actins are known to comprise six mammalian isoforms of which beta- and gamma-nonmuscle actins are present in all cells, whereas alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-sm) actin is normally restricted to cells of the smooth muscle lineages. alpha-Sm actin has been found also to be expressed transiently in cer...

  16. Effects of laser shock peening and groove spacing on the wear behavior of non-smooth surface fabricated by laser surface texturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.Y. [Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology (Jiangsu University), Ministry of Education, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, C.Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Y.M. [Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology (Jiangsu University), Ministry of Education, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Luo, M.; Huang, S.; Hua, X.J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, J.Z., E-mail: jzlu@mail.ujs.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology (Jiangsu University), Ministry of Education, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Effects of groove spacing on wear resistance of non-smooth surface are studied. • Effects of LSP on the wear resistance of non-smooth surface are investigated. • Influence process of LSP on wear resistance of non-smooth surface is analyzed. - Abstract: The friction coefficient and wear resistance of non-smooth surface with different conditions are studied in this work. First, the effects of groove spacing on the friction behavior and wear resistance of the non-smooth surface are investigated. Second, the effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) impact on the dry sliding wear performance of the non-smooth surface manufactured by laser surface texture (LST) are evaluated. In addition, the worn surfaces and typical microstructure in the top surface layer of all samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an EDS elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence process of groove spacing and LSP on the friction behavior and wear resistance of T9 tool steel are also analyzed and discussed.

  17. PPARγ Ligands Regulate Noncontractile and Contractile Functions of Airway Smooth Muscle: Implications for Asthma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Donovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In asthma, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM can contribute to inflammation, airway wall remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. Targetting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, a receptor upregulated in ASM in asthmatic airways, may provide a novel approach to regulate these contributions. This review summarises experimental evidence that PPARγ ligands, such as rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, inhibit proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production from ASM in vitro. In addition, inhaled administration of these ligands reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and airway remodelling in mouse models of allergen-induced airways disease. PPARγ ligands can also regulate ASM contractility, with acute treatment eliciting relaxation of mouse trachea in vitro through a PPARγ-independent mechanism. Chronic treatment can protect against the loss of bronchodilator sensitivity to β2-adrenoceptor agonists and inhibit the development of AHR associated with exposure to nicotine in utero or following allergen challenge. Of particular interest, a small clinical trial has shown that oral RGZ treatment improves lung function in smokers with asthma, a group that is generally unresponsive to conventional steroid treatment. These combined findings support further investigation of the potential for PPARγ agonists to target the noncontractile and contractile functions of ASM to improve outcomes for patients with poorly controlled asthma.

  18. Localization and function of KLF4 in cytoplasm of vascular smooth muscle cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijazhuang (China); Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Xin-hua; Nie, Chan-juan; Li, Yong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China); Wen, Jin-kun, E-mail: wjk@hebmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neurobiology and Vascular Biology (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •PDGF-BB prompts the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm. •PDGF-BB promotes interaction between KLF4 and actin in the cytoplasm. •Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of KLF4 participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization. •KLF4 regulates cytoskeleton by promoting the expression of contraction-associated genes. -- Abstract: The Krüppel-like factor 4 is a DNA-binding transcriptional regulator that regulates a diverse array of cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. The previous studies about KLF4 functions mainly focused on its role as a transcription factor, its functions in the cytoplasm are still unknown. In this study, we found that PDGF-BB could prompt the translocation of KLF4 to the cytoplasm through CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increased the interaction of KLF4 with actin in the cytoplasm. Further study showed that both KLF4 phosphorylation and SUMOylation induced by PDGF-BB participates in regulation of cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton in VSMCs. In conclusion, these results identify that KLF4 participates in the cytoskeletal organization by stabilizing cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm of VSMCs.

  19. Fibonacci difference sequence spaces for modulus functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldip Raj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduce Fibonacci difference sequence spaces l(F, Ƒ, p, u and  l_∞(F, Ƒ, p, u by using a sequence of modulus functions and a new band matrix F. We also make an effort to study some inclusion relations, topological and geometric properties of these spaces. Furthermore, the alpha, beta, gamma duals and matrix transformation of the space l(F, Ƒ, p, u are determined.

  20. The effect of image enhancement on the statistical analysis of functional neuroimages : Wavelet-based denoising and Gaussian smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, AM; Roerdink, JBTM; Sonka, M; Fitzpatrick, JM

    2003-01-01

    The quality of statistical analyses of functional neuroimages is studied after applying various preprocessing methods. We present wavelet-based denoising as an alternative to Gaussian smoothing, the standard denoising method in statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The wavelet-based denoising

  1. Effects of polydopamine functionalized titanium dioxide nanotubes on endothelial cell and smooth muscle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Si; Luo, Rifang; Wang, Xin; Tang, Linlin; Wu, Jian; Wang, Jin; Huang, Runbo; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2014-04-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) with particular structure cues could control the behavior of different types of cells, including endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Besides, polydopamine (PDA) modified surfaces were reported to be beneficial to increase the proliferation and viability of ECs and meanwhile could inhibit the proliferation of SMCs. The TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were functionalized with polydopamine (PDA) (PDA/NTs) to study the synergetic effect of both nanotopography (NTs) and chemical cues (PDA) of TiO2 nanotubes on the regulation of cellular behavior of ECs and SMCs. The PDA-modified TiO2 nanotubes were subjected to field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water contact angle (WCA) analysis. In vitro cell culture tests confirmed that, comparing with flat titanium (Ti) and TiO2 nanotubes, PDA/NTs surface synergistically promoted ECs attachment, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO). Meanwhile, the PDA/NTs performed well in reducing SMCs adhesion and proliferation. This novel approach might provide a new platform to investigate the synergistic effect of local chemistry and topography, as well as the applications for the development of titanium-based implants for enhanced endothelialization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Uniqueness of Smooth Stationary Black Holes in Vacuum: Small Perturbations of the Kerr Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, S.; Ionescu, A. D.; Klainerman, S.

    2010-10-01

    The goal of the paper is to prove a perturbative result, concerning the uniqueness of Kerr solutions, a result which we believe will be useful in the proof of their nonlinear stability. Following the program started in Ionescu and Klainerman (Invent. Math. 175:35-102, 2009), we attempt to remove the analyticity assumption in the the well known Hawking-Carter-Robinson uniqueness result for regular stationary vacuum black holes. Unlike (Ionescu and Klainerman in Invent. Math. 175:35-102, 2009), which was based on a tensorial characterization of the Kerr solutions, due to Mars (Class. Quant. Grav. 16:2507-2523, 1999), we rely here on Hawking’s original strategy, which is to reduce the case of general stationary space-times to that of stationary and axi-symmetric spacetimes for which the Carter-Robinson uniqueness result holds. In this reduction Hawking had to appeal to analyticity. Using a variant of the geometric Carleman estimates developed in Ionescu and Klainerman (Invent. Math. 175:35-102, 2009), in this paper we show how to bypass analyticity in the case when the stationary vacuum space-time is a small perturbation of a given Kerr solution. Our perturbation assumption is expressed as a uniform smallness condition on the Mars-Simon tensor. The starting point of our proof is the new local rigidity theorem established in Alexakis et al. (Hawking’s local rigidity theorem without analyticity. http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.1173v1[gr-qc] , 2009).

  3. POSITIVE COOPERATIVE INTERACTION OF QUATERNARY ANTICHOLINERGICS WITH FUNCTIONAL MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN BOVINE TRACHEAL SMOOTH-MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; ELZINGA, CRS; BELTMAN, W; VANTINTELEN, EJJ; ZAAGSMA, J

    The interaction of quaternary anticholinergics with muscarinic receptors in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips was investigated because some of these compounds have shown anomalous (biphasic) behaviour in radioligand displacement studies, in contrast to their tertiary analogues. It was found that

  4. Reflexivity on Banach Spaces of Analytic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yousefi and J. Doroodgar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available . Let X be a Banach space of functions analytic on a plane domain Ω such that for every λ in Ω the functional of evaluation at λ is bounded. Assume further that X contains the constants and admits multiplication by the independent variable z, Mz, as a bounded operator. We give sufficient conditions for Mz to be reflexive.

  5. Protein Kinase C as Regulator of Vascular Smooth Muscle Function and Potential Target in Vascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringvold, H C; Khalil, R A

    2017-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) plays an important role in maintaining vascular tone. In addition to Ca2+-dependent myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC) is a major regulator of VSM function. PKC is a family of conventional Ca2+-dependent α, β, and γ, novel Ca2+-independent δ, ɛ, θ, and η, and atypical ξ, and ι/λ isoforms. Inactive PKC is mainly cytosolic, and upon activation it undergoes phosphorylation, maturation, and translocation to the surface membrane, the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and other cell organelles; a process facilitated by scaffold proteins such as RACKs. Activated PKC phosphorylates different substrates including ion channels, pumps, and nuclear proteins. PKC also phosphorylates CPI-17 leading to inhibition of MLC phosphatase, increased MLC phosphorylation, and enhanced VSM contraction. PKC could also initiate a cascade of protein kinases leading to phosphorylation of the actin-binding proteins calponin and caldesmon, increased actin-myosin interaction, and VSM contraction. Increased PKC activity has been associated with vascular disorders including ischemia-reperfusion injury, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. PKC inhibitors could test the role of PKC in different systems and could reduce PKC hyperactivity in vascular disorders. First-generation PKC inhibitors such as staurosporine and chelerythrine are not very specific. Isoform-specific PKC inhibitors such as ruboxistaurin have been tested in clinical trials. Target delivery of PKC pseudosubstrate inhibitory peptides and PKC siRNA may be useful in localized vascular disease. Further studies of PKC and its role in VSM should help design isoform-specific PKC modulators that are experimentally potent and clinically safe to target PKC in vascular disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  7. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-19

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data.

  8. Cellular function and signaling pathways of vascular smooth muscle cells modulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Machida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P plays important roles in cardiovascular pathophysiology. S1P1 and/or S1P3, rather than S1P2 receptors, seem to be predominantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, while S1P2 and/or S1P3, rather than S1P1 receptors, seem to be predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. S1P has multiple actions, such as proliferation, inhibition or stimulation of migration, and vasoconstriction or release of vasoactive mediators. S1P induces an increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in many cell types, including VSMCs. Activation of S1P3 seems to play an important role in Ca2+ mobilization. S1P induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in VSMCs via both S1P2 and S1P3 receptors. S1P2 receptor activation in VSMCs inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. At the local site of vascular injury, vasoactive mediators such as prostaglandins and NO produced by VSMCs are considered primarily as a defensive and compensatory mechanism for the lack of endothelial function to prevent further pathology. Therefore, selective S1P2 receptor antagonists may have the potential to be therapeutic agents, in view of their antagonism of iNOS inhibition by S1P. Further progress in studies of the precise mechanisms of S1P may provide useful knowledge for the development of new S1P-related drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Expression and function of K(V)2-containing channels in human urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L; Chen, Muyan; Afeli, Serge A Y; Cheng, Qiuping; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2012-06-01

    The functional role of the voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in human detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) is largely unexplored. Here, we provide molecular, electrophysiological, and functional evidence for the expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and the electrically silent K(V)9.3 subunits in human DSM. Stromatoxin-1 (ScTx1), a selective inhibitor of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)4.2 homotetrameric channels and of K(V)2.1/9.3 heterotetrameric channels, was used to examine the role of these channels in human DSM function. Human DSM tissues were obtained during open bladder surgeries from patients without a history of overactive bladder. Freshly isolated human DSM cells were studied using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, live-cell Ca(2+) imaging, and the perforated whole cell patch-clamp technique. Isometric DSM tension recordings of human DSM isolated strips were conducted using tissue baths. RT-PCR experiments showed mRNA expression of K(V)2.1, K(V)2.2, and K(V)9.3 (but not K(V)4.2) channel subunits in human isolated DSM cells. K(V)2.1 and K(V)2.2 protein expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Perforated whole cell patch-clamp experiments revealed that ScTx1 (100 nM) inhibited the amplitude of the voltage step-induced K(V) current in freshly isolated human DSM cells. ScTx1 (100 nM) significantly increased the intracellular Ca(2+) level in DSM cells. In human DSM isolated strips, ScTx1 (100 nM) increased the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude and muscle force, and enhanced the amplitude of the electrical field stimulation-induced contractions within the range of 3.5-30 Hz stimulation frequencies. These findings reveal that ScTx1-sensitive K(V)2-containing channels are key regulators of human DSM excitability and contractility and may represent new targets for pharmacological or genetic intervention for bladder dysfunction.

  10. Microvesicles Derived from Inflammation-Challenged Endothelial Cells Modulate Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qunwen; Liu, Hua; Zheng, Chunyan; Zhao, Yuhui; Liao, Xiaorong; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yanfang; Zhao, Bin; Lazartigues, Eric; Yang, Yi; Ma, Xiaotang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Microvesicles (MV) can modulate the function of recipient cells by transferring their contents. Our previous study highlighted that MV released from tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plus serum deprivation (SD)-stimulated endothelial progenitor cells, induce detrimental effects on endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of endothelial MV (EMV) on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of human brain vascular smooth cells (HBVSMC). Methods: EMV were prepared from human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) cultured in a TNF-α plus SD medium. RNase-EMV were made by treating EMV with RNase A for RNA depletion. The proliferation, apoptosis and migration abilities of HBVSMC were determined after co-culture with EMV or RNase-EMV. The Mek1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, was used for pathway analysis. Western blot was used for analyzing the proteins of Mek1/2, Erk1/2, phosphorylation Erk1/2, activated caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The level of miR-146a-5p was measured by qRT-PCR. Results: (1) EMV significantly promoted the proliferation and migration of HBVSMC. The effects were accompanied by an increase in Mek1/2 and p-Erk1/2, which could be abolished by PD0325901; (2) EMV decreased the apoptotic rate of HBVSMC by approximately 35%, which was accompanied by cleaved caspase-3 down-regulation and Bcl-2 up-regulation; (3) EMV increased miR-146a-5p level in HBVSMC by about 2-folds; (4) RNase-treated EMV were less effective than EMV on HBVSMC activities and miR-146a-5p expression. Conclusion: EMV generated under inflammation challenge can modulate HBVSMC function and fate via their carried RNA. This is associated with activation of theMek1/2/Erk1/2 pathway and caspase-3/Bcl-2 regulation, during which miR-146a-5p may play an important role. The data suggest that EMV derived from inflammation-challenged endothelial cells are detrimental to HBVSMC homeostatic functions, highlighting potential novel therapeutic targets for vascular diseases.

  11. On the Controlled Approximation Order from Certain Spaces of Smooth Bivariate Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    know that there exist BIij e 15,A (I - 1,...,9, j.e z2 with compact support such that Bi,j = BiO ("-J) and A ilJBk 6 a2jk " (Here 6 denotes the usual...Kronecker sign.) Then for any p e w P = J ), (Ai’P)BiJ " i (AiJP) Bio (0-J) 4i j i’ji l From the above formula we can easily deduce that there exists B...analysis of the finite element variational method, C.I.M.E. II, Ciclo Erice, 1971, Constructive Aspects of Functional Analysis, G. Geymonat ed., 1973, 794

  12. Function spaces and d -separability | Tkachuk | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this paper is to study when a function space is d-separable, i.e., has a dense σ-discrete subspace. Several sufficient conditions are obtained for Cp(X) to be d-separable; as an application it is proved that Cp(X) is d-separable for any Corson compact space X. We give a characterization for Cp(X) × Cp(X) to be ...

  13. New Sequence Spaces and Function Spaces on Interval [0,1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Zhong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the sequence spaces and the spaces of functions defined on interval 0,1 in this paper. By a new summation method of sequences, we find out some new sequence spaces that are interpolating into spaces between ℓp and ℓq and function spaces that are interpolating into the spaces between the polynomial space P0,1 and C∞0,1. We prove that these spaces of sequences and functions are Banach spaces.

  14. Phenotype and functional plasticity of airway smooth muscle : role of caveolae and caveolins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halayko, Andrew J; Tran, Thai; Gosens, Reinoud

    2008-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells exhibit phenotype plasticity that is under control of external stimuli such as growth factors and the extracellular matrix, and is regulated by a network of intracellular signaling cascades that control transcription and protein translation of phenotype-specific

  15. The Effects of Selection Strategies for Bivariate Loglinear Smoothing Models on NEAT Equating Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tim; Holland, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, eight statistical strategies were evaluated for selecting the parameterizations of loglinear models for smoothing the bivariate test score distributions used in nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) equating. Four of the strategies were based on significance tests of chi-square statistics (Likelihood Ratio, Pearson,…

  16. Arterial wall mechanics as a function of heart rate: role of vascular smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Fernando Pablo; Schiavone, Jonathan; Craiem, Damian; Barra, Juan Gabriel

    2007-11-01

    Vascular wall viscoelasticity can be evaluated using a first-order lumped model. This model consists of a spring with elastic constant E and a dashpot with viscous constant η. More importantly, this viscoelastic model can be fitted in-vivo measuring arterial pressure and diameter. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of heart rate over E and η. In two anesthetized sheep, diameter in thoracic aorta and intravascular pressure has been registered. The right atrium was connected to a programmable stimulator through a pair of pace-maker wires to produce changes in stimulation heart rate (HR) from 80 to 160 bpm. Additionally, local activation of vascular smooth muscle was induced with phenylephrine. After converting pressure and diameter signals into stress and strain respectively, E y η were calculated in control state and during muscle activation. The elastic modulus E did not present significant changes with heart rate. The viscous modulus η decreased 49% with a two-fold acceleration in heart rate from 80 to 160 bpm. However, the product η HR remained stable. The viscous modulus η increased 39% with smooth muscle activation. No significant pressure changes were registered during the experiment. The contractile action of vascular smooth muscle could contribute to increasing arterial wall viscosity. The decrease of η when HR increased might be related to smooth muscle relaxation mediated by endothelium activity, which was stimulated by flow increase. We conclude that HR can modulate arterial wall viscoelasticity through endothelium-dependent mechanisms.

  17. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 K+ channel in murine gastrointestinal smooth muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A; Moffatt, James D

    2009-01-01

    Members of the K(v)7 voltage-gated K(+) channel family are important determinants of cardiac and neuronal membrane excitability. Recently, we and others have shown that K(v)7 channels are also crucial regulators of smooth muscle activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the K(v)7 expre...

  18. Coronary endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle proliferation are programmed by early-gestation dexamethasone exposure in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Roghair, Robert D.; Jung, Felicia; Scholz, Thomas D.; Lamb, Fred S.; Segar, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of the early-gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces changes in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. We sought to characterize coronary artery vascular function in this model by elucidating the contribution of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to altered coronary vascular reactivity and examining the proliferative potential of coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (dex, 0.28 mg·kg−1·day−1 for 48 h) was administered to pregnant ewes at 2...

  19. Free fatty acid palmitate impairs the vitality and function of cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence of urinary tract infections is elevated in patients with diabetes mellitus. Those patients show increased levels of the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. As recently shown metabolic alterations induced by palmitate include production and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukine-6 (IL-6 in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hBSMC. Here we studied the influence of palmitate on vital cell properties, for example, regulation of cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity in hBSMC, and analyzed the involvement of major cytokine signaling pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HBSMC cultures were set up from bladder tissue of patients undergoing cystectomy and stimulated with palmitate. We analyzed cell proliferation, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and antioxidant capacity by ELISA and confocal immunofluorescence. In signal transduction inhibition experiments we evaluated the involvement of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, MEK1, PI3K, and JNK in major cytokine signaling pathway regulation. We found: (i palmitate decreased cell proliferation, increased mitochondrial enzyme activity and antioxidant capacity; (ii direct inhibition of cytokine receptor by AG490 even more strongly suppressed cell proliferation in palmitate-stimulated cells, while counteracting palmitate-induced increase of antioxidant capacity; (iii in contrast knockdown of the STAT3 inhibitor SOCS3 increased cell proliferation and antioxidant capacity; (iv further downstream JAK/STAT3 signaling cascade the inhibition of PI3K or JNK enhanced palmitate induced suppression of cell proliferation; (v increase of mitochondrial enzyme activity by palmitate was enhanced by inhibition of PI3K but counteracted by inhibition of MEK1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Saturated free fatty acids (e.g., palmitate cause massive alterations in vital cell functions of cultured hBSMC involving distinct major cytokine signaling pathways. Thereby

  20. Matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces and discuss their applications in semigroups for solving the abstract Cauchy problem. Author Affiliations. H Hudzik1 Rajeev Kumar2 Romesh Kumar2. Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Adam Mickiewicz University ...

  1. Graded effects of unregulated smooth muscle myosin on intestinal architecture, intestinal motility and vascular function in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Abrams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle contraction is controlled by the regulated activity of the myosin heavy chain ATPase (Myh11. Myh11 mutations have diverse effects in the cardiovascular, digestive and genitourinary systems in humans and animal models. We previously reported a recessive missense mutation, meltdown (mlt, which converts a highly conserved tryptophan to arginine (W512R in the rigid relay loop of zebrafish Myh11. The mlt mutation disrupts myosin regulation and non-autonomously induces invasive expansion of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we report two newly identified missense mutations in the switch-1 (S237Y and coil-coiled (L1287M domains of Myh11 that fail to complement mlt. Cell invasion was not detected in either homozygous mutant but could be induced by oxidative stress and activation of oncogenic signaling pathways. The smooth muscle defect imparted by the mlt and S237Y mutations also delayed intestinal transit, and altered vascular function, as measured by blood flow in the dorsal aorta. The cell-invasion phenotype induced by the three myh11 mutants correlated with the degree of myosin deregulation. These findings suggest that the vertebrate intestinal epithelium is tuned to the physical state of the surrounding stroma, which, in turn, governs its response to physiologic and pathologic stimuli. Genetic variants that alter the regulation of smooth muscle myosin might be risk factors for diseases affecting the intestine, vasculature, and other tissues that contain smooth muscle or contractile cells that express smooth muscle proteins, particularly in the setting of redox stress.

  2. Transforming growth factor-beta 3 alters intestinal smooth muscle function: implications for gastroschisis-related intestinal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Olufemi, S D; Olsen, A B; Hook-Dufresne, D M; Bandla, V; Cox, C S

    2015-05-01

    Gastroschisis (GS) is a congenital abdominal wall defect that results in the development of GS-related intestinal dysfunction (GRID). Transforming growth factor-β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to cause organ dysfunction through alterations in vascular and airway smooth muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of TGF-β3 on intestinal smooth muscle function and contractile gene expression. Archived human intestinal tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR for TGF-β isoforms and markers of smooth muscle gene and micro-RNA contractile phenotype. Intestinal motility was measured in neonatal rats ± TGF-β3 (0.2 and 1 mg/kg). Human intestinal smooth muscle cells (hiSMCs) were incubated with fetal bovine serum ± 100 ng/ml of TGF-β 3 isoforms for 6, 24 and 72 h. The effects of TGF-β3 on motility, hiSMC contractility and hiSMC contractile phenotype gene and micro-RNA expression were measured using transit, collagen gel contraction assay and RT-PCR analysis. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM, ANOVA (n = 6-7/group). GS infants had increased immunostaining of TGF-β3 and elevated levels of micro-RNA 143 & 145 in the intestinal smooth muscle. Rats had significantly decreased intestinal transit when exposed to TGF-β3 in a dose-dependent manner compared with Sham animals. TGF-β3 significantly increased hiSMC gel contraction and contractile protein gene and micro-RNA expression. TGF-β3 contributed to intestinal dysfunction at the organ level, increased contraction at the cellular level and elevated contractile gene expression at the molecular level. A hyper-contractile response may play a role in the persistent intestinal dysfunction seen in GRID.

  3. THE ROLE OF GASOTRANSMITTERS IN REGULATING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF SMOOTH MUSCLES: THE POSSIBLE EFFECTOR SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kovalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of gasotransmitters carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S on the electrical and contractile activities of smooth muscle cells (SMCs of the guinea pig ureter and rat aorta were studied by methods of double sucrose bridge and mechanography. It has been shown that CO causes a dose-dependent decrease of the contractile response of SMCs of the ureter and rat aorta and also reduces the amplitude and duration of the action potential plateau. Against the background of the action of biologically active substances, agonists α1-adrenergetic and H1-histaminergetic receptors (phenylephrine and histamine, respectively, these effects of CO donor (CORM II were amplified. The inhibitory effect of CO on the parameters of the contractile and electrical activities of smooth muscles is attenuated by blocking potassium channels of plasma membrane with tetraethylammonium (TEA or inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase (ODQ [1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-l-one]. Thus, the effects of carbon monoxide on the electrical and contractile activities of SMCs are associated with an increase potassium conductivity of the membrane or the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase.In experiments with a donor of hydrogen sulfide (NaHS, it was shown, that it has an activating effect on the electrical and contractile activities of smooth muscles of the guinea pig ureter, which is caused by the action of potassium conductivity of the membrane. Activating effect of H2S on the contractile properties of SMCs of the guinea pig ureter decreased by blocking ATP-dependent channels with glibenclamide. Analysis of the effect of H2S on sodium and calcium conductance of the membrane smooth muscles of the ureter using modified sodium-free and TEA- containing Krebs solution showed that the contribution of potassium conductance is mainly sold at high concentrations (100 and 1000 μmol donor NaHS. Probably, that the impact of low concentrations of NaHS (10 μmol on the

  4. Functional ion channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: Voltage-dependent cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Amy L; Remillard, Carmelle V; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Fantozzi, Ivana; Ko, Eun A; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2011-01-01

    The activity of voltage-gated ion channels is critical for the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and generation of action potentials. In turn, membrane potential regulates cellular ion homeostasis, triggering the opening and closing of ion channels in the plasma membrane and, thus, enabling ion transport across the membrane. Such transmembrane ion fluxes are important for excitation-contraction coupling in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Families of voltage-dependent cation channels known to be present in PASMC include voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels, voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (Kca) channels, L- and T- type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, voltage-gated Na(+) channels and voltage-gated proton channels. When cells are dialyzed with Ca(2+)-free K(+)- solutions, depolarization elicits four components of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-sensitive Kvcurrents based on the kinetics of current activation and inactivation. In cell-attached membrane patches, depolarization elicits a wide range of single-channel K(+) currents, with conductances ranging between 6 and 290 pS. Macroscopic 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents and iberiotoxin-sensitive Kca currents are also observed. Transcripts of (a) two Na(+) channel α-subunit genes (SCN5A and SCN6A), (b) six Ca(2+) channel α-subunit genes (α(1A), α(1B), α(1x), α(1D), α(1E) and α(1G)) and many regulatory subunits (α(2)δ(1), β(1-4), and γ(6)), (c) 22 Kv channel α-subunit genes (Kv1.1 - Kv1.7, Kv1.10, Kv2.1, Kv3.1, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv5.1, Kv 6.1-Kv6.3, Kv9.1, Kv9.3, Kv10.1 and Kv11.1) and three Kv channel β-subunit genes (Kv(β1-3) and (d) four Kca channel α-subunit genes (Sloα1 and SK2-SK4) and four Kca channel (β-subunit genes (Kca(β1-4) have been detected in PASMC. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive and rapidly inactivating Na(+) currents have been recorded with properties similar to those in cardiac myocytes. In the presence of 20 mM external Ca(2+), membrane depolarization from a holding

  5. Computationally efficient nonlinear edge preserving smoothing of n-D medical images via scale-space fingerprint analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutter, B.W.; Algazi, V.R.; Huesman, R.H.

    2000-10-11

    Nonlinear edge preserving smoothing often is performed prior to medical image segmentation. The goal of the nonlinear smoothing is to improve the accuracy of the segmentation by preserving changes in image intensity at the boundaries of structures of interest, while smoothing random variations due to noise in the interiors of the structures. Methods include median filtering and morphology operations such as gray scale erosion and dilation, as well as spatially varying smoothing driven by local contrast measures. Rather than irreversibly altering the image data prior to segmentation, the approach described here has the potential to unify nonlinear edge preserving smoothing with segmentation based on differential edge detection at multiple scales. The analysis of n-D image data is decomposed into independent 1-D problems that can be solved quickly. Smoothing in various directions along 1-D profiles through the n-D data is driven by a measure of local structure separation, rather than by a local contrast measure. Isolated edges are preserved independent of their contrast, given an adequate contrast to noise ratio.

  6. Toxic inhibition of smooth muscle contractility by plant-derived sesquiterpenes caused by their chemically reactive alpha-methylenebutyrolactone functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A. J.; Hamburger, M.; Hostettmann, K.; Hoult, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that extracts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene alpha-methylenebutyrolactone obtained from it, inhibit smooth muscle contractility in a time-dependent, non-specific and irreversible manner. 2. The hypothesis that this toxic effect is due specifically to the presence in the sesquiterpene lactone of the potentially reactive alpha-methylene function was tested on rabbit isolated aortic ring preparations. This was done (a) by comparing the effects of two plant-derived sesquiterpene lactones purified from yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis): cynaropicrin (an alpha-methylenebutyrolactone) and solstitialin 13-acetate (lacking the alpha-methylene function), and (b) by chemically inactivating the alpha-methylene functions in cynaropicrin and parthenolide by reaction with cysteine. 3. The results show that the characteristic smooth muscle inhibitory profile is demonstrated by the two alpha-methylenebutyrolactones (parthenolide and cynaropicrin), but not by the compound lacking this functional group (solstitialin 13-acetate), or by those previously active compounds in which it has been inactivated with cysteine. 4. Thus the alpha-methylene function is critical for this aspect of the toxic pharmacological profile of the sesquiterpene butyrolactones, which are natural products widely distributed in the Compositae family of flowering plants. PMID:8032668

  7. A smooth covariate rank transformation for use in regression models with a sigmoid dose-response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We consider how to represent sigmoid-type regression relationships in a practical and parsimonious way. A pure sigmoid relationship has an asymptote at both ends of the range of a continuous covariate. Curves with a single asymptote are also important in practice. Many smoothers, such as fractional polynomials and restricted cubic regression splines, cannot accurately represent doubly asymptotic curves. Such smoothers may struggle even with singly asymptotic curves. Our approach to modeling sigmoid relationships involves applying a preliminary scaled rank transformation to compress the tails of the observed distribution of a continuous covariate. We include a step that provides a smooth approximation to the empirical cumulative distribution function of the covariate via the scaled ranks. The procedure defines the approximate cumulative distribution transformation of the covariate. To fit the substantive model, we apply fractional polynomial regression to the outcome with the smoothed, scaled ranks as the covariate. When the resulting fractional polynomial function is monotone, we have a sigmoid function. We demonstrate several practical applications of the approximate cumulative distribution transformation while also illustrating its ability to model some unusual functional forms. We describe a command, acd, that implements it.

  8. FUSED KERNEL-SPLINE SMOOTHING FOR REPEATEDLY MEASURED OUTCOMES IN A GENERALIZED PARTIALLY LINEAR MODEL WITH FUNCTIONAL SINGLE INDEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    We propose a generalized partially linear functional single index risk score model for repeatedly measured outcomes where the index itself is a function of time. We fuse the nonparametric kernel method and regression spline method, and modify the generalized estimating equation to facilitate estimation and inference. We use local smoothing kernel to estimate the unspecified coefficient functions of time, and use B-splines to estimate the unspecified function of the single index component. The covariance structure is taken into account via a working model, which provides valid estimation and inference procedure whether or not it captures the true covariance. The estimation method is applicable to both continuous and discrete outcomes. We derive large sample properties of the estimation procedure and show different convergence rate of each component of the model. The asymptotic properties when the kernel and regression spline methods are combined in a nested fashion has not been studied prior to this work even in the independent data case.

  9. Expression and functional role of Rho-kinase in rat urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, Alexandra; Chen, Zunxuan; Hu, Erding; Hieble, J Paul; Westfall, Timothy D

    2003-03-01

    (1) The involvement of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in the contractile mechanisms mediating smooth muscle contraction of the rat urinary bladder was investigated using expression studies and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. (2) Both isoforms of ROCK (ROCK I and ROCK II) were detected in high levels in rat urinary bladder. (3) Y-27632 (10 micro M) significantly attenuated contractions of rat urinary bladder strips evoked by the G-protein coupled receptor agonists carbachol (58.1+/-10.5% at 0.3 micro M) and neurokinin A (68.6+/-12.7% at 1 micro M) without affecting contractions to potassium chloride (10-100 mM). In addition, basal tone was reduced by 47.8+/-2.0% by 10 micro M Y-27632 in the absence of stimulation. (4) Contractions of urinary bladder strips evoked by the P2X receptor agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-mATP; 10 micro M) were also attenuated by Y-27632 (30.0+/-7.2% at 10 micro M). (5) Y-27632 (10 micro M) significantly attenuated contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (2-16 Hz). The effect of Y-27632 on the tonic portion of the neurogenic response (4-16 Hz) was not significantly different from the effect of atropine (1 micro M) alone. (6) While the mechanism underlying the ability of Y-27632 to inhibit alpha,beta-mATP-evoked contractions remains undetermined, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate a role for ROCK in the regulation of rat urinary bladder smooth muscle contraction and tone.

  10. Chaotic expansion and smoothness of some functionals of the fractional Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Eddahbi, M’hamed; Vives, Josep

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with some additive functionals of the fractional Brownian motion that arise as limits in law of some occupation times of this process. In concrete, this functionals are obtained via the Cauchy principal value and the Hadamard finite part. We derive some regularity properties of theses functionals in Sobolev-Watanabe sense.

  11. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2016-12-14

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  12. On the Dielectric “Constant” of Proteins: Smooth Dielectric Function for Macromolecular Modeling and Its Implementation in DelPhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Implicit methods for modeling protein electrostatics require dielectric properties of the system to be known, in particular, the value of the dielectric constant of protein. While numerous values of the internal protein dielectric constant were reported in the literature, still there is no consensus of what the optimal value is. Perhaps this is due to the fact that the protein dielectric constant is not a “constant” but is a complex function reflecting the properties of the protein’s structure and sequence. Here, we report an implementation of a Gaussian-based approach to deliver the dielectric constant distribution throughout the protein and surrounding water phase by utilizing the 3D structure of the corresponding macromolecule. In contrast to previous reports, we construct a smooth dielectric function throughout the space of the system to be modeled rather than just constructing a “Gaussian surface” or smoothing molecule–water boundary. Analysis on a large set of proteins shows that (a) the average dielectric constant inside the protein is relatively low, about 6–7, and reaches a value of about 20–30 at the protein’s surface, and (b) high average local dielectric constant values are associated with charged residues while low dielectric constant values are automatically assigned to the regions occupied by hydrophobic residues. In terms of energetics, a benchmarking test was carried out against the experimental pKa’s of 89 residues in staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) and showed that it results in a much better RMSD (= 1.77 pK) than the corresponding calculations done with a homogeneous high dielectric constant with an optimal value of 10 (RMSD = 2.43 pK). PMID:23585741

  13. Expression and function of 5-HT7 receptors in smooth muscle preparations from equine duodenum, ileum, and pelvic flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Andrea S.; Stoffel, Michael H.; Portier, Christopher J.; Mevissen, Meike

    2009-01-01

    In horses, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders occur frequently and cause a considerable demand for efficient medication. 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT) have been reported to be involved in GI tract motility and thus, are potential targets for treating functional bowel disorders. Our studies extend current knowledge on the 5-HT7 receptor in equine duodenum, ileum and pelvic flexure by studying its expression throughout the intestine and its role in modulating contractility in vitro by immunofluorescence and organ bath experiments, respectively. 5-HT7 immunoreactivity was demonstrated in both smooth muscle layers, particularly in the circular one, and within the myenteric plexus. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), identified by c-Kit labeling, show a staining pattern similar to that of 5-HT7 immunoreactivity. The selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-269970 increased the amplitude of contractions in spontaneous contracting specimens of the ileum and in electrical field-stimulated specimens of the pelvic flexure concentration-dependently. Our in vitro experiments suggest an involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor subtype in contractility of equine intestine. While the 5-HT7 receptor has been established to be constitutively active and inhibits smooth muscle contractility, our experiments demonstrate an increase in contractility by the 5-HT7 receptor ligand SB-269970, suggesting it exerting inverse agonist properties. PMID:19364615

  14. Expression pattern and function of tyrosine receptor kinase B isoforms in rat mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Kosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki, E-mail: yamawaki@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp

    2015-11-27

    Tyrosine receptor kinaseB (TrkB) is a high affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). TrkB isoforms involve full length TrkB (TrkB FL) and truncated TrkB type1 (TrkB T1) and type 2 (TrkB T2) in rats. The aim of present study was to explore their expression pattern and function in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). The expression of TrkB isoform protein and mRNA was examined by Western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Cell proliferation was measured by a bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell migration was measured by a Boyden chamber assay. Cell morphology was observed with a phase-contrast microscope. Protein and mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB isoforms was confirmed in MASMCs. Expression level of TrkB FL was less, while that of TrkB T1 was the highest in MASMCs. Although BDNF increased phosphorylation of ERK, it had no influence on migration and proliferation of MASMCs. TrkB T1 gene knockdown by a RNA interference induced morphological changes and reduced expression level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in MASMCs. Similar morphological changes and reduced α-SMA expression were induced in MASMCs by a Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632. In conclusion, we for the first time demonstrate that TrkB T1 expressed highly in MASMCs contributes to maintain normal cell morphology possibly via regulation of Rho activity. This study firstly defined expression level of TrkB isoforms and partly revealed their functions in peripheral vascular cells. - Highlights: • BDNF-TrkB axis mediates neurogenesis, growth, differentiation and survival. • Expression pattern and function of TrkB in vascular smooth muscle remain unclear. • Expression of TrkB FL is low, while that of TrkB T1 is the highest. • TrkB T1 contributes to maintain normal morphology possibly via activating Rho.

  15. Asymptotically optimal estimation of smooth functionals for interval censoring, case 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Geskus, R.

    1999-01-01

    For a version of the interval censoring model, case 2, in which the observation intervals are allowed to be arbitrarily small, we consider estimation of functionals that are differentiable along Hellinger differentiable paths. The asymptotic information lower bound for such functionals can be

  16. Homotopy Characterization of ANR Function Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Smrekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Y be an absolute neighbourhood retract (ANR for the class of metric spaces and let X be a topological space. Let YX denote the space of continuous maps from X to Y equipped with the compact open topology. We show that if X is a compactly generated Tychonoff space and Y is not discrete, then YX is an ANR for metric spaces if and only if X is hemicompact and YX has the homotopy type of a CW complex.

  17. Ouabain exerts biphasic effects on connexin functionality and expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patricia E M; Hill, Nathan S; Kristensen, Bo; Errington, Rachael J; Rachael J, Tudor M

    2004-01-01

    1. We have compared the effects of ouabain on the maintenance of gap junctional communication in rat aortic A7r5 smooth muscle cells, monkey COS-1 fibroblasts and human HeLa epithelial cells. 2. Ouabain (1 mM) interrupted dye coupling between confluent A7r5 cells within approximately 1 h, and high concentrations of ouabain were similarly required to reduce coupling between COS-1 cells selected to express the rat alpha1 Na+/K+-ATPase subunit, which is ouabain resistant. By contrast, low concentrations of ouabain (1-10 microM) attenuated dye transfer in wild-type COS-1 and HeLa cells, whose endogenous alpha1 subunits possess relatively high affinity for the glycoside (Ki approximately 0.3 vs approximately 100 microM) Ouabain-induced reductions in dye transfer therefore correlated with the ability of the glycoside to bind to the Na+/K+-ATPase isoenzymes expressed in these different cell lines. 3. No consistent relationship between inhibition of intercellular dye transfer and secondary changes in [Ca2+]i or pHi could be identified following incubation with ouabain. 4. In separate experiments, the effects of ouabain on real-time trafficking of connexin (Cx) protein were monitored by time-lapse microscopy of A7r5 cells transfected to express a fluorescent Cx43-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the ability of the glycoside to modulate endogenous expression of Cx40 and Cx43 evaluated in A7r5 cells by immunochemical and Western blot analysis. 5. Ouabain (1 mM) depressed vesicular trafficking of Cx43-GFP after approximately 1 h, and caused a time-dependent loss of endogenous Cx40 and Cx43 protein that was first evident at 2 h and almost complete after 4 h. These effects of ouabain on Cx expression were reversed 90 min following washout of the glycoside. 6. We conclude that ouabain exerts biphasic effects on intercellular communication that involve an initial decrease in gap junctional permeability followed by a global reduction in the expression of Cx protein. Further

  18. Changes of phasic and tonic smooth muscle function of jejunum in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jing-Bo; Chen, Peng-Min; Gregersen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To generate phasic and tonic stress-strain curves for evaluation of intestinal smooth muscle function in type 2 diabetic rats during active and passive conditions. METHODS: Seven diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) male rats, 32-wk old (GK group), and 9 age-matched normal Wistar rats (Normal group...... application. CONCLUSION: The stress generated by intestinal muscle normalized to the muscle layer thickness was lowest in GK rats compared to normal rats whereas the response to CA stimulation was preserved....... and tonic stresses minus the passive stress. RESULTS: Diabetes increased jejunal mucosa and muscle layer thicknesses compared to the Normal group (mucosa, 755.8 ± 63.3 vs 633.1 ± 59.1 μm, P muscle, 106.3 ± 12.9 vs 85.2 ± 11.7 μm, P

  19. Self-adaptive Differential Evolution Based Optimal Power Flow for Units with Non-smooth Fuel Cost Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thitithamrongchai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a self-adaptive differential evolution with augmented Lagrange multiplier method (SADE_ALM for solving optimal power flow (OPF problems with non-smooth generator fuel cost curves. The SADE_ALM is a modified version of conventional differential evolution (DE by integrating mutation factor (F and crossover constant (CR as additional control variables.An augmented Lagrange multiplier method (ALM is applied to handle inequality constraints instead of traditional penalty function method, whereas the sum of the violated constraint (SVC index is employed to ensure that the final result is the feasible global or quasi-global optimum.The proposed algorithm has been tested with the IEEE 30-bus system with different fuel cost characteristics, i.e. 1 quadratic cost curve model, and 2 quadratic cost curve with rectified sine component model (valve-point effects. Numerical results show that the SADE_ALM provides very impressive results compared with the previous reports.

  20. Smooth-surface silver nanowire electrode with high conductivity and transparency on functional layer coated flexible film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So Hee; Lim, Sooman; Kim, Haekyoung, E-mail: hkkim@ynu.ac.kr

    2015-08-31

    Transparent conductive electrode (TCE) with silver nanowires has been widely studied as an alternative of indium tin oxide for flexible electronic or optical devices such as organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, it has an issue of surface roughness due to nanowire's intrinsic properties. Here, to achieve a smooth electrode with high conductivity and transmittance on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, a functional layer of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) is utilized with a mechanical transfer process. The silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET with low surface roughness of 9 nm exhibits the low sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} and high transmittance of 87.6%. It is produced by transferring the silver nanowire electrode spin-coated on the glass to PVP-coated PET using a pressure of 10 MPa for 10 min. Silver nanowire electrode on PVP-coated PET demonstrates the stable sheet resistance of 18 Ω □{sup −1} after the mechanical taping test due to strong adhesion between PVP functional layer and silver nanowires. Smooth TCE with silver nanowires could be proposed as a transparent electrode for flexible electronic or optical devices, which consist of thin electrical active layers on TCE. - Highlights: • Silver nanowire (Ag NWs) transparent electrodes were fabricated on flexible film. • Flexible film was coated with poly N-vinylpyrrolidone (PVP). • PVP layer plays roles as an adhesive layer and matrix in electrode. • Ag NWs electrode exhibited with low surface roughness of 9 nm. • Ag NWs electrode has a low resistance (18 Ω ☐{sup −1}) and high transmittance (87.6%)

  1. Topology on Soft Continuous Function Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasin Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft sets was initiated by Molodtsov. Then, some operations on soft sets were defined by Maji et al. Later on, the concept of soft topological space was introduced. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the pointwise topology of soft topological spaces. Finally, we investigate the properties of soft mapping spaces and the relationships between some soft mapping spaces.

  2. Spaces of approximating functions with Haar-like conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, Kazuaki

    1994-01-01

    Tchebycheff (or Haar) and weak Tchebycheff spaces play a central role when considering problems of best approximation from finite dimensional spaces. The aim of this book is to introduce Haar-like spaces, which are Haar and weak Tchebycheff spaces under special conditions. It studies topics of subclasses of Haar-like spaces, that is, classes of Tchebycheff or weak Tchebycheff spaces, spaces of vector-valued monotone increasing or convex functions and spaces of step functions. The notion of Haar-like spaces provides a general point of view which includes the theories of approximation from the above spaces. The contents are largely new. Graduate students and researchers in approximation theory will be able to read this book with only basic knowledge of analysis, functional analysis and linear algebra.

  3. Strict topoligies in non-Archimedean function spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Katsaras

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Let F be a non-trivial complete non-Archimedean valued field. Some locally F-convex topologies, on the space Cb(X,E of all bounded continuous functions from a zero-dimensional topological space X to a non-Archimedean locally F-convex space E, are studied. The corresponding dual spaces are also investigated.

  4. smoothG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-12

    smoothG is a collection of parallel C++ classes/functions that algebraically constructs reduced models of different resolutions from a given high-fidelity graph model. In addition, smoothG also provides efficient linear solvers for the reduced models. Other than pure graph problem, the software finds its application in subsurface flow and power grid simulations in which graph Laplacians are found

  5. Estimating a Smooth Common Transfer Function with a Panel of Time Series - Inflow of Larvae Cod as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The annual response variable in an ecological monitoring study often relates linearly to the weighted cumulative effect of some daily covariate, after adjusting for other annual covariates. Here we consider the problem of non-parametrically estimating the weights involved in computing the aforementioned cumulative effect, with a panel of short and contemporaneously correlated time series whose responses share the common cumulative effect of a daily covariate. The sequence of (unknown daily weights constitutes the so-called transfer function. Specifically, we consider the problem of estimating a smooth common transfer function shared by a panel of short time series that are contemporaneously correlated. We propose an estimation scheme using a likelihood approach that penalizes the roughness of the common transfer function. We illustrate the proposed method with a simulation study and a biological example of indirectly estimating the spawning date distribution of North Sea cod.

  6. A nonlinear mixed-effects model for simultaneous smoothing and registration of functional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Markussen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    We consider misaligned functional data, where data registration is necessary for proper statistical analysis. This paper proposes to treat misalignment as a nonlinear random effect, which makes simultaneous likelihood inference for horizontal and vertical effects possible. By simultaneously fitting...... the model and registering data, the proposed method estimates parameters and predicts random effects more precisely than conventional methods that register data in preprocessing. The ability of the model to estimate both hyperparameters and predict horizontal and vertical effects are illustrated on both...... simulated and real data....

  7. BPAG1 in muscles: Structure and function in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masao; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Takebayashi, Hirohide

    2017-09-01

    BPAG1, also known as Dystonin or BP230, belongs to the plakin family of proteins, which has multiple cytoskeleton-binding domains. Several BPAG1 isoforms are produced by a single BPAG1 genomic locus using different promoters and exons. For example, BPAG1a, BPAG1b, and BPAG1e are predominantly expressed in the nervous system, muscle, and skin, respectively. Among BPAG1 isoforms, BPAG1e is well studied because it was first identified as an autoantigen in patients with bullous pemphigoid, an autoimmune skin disease. BPAG1e is a component of hemidesmosomes, the adhesion complexes that promote dermal-epidermal cohesion. In the nervous system, the role of BPAG1a is also well studied because disruption of BPAG1a results in a phenotype identical to that of Dystonia musculorum (dt) mutants, which show progressive motor disorder. However, the expression and function of BPAG1 in muscles is not well studied. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of and highlight some recent findings on the expression and function of BPAG1 in muscles, which can assist future studies designed to delineate the role and regulation of BPAG1 in the dt mouse phenotype and in human hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 6 (HSAN6). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On marginalization of phase-space distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarz, Joachim J.

    1999-12-01

    We discuss marginalization procedures based on integration of quantum phase-space distribution functions over a family of phase-space manifolds. We show that under some conditions the resulting marginals are always nonnegative.

  9. Integral operators in non-standard function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kokilashvili, Vakhtang; Rafeiro, Humberto; Samko, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This book, the result of the authors’ long and fruitful collaboration, focuses on integral operators in new, non-standard function spaces and presents a systematic study of the boundedness and compactness properties of basic, harmonic analysis integral operators in the following function spaces, among others: variable exponent Lebesgue and amalgam spaces, variable Hölder spaces, variable exponent Campanato, Morrey and Herz spaces, Iwaniec-Sbordone (grand Lebesgue) spaces, grand variable exponent Lebesgue spaces unifying the two spaces mentioned above, grand Morrey spaces, generalized grand Morrey spaces, and weighted analogues of some of them. The results obtained are widely applied to non-linear PDEs, singular integrals and PDO theory. One of the book’s most distinctive features is that the majority of the statements proved here are in the form of criteria. The book is intended for a broad audience, ranging from researchers in the area to experts in applied mathematics and prospective students.

  10. The Teichmuller Space of an Entire Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    the Teichmuller space of f, analyzing each type of Fatou component separately. Baker domains were already considered in [FH06], but the consideration of wandering domains are new. We provide different examples of wandering domains; each of them adding a different quantity to the dimension of the Teichmuller space...

  11. Subretinal Implantation of Electrospun, Short Nanowire, and Smooth Poly(e-caprolactone) Scaffolds to the Subretinal Space of Porcine Eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, A T; Tao, Shanwen; Smith, M

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds play an important adjunct role in transplantation of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to the subretinal space. Poly(e-Caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with different modifications were subretinally implanted in 28 porcine eyes and evaluated by multifocal electroretinography (mf...

  12. Fixed Points of Multivalued Maps in Modular Function Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutbi MarwanA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the existence of fixed points for contractive-type and nonexpansive-type multivalued maps in the setting of modular function spaces. We also discuss the concept of -modular function and prove fixed point results for weakly-modular contractive maps in modular function spaces. These results extend several similar results proved in metric and Banach spaces settings.

  13. Some New Double Sequence Spaces Defined by Orlicz Function in -Normed Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce and study some new double sequence spaces with respect to an Orlicz function, and also some properties of the resulting sequence spaces were examined.

  14. Existence of arbitrarily smooth solutions of the LLG equation in 3D with natural boundary conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Feischl, Michael; Tran, Thanh

    2016-01-01

    We prove that the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in three space dimensions with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions admits arbitrarily smooth solutions, given that the initial data is sufficiently close to a constant function.

  15. Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as

  16. Obesity Induces Artery-Specific Alterations: Evaluation of Vascular Function and Inflammatory and Smooth Muscle Phenotypic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Garcia Soares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular alterations are expected to occur in obese individuals but the impact of obesity could be different depending on the artery type. We aimed to evaluate the obesity effects on the relaxing and contractile responses and inflammatory and smooth muscle (SM phenotypic markers in two vascular beds. Obesity was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by 16-week high-fat diet and vascular reactivity, mRNA expression of inflammatory and SM phenotypic markers, and collagen deposition were evaluated in small mesenteric arteries (SMA and thoracic aorta (TA. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in SMA and TA was not modified by obesity. In contrast, contraction induced by depolarization and contractile agonists was reduced in SMA, whereas only contraction induced by adrenergic agonist was reduced in TA of obese mice. Obesity increased the mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in SMA and TA. The expression of genes necessary for maintaining contractile ability was increased by obesity, but the increase was more pronounced in TA. Collagen deposition was increased in SMA, but not in TA, of obese mice. Although the endothelial function was still preserved, the SM of the two artery types was impaired by obesity, but the impairment was higher in SMA, which could be associated with SM phenotypic changes.

  17. A Fubini theorem on a function space and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Choi, Jae Gil; Chang, Seung Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we establish a Fubini theorem for functionals on a function space. We then establish some relationships as applications of our Fubini theorem. Finally, we present some historical remarks.

  18. Nonequilibrium flows with smooth particle applied mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kum, Oyeon [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows through they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expression for (uρ) and (Tρ), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier`s heat-flow law and Newton`s viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking to them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh-Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails.

  19. Function of space in Daniel 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel 1 narrates how Daniel and his friends come from Jerusalem and are appointed as officials at the royal court in Babylon. The narrative is governed by the various and significant references to space. The Jews’ loyalty towards Jerusalem and its association with the Temple and temple cult is challenged by the loyalty required from them at the Babylonian court as symbolised by the new names they receive − names associated with the Babylonian gods. The strategy they devise to retain their loyalty towards YHWH is decided by their request for a specific specific type of food. Their eating special food in contrast to the royal food set apart for the candidates, creates a space that relates to the determinative contrast between Jerusalem and Shinar. The tale in Daniel 1 is determined by references to space that allowed the Jewish readers to understand its meaning.

  20. -Functions on Quasimetric Spaces and Fixed Points for Multivalued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss several properties of -functions in the sense of Al-Homidan et al.. In particular, we prove that the partial metric induced by any weighted quasipseudometric space is a -function and show that both the Sorgenfrey line and the Kofner plane provide significant examples of quasimetric spaces for which the associated supremum metric is a -function. In this context we also obtain some fixed point results for multivalued maps by using Bianchini-Grandolfi gauge functions.

  1. Functional equations in matrix normed spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    46] concerning the stability of group homomorphisms. The functional equation f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) is called the Cauchy additive functional equation. In particular, every solution of the. Cauchy additive functional equation is said to be an additive ...

  2. Weakly b-open functions in bitopological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Jyoti Sarma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce the notion of weakly b-open functions in bitopological spaces. Some properties of this functions are established and the relationships with some other types of spaces are also investigated.

  3. On quantum mechanical phase-space wave functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wlodarz, Joachim J.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to quantum mechanics based on the notion of a phase-space wave function is proposed within the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation. It is shown that the Schrodinger equation for the phase-space wave function is equivalent to the quantum Liouville equation for the Wigner distribution...

  4. Generalized Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces Defined by Modulus Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işik Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the vector-valued sequence spaces , , and , and , using a sequence of modulus functions and the multiplier sequence of nonzero complex numbers. We give some relations related to these sequence spaces. It is also shown that if a sequence is strongly -Cesàro summable with respect to the modulus function then it is -statistically convergent.

  5. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with impaired vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function and hypertension in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Marianne; Emmett, Sarah J; Coleman, Harold A; Skordilis, Con; Eyles, Darryl W; Morley, Ruth; Parkington, Helena C

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence links vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular dysfunction in human adults. There is a worldwide increase in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in women of reproductive age, particularly dark-skinned and/or veiled women and their infants. We used a rat model to determine the functional impact of vitamin D deficiency during intra uterine and early life on resistance artery reactivity and blood pressure in the offspring as young adults. Rat dams were maintained on vitamin D deficient or replete chow before and during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were maintained on the same chow until studied at 7-8 weeks of age. Conscious blood pressure was measured. Endothelial and smooth muscle function were tested in mesenteric arteries on a pressure myograph. Vitamin D deficient male and female offspring had a 10-fold lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P < 0.0001) and markedly elevated blood pressures (11-20 mmHg, P < 0.001) and heart rates (21-40 beats min(-1), P < 0.02) than control fed offspring. Serum calcium was unchanged. Mesenteric artery myogenic tone was doubled in vitamin D deficiency. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide-evoked dilation was halved in arteries from vitamin D deficient males and dioestrous females. Dilation attributed to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor was all but abolished in vitamin D deficient oestrous females. Nitroprusside-evoked dilation was unaltered in arteries from males, but was markedly reduced in vessels of vitamin D deplete females. In conclusion, early life vitamin D deficiency is associated with endothelial vasodilator dysfunction, and this is likely to contribute to the accompanying elevation in blood pressure and an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by erlotinib prevents vascular smooth muscle cell and monocyte-macrophage function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikko, Johanna; Rintala, Jukka M; Rintala, Sini; Koskinen, Petri

    2015-06-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and monocyte-macrophages play a central role during the development of chronic allograft injury, which still remains an important challenge in organ transplantation. Inflammation, fibrosis and accelerated arteriosclerosis are typical features for chronic allograft injury. Growth factors participate in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in this pathological process. Here we studied the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in VSMC and monocyte-macrophage function in vitro. EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, a selective EGF tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was studied in VSMC proliferation and migration as well as monocyte-macrophage proliferation and differentiation. Rat coronary artery SMCs were used for VSMC studies. As a model for monocyte-macrophage proliferation and differentiation human monocytic cell line U937 was used. Phorbol ester TPA was used to induce these cells to differentiate into macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B, a known VSMC inducer, caused 2.1-fold stimulation in VSMC proliferation compared to non-stimulated VSMC. Erlotinib prevented this VSMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, p < 0.001 in all groups compared to controls. PDGF-B stimulation increased VSMC migration to 2.5-fold when compared with non-stimulated cells. Erlotinib decreased VSMC migration dose-dependently and this effect was significant with all doses, p < 0.05. Erlotinib inhibited dose-dependently the proliferation of U937 monocytic cells, p < 0.001. Erlotinib prevented also TPA-induced macrophage differentiation in a dose-dependent way, p < 0.05. Erlotinib significantly prevents VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro. Erlotinib inhibited also significantly both monocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our data suggest that EGFR inhibition in VSMC and monocyte function has beneficial effects on chronic allograft injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ageing and activity: their effects on the functional reserve capacities of the heart and vascular smooth and skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspink, David F

    During perinatal life striated muscles grow through the acquisition of more contractile cells (myocytes or fibres) followed by their postnatal enlargement (i.e. hypertrophy). In the ageing adult these events are reversed, with a progressive loss of myocytes that cannot be fully compensated despite the presence of cell renewal systems or reactive myocyte hypertrophy. Hence the functional reserve capacities of the heart and skeletal muscles decline with age. This is probably a consequence of physiological ageing and diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. For example, sufficient coordinated absolute muscle force is required for an individual to rise from a chair or climb stairs, and the reserve capacity of the heart is a major determinant of an individual's ability to remain active and cope with daily stresses and illnesses. Long-term participation in endurance-based activities helps to preserve cardiac reserve, and has both direct and indirect beneficial effects on vascular smooth muscle and health preservation within the cardiovascular system. In contrast, this type of activity does little to protect skeletal muscles against the age-related losses of fast-twitch fibres, small motor units, overall muscle mass and power output. While resistance exercise promotes fibre hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, and to a lesser extent in myocytes of the heart, the explosive power of muscles still declines with age. Hence, while physical activity is important in attenuating age-related changes in muscle function and its reserve capacity, it delays rather than prevents the deleterious effects of ageing per se. Despite this, in a culture where inactivity has become an accepted part of life we still need to explore in greater detail the benefits of habitual physical activity, and use this information as a community-based educational tool to help prevent or delay

  8. Efecto del tamaño kernel en el suavizado de señal BOLD en paradigmas funcionales (RMf (Effect of kernel size for BOLD signal smoothing in functional paradigms (fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Farràs-Permanyer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing is a filtering technique that is essential for brain signal analysis and consists in calculating and comparing the average activation of a voxel to that of its neighbours. Several authors have proposed alternatives or modifications to this process; nonetheless, articles that compare the effect of different sizes of smoothing remain scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of applying different smoothing sizes and to highlight the importance of choosing the correct smoothing size. Five smoothing criteria were applied to brain images obtained during an easy motor task performed by five adult participants. Significant differences were found between different smoothing sizes, mainly between the non-smoothing application and the smallest smoothing size versus the two largest smoothing sizes. The signals from the most activated brain areas did not disappear with increased smoothing, whereas signals from less active or smaller areas disappeared. Despite the study sample size, the results suggest that smoothing is relevant in functional magnetic resonance image processing and that the optimum smoothing size is 2.5 and 3.

  9. Fractals and spectra related to fourier analysis and function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1997-01-01

    Fractals and Spectra Hans Triebel This book deals with the symbiotic relationship between the theory of function spaces, fractal geometry, and spectral theory of (fractal) pseudodifferential operators as it has emerged quite recently. Atomic and quarkonial (subatomic) decompositions in scalar and vector valued function spaces on the euclidean n-space pave the way to study properties (compact embeddings, entropy numbers) of function spaces on and of fractals. On this basis, distributions of eigenvalues of fractal (pseudo)differential operators are investigated. Diverse versions of fractal drums are played. The book is directed to mathematicians interested in functional analysis, the theory of function spaces, fractal geometry, partial and pseudodifferential operators, and, in particular, in how these domains are interrelated. ------ It is worth mentioning that there is virtually no literature on this topic and hence the most of the presented material is published here the first time. - Zentralblatt MATH (…) ...

  10. Type 2 diabetes impairs venous, but not arterial smooth muscle cell function: Possible role of differential RhoA activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riches, Kirsten [Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Warburton, Philip [Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); O’Regan, David J. [Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Department of Cardiac Surgery, The Yorkshire Heart Centre, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Turner, Neil A. [Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Porter, Karen E., E-mail: medkep@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics (LIGHT), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Background/purpose: Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), frequently resulting in a requirement for coronary revascularization using the internal mammary artery (IMA) or saphenous vein (SV). Patency rates of SV grafts are inferior to IMA and further impaired by T2DM whilst IMA patencies appear similar in both populations. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) play a pivotal role in graft integration; we therefore examined the phenotype and proliferative function of IMA- and SV-SMC isolated from non-diabetic (ND) patients or those diagnosed with T2DM. Methods/materials: SMC were cultured from fragments of SV or IMA. Morphology was analyzed under light microscopy (spread cell area measurements) and confocal microscopy (F-actin staining). Proliferation was analyzed by cell counting. Levels of RhoA mRNA, protein and activity were measured by real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and G-LISA respectively. Results: IMA-SMC from T2DM and ND patients were indistinguishable in both morphology and function. By comparison, SV-SMC from T2DM patients exhibited significantly larger spread cell areas (1.5-fold increase, P < 0.05), truncated F-actin fibers and reduced proliferation (33% reduction, P < 0.05). Furthermore, lower expression and activity of RhoA were observed in SV-SMC of T2DM patients (37% reduction in expression, P < 0.05 and 43% reduction in activity, P < 0.01). Conclusions: IMA-SMC appear impervious to phenotypic modulation by T2DM. In contrast, SV-SMC from T2DM patients exhibit phenotypic and functional changes accompanied by reduced RhoA activity. These aberrancies may be epigenetic in nature, compromising SMC plasticity and SV graft adaptation in T2DM patients. Summary: The internal mammary artery (IMA) is the conduit of choice for bypass grafting and is generally successful in all patients, including those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). By contrast, saphenous vein (SV) is inferior to IMA and furthermore

  11. Green's Functions in Space and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, E. G. Peter

    1979-01-01

    Gives a sketch of some topics in distribution theory that is technically simple, yet provides techniques for handling the partial differential equations satisfied by the most important Green's functions in physics. (Author/GA)

  12. Modified point spread function for efficient high dynamic range LED backlight capable of high uniformity, high contrast, and smooth gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Jakob; Whitehead, Lorne A

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of new point spread functions (PSFs) on the uniformity and contrast of high dynamic range displays that use local dimming of LEDs to yield a large dynamic range. A PSF shaped like a quadratic B-spline was hypothesized to create a uniform brightness backlight, as well as producing linear and quadratic gradients, while maintaining a very high contrast. We have found a practical optical structure to produce such a PSF, yielding a nonuniformity of only ±0.8%, while enabling a contrast ratio of 5∶1 and 33∶1 over distances of one and two unit cell spacings, respectively.

  13. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  14. Functional Modeling of the Shift in Cellular Calcium Dynamics at the Onset of Synchronization in Smooth Muscle Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Brings Jacobsen, J C; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we address the nature of synchronization properties found in populations of mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells. We present a minimal model of the onset of synchronization in the individual smooth muscle cell that is manifested as a transition from calcium waves to whole-cell...... calcium oscillations. We discuss how different types of ion currents may influence both amplitude and frequency in the regime of whole-cell oscillations. The model may also explain the occurrence of mixed-mode oscillations and chaotic oscillations frequently observed in the experimental system....

  15. Functional differential equations with unbounded delay in extrapolation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Adimy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence, regularity and stability of solutions for nonlinear partial neutral functional differential equations with unbounded delay and a Hille-Yosida operator on a Banach space X. We consider two nonlinear perturbations: the first one is a function taking its values in X and the second one is a function belonging to a space larger than X, an extrapolated space. We use the extrapolation techniques to prove the existence and regularity of solutions and we establish a linearization principle for the stability of the equilibria of our equation.

  16. Four years of zodiacal light observations from the Helios space probes - Evidence for a smooth distribution of interplanetary dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinert, C.; Richter, I.; Pitz, E.; Hanner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Zodiacal light experiments on Helios 2 that has been operating continually since January 1976 are discussed, with the purpose of elucidating the distribution of interplanetary dust. Results for the observed gradient of zodiacal light intensity between 1 A.U. and perihelion at 0.3 A.U. show that for all elongations, from 17.5 deg to 135 deg from the sun, the exponent of intensity increase is -2.3 plus or minus 0.1. Color investigations show no systematic variation with heliocentric distance, but a slight reddening is present, increasing towards small elongations. The degree of polarization is found to be higher at 1 A.U. than given previously and decreases towards the sun, even if no correction for electron scattering is made. All results thus fit the hypothesized power law for radial distribution of dust. It is concluded from the stability of zodiacal intensity that the distribution of interplanetary dust is rather simple in space and quite constant in time.

  17. Shengjing Capsule Improves Erectile Function Through Regulation of Nitric Oxide-induced Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle in a Castrated Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shankun; Liu, Luhao; Kang, Ran; Li, Futian; Li, Ermao; Zhang, Tao; Luo, Jintai; Zhao, Zhigang

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of Shengjing capsule on erectile function in a castrated rat model, and further to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5 per group), including sham group, castration group, testosterone replacement group, high-dose Shengjing capsule group, medium-dose Shengjing capsule group, and low-dose Shengjing capsule group. The weight of the body and androgen-sensitive organs, and the serum level of testosterone were assessed. Erectile function was evaluated using cavernous nerve electrical stimulation after treatment. Corpus cavernosum tissue was examined by Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. Serum testosterone level, mean weights of body, and accessory sexual organs were not significantly different between Shengjing capsule treatment and the castration groups (P > .05 for all). Significant recovery of erectile function and the increased smooth muscle components were observed in the Shengjing capsule treatment group as compared with the castration group (P cavernous tissue in Shengjing capsule-treated rats were significantly higher than in the castration group (P < .05 for all). Phosphodiesterase type 5 messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression in each group followed a trend similar to that of smooth muscle content. These results show that Shengjing capsule improves the erectile function by protecting the smooth muscle content and enhancing NOS activity in penile tissues of castrated male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The multiplication operators on some analytic function spaces of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We give equivalent definitions of the multipliers of the space of functions of bounded mean oscillation, the Bloch space and their logarithmic counterparts. Author Affiliations. Benoît F Sehba1. African Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town 7945, South Africa. Dates. Manuscript received ...

  19. reliability assessment of stringers spacings in bridges as function

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This presentation accounts for established functions of stringer spacing of major Nigerian woods when used as bridge decks. It entails stochastic evaluation of bridge wood decks with absolute regards to the spacing of supporting stringers. A timber bridge deck is modelled on timber stringers in accordance with current.

  20. Biscalar and Bivector Green's Functions in de Sitter Space Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, J. V.

    1970-01-01

    Biscalar and bivector Green's functions of wave equations are calculated explicitly in de Sitter space time. The calculation is performed by considering the electromagnetic field generated by the spontaneous creation of an electric charge. PMID:16591816

  1. Operational calculus and differential equations with infinitely smooth coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Nemzer

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A subring MF of the field of Mikusiński operators is constructed as a countable union space. Some topological properties of MF are investigated. Then, the product of an infinitely differentiable function and an element of MF is given and is used to investigate operational equations with infinitely smooth coefficients.

  2. Spin-weighted Green's functions in a conical space

    OpenAIRE

    Linet, B.

    1996-01-01

    We give an analysis of the spin-weighted Green's functions well-defined in a conical space. We apply these results in the case of a straight cosmic string and in the Rindler space in order to determine generally the Euclidean Green's functions for the massless spin 1/2 field and for the electromagnetic field. We give also the corresponding Green's functions at zero temperature. However, except for the scalar field, it seems that these Euclidean Green's functions do not correspond to the therm...

  3. Cesaro function spaces fail the fixed point property

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkin, Sergey; Maligranda, Lech

    2008-01-01

    The Cesaro sequence spaces ces(p), 1 < p < infinity, are reflexive but they have the fixed point property. In this paper we prove that in contrast to these sequence spaces the corresponding Cesaro function spaces Ces(p) on both [0, 1] and [0, infinity) for 1 < p < infinity are not reflexive and they fail to have the fixed point property. The Cesaro sequence spaces ces(p), 1 < p < infinity, are reflexive but they have the fixed point property. In this paper we prove that i...

  4. When does the H∞ fixed-lag smoothing saturate for finite smoothing lag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirkin, Leonid; Meinsma, Gjerrit

    2004-01-01

    A notable difference between the H∞ smoothing is that the achievable performance in the latter problem might "saturate" as the function of the smoothing lag in the sense that there might exist a finite smoothing lag for which the achievable performance level is the same as for the infinite smoothing

  5. A Functional equation related to inner product spaces in non-archimedean normed spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shin Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of a functional equation related to inner product spaces in non-Archimedean normed spaces. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 46S10; 39B52; 47S10; 26E30; 12J25.

  6. Quark mass functions and pion structure in Minkowski space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernat, Elmer P. [CFTP, Institute Superior Tecnico; Gross, Franz L. [JLAB; Pena, Maria Teresa [CFTP, Institute Superior Tecnico; Stadler, Alfred [University of Evora

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the dressed quark mass function and the pion structure in Minkowski space using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). The quark propagators are dressed with the same kernel that describes the interaction between different quarks. We use an interaction kernel in momentum space that is a relativistic generalization of the linear confining q-qbar potential and a constant potential shift that defines the energy scale. The confining interaction has a Lorentz scalar part that is not chirally invariant by itself but decouples from the equations in the chiral limit and therefore allows the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism to work. We adjust the parameters of our quark mass function calculated in Minkowski-space to agree with LQCD data obtained in Euclidean space. Results of a calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the relativistic impulse approximation using the same mass function are presented and compared with experimental data.

  7. Configuration space representation for micro-mechanism function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, E. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Computer Science Dept.; Allen, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.

    1998-11-01

    This paper describes the configuration space representation of mechanical function and shows how it supports the design of micro-mechanisms. The domain characteristics of curved geometry, joint play, and custom joints render traditional design tools inappropriate, but configuration spaces can model these characteristics. They represent the quantitative and the qualitative aspects of kinematic function in a concise geometric format that helps designers visualize system function under a range of operating conditions, find and correct design flaws, study joint play, and optimize performance. The approach is demonstrated on a surface micromachined counter meshing gear discrimination device developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Difference of Function on Vector Space over F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Kenichi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In [11], the definitions of forward difference, backward difference, and central difference as difference operations for functions on R were formalized. However, the definitions of forward difference, backward difference, and central difference for functions on vector spaces over F have not been formalized. In cryptology, these definitions are very important in evaluating the security of cryptographic systems [3], [10]. Differential cryptanalysis [4] that undertakes a general purpose attack against block ciphers [13] can be formalized using these definitions. In this article, we formalize the definitions of forward difference, backward difference, and central difference for functions on vector spaces over F. Moreover, we formalize some facts about these definitions.

  9. Physiological principles of vestibular function on earth and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular function have important implications for our ability to understand, predict, and modify balance processes during and after spaceflight. The microgravity environment of space provides many unique opportunities for studying the effects of changes in gravitoinertial force on structure and function of the vestibular system. Investigations of basic vestibular physiology and of changes in reflexes occurring as a consequence of exposure to microgravity have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in human beings. This report reviews physiological principles underlying control of vestibular processes on earth and in space. Information is presented from a functional perspective with emphasis on signals arising from labyrinthine receptors. Changes induced by microgravity in linear acceleration detected by the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Alterations of the functional requirements for postural control in space are described. Areas of direct correlation between studies of vestibular reflexes in microgravity and vestibular disorders in human beings are discussed.

  10. Pairs of oblique duals in spaces of periodic functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2010-01-01

    We construct non-tight frames in finite-dimensional spaces consisting of periodic functions. In order for these frames to be useful in practice one needs to calculate a dual frame; while the canonical dual frame might be cumbersome to work with, the setup presented here enables us to obtain...... explicit constructions of some particularly convenient oblique duals. We also provide explicit oblique duals belonging to prescribed spaces different from the space where we obtain the expansion. In particular this leads to oblique duals that are trigonometric polynomials....

  11. Foundations of symmetric spaces of measurable functions Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rubshtein, Ben-Zion A; Muratov, Mustafa A; Pashkova, Yulia S

    2016-01-01

    Key definitions and results in symmetric spaces, particularly Lp, Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces are emphasized in this textbook. A comprehensive overview of the Lorentz, Marcinkiewicz and Orlicz spaces is presented based on concepts and results of symmetric spaces. Scientists and researchers will find the application of linear operators, ergodic theory, harmonic analysis and mathematical physics noteworthy and useful. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and may be used as a general reference for the theory of functions, measure theory, and functional analysis. This self-contained text is presented in four parts totaling seventeen chapters to correspond with a one-semester lecture course. Each of the four parts begins with an overview and is subsequently divided into chapters, each of which concludes with exercises and notes. A chapter called “Complements” is included at the end of the text as supplementary material to assist students with independent work.

  12. Study of the function of sarcoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle during activation due to depolarization-induced calcium influx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in vascular smooth muscle was evaluated with respect to regulation of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} during the Ca{sup 2+} entry induced by depolarization. Calcium agonist, Bay K8644, stimulated Ca{sup 2+} influx as well as tension in physiological salt solution, (PSS) in contrast to the priming effects due to the depolarization originally reported. Disparity, however, was found between the Ca{sup 2+} entered and tension developed. Correlation between the tension and {sup 45}Ca influx showed a typical threshold phenomenon; the basal Ca{sup 2+} influx can be raised to a certain level (25%) without tension induction, after which a minor increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx produced significant tension. This subthreshold Ca{sup 2+} influx was found accumulated in the caffeine-sensitive Ca stores, the SR. This confirmed the dependency of tension on the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry demonstrated by a previous report.

  13. A Cp-theory problem book compactness in function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachuk, Vladimir V

    2015-01-01

    This third volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory problems applies all modern methods of Cp-theory to study compactness-like properties in function spaces and introduces the reader to the theory of compact spaces widely used in Functional Analysis. The text is designed to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research covering a wide variety of topics in Cp-theory and general topology at the professional level.  The first volume, Topological and Function Spaces © 2011, provided an introduction from scratch to Cp-theory and general topology, preparing the reader for a professional understanding of Cp-theory in the last section of its main text. The second volume, Special Features of Function Spaces © 2014, continued from the first, giving reasonably complete coverage of Cp-theory, systematically introducing each of the major topics and providing 500 carefully selected problems and exercises with complete solutions. This third volume is self-contained...

  14. The multiplication operators on some analytic function spaces of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 123, No. 1, February 2013, pp. 33–46. c Indian Academy of Sciences. The multiplication operators on some analytic function spaces of the unit ball. BENOÎT F SEHBA. African Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg,. Cape Town 7945, South Africa. Email: bsehba@gmail.com.

  15. Wavelet transform of generalized functions in K′{Mp} spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using convolution theory in K { M p } space we obtain bounded results for the wavelet transform. Calderón-type reproducing formula is derived in distribution sense as an application of the same. An inversion formula for the wavelet transform of generalized functions is established.

  16. Space autonomy as migration of functionality: the mars case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, T.; Bos, A.; Neerincx, M.; Soler, A.O.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops Grandjean and Lecouat's insight that spacecraft autonomy can be seen as the migration of functionality from the ground segment to the space segment. Their insight is extended to manned planetary exploration missions and applied to an IT-based crew assistant for supporting manned

  17. Antibodies against AT1 receptors are associated with vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function impairment: protective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jin

    Full Text Available Ample evidence has shown that autoantibodies against AT1 receptors (AT1-AA are closely associated with human cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying AT1-AA-induced vascular structural and functional impairments in the formation of hypertension, and explore ways for preventive treatment. We used synthetic peptide corresponding to the sequence of the second extracellular loop of the AT1 receptor (165-191 to immunize rats and establish an active immunization model. Part of the model received preventive therapy by losartan (20 mg/kg/day and hyroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA (10 mg/kg/day. The result show that systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR of immunized rats was significantly higher, and closely correlated with the plasma AT1-Ab titer. The systolic response of thoracic aortic was increased, but diastolic effects were attenuated markedly. Histological observation showed that the thoracic aortic endothelium of the immunized rats became thinner or ruptured, inflammatory cell infiltration, medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, the vascular wall became thicker. There was no significant difference in serum antibody titer between losartan and HSYA groups and the immunized group. The vascular structure and function were reversed, and plasma biochemical parameters were also improved significantly in the two treatment groups. These results suggest that AT1-Ab could induce injury to vascular endothelial cells, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. These changes were involved in the formation of hypertension. Treatment with AT1 receptor antagonists and anti oxidative therapy could block the pathogenic effect of AT1-Ab on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  18. Smooth Frechet subalgebras of C∗-algebras defined by first order ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    defined by an unbounded self-adjoint Hilbert space operator is discussed. Keywords. Smooth subalgebra of a C∗-algebra; spectral invariance; closure under functional calculus; Arens–Michael decomposition of a Frechet algebra; Frechet D. ∗. 1. - algebra; unbounded self-adjoint Hilbert space operator. 2000 Mathematics ...

  19. Redshift-space correlation functions in large galaxy cluster surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valageas, P.; Clerc, N.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Large ongoing and upcoming galaxy cluster surveys in the optical, X-ray and millimetric wavelengths will provide rich samples of galaxy clusters at unprecedented depths. One key observable for constraining cosmological models is the correlation function of these objects, measured through their spectroscopic redshift. Aims: We study the redshift-space correlation functions of clusters of galaxies, averaged over finite redshift intervals, and their covariance matrices. Expanding as usual the angular anisotropy of the redshift-space correlation on Legendre polynomials, we consider the redshift-space distortions of the monopole as well as the next two multipoles, 2ℓ = 2 and 4. Methods: Taking into account the Kaiser effect, we developed an analytical formalism to obtain explicit expressions of all contributions to these mean correlations and covariance matrices. We include shot-noise and sample-variance effects as well as Gaussian and non-Gaussian contributions. Results: We obtain a reasonable agreement with numerical simulations for the mean correlations and covariance matrices on large scales (r > 10 h-1 Mpc). Redshift-space distortions amplify the monopole correlation by about 10-20%, depending on the halo mass, but the signal-to-noise ratio remains of the same order as for the real-space correlation. This distortion will be significant for surveys such as DES, Erosita, and Euclid, which should also measure the quadrupole 2ℓ = 2. The third multipole, 2ℓ = 4, may only be marginally detected by Euclid.

  20. Dimensions of the coordinate functions of space-filling curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaart, Pieter C.; Kawamura, Kiko

    2007-11-01

    The graphs of coordinate functions of space-filling curves such as those described by Peano, Hilbert, Pólya and others, are typical examples of self-affine sets, and their Hausdorff dimensions have been the subject of several articles in the mathematical literature. In the first half of this paper, we describe how the study of dimensions of self-affine sets was motivated, at least in part, by these coordinate functions and their natural generalizations, and review the relevant literature. In the second part, we present new results on the coordinate functions of Pólya's one-parameter family of space-filling curves. We give a lower bound for the Hausdorff dimension of their graphs which is fairly close to the box-counting dimension. Our techniques are largely probabilistic. The fact that the exact dimension remains elusive seems to indicate the need for further work in the area of self-affine sets.

  1. Isomorphisms on Weighed Banach Spaces of Harmonic and Holomorphic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jordá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an arbitrary open subset U⊂ℝd or U⊆ℂd and a continuous function v:U→]0,∞[ we show that the space hv0(U of weighed harmonic functions is almost isometric to a (closed subspace of c0, thus extending a theorem due to Bonet and Wolf for spaces of holomorphic functions Hv0(U on open sets U⊂ℂd. Inspired by recent work of Boyd and Rueda, we characterize in terms of the extremal points of the dual of hv0(U when hv0(U is isometric to a subspace of c0. Some geometric conditions on an open set U⊆ℂd and convexity conditions on a weight v on U are given to ensure that neither Hv0(U nor hv0(U are rotund.

  2. Gallic acid tailoring surface functionalities of plasma-polymerized allylamine-coated 316L SS to selectively direct vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate for enhanced endothelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhilu; Xiong, Kaiqin; Qi, Pengkai; Yang, Ying; Tu, Qiufen; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2014-02-26

    The creation of a platform for enhanced vascular endothelia cell (VEC) growth while suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation offers possibility for advanced coatings of vascular stents. Gallic acid (GA), a chemically unique phenolic acid with important biological functions, presents benefits to the cardiovascular disease therapy because of its superior antioxidant effect and a selectivity to support the growth of ECs more than SMCs. In this study, GA was explored to tailor such a multifunctional stent surface combined with plasma polymerization technique. On the basis of the chemical coupling reaction, GA was bound to an amine-group-rich plasma-polymerized allylamine (PPAam) coating. The GA-functionalized PPAam (GA-PPAam) surface created a favorable microenvironment to obtain high ECs and SMCs selectivity. The GA-PPAam coating showed remarkable enhancement in the adhesion, viability, proliferation, migration, and release of nitric oxide (NO) of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The GA-PPAam coating also resulted in remarkable inhibition effect on human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) adhesion and proliferation. These striking findings may provide a guide for designing the new generation of multifunctional vascular devices.

  3. Castration impairs erectile organ structure and function by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Jin; Xu, Tian-Yuan; Xia, Lei-Lei; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Zhu, Zhao-Wei; Chen, Dong-Rui; Liu, Yue; Fan, Yong; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Min-Guang; Shen, Zhou-Jun

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes and underlying mechanisms of erectile organ structure and function in castrated rats. In addition, the regulatory effects of an androgen on autophagy and apoptosis in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs), especially the regulatory effect of androgen on the BECN 1-Bcl-2 interaction, were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (30/group): control group, castration group, and castration with testosterone supplementation group. The erectile function was examined both in vivo and in vitro, by electric stimulation of the cavernous nerve and corpus cavernosum strip bath test, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL assay, Masson's trichrome staining, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were performed to determine the levels of autophagy and apoptosis, and the structural changes in corpus cavernosum. Compared with control group, the castration group showed (1) lower erectile function: lower intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio, lower systolic and diastolic capability of corporal strips, and reduced expressions of eNOS and nNOS; (2) greater fibrosis: decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio, lower expression of α-SMA, and higher expression of TGF-β1; (3) inhibited autophagy: decreased autophagosomes, lower expressions of BECN1 and LC3-II; and (4) enhanced apoptosis: higher apoptotic index and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Testosterone supplementation partially improved the effects of castration. Castration attenuates erectile function and induces corporeal fibrosis by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of CCSMCs in rats. Therefore, our study highlights the important role of androgens in maintaining the integrity of the structure and function of corpus cavernosum in rats through counter-regulation of autophagy and apoptosis, mainly by regulating BECN 1-Bcl-2 interaction.

  4. [BEHAVIOURAL AND FUNCTIONAL VESTIBULAR DISTURBANCES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT. 1. MAMMALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2015-01-01

    The review contains data on functional changes in mammals caused by changes in the operation of vestibular system after space flight. These data show that the vestibular system of mammals responds to weightlessness challenge differently at various ontogenetic stages. Orbital space flight conditions have a weak effect on the developing vestibular system during embryonic period. The weightlessness conditions have rather beneficial effect on development of the fetuses. During the early postnatal period, when optimal sensory-motor tactics are created, the prolonged stay under conditions of space flight leads to development of novel, "extraterrestrial" sensory-motor programs that can be fixed in CNS, apparently, for the whole life. In adult individuals after landing essential vestibular changes and disturbances may occur that depend on the spaceflight duration. The adult organism must simultaneously solve two contradicting problems--it should adapt to weightlessness conditions, and should not adapt to them to pass the process of readaptation after returning easier. Thus, individuals must protect themselves against weightlessness influence to keep the intact initial state of health. The protection methods against weightlessness ought to be adjusted according to the duration of space flight. It should be mentioned that not all functional changes registered in adult individuals after landing can be adequately explained. Some of these changes may have chronic or even pathological character. The question of necessity to examine the influence of weightlessness on an aging (senile) organism and on its vestibular system is raised for the first time in this review. In our opinion the development of space gerontology, as a special branch of space biology and medicine, is of undoubted interest, and in the future it may be of practical importance especially taking into account the steadily growing age of cosmonauts (astronauts).

  5. Fixed Points, Inner Product Spaces, and Functional Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choonkil Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rassias introduced the following equality ∑i,j=1n∥xi-xj∥2=2n∑i=1n∥xi∥2, ∑i=1nxi=0, for a fixed integer n≥3. Let V,W be real vector spaces. It is shown that, if a mapping f:V→W satisfies the following functional equation ∑i,j=1nf(xi-xj=2n∑i=1nf(xi for all x1,…,xn∈V with ∑i=1nxi=0, which is defined by the above equality, then the mapping f:V→W is realized as the sum of an additive mapping and a quadratic mapping. Using the fixed point method, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the above functional equation in real Banach spaces.

  6. Determinantal Point Processes Associated with Hilbert Spaces of Holomorphic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufetov, Alexander I.; Qiu, Yanqi

    2017-04-01

    We study determinantal point processes on C induced by the reproducing kernels of generalized Fock spaces as well as those on the unit disc D induced by the reproducing kernels of generalized Bergman spaces. In the first case, we show that all reduced Palm measures of the same order are equivalent. The Radon-Nikodym derivatives are computed explicitly using regularized multiplicative functionals. We also show that these determinantal point processes are rigid in the sense of Ghosh and Peres, hence reduced Palm measures of different orders are singular. In the second case, we show that all reduced Palm measures, of all orders, are equivalent. The Radon-Nikodym derivatives are computed using regularized multiplicative functionals associated with certain Blaschke products. The quasi-invariance of these determinantal point processes under the group of diffeomorphisms with compact supports follows as a corollary.

  7. ON SOME EXTREMAL PROBLEMS IN CERTAIN HARMONIC FUNCTION SPACES OF SEVERAL VARIABLES RELATED TO MIXED NORM SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamoyan R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide some (not new estimates on distances from our two previous papers together with some new estimates. Namely some estimates on distances in spaces of harmonic functions in the unit ball and the upper half space are provided. New estimates concerning mixed norm spaces and general weighted Bergman spaces are obtained and discussed.

  8. The cardiac sodium current Na(v)1.5 is functionally expressed in rabbit bronchial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, E; Webb, T I; Hollywood, M A; Sergeant, G P; McHale, N G; Thornbury, K D

    2013-08-15

    A collagenase-proteinase mixture was used to isolate airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from rabbit bronchi, and membrane currents were recorded using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Stepping from -100 mV to a test potential of -40 mV evoked a fast voltage-dependent Na(+) current, sometimes with an amplitude of several nanoamperes. The current disappeared within 15 min of exposure to papain + DTT (n = 6). Comparison of the current in ASMC with current mediated by NaV1.5 α-subunits expressed in human embryonic kidney cells revealed similar voltage dependences of activation (V1/2 = -42 mV for NaV1.5) and sensitivities to TTX (IC50 = 1.1 and 1.2 μM for ASMC and NaV1.5, respectively). The current in ASMC was also blocked by lidocaine (IC50 = 160 μM). Although veratridine, an agonist of voltage-gated Na(+) channels, reduced the peak current by 33%, it slowed inactivation, resulting in a fourfold increase in sustained current (measured at 25 ms after onset). In current-clamp mode, veratridine prolonged evoked action potentials from 37 ± 9 to 1,053 ± 410 ms (n = 8). Primers for NaV1.2-1.9 were used to amplify mRNA from groups of ∼20 isolated ASMC and from whole bronchial tissue by RT-PCR. Transcripts for NaV1.2, NaV1.3, and NaV1.5-1.9 were detected in whole tissue, but only NaV1.2 and NaV1.5 were detected in single cells. We conclude that freshly dispersed rabbit ASMC express a fast voltage-gated Na(+) current that is mediated mainly by the NaV1.5 subtype.

  9. Embeddings between weighted Copson and Cesaro function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Mustafayev, R.Ch.; Ünver, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2017), s. 1005-1132 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cesaro and Copson function spaces * embedding * iterated Hardy inequalities Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.21136/CMJ.2017.0424-16

  10. Sobolev spaces on graphs | Ostrovskii | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present paper is devoted to discrete analogues of Sobolev spaces of smooth functions. The discrete analogues that we consider are spaces of functions on vertex sets of graphs. Such spaces have applications in Graph Theory, Metric Geometry and Convex Geometry. We present known and prove some new results on ...

  11. Heat-killed and γ-irradiated Brucella strain RB51 stimulates enhanced dendritic cell activation, but not function compared with the virulent smooth strain 2308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Naveen; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Heid, Bettina; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Zimmerman, Kurt L; Witonsky, Sharon G

    2010-11-01

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause abortion in livestock and undulant fever in humans worldwide. Brucella abortus strain 2308 is a pathogenic strain that affects cattle and humans. Currently, there are no efficacious human vaccines available. However, B. abortus strain RB51, which is approved by the USDA, is a live-attenuated rough vaccine against bovine brucellosis. Live strain RB51 induces protection via CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immunity. To generate an optimal T-cell response, strong innate immune responses by dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial. Because of safety concerns, the use of live vaccine strain RB51 in humans is limited. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the differential ability of the same doses of live, heat-killed (HK) and γ-irradiated (IR) strain RB51 in inducing DC activation and function. Smooth strain 2308, live strain RB51 and lipopolysaccharide were used as controls. Studies using mouse bone marrow-derived DCs revealed that, irrespective of viability, strain RB51 induced greater DC activation than smooth strain 2308. Live strain RB51 induced significantly (P≤0.05) higher DC maturation than HK and IR strains, and only live strain RB51-infected DCs (at multiplicity of infection 1:100) induced significant (P≤0.05) tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-12 secretion. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structured functional additive regression in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongxiao; Yao, Fang; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2014-06-01

    Functional additive models (FAMs) provide a flexible yet simple framework for regressions involving functional predictors. The utilization of data-driven basis in an additive rather than linear structure naturally extends the classical functional linear model. However, the critical issue of selecting nonlinear additive components has been less studied. In this work, we propose a new regularization framework for the structure estimation in the context of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces. The proposed approach takes advantage of the functional principal components which greatly facilitates the implementation and the theoretical analysis. The selection and estimation are achieved by penalized least squares using a penalty which encourages the sparse structure of the additive components. Theoretical properties such as the rate of convergence are investigated. The empirical performance is demonstrated through simulation studies and a real data application.

  13. Exploring Heart and Lung Function in Space: ARMS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Andre; Cork, Michael; LeGouic, Marine

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS) is a suite of monitoring instruments and supplies used to study the heart, lungs, and metabolism. Many experiments sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be conducted using ARMS during STS-107. The near-weightless environment of space causes the body to undergo many physiological adaptations, and the regulation of blood pressure is no exception. Astronauts also experience a decrease in blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Reduced blood volume may not provide enough blood pressure to the head during entry or landing. As a result, astronauts often experience light-headedness, and sometimes even fainting, when they stand shortly after returning to Earth. To help regulate blood pressure and heart rate, baroreceptors, sensors located in artery walls in the neck and near the heart, control blood pressure by sending information to the brain and ensuring blood flow to organs. These mechanisms work properly in Earth's gravity but must adapt in the microgravity environment of space. However, upon return to Earth during entry and landing, the cardiovascular system must readjust itself to gravity, which can cause fluctuation in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Although the system recovers in hours or days, these occurrences are not easily predicted or understood - a puzzle investigators will study with the ARMS equipment. In space, researchers can focus on aspects of the cardiovascular system normally masked by gravity. The STS-107 experiments using ARMS will provide data on how the heart and lungs function in space, as well as how the nervous system controls them. Exercise will also be combined with breath holding and straining (the Valsalva maneuver) to test how heart rate and blood pressure react to different stresses. This understanding will improve astronauts' cardiopulmonary function after return to Earth, and may well help Earthbound patients who experience similar effects after long

  14. Control of functional differential equations to target sets in function space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Kent, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Optimal control of systems governed by functional differential equations of retarded and neutral type is considered. Problems with function space initial and terminal manifolds are investigated. Existence of optimal controls, regularity, and bang-bang properties are discussed. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived, and several solved examples which illustrate the theory are presented.

  15. Tyrosine kinase is involved in angiotensin II-stimulated phospholipase D activation in aortic smooth muscle cells: function of Ca2+ influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Shinoda, J; Oiso, Y; Kozawa, O

    1996-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) on phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D activity in subcultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC). Ang II dose-dependently stimulated the formation of choline and inositol phosphates. The effect of Ang II on the formation of inositol phosphates (EC50 was 0.249 +/- 0.091 nM) was more potent than that on the formation of choline (EC50 was 2.39 +/- 1.29 nM). A combination of Ang II and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, additively stimulated the formation of choline. Staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited the TPA-induced formation of choline, but had little effect on the Ang II-induced choline formation. Ang II stimulated Ca2+ influx from extracellular space time- and dose-dependently. The depletion of extracellular Ca2+ by (ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) significantly reduced the Ang II-induced formation of choline. Genistein and tyrphostin, protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, significantly suppressed the Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx. Genistein and tyrphostin also suppressed the Ang II-induced formation of choline. These results suggest that Ang II stimulates phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D due to Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space in rat aortic SMC, and that protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Ang II-induced Ca2+ influx, resulting in the promotion of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis.

  16. On the worst-case complexity of the gradient method with exact line search for smooth strongly convex functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex

  17. On the Worst-Case Complexity of the Gradient Method with Exact Line Search for Smooth Strongly Convex Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex

  18. Molecular Expression and Pharmacological Evidence for a Functional Role of Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Guinea Pig Urinary Bladder Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeli, Serge A. Y.; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 (KCNQ) channels are emerging as essential regulators of smooth muscle excitability and contractility. However, their physiological role in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) remains to be elucidated. Here, we explored the molecular expression and function of Kv7 channel subtypes in guinea pig DSM by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and isometric tension recordings. In whole DSM tissue, mRNAs for all Kv7 channel subtypes were detected in a rank order: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.3~Kv7.5Kv7.4. In contrast, freshly-isolated DSM cells showed mRNA expression of: Kv7.1~Kv7.2Kv7.5Kv7.3~Kv7.4. Immunohistochemical confocal microscopy analyses of DSM, conducted by using co-labeling of Kv7 channel subtype-specific antibodies and α-smooth muscle actin, detected protein expression for all Kv7 channel subtypes, except for the Kv7.4, in DSM cells. L-364373 (R-L3), a Kv7.1 channel activator, and retigabine, a Kv7.2-7.5 channel activator, inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions and the 10-Hz electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions of DSM isolated strips. Linopiridine and XE991, two pan-Kv7 (effective at Kv7.1-Kv7.5 subtypes) channel inhibitors, had opposite effects increasing DSM spontaneous phasic and 10 Hz EFS-induced contractions. EFS-induced DSM contractions generated by a wide range of stimulation frequencies were decreased by L-364373 (10 µM) or retigabine (10 µM), and increased by XE991 (10 µM). Retigabine (10 µM) induced hyperpolarization and inhibited spontaneous action potentials in freshly-isolated DSM cells. In summary, Kv7 channel subtypes are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in guinea pig DSM cells. Their pharmacological modulation can control DSM contractility and excitability; therefore, Kv7 channel subtypes provide potential novel therapeutic targets for urinary bladder dysfunction. PMID:24073284

  19. Betti numbers of space curves bounded by Hilbert functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maggioni

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available We study relationships between Hilbert functions and graded Betti numbers of two space curves C and C_0 bilinked by a sequence of basic double linkages; precisely we obtain bounds for the graded Betti numbers of C by means of the Hilbert functions of the two curves and the graded Betti numbers of C_0 . On the other hand for every set of integers satisfying these bounds we can construct a curve with these integers as its graded Betti numbers. As a consequence we get a Dubreil-type theorem for a curve C which strongly dominates C_0 at height h which is exactly the Amasaki bound for Buchsbaum curves. Moreover we deduce for biliaison classes of Buchsbaum curves that a strong Lazarsfeld-Rao property holds.

  20. Exploring Connectivity in Sequence Space of Functional RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrzej; Popovic, Milena; Ditzler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of replicable genetic molecules was one of the marking points in the origin of life, evolution of which can be conceptualized as a walk through the space of all possible sequences. A theoretical concept of fitness landscape helps to understand evolutionary processes through assigning a value of fitness to each genotype. Then, evolution of a phenotype is viewed as a series of consecutive, single-point mutations. Natural selection biases evolution toward peaks of high fitness and away from valleys of low fitness. whereas neutral drift occurs in the sequence space without direction as mutations are introduced at random. Large networks of neutral or near-neutral mutations on a fitness landscape, especially for sufficiently long genomes, are possible or even inevitable. Their detection in experiments, however, has been elusive. Although a few near-neutral evolutionary pathways have been found, recent experimental evidence indicates landscapes consist of largely isolated islands. The generality of these results, however, is not clear, as the genome length or the fraction of functional molecules in the genotypic space might have been insufficient for the emergence of large, neutral networks. Thorough investigation on the structure of the fitness landscape is essential to understand the mechanisms of evolution of early genomes. RNA molecules are commonly assumed to play the pivotal role in the origin of genetic systems. They are widely believed to be early, if not the earliest, genetic and catalytic molecules, with abundant biochemical activities as aptamers and ribozymes, i.e. RNA molecules capable, respectively, to bind small molecules or catalyze chemical reactions. Here, we present results of our recent studies on the structure of the sequence space of RNA ligase ribozymes selected through in vitro evolution. Several hundred thousands of sequences active to a different degree were obtained by way of deep sequencing. Analysis of these sequences revealed

  1. Novel regulatory mechanism in human urinary bladder: central role of transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channels in detrusor smooth muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Kiril L; Smith, Amy C; Parajuli, Shankar P; Malysz, John; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels are Ca(2+)-activated nonselective cation channels that have been recently identified as regulators of detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) function in rodents. However, their expression and function in human DSM remain unexplored. We provide insights into the functional role of TRPM4 channels in human DSM under physiological conditions. We used a multidisciplinary experimental approach, including RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and functional studies of DSM contractility. DSM samples were obtained from patients without preoperative overactive bladder symptoms. RT-PCR detected mRNA transcripts for TRPM4 channels in human DSM whole tissue and freshly isolated single cells. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy revealed TRPM4 protein expression in human DSM. Immunocytochemistry further detected TRPM4 protein expression in DSM single cells. Patch-clamp experiments showed that 9-phenanthrol, a selective TRPM4 channel inhibitor, significantly decreased the transient inward cation currents and voltage step-induced whole cell currents in freshly isolated human DSM cells. In current-clamp mode, 9-phenanthrol hyperpolarized the human DSM cell membrane potential. Furthermore, 9-phenanthrol attenuated the spontaneous phasic, carbachol-induced and nerve-evoked contractions in human DSM isolated strips. Significant species-related differences in TRPM4 channel activity between human, rat, and guinea pig DSM were revealed, suggesting a more prominent physiological role for the TRPM4 channel in the regulation of DSM function in humans than in rodents. In conclusion, TRPM4 channels regulate human DSM excitability and contractility and are critical determinants of human urinary bladder function. Thus, TRPM4 channels could represent promising novel targets for the pharmacological or genetic control of overactive bladder. Copyright

  2. Generalised partition functions: inferences on phase space distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the statistical mechanical partition function can be used to construct various different forms of phase space distributions. This indicates that its structure is not restricted to the Gibbs–Boltzmann factor prescription which is based on counting statistics. With the widely used replacement of the Boltzmann factor by a generalised Lorentzian (also known as the q-deformed exponential function, where κ = 1∕|q − 1|, with κ, q ∈ R both the kappa-Bose and kappa-Fermi partition functions are obtained in quite a straightforward way, from which the conventional Bose and Fermi distributions follow for κ → ∞. For κ ≠ ∞ these are subject to the restrictions that they can be used only at temperatures far from zero. They thus, as shown earlier, have little value for quantum physics. This is reasonable, because physical κ systems imply strong correlations which are absent at zero temperature where apart from stochastics all dynamical interactions are frozen. In the classical large temperature limit one obtains physically reasonable κ distributions which depend on energy respectively momentum as well as on chemical potential. Looking for other functional dependencies, we examine Bessel functions whether they can be used for obtaining valid distributions. Again and for the same reason, no Fermi and Bose distributions exist in the low temperature limit. However, a classical Bessel–Boltzmann distribution can be constructed which is a Bessel-modified Lorentzian distribution. Whether it makes any physical sense remains an open question. This is not investigated here. The choice of Bessel functions is motivated solely by their convergence properties and not by reference to any physical demands. This result suggests that the Gibbs–Boltzmann partition function is fundamental not only to Gibbs–Boltzmann but also to a large class of generalised Lorentzian distributions as well as to the

  3. Development of a Refined Space Vehicle Rollout Forcing Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, George; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Valle, Gerard; Grady, Robert; Schliesing, John; Fahling, James; Emory, Benjamin; Armand, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, American manned spaceflight vehicles and the associated launch platforms have been transported from final assembly to the launch pad via a pre-launch phase called rollout. The rollout environment is rich with forced harmonics and higher order effects can be used for extracting structural dynamics information. To enable this utilization, processing tools are needed to move from measured and analytical data to dynamic metrics such as transfer functions, mode shapes, modal frequencies, and damping. This paper covers the range of systems and tests that are available to estimate rollout forcing functions for the Space Launch System (SLS). The specific information covered in this paper includes: the different definitions of rollout forcing functions; the operational and developmental data sets that are available; the suite of analytical processes that are currently in-place or in-development; and the plans and future work underway to solve two immediate problems related to rollout forcing functions. Problem 1 involves estimating enforced accelerations to drive finite element models for developing design requirements for the SLS class of launch vehicles. Problem 2 involves processing rollout measured data in near real time to understand structural dynamics properties of a specific vehicle and the class to which it belongs.

  4. Numerical quadrature over smooth surfaces with boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeger, Jonah A.; Fornberg, Bengt

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes a high order accurate method to calculate integrals over curved surfaces with boundaries. Given data locations that are arbitrarily distributed over the surface, together with some functional description of the surface and its boundary, the algorithm produces matching quadrature weights. This extends on the authors' earlier methods for integrating over the surface of a sphere and over arbitrarily shaped smooth closed surfaces by also considering domain boundaries. The core approach consists again of combining RBF-FD (radial basis function-generated finite difference) approximations for curved surface triangles, which together make up the full surface. The provided examples include both curved and flat domains. In the highly special case of equi-spaced nodes over a regular interval in 1-D, the method provides a new opportunity for improving on the classical Gregory enhancements of the trapezoidal rule.

  5. Phosphate uptake-independent signaling functions of the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, PiT-1, in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Nicholas W; Chia, Jia Jun; Crouthamel, Matthew H; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2015-04-10

    Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in chronic kidney disease and elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a recognized risk factor. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, PiT-1, is required for elevated Pi-induced osteochondrogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which PiT-1 promotes these processes is unclear. In the present study, we confirmed that the Pi concentration required to induce osteochondrogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of mouse VSMCs was well above that required for maximal Pi uptake, suggesting a signaling function of PiT-1 that was independent of Pi transport. Elevated Pi-induced signaling via ERK1/2 phosphorylation was abrogated in PiT-1 deficient VSMCs, but could be rescued by wild-type (WT) and a Pi transport-deficient PiT-1 mutant. Furthermore, both WT and transport-deficient PiT-1 mutants promoted osteochondrogenic differentiation as measured by decreased SM22α and increased osteopontin mRNA expression. Finally, compared to vector alone, expression of transport-deficient PiT-1 mutants promoted VSMC matrix mineralization, but not to the extent observed with PiT-1 WT. These data suggest that both Pi uptake-dependent and -independent functions of PiT-1 are important for VSMC processes mediating vascular calcification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phosphate Uptake-Independent Signaling Functions of the Type III Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporter, PiT-1, in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavkin, Nicholas W.; Jun Chia, Jia; Crouthamel, Matthew H.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in chronic kidney disease and elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) is a recognized risk factor. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, PiT-1, is required for elevated Pi-induced osteochondrogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which PiT-1 promotes these processes is unclear. In the present study, we confirmed that the Pi concentration required to induce osteochondrogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of mouse VSMCs was well above that required for maximal Pi uptake, suggesting a signaling function of PiT-1 that was independent of Pi transport. Elevated Pi-induced signaling via ERK1/2 phosphorylation was abrogated in PiT-1 deficient VSMCs, but could be rescued by wild-type (WT) and a Pi transport-deficient PiT-1 mutant. Furthermore, both WT and transport-deficient PiT-1 mutants promoted osteochondrogenic differentiation as measured by decreased SM22α and increased osteopontin mRNA expression. Finally, compared to vector alone, expression of transport-deficient PiT-1 mutants promoted VSMC matrix mineralization, but not to the extent observed with PiT-1 WT. These data suggest that both Pi uptake-dependent and -independent functions of PiT-1 are important for VSMC processes mediating vascular calcification. PMID:25684711

  7. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 2: Automated performance verification concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings are presented of investigations on concepts and techniques in automated performance verification. The investigations were conducted to provide additional insight into the design methodology and to develop a consolidated technology base from which to analyze performance verification design approaches. Other topics discussed include data smoothing, function selection, flow diagrams, data storage, and shuttle hydraulic systems.

  8. Quantum mechanics in metric space: wave functions and their densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, I; Coe, J P; França, V V; Capelle, K

    2011-02-04

    Hilbert space combines the properties of two different types of mathematical spaces: vector space and metric space. While the vector-space aspects are widely used, the metric-space aspects are much less exploited. Here we show that a suitable metric stratifies Fock space into concentric spheres on which maximum and minimum distances between states can be defined and geometrically interpreted. Unlike the usual Hilbert-space analysis, our results apply also to the reduced space of only ground states and to that of particle densities, which are metric, but not Hilbert, spaces. The Hohenberg-Kohn mapping between densities and ground states, which is highly complex and nonlocal in coordinate description, is found, for three different model systems, to be simple in metric space, where it becomes a monotonic and nearly linear mapping of vicinities onto vicinities.

  9. Nucleon structure functions in noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiei, A.; Rezaei, Z.; Mirjalili, A. [Yazd University, Physics Department, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    In the context of noncommutative space-time we investigate the nucleon structure functions which play an important role in identifying the internal structure of nucleons. We use the corrected vertices and employ new vertices that appear in two approaches of noncommutativity and calculate the proton structure functions in terms of the noncommutative tensor θ{sub μν}. To check our results we plot the nucleon structure function (NSF), F{sub 2}(x), and compare it with experimental data and the results from the GRV, GJR and CT10 parametrization models. We show that with the new vertex that arises the noncommutativity correction will lead to a better consistency between theoretical results and experimental data for the NSF. This consistency will be better for small values of the Bjorken variable x. To indicate and confirm the validity of our calculations we also act conversely. We obtain a lower bound for the numerical values of Λ{sub NC} scale which correspond to recent reports. (orig.)

  10. Analytical evaluation of Fukui functions and real-space linear response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weitao; Cohen, Aron J; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2012-04-14

    Many useful concepts developed within density functional theory provide much insight for the understanding and prediction of chemical reactivity, one of the main aims in the field of conceptual density functional theory. While approximate evaluations of such concepts exist, the analytical and efficient evaluation is, however, challenging, because such concepts are usually expressed in terms of functional derivatives with respect to the electron density, or partial derivatives with respect to the number of electrons, complicating the connection to the computational variables of the Kohn-Sham one-electron orbitals. Only recently, the analytical expressions for the chemical potential, one of the key concepts, have been derived by Cohen, Mori-Sánchez, and Yang, based on the potential functional theory formalism. In the present work, we obtain the analytical expressions for the real-space linear response function using the coupled perturbed Kohn-Sham and generalized Kohn-Sham equations, and the Fukui functions using the previous analytical expressions for chemical potentials of Cohen, Mori-Sánchez, and Yang. The analytical expressions are exact within the given exchange-correlation functional. They are applicable to all commonly used approximate functionals, such as local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and hybrid functionals. The analytical expressions obtained here for Fukui function and linear response functions, along with that for the chemical potential by Cohen, Mori-Sánchez, and Yang, provide the rigorous and efficient evaluation of the key quantities in conceptual density functional theory within the computational framework of the Kohn-Sham and generalized Kohn-Sham approaches. Furthermore, the obtained analytical expressions for Fukui functions, in conjunction with the linearity condition of the ground state energy as a function of the fractional charges, also lead to new local conditions on the exact functionals

  11. Functional Equations of Spherical Functions on p-adic Homogeneous Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hironaka, Y

    2005-01-01

    Let ${\\Bbb G}$ be a connected reductive linear algebraic group and ${\\Bbb X}$ a ${\\Bbb G}$-homogeneous affine variety both defined over a ${\\frak p}$-adic field $k$. We are interested in spherical functions on $X = \\X(k)$, which are nonzero common eigenfunctions on $X$ with respect to the action of Hecke algebra ${\\cal H}(G, K)$ and $K$-invariant, where $K$ is a compact open subgroup of $G = \\G(k)$. In this papaer, we give a unified method to obtain functional equations of sheprical functions on $X$ under the assumption (AF) in the introduction, and explain functional equations are reduced to those of ${\\frak p}$-adic local zeta functions of small prehomogeneous vector spaces of limited type.

  12. Regulation of transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel by sarcoplasmic reticulum inositol trisphosphate receptors: Role in human detrusor smooth muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provence, Aaron; Rovner, Eric S; Petkov, Georgi V

    2017-09-03

    We recently reported key physiologic roles for Ca(2+)-activated transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channels in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM). However, the Ca(2+)-signaling mechanisms governing TRPM4 channel activity in human DSM cells are unexplored. As the TRPM4 channels are activated by Ca(2+), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum represents a potential Ca(2+) source for TRPM4 channel activation. We used clinically-characterized human DSM tissues to investigate the molecular and functional interactions of the IP3Rs and TRPM4 channels. With in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) and perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that TRPM4 channels are tightly associated with the IP3Rs and are activated by IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release in human DSM. With in situ PLA, we demonstrated co-localization of the TRPM4 channels and IP3Rs in human DSM cells. As the TRPM4 channels and IP3Rs must be located within close apposition to functionally interact, these findings support the concept of a potential Ca(2+)-mediated TRPM4-IP3R regulatory mechanism. To investigate IP3R regulation of TRPM4 channel activity, we sought to determine the consequences of IP3R pharmacological inhibition on TRPM4 channel-mediated transient inward cation currents (TICCs). In freshly-isolated human DSM cells, blocking the IP3Rs with the selective IP3R inhibitor xestospongin-C significantly decreased TICCs. The data suggest that IP3Rs have a key role in mediating the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of TRPM4 channels in human DSM. The study provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating TRPM4 channels by revealing that TRPM4 channels and IP3Rs are spatially and functionally coupled in human DSM.

  13. Smooth Frechet subalgebras of C-algebras defined by first order ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This includes differential Arens–Michael decomposition, spectral invariance, closure under functional calculi as well as intrinsic spectral description. A large number of examples of such Frechet algebras are exhibited; and the smooth structure defined by an unbounded self-adjoint Hilbert space operator is discussed.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL AND SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS AFTER SEEDING ON THE SURFACE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. B. Saaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, vascular surgery using small diameter synthetic grafts is associated with a higher incidence of complications (thrombosis, restenosis, intimal hyperplasia than in operations using autologous vessels. However, the occurrence of concomitant pathology, reoperations and multifocal vascular disease limit the use of autologous vein and arteries. The important factor providing a long-term patency is the presence of vascular cells, which produce biologically active substance and provide mechanical properties. Aim. Selection of the optimal scaffold for creating cell-seeded tissue-engineering vessels. Materials and methods. Endothelial (EC and smooth muscle cells (SMC derived from human myocardium were seeded on different surfaces: decellularized homoarteriа, хenopericardium, polytetrafl uoroethylene (PTFE, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, polycaprolactone (PCL and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA. Results. Synthetic biodegradable materials polycaprolactone and polylactide-co-glycolide provide cell adhesion. The cells cultured on the polycaprolactone and polylactide-coglycolide scaffolds retain their functional properties: viability and proliferative properties, maintain specifi c endothelial antigens and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Conclusion. Synthetic biodegradable polycaprolactone and polylactide-co-glycolide electrospun scaffolds can be used for creation of cell-fi lled vascular prostheses. 

  15. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J B; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Piel, William H; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-09-23

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory.

  16. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  17. The Galaxy Count Correlation Function in Redshift Space Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagne, J.-E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Neveu, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the near future, cosmology will enter the wide and deep galaxy survey era, enabling high-precision studies of the large-scale structure of the universe in three dimensions. To test cosmological models and determine their parameters accurately, it is necessary to use data with exact theoretical expectations expressed in observational parameter space (angles and redshift). The data-driven, galaxy number count fluctuations on redshift shells can be used to build correlation functions ξ (θ ,{z}1,{z}2) on and between shells to probe the baryonic acoustic oscillations and distance-redshift distortions, as well as gravitational lensing and other relativistic effects. To obtain a numerical estimation of ξ (θ ,{z}1,{z}2) from a cosmological model, it is typical to use either a closed form derived from a tripolar spherical expansion or to compute the power spectrum {C}{\\ell }({z}1,{z}2) and perform a Legendre polynomial {P}{\\ell }(\\cos θ ) expansion. Here, we present a new derivation of a ξ (θ ,{z}1,{z}2) closed form using the spherical harmonic expansion and proceeding to an infinite sum over multipoles thanks to an addition theorem. We demonstrate that this new expression is perfectly compatible with the existing closed forms but is simpler to establish and manipulate. We provide formulas for the leading density and redshift-space contributions, but also show how Doppler-like and lensing terms can be easily included in this formalism. We have implemented and made publicly available software for computing those correlations efficiently, without any Limber approximation, and validated this software with the CLASSgal code. It is available at https://gitlab.in2p3.fr/campagne/AngPow.

  18. 6A3-5/Osa2 is an Early Activated Gene Implicated in the Control of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaele Garin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC growth plays a key role in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling gene transcription in VSMC remain poorly understood. We previously identified, by differential display, a new gene (6A3-5 overexpressed in proliferating rat VSMC. In this study, we have cloned the full-length cDNA by screening a rat foetal brain cDNA library and investigated its functions. The 6A3-5 protein shows 4 putative conserved functional motifs: a DNA binding domain called ARID (AT-rich interaction domain, two recently described motifs (Osa Homology Domain, and a nuclear localization signal. The deduced protein sequence was observed to be 85% identical to the recently described human Osa2 gene. Immunolabelling, using an anti-6A3-5/Osa2 monoclonal antibody, showed a nuclear localization of the 6A3-5/Osa2 protein. In addition, PDGF upregulated 6A3-5/Osa2 expression at both the transcript and protein levels in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The pattern of upregulation by PDGF was reminiscent of the early responsive gene c-fos. The PDGF-induced upregulation of 6A3-5/Osa2 and proliferation of VSMC were significantly inhibited in a dose and sequence-dependent fashion by an antisense, but not by sense, scrambled or mismatched oligonucleotides directed against 6A3-5/Osa2. In VSMC of aortas derived from hypertensive (LH rats, 6A3-5/Osa2 is overexpressed as compared to that in normotensive (LL rats. The 6A3-5/Osa2-gene expression is downregulated by an ACE inhibitor and upregulated by exogenous AngiotensinII in LH rats. In summary, these results indicate that 6A3-5/Osa2 is an early activated gene that belongs to a new family of proteins involved in the control of VSMC growth.

  19. Smoothed nonparametric estimation for current status competing risks data

    OpenAIRE

    Chenxi Li; Jason P. Fine

    2013-01-01

    We study the nonparametric estimation of the cumulative incidence function and the cause-specific hazard function for current status data with competing risks via kernel smoothing. A smoothed naive nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator and a smoothed full nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator are shown to have pointwise asymptotic normality and faster convergence rates than the corresponding unsmoothed nonparametric likelihood estimators. Using the smoothed estimators and the plug-i...

  20. Smooth embeddings with Stein surface images

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple characterization is given of open subsets of a complex surface that smoothly perturb to Stein open subsets. As applications, complex 2-space C^2 contains domains of holomorphy (Stein open subsets) that are exotic R^4's, and others homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere but cut out by smooth, compact 3-manifolds. Pseudoconvex embeddings of Brieskorn spheres and other 3-manifolds into complex surfaces are constructed, as are pseudoconcave holomorphic fillings (with disagreeing contact and...

  1. The multi-functional use of urban green space

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, E.; Nijkamp, P.; Noronha Vaz, T. de

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws the attention to the use of urban land use as a promising and new playground for urban green space design, including viable small-scale agricultural activities. First, an overview of urban green space planning is given, followed by a typology of approaches to evaluate urban green space. Next, the specific importance of urban green space for small-scale agriculture and horticulture is highlighted. The paper concludes with an elaboration of the rich multi-tasking performance of...

  2. The Neglected Educative Function of Public Space on Preadolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardiello, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The crisis of public spaces implies a closure to the private sphere and, as a consequence, the inanity of the education processes. Space privatization involves the supremacy of the "?????" (house) on the "a???a" (public space), so that the house assumes the role of an enclosed community. The effect of this closure is a…

  3. Smooth polyhedral surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Günther, Felix

    2017-03-15

    Polyhedral surfaces are fundamental objects in architectural geometry and industrial design. Whereas closeness of a given mesh to a smooth reference surface and its suitability for numerical simulations were already studied extensively, the aim of our work is to find and to discuss suitable assessments of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces that only take the geometry of the polyhedral surface itself into account. Motivated by analogies to classical differential geometry, we propose a theory of smoothness of polyhedral surfaces including suitable notions of normal vectors, tangent planes, asymptotic directions, and parabolic curves that are invariant under projective transformations. It is remarkable that seemingly mild conditions significantly limit the shapes of faces of a smooth polyhedral surface. Besides being of theoretical interest, we believe that smoothness of polyhedral surfaces is of interest in the architectural context, where vertices and edges of polyhedral surfaces are highly visible.

  4. Function, form, and technology - The evolution of Space Station in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    The history of major Space Station designs over the last twenty-five years is reviewed. The evolution of design concepts is analyzed with respect to the changing functions of Space Stations; and available or anticipated technology capabilities. Emphasis is given to the current NASA Space Station reference configuration, the 'power tower'. Detailed schematic drawings of the different Space Station designs are provided.

  5. A note of spaces of test and generalized functions of Poisson white noise

    OpenAIRE

    Lytvynov, E.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is devoted to construction and investigation of some riggings of the $L^2$-space of Poisson white noise. A particular attention is paid to the existence of a continuous version of a function from a test space, and to the property of an algebraic structure under pointwise multiplication of functions from a test space.

  6. The effects of knockdown of rho-associated kinase 1 and zipper-interacting protein kinase on gene expression and function in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ti Deng

    Full Text Available Rho-associated kinase (ROCK and zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK have been implicated in diverse physiological functions. ROCK1 phosphorylates and activates ZIPK suggesting that at least some of these physiological functions may require both enzymes. To test the hypothesis that sequential activation of ROCK1 and ZIPK is commonly involved in regulatory pathways, we utilized siRNA to knock down ROCK1 and ZIPK in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells (SMC. Microarray analysis using a whole-transcript expression chip identified changes in gene expression induced by ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. ROCK1 knockdown affected the expression of 553 genes, while ZIPK knockdown affected the expression of 390 genes. A high incidence of regulation of transcription regulator genes was observed in both knockdowns. Other affected groups included transporters, kinases, peptidases, transmembrane and G protein-coupled receptors, growth factors, phosphatases and ion channels. Only 76 differentially expressed genes were common to ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified five pathways shared between the two knockdowns. We focused on cytokine signaling pathways since ROCK1 knockdown up-regulated 5 and down-regulated 4 cytokine genes, in contrast to ZIPK knockdown, which affected the expression of only two cytokine genes (both down-regulated. IL-6 gene expression and secretion of IL-6 protein were up-regulated by ROCK1 knockdown, whereas ZIPK knockdown reduced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein secretion and increased ROCK1 protein expression, suggesting that ROCK1 may inhibit IL-6 secretion. IL-1β mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to ROCK1 knockdown. Differences in the effects of ROCK1 and ZIPK knockdown on cell cycle regulatory genes suggested that ROCK1 and ZIPK regulate the cell cycle by different mechanisms. ROCK1, but not ZIPK knockdown reduced the viability and inhibited proliferation of vascular SMC. We conclude

  7. A Banach-Dieudonné theorem for the space of bounded continuous functions on a separable metric space with the strict topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a separable metric space and let β be the strict topology on the space of bounded continuous functions on X, which has the space of τ-additive Borel measures as a continuous dual space. We prove a Banach-Dieudonné type result for the space of bounded continuous functions equipped with β:

  8. Reproducing the Ensemble Average Polar Solvation Energy of a Protein from a Single Structure: Gaussian-Based Smooth Dielectric Function for Macromolecular Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Arghya; Jia, Zhe; Li, Lin; Zhao, Shan; Alexov, Emil

    2018-01-19

    Typically, the ensemble average polar component of solvation energy (∆G_polar^solv) of a macromolecule is computed using molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to generate conformational ensemble and then single/rigid conformation solvation energy calculation is performed on each of snapshots. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate that Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) based approach using a Gaussian-based smooth dielectric function for macromolecular modeling previously developed by us (Li et al. J Chem Theory Comput 2013, 9 (4), 2126-2136) can reproduce the ensemble average (∆G_polar^solv) of a protein from a single structure. We show that the Gaussian-based dielectric model reproduces the ensemble average ∆G_polar^solv (〈∆G_polar^solv 〉) from an energy minimized structure regardless minimization environment (structure minimized in vacuo, implicit or explicit waters or crystal structure). The best case, however, is when it is paired with in vacuo minimized structure. In contrast, the traditional 2-dielectric model is successful in reproducing the ensemble average (∆G_polar^solv) only if the crystal structure or a structure minimized in solvent is used, the best being the case of implicit solvent minimized structure. Moreover, the traditional 2-dielectric model tends to underestimate the ensemble average 〈∆G_polar^solv 〉 even when the internal dielectric constant of macromolecule takes the lowest physically reasonable value of 1. Our observations from this work reflect how the ability to appropriately mimic the motion of residues, especially the salt-bridges residues, influences a dielectric model's ability to reproduce the ensemble average value of polar solvation free energy from a single structure.

  9. MF-CRA: Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture for Space Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EpiSys Science, Inc. and University of Arizona propose to develop, implement, and demonstrate Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture (MF-CRA) for Space...

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 upregulates expression and function of voltage-gated K+ channels in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Ivana; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Wong, Ada H; Zhang, Shen; Remillard, Carmelle V; Furtado, Manohar R; Petrauskene, Olga V; Yuan, Jason X-J

    2006-11-01

    Activity of voltage-gated K(+) (K(V)) channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) plays an important role in control of apoptosis and proliferation in addition to regulating membrane potential and pulmonary vascular tone. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in normal human PASMC, whereas dysfunctional BMP signaling and downregulated K(V) channels are involved in pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy associated with pulmonary hypertension. This study evaluated the effect of BMP-2 on K(V) channel function and expression in normal human PASMC. BMP-2 (100 nM for 18-24 h) significantly (>2-fold) upregulated mRNA expression of KCNA5, KCNA7, KCNA10, KCNC3, KCNC4, KCNF1, KCNG3, KCNS1, and KCNS3 but downregulated (at least 2-fold) KCNAB1, KCNA2, KCNG2, and KCNV2. The most dramatic change was the >10-fold downregulation of KCNG2 and KCNV2, two electrically silent gamma-subunits that form heterotetramers with functional K(V) channel alpha-subunits (e.g., KCNB1-2). Furthermore, the amplitude and current density of whole cell K(V) currents were significantly increased in PASMC treated with BMP-2. It has been demonstrated that K(+) currents generated by KCNB1 and KCNG1 (or KCNG2) or KCNB1 and KCNV2 heterotetramers are smaller than those generated by KCNB1 homotetramers, indicating that KCNG2 and KCNV2 (2 subunits that were markedly downregulated by BMP-2) are inhibitors of functional K(V) channels. These results suggest that BMP-2 divergently regulates mRNA expression of various K(V) channel alpha-, beta-, and gamma-subunits and significantly increases whole cell K(V) currents in human PASMC. Finally, we present evidence that attenuation of c-Myc expression by BMP-2 may be involved in BMP-2-mediated increase in K(V) channel activity and regulation of K(V) channel expression. The increased K(V) channel activity may be involved in the proapoptotic and/or antiproliferative effects of BMP-2 on PASMC.

  11. Effects of Spaced versus Massed Training in Function Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Fadler, Cynthia L.; Pashler, Harold

    2013-01-01

    A robust finding in the literature is that spacing material leads to better retention than massing; however, the benefit of spacing for concept learning is less clear. When items are massed, it may help the learner to discover the relationship between instances, leading to better abstraction of the underlying concept. Two experiments addressed…

  12. Functional Inequalities Associated with Cauchy Additive Functional Equation in Non-Archimedean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the functional inequalities ∥f((x+y+z/4+f((3x−y−4z/4+f((4x+3z/4∥≤∥2f(x∥ and ∥f((y−x/3+f((x−3z/3+f((3x+3z−y/3∥≤∥f(x∥ in non-Archimedean normed spaces in the spirit of the Th. M. Rassias stability approach.

  13. A new insight into the consistency of smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G; Klapp, Jaime; Vargas, Carlos A; Campos, Kilver

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the problem of consistency of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is solved. A novel error analysis is developed in $n$-dimensional space using the Poisson summation formula, which enables the treatment of the kernel and particle approximation errors in combined fashion. New consistency integral relations are derived for the particle approximation which correspond to the cosine Fourier transform of the classically known consistency conditions for the kernel approximation. The functional dependence of the error bounds on the SPH interpolation parameters, namely the smoothing length $h$ and the number of particles within the kernel support ${\\cal{N}}$ is demonstrated explicitly from which consistency conditions are seen to follow naturally. As ${\\cal{N}}\\to\\infty$, the particle approximation converges to the kernel approximation independently of $h$ provided that the particle mass scales with $h$ as $m\\propto h^{\\beta}$, with $\\beta >n$. This implies that as $h\\to 0$, the joint limit $m\\to 0$, $...

  14. Smooth Adaptation by Sigmoid Shrinkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atto AbdourrahmaneM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the properties of a subclass of sigmoid-based shrinkage functions: the non zeroforcing smooth sigmoid-based shrinkage functions or SigShrink functions. It provides a SURE optimization for the parameters of the SigShrink functions. The optimization is performed on an unbiased estimation risk obtained by using the functions of this subclass. The SURE SigShrink performance measurements are compared to those of the SURELET (SURE linear expansion of thresholds parameterization. It is shown that the SURE SigShrink performs well in comparison to the SURELET parameterization. The relevance of SigShrink is the physical meaning and the flexibility of its parameters. The SigShrink functions performweak attenuation of data with large amplitudes and stronger attenuation of data with small amplitudes, the shrinkage process introducing little variability among data with close amplitudes. In the wavelet domain, SigShrink is particularly suitable for reducing noise without impacting significantly the signal to recover. A remarkable property for this class of sigmoid-based functions is the invertibility of its elements. This propertymakes it possible to smoothly tune contrast (enhancement, reduction.

  15. THE PRESENCE OF 5 CYCLIC-NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE ISOENZYME ACTIVITIES IN BOVINE TRACHEAL SMOOTH-MUSCLE AND THE FUNCTIONAL-EFFECTS OF SELECTIVE INHIBITORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANAMSTERDAM, RGM; DEBOER, J; TENBERGE, RE; NICHOLSON, CD; ZAAGSMA, J

    1991-01-01

    1 The profile of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoenzymes and the relaxant effects of isoenzyme selective inhibitors were examined in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. The compounds examined were the non-selective inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), zaprinast (PDE V selective),

  16. Phenotype and Functional Features of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Immortalized Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells from Asthmatic and Non-Asthmatic Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, J. K.; Ketheson, A.; Faiz, A.; Rempel, K. A. Limbert; Oliver, B. G.; Ward, J. P. T.; Halayko, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is an obstructive respiratory disease characterised by chronic inflammation with airway hyperresponsiveness. In asthmatic airways, there is an increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell bulk, which differs from non-asthmatic ASM in characteristics. This study aimed to assess the usefulness

  17. Functions almost contra-super-continuity in m-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vásquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a generalizations of some class of functionsthat are in relation with the notions of continuity when we use the notions of minimal structures also its are characterized. Moreover we show that the notion of m-e*-T1/2 spaces, given by Ekici [6], is a particular case of the m-(e*-T1/2 spaces when its are defined using the notion of m-generalized closed sets.

  18. Some Generalized Difference Sequence Spaces Defined by Ideal Convergence and Musielak-Orlicz Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad A. Bakery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we introduced the ideal convergence of generalized difference sequence spaces combining de La Vallée-Poussin mean and Musielak-Orlicz function over n-normed spaces. We also study some topological properties and inclusion relation between these spaces.

  19. Generalized Difference λ-Sequence Spaces Defined by Ideal Convergence and the Musielak-Orlicz Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad A. Bakery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the ideal convergence of generalized difference sequence spaces combining an infinite matrix of complex numbers with respect to λ-sequences and the Musielak-Orlicz function over n-normed spaces. We also studied some topological properties and inclusion relations between these spaces.

  20. Nonlinear Systems in Function Spaces and Applications in Biomedical Sciences, Control Theory, and Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Jin; Cuevas, C; Diagana, T; N’Guérékata, G; Nguyen, M. Van

    2014-01-01

    ...; the existence of solutions to a functional differential equation with state-dependent delay on the basis of the space of real continuous functions on the real axis and the theories of fixed points...

  1. Fourier inversion on a reductive symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den

    1999-01-01

    Let X be a semisimple symmetric space. In previous papers, [8] and [9], we have dened an explicit Fourier transform for X and shown that this transform is injective on the space C 1 c (X) ofcompactly supported smooth functions on X. In the present paper, which is a continuation of these papers, we

  2. A Smoothed Eclipse Model for Solar Electric Propulsion Trajectory Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Jonathan; Scheeres, Daniel; Parker, Jeffrey; Englander, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is the dominant design option for employing low-thrust propulsion on a space mission. Spacecraft solar arrays power the SEP system but are subject to blackout periods during solar eclipse conditions. Discontinuity in power available to the spacecraft must be accounted for in trajectory optimization, but gradient-based methods require a differentiable power model. This work presents a power model that smooths the eclipse transition from total eclipse to total sunlight with a logistic function. Example trajectories are computed with differential dynamic programming, a second-order gradient-based method.

  3. A numerical optimization approach to generate smoothing spherical splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L.; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.

    2017-01-01

    Approximating data in curved spaces is a common procedure that is extremely required by modern applications arising, for instance, in aerospace and robotics industries. Here, we are particularly interested in finding smoothing cubic splines that best fit given data in the Euclidean sphere. To achieve this aim, a least squares optimization problem based on the minimization of a certain cost functional is formulated. To solve the problem a numerical algorithm is implemented using several routines from MATLAB toolboxes. The proposed algorithm is shown to be easy to implement, very accurate and precise for spherical data chosen randomly.

  4. On the Space of Functions with Growths Tempered by a Modulus of Continuity and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Banaś

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We are going to study the space of real functions defined on a bounded metric space and having growths tempered by a modulus of continuity. We prove also a sufficient condition for the relative compactness in the mentioned function space. Using that condition and the classical Schauder fixed point theorem, we show the existence theorem for some quadratic integral equations of Fredholm type in the space of functions satisfying the Hölder condition. An example illustrating the mentioned existence result is also included.

  5. Stability of Various Functional Equations in Non-Archimedean Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Mohiuddine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define and study the concept of non-Archimedean intuitionistic fuzzy normed space by using the idea of t-norm and t-conorm. Furthermore, by using the non-Archimedean intuitionistic fuzzy normed space, we investigate the stability of various functional equations. That is, we determine some stability results concerning the Cauchy, Jensen and its Pexiderized functional equations in the framework of non-Archimedean IFN spaces.

  6. reliability assessment of stringers spacings in bridges as function

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (EKKI), Afzelia bipindensis (APA),Chlorophora exceisa (IROKO) and Mitragyna ciliate (ABURA) to represent N1, N2,. N3, and N4 classes of Nigerian timber suitable for bridge decks, convincingly, it was established that, stringer spacing, strength classes, timber thicknesses and width are some of the major factors among ...

  7. Estimating Functions of Distributions Defined over Spaces of Unknown Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Wolpert

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider Bayesian estimation of information-theoretic quantities from data, using a Dirichlet prior. Acknowledging the uncertainty of the event space size m and the Dirichlet prior’s concentration parameter c, we treat both as random variables set by a hyperprior. We show that the associated hyperprior, P(c, m, obeys a simple “Irrelevance of Unseen Variables” (IUV desideratum iff P(c, m = P(cP(m. Thus, requiring IUV greatly reduces the number of degrees of freedom of the hyperprior. Some information-theoretic quantities can be expressed multiple ways, in terms of different event spaces, e.g., mutual information. With all hyperpriors (implicitly used in earlier work, different choices of this event space lead to different posterior expected values of these information-theoretic quantities. We show that there is no such dependence on the choice of event space for a hyperprior that obeys IUV. We also derive a result that allows us to exploit IUV to greatly simplify calculations, like the posterior expected mutual information or posterior expected multi-information. We also use computer experiments to favorably compare an IUV-based estimator of entropy to three alternative methods in common use. We end by discussing how seemingly innocuous changes to the formalization of an estimation problem can substantially affect the resultant estimates of posterior expectations.

  8. Smooth rank one perturbations of selfadjoint operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; Snoo, H.S.V. de; Willemsma, A.D.I.

    Let A be a selfadjoint operator in a Hilbert space aleph with inner product [.,.]. The rank one perturbations of A have the form A+tau [.,omega]omega, tau epsilon R, for some element omega epsilon aleph. In this paper we consider smooth perturbations, i.e. we consider omega epsilon dom \\A\\(k/2) for

  9. Some Basic Properties of Uniformly Symmetrically Continuous (Real Valued) Functions on Metric Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuharawati; Yunianti, D. N.; Jakfar, M.

    2018-01-01

    We give the definition of uniform symmetric continuity for real valued functions defined on a metric space. Then we investigate the basic properties of uniformly symmetrically continuous functions and compare them with those of symmetrically continuous functions and uniformly continuous functions. Several examples are also given.

  10. The relationship between cognitive function and life space: the potential role of personal control beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Andrea C; Wadley, Virginia G; Clay, Olivio J; Parisi, Jeanine M; Rebok, George W; Crowe, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We examined the relationship of cognitive and functional measures with life space (a measure of spatial mobility examining extent of movement within a person's environment) in older adults, and investigated the potential moderating role of personal control beliefs. Internal control beliefs reflect feelings of competence and personal agency, while attributions of external control imply a more dependent or passive point of view. Participants were 2,737 adults from the ACTIVE study, with a mean age of 74 years. Females comprised 76% of the sample, with good minority representation (27% African American). In multiple regression models controlling for demographic factors, cognitive domains of memory, reasoning, and processing speed were significantly associated with life space (p cognitive measures. Interactions between cognitive function and control beliefs were tested, and external control beliefs moderated the relationship between memory and life space, with the combination of high objective memory and low external control beliefs yielding the highest life space (t = -2.07; p = .039). In conclusion, older adults with better cognitive function have a larger overall life space. Performance-based measures of everyday function may also be useful in assessing the functional outcome of life space. Additionally, subjective external control beliefs may moderate the relationship between objective cognitive function and life space. Future studies examining the relationships between these factors longitudinally appear worthwhile to further elucidate the interrelationships of cognitive function, control beliefs, and life space. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Analytic and geometric study of stratified spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Pflaum, Markus J

    2001-01-01

    The book provides an introduction to stratification theory leading the reader up to modern research topics in the field. The first part presents the basics of stratification theory, in particular the Whitney conditions and Mather's control theory, and introduces the notion of a smooth structure. Moreover, it explains how one can use smooth structures to transfer differential geometric and analytic methods from the arena of manifolds to stratified spaces. In the second part the methods established in the first part are applied to particular classes of stratified spaces like for example orbit spaces. Then a new de Rham theory for stratified spaces is established and finally the Hochschild (co)homology theory of smooth functions on certain classes of stratified spaces is studied. The book should be accessible to readers acquainted with the basics of topology, analysis and differential geometry.

  12. US-Swedish Seminar on Function Spaces and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peetre, Jaak; Sagher, Yoram; Wallin, Hans

    1988-01-01

    This seminar is a loose continuation of two previous conferences held in Lund (1982, 1983), mainly devoted to interpolation spaces, which resulted in the publication of the Lecture Notes in Mathematics Vol. 1070. This explains the bias towards that subject. The idea this time was, however, to bring together mathematicians also from other related areas of analysis. To emphasize the historical roots of the subject, the collection is preceded by a lecture on the life of Marcel Riesz.

  13. Charaterisation of function spaces via mollification; fractal quantities for distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Triebel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First we characterise elements f belonging to the Besov spaces Bpqs(ℝn with s∈ℝ,  0

  14. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tamlyn Eslie; Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. Methods: A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. Results: The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. Conclusion: The literature supports Bossert’s conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning. PMID:28812832

  15. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Eslie Roman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. Methods A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. Results The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. Conclusion The literature supports Bossert’s conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning.

  16. Exploring the Functioning of Decision Space: A Review of the Available Health Systems Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Tamlyn Eslie; Cleary, Susan; McIntyre, Diane

    2017-02-27

    The concept of decision space holds appeal as an approach to disaggregating the elements that may influence decision-making in decentralized systems. This narrative review aims to explore the functioning of decision space and the factors that influence decision space. A narrative review of the literature was conducted with searches of online databases and academic journals including PubMed Central, Emerald, Wiley, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Sage. The articles were included in the review based on the criteria that they provided insight into the functioning of decision space either through the explicit application of or reference to decision space, or implicitly through discussion of decision-making related to organizational capacity or accountability mechanisms. The articles included in the review encompass literature related to decentralisation, management and decision space. The majority of the studies utilise qualitative methodologies to assess accountability mechanisms, organisational capacities such as finance, human resources and management, and the extent of decision space. Of the 138 articles retrieved, 76 articles were included in the final review. The literature supports Bossert's conceptualization of decision space as being related to organizational capacities and accountability mechanisms. These functions influence the decision space available within decentralized systems. The exact relationship between decision space and financial and human resource capacities needs to be explored in greater detail to determine the potential influence on system functioning.

  17. Hydrodynamic function of biomimetic shark skin: effect of denticle pattern and spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Thornycroft, Patrick J M; Lauder, George V

    2015-11-18

    The structure of shark skin has been the subject of numerous studies and recently biomimetic shark skin has been fabricated with rigid denticles (scales) on a flexible substrate. This artificial skin can bend and generate thrust when attached to a mechanical controller. The ability to control the manufacture of biomimetic shark skin facilitates manipulation of surface parameters and understanding the effects of changing denticle patterns on locomotion. In this paper we investigate the effect of changing the spacing and arrangement of denticles on the surface of biomimetic shark skin on both static and dynamic locomotor performance. We designed 3D-printed flexible membranes with different denticle patterns and spacings: (1) staggered-overlapped, (2) linear-overlapped, and (3) linear-non-overlapped, and compared these to a 3D-printed smooth-surfaced control. These 3D printed shark skin models were then tested in a flow tank with a mechanical flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically. We swam the membranes at a frequency of 1 Hz with different heave amplitudes (from ±1 cm to ±3 cm) while measuring forces, torques, self-propelled swimming speed, and cost of transport (COT). Static tests revealed drag reduction of denticle patterns compared to a smooth control at low speeds, but increased drag at speeds above 25 cm s(-1). However, during dynamic (swimming) tests, the staggered-overlapped pattern produced the fastest swimming speeds with no significant increase in the COT at lower heave values. For instance, at a heave frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of ±1 cm, swimming speed of the staggered-overlapped pattern increased by 25.2% over the smooth control. At higher heave amplitudes, significantly faster self-propelled swimming speeds were achieved by the staggered-overlapped pattern, but with higher COT. Only the staggered-overlapped pattern provides a significant swimming performance advantage over the

  18. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 2. Smoothness of limit functors. Benedictus Margaux. Volume 125 Issue 2 May 2015 pp 161-165 ...

  19. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-05

    This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.

  20. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille

    2014-01-01

    (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages...

  1. Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity

  2. Genetic Programming with Smooth Operators for Arithmetic Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the smooth operators for arithmetic expressions as an approach to smoothening the search space in Genetic Programming (GP). Smooth operator GP interpolates between arithmetic operators such as * and /, thereby allowing a gradual adaptation to the problem. The suggested...

  3. Chronic Cigarette Smoking Impairs Erectile Function through Increased Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis, Decreased nNOS, Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Contents in a Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ching Huang

    Full Text Available Cigarette use is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED. While the association between chronic smoking and ED is well established, the fundamental mechanism(s of cigarette-related ED are incompletely understood, partly due to no reliable animal model of smoking-induced ED. The present study was designed to validate an in vivo rat model of chronic cigarette-induced ED. Forty 12-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Ten rats served as control group and were exposed only to room air. The remaining 30 rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 4 weeks (n = 10, 12 weeks (n = 10, and 24 weeks (n = 10. At the 24-week time point all rats were assessed with intracavernous pressure (ICP during cavernous nerve electrostimulation. Blood and urine were collected to measure serum testosterone and oxidative stress, respectively. Corporal tissue was assessed by Western blot for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS. Penile tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for endothelial, smooth muscle, and apoptotic content. Mean arterial pressure (MAP was significantly higher in 24-week cigarette exposed animals compared to the control animals. Mean ICP/MAP ratio and cavernosal smooth muscle/endothelial contents were significantly lower in the 12- and 24-week rats compared to control animals. Oxidative stress was significantly higher in the 24-week cigarette exposed group compared to control animals. Mean nNOS expression was significantly lower, and apoptotic index significantly higher, in CS-exposed animals compared to control animals. These findings indicate that the rat model exposure to CS increases apoptosis and oxidative stress and decreases nNOS, endothelial and smooth muscle contents, and ICP in a dose dependent fashion. The rat model is a useful tool for further study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of CS-related ED.

  4. Functional Testing of the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.

    1995-01-01

    A plasma contactor system has been baselined for the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and, in particular, the technology development effort on ion thruster systems. The plasma contactor subsystems include a hollow cathode assembly, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under a pre-flight development program these subsystems are being developed to the level of maturity appropriate for transfer to U.S. industry for final development. Development efforts for the hollow cathode assembly include design selection and refinement, validating its required lifetime, and quantifying the cathode performance and interface specifications. To date, cathode components have demonstrated over 10,000 hours lifetime, and a hollow cathode assembly has demonstrated over 3,000 ignitions. Additionally, preliminary integration testing of a hollow cathode assembly with a breadboard power electronics unit has been completed. This paper discusses test results and the development status of the plasma contactor subsystems for ISSA, and in particular, the hollow cathode assembly.

  5. Smooth muscle actin and myosin expression in cultured airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J Z; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Rippetoe, P; White, S; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Evans, J; McHugh, K M; Low, R B

    1998-05-01

    In this study, the expression of smooth muscle actin and myosin was examined in cultures of rat tracheal smooth muscle cells. Protein and mRNA analyses demonstrated that these cells express alpha- and gamma-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle myosin and nonmuscle myosin-B heavy chains. The expression of the smooth muscle specific actin and myosin isoforms was regulated in the same direction when growth conditions were changed. Thus, at confluency in 1 or 10% serum-containing medium as well as for low-density cells (50-60% confluent) deprived of serum, the expression of the smooth muscle forms of actin and myosin was relatively high. Conversely, in rapidly proliferating cultures at low density in 10% serum, smooth muscle contractile protein expression was low. The expression of nonmuscle myosin-B mRNA and protein was more stable and was upregulated only to a small degree in growing cells. Our results provide new insight into the molecular basis of differentiation and contractile function in airway smooth muscle cells.

  6. Singularities of lightcone pedals of spacelike curves in Lorentz-Minkowski 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, geometric properties of spacelike curves on a timelike surface in Lorentz-Minkowski 3-space are investigated by applying the singularity theory of smooth functions from the contact viewpoint.

  7. Long-term oral administration of 5α-reductase inhibitor attenuates erectile function by inhibiting autophagy and promoting apoptosis of smooth muscle cells in corpus cavernosum of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min-Guan; Wang, Xian-Jin; Shen, Zhou-Jun; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of long-term treatment of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) on erectile organ structure and function in aged rats. Thirty 16-month-old male rats were assigned to 2 groups: untreated or treated with 5ARIs. After 16 weeks, the erectile function was measured after electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. The weights and histopathologic features of the corpus cavernosum were examined. The levels of autophagy, apoptosis, and protein expression were also recorded. In the 5ARI-treatment group, the plasma and intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone concentration was lowered by 52.1% and 57.3%, respectively, and the weight of the corpus cavernosum and prostate had decreased by 22.4% and 35.6%, respectively. The in vivo erectile response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve had decreased significantly in the 5ARI-treatment group (P corpus cavernosum of the 5ARI-treatment group. Using transmission electron microscopy and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, decreased autophagy, aggravated ultrastructural injury of mitochondria, and increased apoptosis were observed in the cavernous smooth muscle cells from the rats in the 5ARI-treatment group. Long-term 5ARI treatment did attenuate the erectile function of aged rats. The mechanisms might have been the decreased rate of autophagy and an increased rate of apoptosis in the cavernous smooth muscle cells, suggesting a new role for androgen in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the erectile organ. Additional studies are necessary to demonstrate the mechanisms of dihydrotestosterone in regulating the autophagy and apoptosis of the cavernous smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impairment of systemic microvascular endothelial and smooth muscle function in individuals with early-onset coronary artery disease: studies with laser speckle contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elaine G; De Lorenzo, Andrea; Huguenin, Grazielle; Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of systemic microvascular reactivity is currently considered to be critical in the stratification of cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we compared skin microvascular function in individuals with early-onset (premature) coronary artery disease (EOCAD, n=30) with that of age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals (n=30). Using laser speckle contrast imaging, cutaneous blood flow was assessed in the forearm at rest and during reactivity tests, including postocclusive reactive hyperemia and the iontophoresis of acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside with increasing currents of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 μA for 10-s intervals spaced 1 min apart. Carotid intima-media thickness was evaluated using an ultrasound system and a 7.5 MHz ultrasound transducer. The endothelium-dependent skin microvascular vasodilator responses that were induced by both acetylcholine and postocclusive reactive hyperemia were significantly reduced in patients with EOCAD compared with healthy individuals. The vasodilator responses that were induced by sodium nitroprusside were also significantly reduced in individuals with EOCAD. These systemic microvascular alterations were concurrent with increased carotid intima-media thickness in these patients. Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent microvascular dysfunction in individuals presenting with EOCAD, and thus could be valuable as an early peripheral marker of atherothrombotic disease.

  9. Smooth ergodic theory for endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Min; Zhu, Shu

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a general smooth ergodic theory for deterministic dynamical systems generated by non-invertible endomorphisms, mainly concerning the relations between entropy, Lyapunov exponents and dimensions. The authors make extensive use of the combination of the inverse limit space technique and the techniques developed to tackle random dynamical systems. The most interesting results in this book are (1) the equivalence between the SRB property and Pesin’s entropy formula; (2) the generalized Ledrappier-Young entropy formula; (3) exact-dimensionality for weakly hyperbolic diffeomorphisms and for expanding maps. The proof of the exact-dimensionality for weakly hyperbolic diffeomorphisms seems more accessible than that of Barreira et al. It also inspires the authors to argue to what extent the famous Eckmann-Ruelle conjecture and many other classical results for diffeomorphisms and for flows hold true. After a careful reading of the book, one can systematically learn the Pesin theory for endomorphis...

  10. Some fixed point results in Menger spaces using a control function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnapada Das

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we prove a probabilistic contraction mapping principle in Menger spaces. This is in line with research in fixed point theory using control functions which was initiated by Khan et al. [Bull. Austral. Math. Soc., 30(1984, 1-9] in metric spaces and extended by Choudhury et al. [Acta Mathematica Sinica, 24(8 (2008, 1379-1386] in probabilistic metric spaces. An example has also been constructed.

  11. Beam-smoothing investigation on Heaven I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yi-huai; Gao, Zhi-xing; Tong, Xiao-hui; Dai, Hui; Tang, Xiu-zhang; Shan, Yu-sheng

    2007-01-01

    Directly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) require laser beams with extremely smooth irradiance profiles to prevent hydrodynamic instabilities that destroy the spherical symmetry of the target during implosion. Such instabilities can break up and mix together the target's wall and fuel material, preventing it from reaching the density and temperature required for fusion ignition. 1,2 Measurements in the equation of state (EOS) experiments require laser beams with flat-roofed profiles to generate uniform shockwave 3. Some method for beam smooth, is thus needed. A technique called echelon-free induced spatial incoherence (EFISI) is proposed for producing smooth target beam profiles with large KrF lasers. The idea is basically an image projection technique that projects the desired time-averaged spatial profile onto the target via the laser system, using partially coherent broadband lighe. Utilize the technique, we developing beam- smoothing investigation on "Heaven I". At China Institute of Atomic Energy , a new angular multiplexing providing with beam-smoothing function has been developed, the total energy is 158J, the stability of energy is 4%, the pulse duration is 25ns, the effective diameter of focusing spot is 400um, and the ununiformity is about 1.6%, the power density on the target is about 3.7×10 12W/cm2. At present, the system have provided steady and smooth laser irradiation for EOS experiments.

  12. Functional Use Change in Green Spaces: A Case Study of Kirklareli Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sat Gungor, Beyza; Culha Ozanguc, Kadiriye

    2017-10-01

    Green spaces which are one of the most important public spaces in urban design have an important role on qualified daily urban life. People escape from intense work pressure and traffic jam of metropoles to those urban green areas to take a breath even they cover a small size. In time, people’s expectations from green spaces as functional and quantitative needs are changing. This change occurs due to increasing population and as the character of the urban life. This study examines the functional use and quantitative change of urban green spaces of Kırklareli Province from past to present. Kırklareli is a border city to Bulgaria which is located in north-west part of Turkey and this gives a transitional and a multicultural character to the city. The population is about 67360. In the course of time; green space needs have increased by the increasing population. In addition to this, green spaces’ functional use change has been identified. According to the results of the study; from the aspect of the green space standards, Kırklareli found above standards with 17.5 m2 per capita, but on the other hand, sport and playground areas found insufficient. The Oldest and the newest city plans of Kırklareli (1940s and 2012s cadastral plans) have been compared and site surveys implemented as the methodology. In site survey, current green spaces’ functional uses as sport or playground are observed and determined and also current quantitative measure of the green spaces are verified. Urban green spaces in Kırklareli Province evaluated through considering world’s most populated urban green space standards and Turkey’s standards. This study utilizes to compose a substructure of the urban green space. Determined deficiencies and inadequacies of green spaces and functional needs in this study, can guide to further studies and implementations of Kırklareli Municipality.

  13. Infimal Convolution Regularisation Functionals of BV and Lp Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2016-02-03

    We study a general class of infimal convolution type regularisation functionals suitable for applications in image processing. These functionals incorporate a combination of the total variation seminorm and Lp norms. A unified well-posedness analysis is presented and a detailed study of the one-dimensional model is performed, by computing exact solutions for the corresponding denoising problem and the case p=2. Furthermore, the dependency of the regularisation properties of this infimal convolution approach to the choice of p is studied. It turns out that in the case p=2 this regulariser is equivalent to the Huber-type variant of total variation regularisation. We provide numerical examples for image decomposition as well as for image denoising. We show that our model is capable of eliminating the staircasing effect, a well-known disadvantage of total variation regularisation. Moreover as p increases we obtain almost piecewise affine reconstructions, leading also to a better preservation of hat-like structures.

  14. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 125, No. 2, May 2015, pp. 161–165. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Smoothness of limit functors. BENEDICTUS MARGAUX. Laboratoire de Recherche “Princess .... On the same vein, the coaction cλ : A[X] → A[X][t±1] is defined 'at a finite level', that is, there exists α1 ≥ α0 and a Aα1 ...

  15. Smoothed Cox regression

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowska, Dorota M.

    1997-01-01

    Nonparametric regression was shown by Beran and McKeague and Utikal to provide a flexible method for analysis of censored failure times and more general counting processes models in the presence of covariates. We discuss application of kernel smoothing towards estimation in a generalized Cox regression model with baseline intensity dependent on a covariate. Under regularity conditions we show that estimates of the regression parameters are asymptotically normal at rate root-n, and we also dis...

  16. Oculomotor function during space flight and susceptibility to space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, William E.; Uri, John J.

    Horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and saccadic eye movements (SEM) were studied in 18 subjects before and during five Space Shuttle missions to evaluate the effects of weightlessness and correlations between results and susceptibility to and actual presence of space motion sickness (SMS). Active sinusoidal head oscillation was the stimulus for VOR tests with vision (VVOR), with eyes shaded (VOR-ES), and VOR suppression (VOR-S). Eye movements were recorded by electrooculography and head position by a potentiometer. No pathological nystagmus or other abnormal eye movements were seen. No significant in-flight changes were seen in the gain, phase shift or waveform of VVOR, VOR-ES or VOR-S. Statistically significant increases in saccadic latency and decreases in saccadic velocity were seen, with no change in saccadic accuracy. Preflight differences between SMS susceptible and non-susceptible subjects were noted only in VOR-S, with less complete suppression in susceptible subjects, a finding also seen in flight. During flight, VVOR gain was significantly increased in three non-affected subjects. Saccades of SMS-affected subjects showed increased latency and velocity and decreased accuracy compared to saccades of unaffected subjects.

  17. Functional spaces and operators connected with some L\\'evy noises

    OpenAIRE

    Lytvynov, E.

    2006-01-01

    We review some recent developments in white noise analysis and quantum probability. We pay a special attention to spaces of test and generalized functionals of some L\\'evy white noises, as well as as to the structure of quantum white noise on these spaces.

  18. Stability of Pexiderized Quadratic Functional Equation in Random 2-Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alghamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of Hyers-Ulam-Rassias type theorems by considering the pexiderized quadratic functional equation in the setting of random 2-normed spaces (RTNS, while the concept of random 2-normed space has been recently studied by Goleţ (2005.

  19. Some Classes of Difference Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers Defined by Orlicz Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Chandra Tripathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the classes of generalized difference bounded, convergent, and null sequences of fuzzy real numbers defined by an Orlicz function. Some properties of these sequence spaces like solidness, symmetricity, and convergence-free are studied. We obtain some inclusion relations involving these sequence spaces.

  20. Cyclic vectors of diagonal operators on the space of functions analytic on a disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Ian N.; Seubert, Steven M.

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study cyclic vectors and invariant subspaces of operators on the space of functions analytic on an open disk in the complex plane having as eigenvectors the monomials zn.

  1. Nonlinear functional integrodifferential evolution equations with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zuomao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the Leray-Schauder Alternative is used to investigate the existence of mild solutions to first-order nonlinear functional integrodifferential evolution equations with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces.

  2. Refined stability of additive and quadratic functional equations in modular spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hark-Mahn Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to obtain refined stability results and alternative stability results for additive and quadratic functional equations using direct method in modular spaces.

  3. Parton distributions: determining probabilities in a space of functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the statistical properties of parton distributions within the framework of the NNPDF methodology. We present various tests of statistical consistency, in particular that the distribution of results does not depend on the underlying parametrization and that it behaves according to Bayes' theorem upon the addition of new data. We then study the dependence of results on consistent or inconsistent datasets and present tools to assess the consistency of new data. Finally we estimate the relative size of the PDF uncertainty due to data uncertainties, and that due to the need to infer a functional form from a finite set of data.

  4. Reinterpreting space, time lags, and functional responses in ecological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M J; Wilson, H B; Pacala, S W

    2000-12-01

    Natural enemy-victim interactions are of major applied importance and of fundamental interest to ecologists. A key question is what stabilizes these interactions, allowing the long-term coexistence of the two species. Three main theoretical explanations have been proposed: behavioral responses, time-dependent factors such as delayed density dependence, and spatial heterogeneity. Here, using the powerful moment-closure technique, we show a fundamental equivalence between these three elements. Limited movement by organisms is a ubiquitous feature of ecological systems, allowing spatial structure to develop; we show that the effects of this can be naturally described in terms of time lags or within-generation functional responses.

  5. The Temporal Association between Executive Function and Life-Space Mobility in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Eronen, Johanna; Pynnönen, Katja; Eriksson, Johan G; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2017-11-01

    Life-space mobility, an indicator of community mobility, describes person's movements in terms of the distance from home, the frequency of movement and the need of assistance for movement. Executive function (EF) is a higher order cognitive function that supervises motor control, and plays a key role in a person's ability to function independently. Cognitive impairment often co-occurs with restricted life-space mobility, however, the direction of the longitudinal associations between EF and life-space mobility is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal associations between EF and life-space mobility among community-dwelling older people. 108 community-dwelling persons aged 76 to 91 years participated in the two-year follow-up study. Executive function was measured with the Trail Making Test (TMT). The Life-Space Assessment (range 0-120, higher scores indicate more mobility) was used to assess life-space mobility. Cross-lagged model design was used to examine longitudinal relationship between EF and life-space mobility. The model was adjusted for age and gender. Average age of participants at baseline was 82.2 (SD 4.1) years and 59% were women. Better EF at baseline predicted higher life-space mobility at follow-up (path coefficient = 3.81, 95% Confidential Interval; 0.84, 6.78, p = 0.012), while baseline life-space mobility did not predict EF at follow-up. Executive function was a determinant of life-space mobility. Supporting EF may enhance maintaining independence and active participation in old age.

  6. Wall-crossing made smooth

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In $D=4,N=2$ theories on $R^{3,1}$, the index receives contributions not only from single-particle BPS states, counted by the BPS indices, but also from multi-particle states made of BPS constituents. In a recent work [arXiv:1406.2360], a general formula expressing the index in terms of the BPS indices was proposed, which is smooth across walls of marginal stability and reproduces the expected single-particle contributions. In this note, I analyze the two-particle contributions predicted by this formula, and show agreement with the spectral asymmetry of the continuum of scattering states in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics of two non-relativistic, mutually non-local dyons. This provides a physical justification for the error function profile used in the mathematics literature on indefinite theta series, and in the physics literature on black hole partition functions.

  7. Billiards on constant curvature spaces and generating functions for systems with constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Božidar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we consider a method of generating functions for systems with constraints and, as an example, we prove that the billiard mappings for billiards on the Euclidean space, sphere, and the Lobachevsky space are sympletic. Further, by taking a quadratic generating function we get the skew-hodograph mapping introduced by Moser and Veselov, which relates the ellipsoidal billiards in the Euclidean space with the Heisenberg magnetic spin chain model on a sphere. We define analogous mapping for the ellipsoidal billiard on the Lobachevsky space. It relates the billiard with the Heisenberg spin model on the light-like cone in the Lorentz-Poincare-Minkowski space. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 174020

  8. Self-calibrated correlation imaging with k-space variant correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Edalati, Masoud; Du, Xingfu; Wang, Hui; Cao, Jie J

    2017-07-07

    Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries. As a result of tissue-boundary sparsity in the human anatomy, neighboring k-space data correlation varies from the central to the outer k-space. By estimating k-space variant correlation functions with an iterative self-calibration method, correlation imaging can benefit from neighboring k-space data correlation associated with both coil sensitivity encoding and tissue-boundary sparsity, thereby providing a speed gain over parallel imaging that relies only on coil sensitivity encoding. This new approach is investigated in brain imaging and free-breathing neonatal cardiac imaging. Correlation imaging performs better than existing parallel imaging techniques in simulated brain imaging acceleration experiments. The higher speed enables real-time data acquisition for neonatal cardiac imaging in which physiological motion is fast and non-periodic. With k-space variant correlation functions, correlation imaging gives a higher speed than parallel imaging and offers the potential to image physiological motion in real-time. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paret, Stefan

    2010-02-22

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  10. Frames and other bases in abstract and function spaces novel methods in harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gia, Quoc; Mayeli, Azita; Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The first of a two volume set on novel methods in harmonic analysis, this book draws on a number of original research and survey papers from well-known specialists detailing the latest innovations and recently discovered links between various fields. Along with many deep theoretical results, these volumes contain numerous applications to problems in signal processing, medical imaging, geodesy, statistics, and data science. The chapters within cover an impressive range of ideas from both traditional and modern harmonic analysis, such as: the Fourier transform, Shannon sampling, frames, wavelets, functions on Euclidean spaces, analysis on function spaces of Riemannian and sub-Riemannian manifolds, Fourier analysis on manifolds and Lie groups, analysis on combinatorial graphs, sheaves, co-sheaves, and persistent homologies on topological spaces. Volume I is organized around the theme of frames and other bases in abstract and function spaces, covering topics such as: The advanced development of frames, including ...

  11. The Essence Of Permit Function For Space Utilization Of Spatial Planning In South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhdor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the essence of permit function for space utilization of spatial planning in South Sulawesi. The main point is the essence of permission for using space as a control instrument sturen of space utilization by controlling space utilization in terms of development with emphasis on spatial planning. This permit serves as a director social engineers and designers in creating an orderly society space. The second is license of space utilization as budgeting tool budgetter for juridical means to increase revenue. For certain types of permits sometimes function of this budget is more dominant than the other functions but in layout struren function should take precedence of the budgettering function. The third is land use permit as an instrument of legal protection in this case it consists of two things the legal protection of the public or the public interest of the potential problems posed by the activities efforts that allowed it. Second the legal protection for the activity business is allowed itself to the possibility of disturbance or barriers of any party and by anyone.

  12. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  13. On Smooth Time-Dependent Orbifolds and Null Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabinger, Michel

    2002-08-08

    We study string theory on a non-singular time-dependent orbifold of flat space. The orbifold group, which involves only space-like identifications, is obtained by a combined action of a null Lorentz transformation and a constant shift in an extra direction. In the limit where the shift goes to zero, the geometry of this orbifold reproduces an orbifold with a light-like singularity, which was recently studied by Liu, Moore and Seiberg (hep-th/0204168). We find that the backreaction on the geometry due to a test particle can be made arbitrarily small, and that there are scattering processes which can be studied in the approximation of a constant background. We quantize strings on this orbifold and calculate the torus partition function. We construct a basis of states on the smooth orbifold whose tree level string interactions are nonsingular. We discuss the existence of physical modes in the singular orbifold which resolve the singularity. We also describe another way of making the singular orbifold smooth which involves a sandwich pp-wave.

  14. Design space exploration of a particle filter using higher-0rder functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, Rinse; Kuper, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design space exploration methodology based on higher-order functions to facilitate the tradeoff between execution time and area usage on FPGAs. Higher-order function are transformed, resulting in parameterized nodes where the amount of parallelism and thereby performance, can

  15. Infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-01-01

    This study contains the derivation of an infinite space Green’s function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in an anisotropically scattering medium based on analytical approaches. The final solutions are analytical regarding the time variable and given by a superposition of real and complex exponential functions. The obtained expressions were successfully validated with Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:22435101

  16. Infinite space Green's function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-03-01

    This study contains the derivation of an infinite space Green's function of the time-dependent radiative transfer equation in an anisotropically scattering medium based on analytical approaches. The final solutions are analytical regarding the time variable and given by a superposition of real and complex exponential functions. The obtained expressions were successfully validated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Extreme boundary of space semi-additive functionals on finite set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayratbay F. Djabbarov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is devoted to study of the extreme boundary of the convexcompact set of all semi-additive functionals on a finite-point compactum. We shall find some classes of extreme points of the space semi-additive functionals OS (n .

  18. The Mental Space Function of BUT as a Lexical Discourse Marker in American Sign Language Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, William George

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation centers on the application of the mental space theory to expand our understanding of the role lexical discourse markers (LDMs) play in discourse. LDMs have been recognized by many researchers for their discourse connective function(s) (Levinson, 1983; Schiffrin, 1987; Blakemore, 1989, 2000, 2001, 2002; Fraser, 1996, 1999, 2006).…

  19. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF-Spaces of Continuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine V. Komarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis.

  20. Interval Forecast for Smooth Transition Autoregressive Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we propose a simple method for constructing interval forecast for smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) model. This interval forecast is based on bootstrapping the residual error of the estimated STAR model for each forecast horizon and computing various Akaike information criterion (AIC) function. This new ...

  1. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes: smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), and clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John; Pedersen, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Brill, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine and thapsigargin and measuring the resultant changes in contraction-relaxation parameters and the force-frequency relationship at 20 °C and 30 °C. We also examined ultrastructural differences with electron microscopy. In tissues from smooth dogfish, net force (per cross-sectional area) and measures of the speeds of contraction and relaxation were all higher in atrial than ventricular myocardium at both temperatures. Atrial-ventricular differences were evident in the other two species primarily in measures of the rates of contraction and relaxation. Ryanodine-thapsigargin treatment reduced net force and its maximum positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force-frequency relationship, but there was no evidence that SR involvement in EC coupling was influenced by heart rate. SR was evident in electron micrographs, generally located in proximity to mitochondria and intercalated discs, and to a lesser extent between the myofibrils; with mitochondria being more numerous in ventricular than atrial myocardium in all three species.

  2. A perturbative approach to the redshift space correlation function: beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-08-01

    We extend our previous redshift space power spectrum code to the redshift space correlation function. Here we focus on the Gaussian Streaming Model (GSM). Again, the code accommodates a wide range of modified gravity and dark energy models. For the non-linear real space correlation function used in the GSM we use the Fourier transform of the RegPT 1-loop matter power spectrum. We compare predictions of the GSM for a Vainshtein screened and Chameleon screened model as well as GR. These predictions are compared to the Fourier transform of the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space power spectrum model which is fit to N-body data. We find very good agreement between the Fourier transform of the TNS model and the GSM predictions, with <= 6% deviations in the first two correlation function multipoles for all models for redshift space separations in 50Mpch <= s <= 180Mpc/h. Excellent agreement is found in the differences between the modified gravity and GR multipole predictions for both approaches to the redshift space correlation function, highlighting their matched ability in picking up deviations from GR. We elucidate the timeliness of such non-standard templates at the dawn of stage-IV surveys and discuss necessary preparations and extensions needed for upcoming high quality data.

  3. Caveolin-3 promotes a vascular smooth muscle contractile phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gutierrez-Pajares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of cardiovascular diseases in Western countries. Among the cell types associated with a dysfunctional vasculature, smooth muscle cells are believed to play an essential role in the development of these illnesses. Vascular smooth muscle cells are key regulators of the vascular tone and also have an important function in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis. While in the normal vasculature contractile smooth muscle cells are predominant, in atherosclerotic vascular lesions, synthetic cells migrate toward the neointima, proliferate, and synthetize extracellular matrix proteins. In the present study, we have examined the role of caveolin-3 in the regulation of smooth muscle cell phenotype. Caveolin-3 is expressed in vivo in normal arterial smooth muscle cells, but its expression appears to be lost in cultured smooth muscle cells. Our data show that caveolin-3 expression in the A7r5 smooth muscle cell line is associated with increased expression of contractility markers such as smooth muscle  actin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain but decreased expression of the synthetic phenotype markers such as p-Elk and Klf4. Moreover, we also show that caveolin-3 expression can reduce proliferation upon treatment with LDL or PDGF. Finally, we show that caveolin-3-expressing smooth muscle cells are less sensitive to apoptosis than control cells upon treatment with oxidized LDL. Taken together, our data suggest that caveolin-3 can regulate the phenotypic switch between contractile and synthetic smooth muscle cells. A better understanding of the factors regulating caveolin-3 expression and function in this cell type will permit the development of a better comprehension of the factors regulating smooth muscle function in atherosclerosis and restenosis.

  4. Functional connectivity among spikes in low dimensional space during working memory task in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mei; Li, Shuangyan; Tian, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is critically important in cognitive tasks. The functional connectivity has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanism underlying the information processing during WM tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate how to effectively characterize the dynamic variations of the functional connectivity in low dimensional space among the principal components (PCs) which were extracted from the instantaneous firing rate series. Spikes were obtained from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats with implanted microelectrode array and then transformed into continuous series via instantaneous firing rate method. Granger causality method is proposed to study the functional connectivity. Then three scalar metrics were applied to identify the changes of the reduced dimensionality functional network during working memory tasks: functional connectivity (GC), global efficiency (E) and casual density (CD). As a comparison, GC, E and CD were also calculated to describe the functional connectivity in the original space. The results showed that these network characteristics dynamically changed during the correct WM tasks. The measure values increased to maximum, and then decreased both in the original and in the reduced dimensionality. Besides, the feature values of the reduced dimensionality were significantly higher during the WM tasks than they were in the original space. These findings suggested that functional connectivity among the spikes varied dynamically during the WM tasks and could be described effectively in the low dimensional space.

  5. Functional connectivity among spikes in low dimensional space during working memory task in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ouyang

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is critically important in cognitive tasks. The functional connectivity has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanism underlying the information processing during WM tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate how to effectively characterize the dynamic variations of the functional connectivity in low dimensional space among the principal components (PCs which were extracted from the instantaneous firing rate series. Spikes were obtained from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of rats with implanted microelectrode array and then transformed into continuous series via instantaneous firing rate method. Granger causality method is proposed to study the functional connectivity. Then three scalar metrics were applied to identify the changes of the reduced dimensionality functional network during working memory tasks: functional connectivity (GC, global efficiency (E and casual density (CD. As a comparison, GC, E and CD were also calculated to describe the functional connectivity in the original space. The results showed that these network characteristics dynamically changed during the correct WM tasks. The measure values increased to maximum, and then decreased both in the original and in the reduced dimensionality. Besides, the feature values of the reduced dimensionality were significantly higher during the WM tasks than they were in the original space. These findings suggested that functional connectivity among the spikes varied dynamically during the WM tasks and could be described effectively in the low dimensional space.

  6. Contractive projections in Orlicz sequence spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Randrianantoanina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterize norm-one complemented subspaces of Orlicz sequence spaces ℓM equipped with either Luxemburg or Orlicz norm, provided that the Orlicz function M is sufficiently smooth and sufficiently different from the square function. We measure smoothness of M using AC1 and AC2 classes introduced by Maleev and Troyanski in 1991, and the condition for M to be different from a square function is essentially a requirement that the second derivative M″ of M cannot have a finite nonzero limit at zero. This paper treats the real case; the complex case follows from previously known results.

  7. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ms. The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of the brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV regularization and l_(1-2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based TGV (vTGV regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar image to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the l_(1-2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that l_(1-2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than l_1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM. Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the

  8. s-SMOOTH: Sparsity and Smoothness Enhanced EEG Brain Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qin, Jing; Hsin, Yue-Loong; Osher, Stanley; Liu, Wentai

    2016-01-01

    EEG source imaging enables us to reconstruct current density in the brain from the electrical measurements with excellent temporal resolution (~ ms). The corresponding EEG inverse problem is an ill-posed one that has infinitely many solutions. This is due to the fact that the number of EEG sensors is usually much smaller than that of the potential dipole locations, as well as noise contamination in the recorded signals. To obtain a unique solution, regularizations can be incorporated to impose additional constraints on the solution. An appropriate choice of regularization is critically important for the reconstruction accuracy of a brain image. In this paper, we propose a novel Sparsity and SMOOthness enhanced brain TomograpHy (s-SMOOTH) method to improve the reconstruction accuracy by integrating two recently proposed regularization techniques: Total Generalized Variation (TGV) regularization and ℓ1-2 regularization. TGV is able to preserve the source edge and recover the spatial distribution of the source intensity with high accuracy. Compared to the relevant total variation (TV) regularization, TGV enhances the smoothness of the image and reduces staircasing artifacts. The traditional TGV defined on a 2D image has been widely used in the image processing field. In order to handle 3D EEG source images, we propose a voxel-based Total Generalized Variation (vTGV) regularization that extends the definition of second-order TGV from 2D planar images to 3D irregular surfaces such as cortex surface. In addition, the ℓ1-2 regularization is utilized to promote sparsity on the current density itself. We demonstrate that ℓ1-2 regularization is able to enhance sparsity and accelerate computations than ℓ1 regularization. The proposed model is solved by an efficient and robust algorithm based on the difference of convex functions algorithm (DCA) and the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical experiments using synthetic data demonstrate the

  9. Proteome analysis and functional expression identify mortalin as an antiapoptotic gene induced by elevation of [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurin, Sebastien; Seyrantepe, Volkan; Orlov, Sergei N; Tremblay, Tammy-Lynn; Thibault, Pierre; Bennett, Martin R; Hamet, Pavel; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2002-11-15

    Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in remodeling of vessel walls, one of the major determinants of long-term blood pressure elevation and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently, we have found that apoptosis in cultured VSMCs can be inhibited by inversion of the intracellular [Na+]/[K+] ratio after the sustained blockage of the Na+,K+-ATPase by ouabain. To understand the mechanism of ouabain action, we analyzed subsets of hydrophilic and hydrophobic VSMC proteins from control and ouabain-treated cells by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Ouabain treatment led to overexpression of numerous soluble and hydrophobic cellular proteins. Among proteins that showed the highest level of ouabain-induced expression, we identified mortalin (also known as GRP75 or PBP-74), a member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) superfamily and a marker for cellular mortal and immortal phenotypes. Northern and Western blotting and immunocytochemistry all have confirmed that treatment of VSMCs with ouabain results in potent induction of mortalin expression. Transient transfection of cells with mortalin cDNA led to at least a 6-hour delay in the development of apoptosis after serum deprivation. The expression of tumor suppressor gene, p53, in mortalin-transfected cells was delayed to the same extent, and the expressed protein showed abnormal perinuclear distribution, suggesting that p53 is retained and inactivated by mortalin. Our studies therefore define a new [Na+]i/[K+]i-responsive signaling pathway that may play an important role in the regulation of programmed cell death in VSMCs.

  10. A Method of Function Space for Vertical Impedance Function of a Circular Rigid Foundation on a Transversely Isotropic Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigation of vertical impedance function of a surface rigid circular foundation resting on a semi-infinite transversely isotropic alluvium. To this end, the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinate system, which because of axissymmetry are two coupled equations, are converted into one partial differential equation using a method of potential function. The governing partial differential equation for the potential function is solved via implementing Hankel integral transforms in radial direction. The vertical and radial components of displacement vector are determined with the use of transformed displacement-potential function relationships. The mixed boundary conditions at the surface are satisfied by specifying the traction between the rigid foundation and the underneath alluvium in a special function space introduced in this paper, where the vertical displacements are forced to satisfy the rigid boundary condition. Through exercising these restraints, the normal traction and then the vertical impedance function are obtained. The results are then compared with the existing results in the literature for the simpler case of isotropic half-space, which shows an excellent agreement. Eventually, the impedance functions are presented in terms of dimensionless frequency for different materials. The method presented here may be used to obtain the impedance function in any other direction as well as in buried footing in layered media.

  11. Smooth Decomposition of Generalized Fatou Set Explains Smooth Structure in Generalized Mandelbrot Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinke, J.; Parisi, J.; Röhricht, B.; Rössler, O. E.; Metzler, W.

    1988-01-01

    Generalized Mandelbrot sets arise in perturbed (non-analytic) versions of the complex logistic map. Numerically, it contains smooth portions as shown previously. To exclude that this result is specific to particular initial conditions only, the structure of the analogue to the Fatou set is looked at in the region in question. The set of non-divergent points is being "eaten up" by a smooth invading boundary. Therefore, the same type of decomposition applies independent of position in parameter space, in the region in question.

  12. Energy-like Liapunov functionals for linear elastic systems on a Hilbert space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An approach is presented for generating energy-like functionals for linear elastic dynamic systems on a Hilbert space. The objective is to obtain a family of functionals which may be used for stability analysis of the equilibrium, i.e., Liapunov functionals. Although the energy functional, when one exists, is always a member of this family, the family is shown to exist even when an energy functional does not. Several discrete and distributed-parameter examples are presented, as are certain specific techniques for utilizing this approach.

  13. Utilizing Probability Distribution Functions and Ensembles to Forecast lonospheric and Thermosphere Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Functions and Ensembles to Forecast lonospheric and Thermosphere Space Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0265 5c. PROGRAM... weather forecasting community. They cause important geomagnetic storms that can eventually affect systems in orbit and on the ground. Therefore, the...Ionosphere Storm Forecasts . Space Weather , 13, 125129. doi: 10.1002/2014SW001125. 5. Zou, S., M. B. Moldwin, A. J. Ridley, M. J. Nicolls, A. J. Coster, E. G

  14. Exponential rational function method for space-time fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Esin; Kaplan, Melike; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, exponential rational function method is applied to obtain analytical solutions of the space-time fractional Fokas equation, the space-time fractional Zakharov Kuznetsov Benjamin Bona Mahony, and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers' equations. As a result, some exact solutions for them are successfully established. These solutions are constructed in fractional complex transform to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The fractional derivatives are described in Jumarie's modified Riemann-Liouville sense. The exact solutions obtained by the proposed method indicate that the approach is easy to implement and effective.

  15. Velocity-space tomography of the fast-ion distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    probes certain regions in velocity-space, determined by the geometry of the set-up. Exploiting this, the fast-ion distribution function can be inferred using a velocity-space tomography method. This poster contains a tomography calculated from measured spectra from three different FIDA views at ASDEX....... The number of experimentally available views can be increased by combining different types of diagnostics in a joint velocity-space tomography. Using this, up to 7 views are available at ASDEX Upgrade from 2014....

  16. Locomotor function after long-duration space flight: effects and motor learning during recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Feiveson, Alan H; Fiedler, James; Cohen, Helen; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris; Brady, Rachel; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2010-05-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight and performing Earth-bound activities must rapidly transition from the microgravity-adapted sensorimotor state to that of Earth's gravity. The goal of the current study was to assess locomotor dysfunction and recovery of function after long-duration space flight using a test of functional mobility. Eighteen International Space Station crewmembers experiencing an average flight duration of 185 days performed the functional mobility test (FMT) pre-flight and post-flight. To perform the FMT, subjects walked at a self selected pace through an obstacle course consisting of several pylons and obstacles set up on a base of 10-cm-thick, medium-density foam for a total of six trials per test session. The primary outcome measure was the time to complete the course (TCC, in seconds). To assess the long-term recovery trend of locomotor function after return from space flight, a multilevel exponential recovery model was fitted to the log-transformed TCC data. All crewmembers exhibited altered locomotor function after space flight, with a median 48% increase in the TCC. From the fitted model we calculated that a typical subject would recover to 95% of his/her pre-flight level at approximately 15 days post-flight. In addition, to assess the early motor learning responses after returning from space flight, we modeled performance over the six trials during the first post-flight session by a similar multilevel exponential relation. We found a significant positive correlation between measures of long-term recovery and early motor learning (P learning helps astronauts make rapid modifications in their motor control strategies during the first hours after landing. Further, this early motor learning appears to reinforce the adaptive realignment, facilitating re-adaptation to Earth's 1-g environment on return from space flight.

  17. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....

  18. A Langevin-Type Stochastic Differential Equation on a Space of Generalized Functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    for the equation (1.1). First we remark by * the Baire category theorem that for each T > 0, we have some natural numiber X W,"I . p, 3 O~3 and...TUPLEMnceTAry OTAIcON KELlinpr G GOU SUn . GR.ma KeIod.n hae:Wa oltoSE rce eia ’cc tive, generalized functional space, central limit theorem , system of...UNC LA.S EI FIED) exists %iniquely orn a generalized functional space on E’ which is an appropriate model for the central limit theorem for an

  19. Structuring feature space: a non-parametric method for volumetric transfer function generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Ross; Woo, Insoo; Chen, Wei; Ebert, David S

    2009-01-01

    The use of multi-dimensional transfer functions for direct volume rendering has been shown to be an effective means of extracting materials and their boundaries for both scalar and multivariate data. The most common multi-dimensional transfer function consists of a two-dimensional (2D) histogram with axes representing a subset of the feature space (e.g., value vs. value gradient magnitude), with each entry in the 2D histogram being the number of voxels at a given feature space pair. Users then assign color and opacity to the voxel distributions within the given feature space through the use of interactive widgets (e.g., box, circular, triangular selection). Unfortunately, such tools lead users through a trial-and-error approach as they assess which data values within the feature space map to a given area of interest within the volumetric space. In this work, we propose the addition of non-parametric clustering within the transfer function feature space in order to extract patterns and guide transfer function generation. We apply a non-parametric kernel density estimation to group voxels of similar features within the 2D histogram. These groups are then binned and colored based on their estimated density, and the user may interactively grow and shrink the binned regions to explore feature boundaries and extract regions of interest. We also extend this scheme to temporal volumetric data in which time steps of 2D histograms are composited into a histogram volume. A three-dimensional (3D) density estimation is then applied, and users can explore regions within the feature space across time without adjusting the transfer function at each time step. Our work enables users to effectively explore the structures found within a feature space of the volume and provide a context in which the user can understand how these structures relate to their volumetric data. We provide tools for enhanced exploration and manipulation of the transfer function, and we show that the initial

  20. BeeSpace Navigator: exploratory analysis of gene function using semantic indexing of biological literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Sarma, Moushumi; Arcoleo, David; Khetani, Radhika S; Chee, Brant; Ling, Xu; He, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zhai, ChengXiang; Schatz, Bruce

    2011-07-01

    With the rapid decrease in cost of genome sequencing, the classification of gene function is becoming a primary problem. Such classification has been performed by human curators who read biological literature to extract evidence. BeeSpace Navigator is a prototype software for exploratory analysis of gene function using biological literature. The software supports an automatic analogue of the curator process to extract functions, with a simple interface intended for all biologists. Since extraction is done on selected collections that are semantically indexed into conceptual spaces, the curation can be task specific. Biological literature containing references to gene lists from expression experiments can be analyzed to extract concepts that are computational equivalents of a classification such as Gene Ontology, yielding discriminating concepts that differentiate gene mentions from other mentions. The functions of individual genes can be summarized from sentences in biological literature, to produce results resembling a model organism database entry that is automatically computed. Statistical frequency analysis based on literature phrase extraction generates offline semantic indexes to support these gene function services. The website with BeeSpace Navigator is free and open to all; there is no login requirement at www.beespace.illinois.edu for version 4. Materials from the 2010 BeeSpace Software Training Workshop are available at www.beespace.illinois.edu/bstwmaterials.php.

  1. Can smooth LTB models mimicking the cosmological constant for the luminosity distance also satisfy the age constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2013-12-01

    The central smoothness of the functions defining a LTB solution plays a crucial role in their ability to mimic the effects of the cosmological constant. Even if non-smoothness is not physically inconsistent with the theory of general relativity, smoothness is still an important geometrical property characterizing the solution of the Einstein's equations. So far attention has been focused on models while in this paper we approach it in a more general way, investigating the implications of higher order central smoothness conditions for LTB models reproducing the luminosity distance of a Universe. Our analysis is based on a low red-shift expansion, and extends previous investigations by including also the constraint coming from the age of the Universe and re-expressing the equations for the solution of the inversion problem in a manifestly dimensionless form which makes evident the freedom to accommodate any value of as well. Higher order smoothness conditions strongly limit the number of possible solutions respect to the first order condition. Neither a or a LTB model can both satisfy the age constraint and mimic the cosmological constant for the luminosity distance. This implies that it is not necessary to include any additional observable to distinguish mathematically the theoretical predictions of a smooth LTB model from a . One difference is in the case in which the age constraint is not included and the bang function is zero, in which there is a unique solution for models but no solution for the case. Another difference is in the case in which the age constraint is not included and the bang function is not zero, in which the solution is undetermined for both and models, but the latter ones have much less residual parametric freedom. Our results imply that any LTB model able to fit luminosity distance data and satisfy the age constraint is either not mimicking exactly the red-shift space theoretical predictions or it is not smooth.

  2. Full Waveform Inversion Using Nonlinearly Smoothed Wavefields

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2017-05-26

    The lack of low frequency information in the acquired data makes full waveform inversion (FWI) conditionally converge to the accurate solution. An initial velocity model that results in data with events within a half cycle of their location in the observed data was required to converge. The multiplication of wavefields with slightly different frequencies generates artificial low frequency components. This can be effectively utilized by multiplying the wavefield with itself, which is nonlinear operation, followed by a smoothing operator to extract the artificially produced low frequency information. We construct the objective function using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefields with a global-correlation norm to properly handle the energy imbalance in the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Similar to the multi-scale strategy, we progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the multiplied wavefield to welcome higher resolution. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. Examples on the Marmousi 2 model demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed FWI method to mitigate the cycle-skipping problem in the case of a lack of low frequency information.

  3. Convexity and the Euclidean Metric of Space-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We address the reasons why the “Wick-rotated”, positive-definite, space-time metric obeys the Pythagorean theorem. An answer is proposed based on the convexity and smoothness properties of the functional spaces purporting to provide the kinematic framework of approaches to quantum gravity. We employ moduli of convexity and smoothness which are eventually extremized by Hilbert spaces. We point out the potential physical significance that functional analytical dualities play in this framework. Following the spirit of the variational principles employed in classical and quantum Physics, such Hilbert spaces dominate in a generalized functional integral approach. The metric of space-time is induced by the inner product of such Hilbert spaces.

  4. ibr: Iterative bias reduction multivariate smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengartner, Nicholas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornillon, Pierre-andre [AGRO-SUP, FRANCE; Matzner - Lober, Eric [RENNES 2, FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    Regression is a fundamental data analysis tool for relating a univariate response variable Y to a multivariate predictor X {element_of} E R{sup d} from the observations (X{sub i}, Y{sub i}), i = 1,...,n. Traditional nonparametric regression use the assumption that the regression function varies smoothly in the independent variable x to locally estimate the conditional expectation m(x) = E[Y|X = x]. The resulting vector of predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} at the observed covariates X{sub i} is called a regression smoother, or simply a smoother, because the predicted values {cflx Y}{sub i} are less variable than the original observations Y{sub i}. Linear smoothers are linear in the response variable Y and are operationally written as {cflx m} = X{sub {lambda}}Y, where S{sub {lambda}} is a n x n smoothing matrix. The smoothing matrix S{sub {lambda}} typically depends on a tuning parameter which we denote by {lambda}, and that governs the tradeoff between the smoothness of the estimate and the goodness-of-fit of the smoother to the data by controlling the effective size of the local neighborhood over which the responses are averaged. We parameterize the smoothing matrix such that large values of {lambda} are associated to smoothers that averages over larger neighborhood and produce very smooth curves, while small {lambda} are associated to smoothers that average over smaller neighborhood to produce a more wiggly curve that wants to interpolate the data. The parameter {lambda} is the bandwidth for kernel smoother, the span size for running-mean smoother, bin smoother, and the penalty factor {lambda} for spline smoother.

  5. Cell-Mediated Immune Function and Cytokine Regulation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The changes in immune function which occur during space flight potentially expose the crews to an increased risk for development of illness. Decreased cellular immune function has been repeatedly documented after space flight and confirmed during flight by in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity testing. However, correlation of immune changes with a clinically significant risk factor has not yet been performed. Our hypothesis is that space flight induces a decrease in cell-mediated immune function accompanied by a shift from a type 1 cytokine pattern (favoring cell-mediated immunity) to a type 2 cytokine pattern (favoring humoral immunity). We further hypothesize that reactivation of latent viruses will occur during space flight in association with the decreased cellular immunity. To test these hypotheses, we will determine the effects of space flight on cell-mediated immunity and viral reactivation. We will utilize delayed-type hypersensitivity testing as an in vivo measure of integrated cell-mediated immune function. The production of cytokines and immunoregulatory factors by lymphocytes and monocytes will be measured to determine whether changes in cytokine patterns are associated with the space flight-induced immune dysregulation. Correlation of antigen-specific immune changes with reactivation of latent herpes viruses will be determined by measuring peripheral levels of viral (CMV, VZV, EBV) antigen-specific T cells and comparing to the levels of EBV-infected B-cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. A comparison of cell-mediated immune function, cytokine regulation and viral reactivation will provide new insights into crew member health risks during flight.

  6. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  7. $L^{p}$-square function estimates on spaces of homogeneous type and on uniformly rectifiable sets

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Steve; Mitrea, Marius; Morris, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    The authors establish square function estimates for integral operators on uniformly rectifiable sets by proving a local T(b) theorem and applying it to show that such estimates are stable under the so-called big pieces functor. More generally, they consider integral operators associated with Ahlfors-David regular sets of arbitrary codimension in ambient quasi-metric spaces. The local T(b) theorem is then used to establish an inductive scheme in which square function estimates on so-called big pieces of an Ahlfors-David regular set are proved to be sufficient for square function estimates to hold on the entire set. Extrapolation results for L^p and Hardy space versions of these estimates are also established. Moreover, the authors prove square function estimates for integral operators associated with variable coefficient kernels, including the Schwartz kernels of pseudodifferential operators acting between vector bundles on subdomains with uniformly rectifiable boundaries on manifolds.

  8. A General System of Euler–Lagrange-Type Quadratic Functional Equations in Menger Probabilistic Non-Archimedean 2-Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of a general system of Euler-Lagrange-type quadratic functional equations in non-Archimedean 2-normed spaces and Menger probabilistic non-Archimedean-normed spaces.

  9. Topological properties of function spaces $C_k(X,2)$ over zero-dimensional metric spaces $X$

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Let $X$ be a zero-dimensional metric space and $X'$ its derived set. We prove the following assertions: (1) the space $C_k(X,2)$ is an Ascoli space iff $C_k(X,2)$ is $k_\\mathbb{R}$-space iff either $X$ is locally compact or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (2) $C_k(X,2)$ is a $k$-space iff either $X$ is a topological sum of a Polish locally compact space and a discrete space or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (3) $C_k(X,2)$ is a sequential space iff $X$ is a Pol...

  10. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2003-01-01

    Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicating...... they are crucial for protein function and thus subject to selective pressure. This means that a function prediction method based on sequence-derived features may be able to discriminate between proteins with different function even when they have highly similar structure. Also, such a method is likely to perform...... well on organisms other than the one on which it was trained. We evaluate the performance of such a method, ProtFun, which relies on protein features as its sole input, and show that the method gives similar performance for most eukaryotes and performs much better than anticipated on archaea...

  11. Non-linear shape functions over time in the space-time finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacprzyk Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a generalisation of the space-time finite element method proposed by Kączkowski in his seminal of 1970’s and early 1980’s works. Kączkowski used linear shape functions in time. The recurrence formula obtained by Kączkowski was conditionally stable. In this paper, non-linear shape functions in time are proposed.

  12. Effects of space mission factors on the morphology and function of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonova, M Yu; Kuznetsov, S L; Froemming, G R A; Muid, S; Nor-Ashikin, M N K; Otman, S; Shahir, A R M; Nawawi, H

    2013-04-01

    The structure and functions of endothelial cells after space mission were studied by electron and laser confocal microscopy, image analysis, and MTT test. The endothelial cells changed significantly (proliferative activity, size, contours, shape, distribution of mitochondria and microtubules) in comparison with controls on the Earth. These changes indicated injuries in the cytoskeleton and impairment of the barrier function of the cells, which presumably contributed to the development of endothelial dysfunction.

  13. On the scaling of functional spaces, from smart cities to cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The study of spacetime, and its role in understanding functional systems has received little attention in information science. Recent work, on the origin of universal scaling in cities and biological systems, provides an intriguing insight into the functional use of space, and its measurable effects. Cities are large information systems, with many similarities to other technological infrastructures, so the results shed new light indirectly on the scaling the expected behaviour of smart pervas...

  14. Modelling the large-scale redshift-space 3-point correlation function of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a configuration-space model of the large-scale galaxy 3-point correlation function (3PCF) based on leading-order perturbation theory and including redshift-space distortions (RSD). This model should be useful in extracting distance-scale information from the 3PCF via the baryon acoustic oscillation method. We include the first redshift-space treatment of biasing by the baryon-dark matter relative velocity. Overall, on large scales the effect of RSD is primarily a renormalization of the 3PCF that is roughly independent of both physical scale and triangle opening angle; for our adopted Ωm and bias values, the rescaling is a factor of ∼1.8. We also present an efficient scheme for computing 3PCF predictions from our model, important for allowing fast exploration of the space of cosmological parameters in future analyses.

  15. Research on the new type of multi-functional satellite system for space debris detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Linghua; Fu, Qiang; Jiang, Huilin; Xu, Xihe

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of space exploration and utilization, orbital debris increases dramatically, leading to great threat to human space activities and spacecraft security. In this paper, a new type of multi-functional space debris satellite system (MSDS) was put forward, which shared main optical system, and possessed functions of multidimensional information detection, polarized remote sensing and high rate transmission. The MSDS system can meet the requirements of detection and identification for the small orbital debris which is 1000km faraway, as well as the requirements of the data transmission by 50 Mbps to 2.5 Gbps@200-1000 km. At the same time, by the method of satellite orbital maneuver and attitude adjusting, the orbital debris information that is real-time, complex and refined, allweather can be acquired and transmitted by the new system. Such new type of multifunctional satellite system can provide important and effective technology for international orbital debris detection.

  16. Dynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Kloeveringe (Gommert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSmooth muscle can economically maintain tonus for a long time and in many organs, its purpose is to maintain organ dimensions. It is however relatively slow and also inefficient as far as mechanical work is concerned. Smooth muscle is found in the majority of organs in the human body. It

  17. On rarely generalized regular fuzzy continuous functions in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appachi Vadivel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of rarely generalized regular fuzzy continuous functions in the sense of A.P. Sostak's and Ramadan is introduced. Some interesting properties and characterizations of them are investigated. Also, some applications to fuzzy compact spaces are established.

  18. Functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables. A generalized consumable management concept was developed for application to advanced spacecraft. The subsystems and related consumables selected for inclusion in the consumables management system are: (1) propulsion, (2) power generation, and (3) environmental and life support.

  19. On the stability of pexider functional equation in non-archimedean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaezpour Seiyed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the Hyers-Ulam stability of the Pexider functional equation in a non-Archimedean space is investigated, where σ is an involution in the domain of the given mapping f. MSC 2010:26E30, 39B52, 39B72, 46S10

  20. New implementation of reproducing kernel Hilbert space method for solving a class of functional integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Javadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply the new implementation of reproducing kernel Hilbert space method to give the approximate solution to some functional integral equations of the second kind. To show its effectiveness and convenience, some examples are given.

  1. On non-absolute functional Volterra integral equations and impulsive differential equations in ordered Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Seikkala

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we derive existence and comparison results for discontinuous non-absolute functional integral equations of Volterra type in an ordered Banach space which has a regular order cone. The obtained results are then applied to first-order impulsive differential equations.

  2. Nonlinear approximation of an ACQ-functional equation in nan-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, using the fixed point and direct methods, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of an additive-cubic-quartic functional equation in NAN-spaces. Mathematics Subject Classification (2010 39B52·47H10·26E30·46S10·47S10

  3. Stability of a Functional Equation Deriving from Quadratic and Additive Functions in Non-Archimedean Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Bodaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the general solution of the generalized mixed additive and quadratic functional equation fx+my+fx−my=2fx−2m2fy+m2f2y, m is even; fx+y+fx−y−2m2−1fy+m2−1f2y, m is odd, for a positive integer m. We establish the Hyers-Ulam stability for these functional equations in non-Archimedean normed spaces when m is an even positive integer or m=3.

  4. Autophagic regulation of smooth muscle cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K. Salabei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy regulates the metabolism, survival, and function of numerous cell types, including those comprising the cardiovascular system. In the vasculature, changes in autophagy have been documented in atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions and in hypertensive vessels. The biology of vascular smooth muscle cells appears particularly sensitive to changes in the autophagic program. Recent evidence indicates that stimuli or stressors evoked during the course of vascular disease can regulate autophagic activity, resulting in modulation of VSMC phenotype and viability. In particular, certain growth factors and cytokines, oxygen tension, and pharmacological drugs have been shown to trigger autophagy in smooth muscle cells. Importantly, each of these stimuli has a redox component, typically associated with changes in the abundance of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, or lipid species. Collective findings support the hypothesis that autophagy plays a critical role in vascular remodeling by regulating smooth muscle cell phenotype transitions and by influencing the cellular response to stress. In this graphical review, we summarize current knowledge on the role of autophagy in the biology of the smooth muscle cell in (pathophysiology.

  5. Leading effect of visual plant characteristics for functional uses of green spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Şat Güngör

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials have the ability to lead the people’s functional use purposes with their visual characteristics. In this study, we examined whether the functional use follows the plant materials’ visual characteristics like a big size tree’s shade use. As visual characteristics of the plants; size, texture, color, and planting design basics are considered. Six urban green spaces determined for this experimental field study in the center of Kırklareli Province, and then a site survey implemented to determine apparent visual characteristics of the plants and matched functional uses with their visual characteristics. Five functional use types determined according to the visual plant characteristics (sitting and resting, pedestrian transition, meeting point, walking and recreational uses. Best representing four photos of each green space’s plant materials are used in photo questionnaires. 89 photo questionnaires were conducted. Five functional use type options indicated in the questionnaire for each green space and one of the options were coinciding with the visual plant characteristics of that green space according to the site survey results. For the analyses of questionnaires; SPSS 17 statistical packages were used. As result; the hypothesis was confirmed by coinciding statistical analyses results with the site survey results.

  6. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  7. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina S Salvat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  8. Abnormalities in personal space and parietal–frontal function in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne J. Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is associated with subtle abnormalities in day-to-day social behaviors, including a tendency in some patients to “keep their distance” from others in physical space. The neural basis of this abnormality, and related changes in social functioning, is unknown. Here we examined, in schizophrenic patients and healthy control subjects, the functioning of a parietal–frontal network involved in monitoring the space immediately surrounding the body (“personal space”. Using fMRI, we found that one region of this network, the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (DIPS, was hyper-responsive in schizophrenic patients to face stimuli appearing to move towards the subjects, intruding into personal space. This hyper-responsivity was predicted both by the size of personal space (which was abnormally elevated in the schizophrenia group and the severity of negative symptoms. In contrast, in a second study, the activity of two lower-level visual areas that send information to DIPS (the fusiform face area and middle temporal area was normal in schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest that changes in parietal–frontal networks that support the sensory-guided initiation of behavior, including actions occurring in the space surrounding the body, contribute to social dysfunction and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  9. Functional Requirements for Onboard Management of Space Shuttle Consumables. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    This report documents the results of the study "Functional Requirements for Onboard Management of Space Shuttle Consumables." The study was conducted for the Mission Planning and Analysis Division of the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, between 3 July 1972 and 16 November 1973. The overall study program objective was two-fold. The first objective was to define a generalized consumable management concept which is applicable to advanced spacecraft. The second objective was to develop a specific consumables management concept for the Space Shuttle vehicle and to generate the functional requirements for the onboard portion of that concept. Consumables management is the process of controlling or influencing the usage of expendable materials involved in vehicle subsystem operation. The report consists of two volumes. Volume I presents a description of the study activities related to general approaches for developing consumable management, concepts for advanced spacecraft applications, and functional requirements for a Shuttle consumables management concept. Volume II presents a detailed description of the onboard consumables management concept proposed for use on the Space Shuttle.

  10. Metropolis-Hastings Algorithms in Function Space for Bayesian Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ernst, Oliver

    2015-01-07

    We consider Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods adapted to a Hilbert space setting. Such algorithms occur in Bayesian inverse problems where the solution is a probability measure on a function space according to which one would like to integrate or sample. We focus on Metropolis-Hastings algorithms and, in particular, we introduce and analyze a generalization of the existing pCN-proposal. This new proposal allows to exploit the geometry or anisotropy of the target measure which in turn might improve the statistical efficiency of the corresponding MCMC method. Numerical experiments for a real-world problem confirm the improvement.

  11. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping

    2015-06-24

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  12. A model of head-related transfer functions based on a state-space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Norman Herkamp

    This dissertation develops and validates a novel state-space method for binaural auditory display. Binaural displays seek to immerse a listener in a 3D virtual auditory scene with a pair of headphones. The challenge for any binaural display is to compute the two signals to supply to the headphones. The present work considers a general framework capable of synthesizing a wide variety of auditory scenes. The framework models collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) simultaneously. This framework improves the flexibility of contemporary displays, but it also compounds the steep computational cost of the display. The cost is reduced dramatically by formulating the collection of HRTFs in the state-space and employing order-reduction techniques to design efficient approximants. Order-reduction techniques based on the Hankel-operator are found to yield accurate low-cost approximants. However, the inter-aural time difference (ITD) of the HRTFs degrades the time-domain response of the approximants. Fortunately, this problem can be circumvented by employing a state-space architecture that allows the ITD to be modeled outside of the state-space. Accordingly, three state-space architectures are considered. Overall, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO) architecture yields the best compromise between performance and flexibility. The state-space approximants are evaluated both empirically and psychoacoustically. An array of truncated FIR filters is used as a pragmatic reference system for comparison. For a fixed cost bound, the state-space systems yield lower approximation error than FIR arrays for D>10, where D is the number of directions in the HRTF collection. A series of headphone listening tests are also performed to validate the state-space approach, and to estimate the minimum order N of indiscriminable approximants. For D = 50, the state-space systems yield order thresholds less than half those of the FIR arrays. Depending upon the stimulus uncertainty, a

  13. Joint entropy for space and spatial frequency domains estimated from psychometric functions of achromatic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Vladímir de Aquino; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2014-01-01

    We used psychometric functions to estimate the joint entropy for space discrimination and spatial frequency discrimination. Space discrimination was taken as discrimination of spatial extent. Seven subjects were tested. Gábor functions comprising unidimensionalsinusoidal gratings (0.4, 2, and 10 cpd) and bidimensionalGaussian envelopes (1°) were used as reference stimuli. The experiment comprised the comparison between reference and test stimulithat differed in grating's spatial frequency or envelope's standard deviation. We tested 21 different envelope's standard deviations around the reference standard deviation to study spatial extent discrimination and 19 different grating's spatial frequencies around the reference spatial frequency to study spatial frequency discrimination. Two series of psychometric functions were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 100% stimulus contrast. The psychometric function data points for spatial extent discrimination or spatial frequency discrimination were fitted with Gaussian functions using the least square method, and the spatial extent and spatial frequency entropies were estimated from the standard deviation of these Gaussian functions. Then, joint entropy was obtained by multiplying the square root of space extent entropy times the spatial frequency entropy. We compared our results to the theoretical minimum for unidimensional Gábor functions, 1/4π or 0.0796. At low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts, joint entropy reached levels below the theoretical minimum, suggesting non-linear interactions between two or more visual mechanisms. We concluded that non-linear interactions of visual pathways, such as the M and P pathways, could explain joint entropy values below the theoretical minimum at low and intermediate spatial frequencies and high contrasts. These non-linear interactions might be at work at intermediate and high contrasts at all spatial frequencies once there was a substantial decrease in joint

  14. Silk threads function as an 'adhesive cleaner' for nest space in a social spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Miki; Sahara, Ken; Saito, Yutaka

    2011-06-07

    Individuals of the social spider mite Stigmaeopsis longus live communally in narrow, humid nests made from silk threads and display nest sanitation behaviour through the coordinated deposition of faeces. We used artificial dust to experimentally determine that females of this species use silk threads to perform regular cleaning of the nest space and eggs. We first learned that silk-weaving behaviour is not a by-product of nest building (nest reinforcement); rather, it is actively performed as a function of cleaning the living space and eggs. Furthermore, we determined the effectiveness of the attending females by artificially manipulating their natural habitat, which is clearly connected to the cleaning behaviour by parental females. As such, we have uncovered an extraordinary new role of silk threads as devices for cleaning the nest space and/or eggs. These results strongly indicate that special adaptations for maintaining clean habitats are essential for animals to evolve aggregative social lives.

  15. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T{sup ⋆}(G/H) spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ramgoolam, Sanjaye [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-05

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  16. Smooth Sailing with Contract Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to make the contract services relationship work smoothly for educational facilities. Covers topics of food, child care, and transportation services, along with a brief explanation of the benefits of outsourcing on-campus amenities. (GR)

  17. on gastro intestinal smooth muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    , Kaduna State. Correspondence author: am.huguma@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The effects of the aqueous leaf extract of Combretum micranthum were studied on gastro intestinal smooth muscle of rodents. The extract was screened using ...

  18. Aging and gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil N; Patil, Suresh B

    2004-12-01

    The present review is an attempt to put into perspective the available information on the putative changes in cellular mechanisms of the contractile properties of the aging gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. Information on smooth muscle of the GI tract is scanty. Smooth muscle cells from old rats (32 months old) exhibit limited cell length distribution and diminished contractility. The observed reduced contractile response may be due to the effect of aging on signal transduction pathways, especially an inhibition of the tyrosine kinase-Src kinase pathway, a reduced activation of the PKCalpha pathway, a reduced association of contractile proteins (HSP27-tropomyosin, HSP27-actin, and actin-myosin). Levels of HSP27-phosphorylation are also reduced compared to adult rats. Regulation of GI motility is a complex mechanism of signal transduction and interaction of signaling and contractile proteins. It is suggested that further studies to elucidate the role of HSP27 in aging smooth muscle of the GI tract are needed.

  19. Inflation and Topological Phase Transition Driven by Exotic Smoothness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss a model which describes the cause of inflation by a topological transition. The guiding principle is the choice of an exotic smoothness structure for the space-time. Here we consider a space-time with topology S3×ℝ. In case of an exotic S3×ℝ, there is a change in the spatial topology from a 3-sphere to a homology 3-sphere which can carry a hyperbolic structure. From the physical point of view, we will discuss the path integral for the Einstein-Hilbert action with respect to a decomposition of the space-time. The inclusion of the boundary terms produces fermionic contributions to the partition function. The expectation value of an area (with respect to some surface shows an exponential increase; that is, we obtain inflationary behavior. We will calculate the amount of this increase to be a topological invariant. Then we will describe this transition by an effective model, the Starobinski or R2 model which is consistent with the current measurement of the Planck satellite. The spectral index and other observables are also calculated.

  20. Advanced Software Techniques for Data Management Systems. Volume 2: Space Shuttle Flight Executive System: Functional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A functional design of software executive system for the space shuttle avionics computer is presented. Three primary functions of the executive are emphasized in the design: task management, I/O management, and configuration management. The executive system organization is based on the applications software and configuration requirements established during the Phase B definition of the Space Shuttle program. Although the primary features of the executive system architecture were derived from Phase B requirements, it was specified for implementation with the IBM 4 Pi EP aerospace computer and is expected to be incorporated into a breadboard data management computer system at NASA Manned Spacecraft Center's Information system division. The executive system was structured for internal operation on the IBM 4 Pi EP system with its external configuration and applications software assumed to the characteristic of the centralized quad-redundant avionics systems defined in Phase B.

  1. Smooth Nonparametric Bernstein Vine Copulas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß, Gregor; Scheffer, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use nonparametric Bernstein copulas as bivariate pair-copulas in high-dimensional vine models. The resulting smooth and nonparametric vine copulas completely obviate the error-prone need for choosing the pair-copulas from parametric copula families. By means of a simulation study and an empirical analysis of financial market data, we show that our proposed smooth nonparametric vine copula model is superior to competing parametric vine models calibrated via Akaike's Information C...

  2. Radar data smoothing filter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. V.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of the current Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) data smoothing techniques for a variety of radars and payloads is examined. Alternative data reduction techniques are given and recommendations are made for improving radar data processing at WFF. A data adaptive algorithm, based on Kalman filtering and smoothing techniques, is also developed for estimating payload trajectories above the atmosphere from noisy time varying radar data. This algorithm is tested and verified using radar tracking data from WFF.

  3. First-order selfadjoint singular differential operators in a Hilbert space of vector functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pembe Ipek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we give a representation of all selfadjoint extensions of the minimal operator generated by first-order linear symmetric multipoint singular differential expression, with operator coefficient in the direct sum of Hilbert spaces of vector-functions defined at the semi-infinite intervals. To this end we use the Calkin-Gorbachuk method. Finally, the geometry of spectrum set of such extensions is researched.

  4. Existence results for nondensely defined semilinear functional differential inclusions in Fréchet spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Henderson

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a recent Frigon nonlinear alternative for contractive multivalued maps in Fréchet spaces, combined with semigroup theory, is used to investigate the existence of integral solutions for first order semilinear functional differential inclusions. An application to a control problem is studied. We assume that the linear part of the differential inclusion is a nondensely defined operator and satisfies the Hille-Yosida condition.

  5. Orthogonal Stability of an Additive-quartic Functional Equation in Non-Archimedean Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Azadi Kenary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using fixed point method, we prove the Hyers-Ulam stability of the orthogonally additive-quartic functional equation f(2x+y+ f(2x-y=4 f(x+y+ 4 f(x-y + 10 f(x + 14f(-x - 3 f(y-3f(-y for all $x, y$ with $xperp y$, in non-Archimedean Banach spaces. Here $perp$ is the orthogonality in the sense of Rätz.

  6. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  7. Exotic smoothness and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asselmeyer-Maluga, T, E-mail: torsten.asselmeyer-maluga@dlr.d [German Aerospace Center, Berlin, Germany and Loyola University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2010-08-21

    Since the first work on exotic smoothness in physics, it was folklore to assume a direct influence of exotic smoothness to quantum gravity. Thus, the negative result of Duston (2009 arXiv:0911.4068) was a surprise. A closer look into the semi-classical approach uncovered the implicit assumption of a close connection between geometry and smoothness structure. But both structures, geometry and smoothness, are independent of each other. In this paper we calculate the 'smoothness structure' part of the path integral in quantum gravity assuming that the 'sum over geometries' is already given. For that purpose we use the knot surgery of Fintushel and Stern applied to the class E(n) of elliptic surfaces. We mainly focus our attention to the K3 surfaces E(2). Then we assume that every exotic smoothness structure of the K3 surface can be generated by knot or link surgery in the manner of Fintushel and Stern. The results are applied to the calculation of expectation values. Here we discuss the two observables, volume and Wilson loop, for the construction of an exotic 4-manifold using the knot 5{sub 2} and the Whitehead link Wh. By using Mostow rigidity, we obtain a topological contribution to the expectation value of the volume. Furthermore, we obtain a justification of area quantization.

  8. Spectral synthesis of diagonal operators and representing systems for the space of entire functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, Steven M.; Wade, J. Gordon

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we study continuous linear operators on spaces of functions analytic on disks in the complex plane having as eigenvectors the monomials zn whose associated eigenvalues [lambda]n are distinct. In particular, we show that under mild conditions, such a diagonal operator has non-spectral invariant subspaces (that is, closed invariant subspaces which are not the closed linear span of collections of monomials) if and only if every entire function of a particular growth rate is representable as a generalized Dirichlet series .

  9. Intermediate Filaments as Organizers of Cellular Space: How They Affect Mitochondrial Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schwarz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments together with actin filaments and microtubules form the cytoskeleton, which is a complex and highly dynamic 3D network. Intermediate filaments are the major mechanical stress protectors but also affect cell growth, differentiation, signal transduction, and migration. Using intermediate filament-mitochondrial crosstalk as a prominent example, this review emphasizes the importance of intermediate filaments as crucial organizers of cytoplasmic space to support these functions. We summarize observations in different mammalian cell types which demonstrate how intermediate filaments influence mitochondrial morphology, subcellular localization, and function through direct and indirect interactions and how perturbations of these interactions may lead to human diseases.

  10. Variational Mesh Denoising Using Total Variation and Piecewise Constant Function Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayan Zhang; Chunlin Wu; Juyong Zhang; Jiansong Deng

    2015-07-01

    Mesh surface denoising is a fundamental problem in geometry processing. The main challenge is to remove noise while preserving sharp features (such as edges and corners) and preventing generating false edges. We propose in this paper to combine total variation (TV) and piecewise constant function space for variational mesh denoising. We first give definitions of piecewise constant function spaces and associated operators. A variational mesh denoising method will then be presented by combining TV and piecewise constant function space. It is proved that, the solution of the variational problem (the key part of the method) is in some sense continuously dependent on its parameter, indicating that the solution is robust to small perturbations of this parameter. To solve the variational problem, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm (with an additional algorithmic parameter) based on variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian method, each step of which has closed form solution. Our denoising method is discussed and compared to several typical existing methods in various aspects. Experimental results show that our method outperforms all the compared methods for both CAD and non-CAD meshes at reasonable costs. It can preserve different levels of features well, and prevent generating false edges in most cases, even with the parameters evaluated by our estimation formulae.

  11. A robotic system for automation of logistics functions on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. C.; Purves, R. B.; Hosier, R. N.; Krein, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Spacecraft inventory management is currently performed by the crew and as systems become more complex, increased crew time will be required to perform routine logistics activities. If future spacecraft are to function effectively as research labs and production facilities, the efficient use of crew time as a limited resource for performing mission functions must be employed. The use of automation and robotics technology, such as automated warehouse and materials handling functions, can free the crew from many logistics tasks and provide more efficient use of crew time. Design criteria for a Space Station Automated Logistics Inventory Management System is focused on through the design and demonstration of a mobile two armed terrestrial robot. The system functionally represents a 0 gravity automated inventory management system and the problems associated with operating in such an environment. Features of the system include automated storage and retrieval, item recognition, two armed robotic manipulation, and software control of all inventory item transitions and queries.

  12. Photometric comparison of smooth regions on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with other cometary nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoduan; Li, Jian-Yang; Belton, Michael J. S.

    2017-10-01

    Correlating Rosetta data with previous space mission data enables us to generalize the geological evolutionary process from a single comet to multiple JFCs, a necessary first step towards understanding the geological evolution of JFCs based on mission data. The ESA/NASA’s Rosetta escorted and observed Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from August 2014 to September 2016 along its orbit around the Sun from 4 AU pre-perihelion to 4 AU post-perihelion. The images of 67P from OSIRIS-Narrow Angle Camera and Wide Angle camera enable us to do detailed photometric comparison with models we used to study the surface of other comet nuclei, Comet 19P/Borrelly(by Deep Space), Comet 81P/Wild 2(by Stardust), Comet 9P/Tempel 1(by Deep Impact and Stardust-NExT) and Comet 103P/Hartley 2(by Deep Impact eXtended Investigation). We use disk-resolved photometry as a tool to study the geological evolution of cometary nuclei. We characterized smooth areas on 67P, and correlate them to the smooth areas on other comets. We performed an initial identification and preliminary characterization of smooth areas on 67P with Rosetta OSIRIS images, measuring their albedos, colors, phase functions, and compare them with those on other cometary nuclei, putting 67P into the context of other cometary nuclei.

  13. Space-functional proportions and relations of the settlements in the municipality of Pećinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajić Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Space-functional proportions and relations, among settlments, is the starting point in planning the development of community, region or state. This work treats the elementary characteristics of space-functional proportions and relations of the settelments in the municipality of Pećinci, in the fact the hijerarchy, spacely and historycal characteristics in the settelment net of community Pećinci.

  14. Smooth B-train

    CERN Document Server

    Bohl, T

    2017-01-01

    The transmission of the208Pb82+Early Beam between thetime of Start Ramp up to transition of the LHCION cyclesin the SPS has been improved in 2016 by optimising thetransfer function of the Frequency Program Data used forthe generation of the Master DDS output.

  15. Semiparametric smoothing of discrete failure time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prakash N; Bagkavos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    An estimator of the hazard rate function from discrete failure time data is obtained by semiparametric smoothing of the (nonsmooth) maximum likelihood estimator, which is achieved by repeated multiplication of a Markov chain transition-type matrix. This matrix is constructed so as to have a given standard discrete parametric hazard rate model, termed the vehicle model, as its stationary hazard rate. As with the discrete density estimation case, the proposed estimator gives improved performance when the vehicle model is a good one and otherwise provides a nonparametric method comparable to the only purely nonparametric smoother discussed in the literature. The proposed semiparametric smoothing approach is then extended to hazard models with covariates and is illustrated by applications to simulated and real data sets. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tame geometry with application in smooth analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yomdin, Yosef

    2004-01-01

    The Morse-Sard theorem is a rather subtle result and the interplay between the high-order analytic structure of the mappings involved and their geometry rarely becomes apparent. The main reason is that the classical Morse-Sard theorem is basically qualitative. This volume gives a proof and also an "explanation" of the quantitative Morse-Sard theorem and related results, beginning with the study of polynomial (or tame) mappings. The quantitative questions, answered by a combination of the methods of real semialgebraic and tame geometry and integral geometry, turn out to be nontrivial and highly productive. The important advantage of this approach is that it allows the separation of the role of high differentiability and that of algebraic geometry in a smooth setting: all the geometrically relevant phenomena appear already for polynomial mappings. The geometric properties obtained are "stable with respect to approximation", and can be imposed on smooth functions via polynomial approximation.

  17. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation--a personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julie H; Campbell, Gordon R

    2012-08-01

    The idea that smooth muscle cells can exist in multiple phenotypic states depending on the functional demands placed upon them has been around for >5 decades. However, much of the literature today refers to only recent articles, giving the impression that it is a new idea. At the same time, the current trend is to delve deeper and deeper into transcriptional regulation of smooth muscle genes, and much of the work describing the change in biology of the cells in the different phenotypic states does not appear to be known. This loss of historical perspective regarding the biology of smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is what the current article has tried to mitigate.

  18. Regular capacities on metrizable spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Cherkovskyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that for a (not necessarily compact metric space: the metrics on the space of capacities in the sense of Zarichnyi and Prokhorov are equal; completeness of the space of capacities is equivalent to completeness of the original space. It is shown that for the capacities on metrizable spaces the properties of $\\omega$-smoothness and of $\\tau$-smoothness are equivalent precisely on the separable spaces, and the properties of $\\omega$-smoothness and of regularity w.r.t. some (then w.r.t. any admissible metric are equivalent precisely on the compact spaces.

  19. Approximation of Mixed-Type Functional Equations in Menger PN-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eshaghi Gordji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be vector spaces. We show that a function f:X→Y with f(0=0 satisfies Δf(x1,…,xn=0 for all x1,…,xn∈X, if and only if there exist functions C:X×X×X→Y, B:X×X→Y and A:X→Y such that f(x=C(x,x,x+B(x,x+A(x for all x∈X, where the function C is symmetric for each fixed one variable and is additive for fixed two variables, B is symmetric bi-additive, A is additive and Δf(x1,…,xn=∑k=2n(∑i1=2k∑i2=i1+1k+1⋯∑in-k+1=in-k+1nf(∑i=1,i≠i1,…,in-k+1nxi-∑r=1n-k+1xir+f(∑i=1nxi-2n-2∑i=2n(f(x1+xi+f(x1-xi+2n-1(n-2f(x1 (n∈N, n≥3 for all x1,…,xn∈X. Furthermore, we solve the stability problem for a given function f satisfying Δf(x1,…,xn=0, in the Menger probabilistic normed spaces.

  20. Space Flight and Manual Control: Implications for Sensorimotor Function on Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Kornilova, Ludmila; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Parker, Donald E.; Leigh, R. John; Kozlovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Control of vehicles, and other complex mechanical motion systems, is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS) that requires good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial (and, in some cases, geographic) orientation perception, and cognitive function. Existing evidence from space flight research (Paloski et.al., 2008, Clement and Reschke 2008, Reschke et al., 2007) demonstrates that the function of each of these systems is altered by removing (and subsequently by reintroducing) a gravitational field that can be sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, navigation, and coordination of movements. Furthermore, much of the operational performance data collected as a function of space flight has not been available for independent analysis, and those data that have been reviewed are equivocal owing to uncontrolled environmental and/or engineering factors. Thus, our current understanding, when it comes to manual control, is limited primarily to a review of those situations where manual control has been a factor. One of the simplest approaches to the manual control problem is to review shuttle landing data. See the Figure below for those landing for which we have Shuttle velocities over the runway threshold.

  1. Functional preservation of vascular smooth muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. C.; Hutchins, P. M.; Kimzey, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic and cellular feedback relationships operating to effect the vascular decompensatory modifications were examined to reveal procedures for implementing protective measures guarding against vascular collapse when returning from a weightless environment to that of the earth's gravity. The surgical procedures for preparing the rat cremaster, and the fixation methods are described. Abstracts of publications resulting from this research are included.

  2. Convergence Rates for Multivariate Smoothing Spline Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    that h,g e C,(R d ). Then the product differentiation rule followed by Cauchy-Schwarz yields (4.7) J 1(1 - n )D hg)j(tS1)dt 4 d n f ID (hg)(t(B])Idt...a (t’,)I dtdr -C G 2 al9p AaI(p 101l-d X An application of the product differentiation rule, Assumption 3, and Sobolev’s inequality yields (4.9a) IG

  3. Numerical optimization in Hilbert space using inexact function and gradient evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard G.

    1989-01-01

    Trust region algorithms provide a robust iterative technique for solving non-convex unstrained optimization problems, but in many instances it is prohibitively expensive to compute high accuracy function and gradient values for the method. Of particular interest are inverse and parameter estimation problems, since function and gradient evaluations involve numerically solving large systems of differential equations. A global convergence theory is presented for trust region algorithms in which neither function nor gradient values are known exactly. The theory is formulated in a Hilbert space setting so that it can be applied to variational problems as well as the finite dimensional problems normally seen in trust region literature. The conditions concerning allowable error are remarkably relaxed: relative errors in the gradient error condition is automatically satisfied if the error is orthogonal to the gradient approximation. A technique for estimating gradient error and improving the approximation is also presented.

  4. Six-point remainder function in multi-Regge-kinematics: an efficient approach in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Adlershof, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sprenger, Martin [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-10

    Starting from the known all-order expressions for the BFKL eigenvalue and impact factor, we establish a formalism allowing the direct calculation of the six-point remainder function in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in momentum space to — in principle — all orders in perturbation theory. Based upon identities which relate different integrals contributing to the inverse Fourier-Mellin transform recursively, the formalism allows to easily access the full remainder function in multi-Regge kinematics up to 7 loops and up to 10 loops in the fourth logarithmic order. Using the formalism, we prove the all-loop formula for the leading logarithmic approximation proposed by Pennington and investigate the behavior of several newly calculated functions.

  5. Precision Measurement of the Position-Space Wave Functions of Gravitationally Bound Ultracold Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kamiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity is the most familiar force at our natural length scale. However, it is still exotic from the view point of particle physics. The first experimental study of quantum effects under gravity was performed using a cold neutron beam in 1975. Following this, an investigation of gravitationally bound quantum states using ultracold neutrons was started in 2002. This quantum bound system is now well understood, and one can use it as a tunable tool to probe gravity. In this paper, we review a recent measurement of position-space wave functions of such gravitationally bound states and discuss issues related to this analysis, such as neutron loss models in a thin neutron guide, the formulation of phase space quantum mechanics, and UCN position sensitive detectors. The quantum modulation of neutron bound states measured in this experiment shows good agreement with the prediction from quantum mechanics.

  6. The first cohomology of the mapping class group with coefficients in algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Villemoes, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Consider a compact surface of genus at least two. We prove that the first cohomology group of the mapping class group with coefficients in the space of algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space vanishes. In the genus one case, this cohomology group is infinite dimensional.......Consider a compact surface of genus at least two. We prove that the first cohomology group of the mapping class group with coefficients in the space of algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space vanishes. In the genus one case, this cohomology group is infinite dimensional....

  7. Progress in smooth particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, C.A.; Dilts, G.A.; Mandell, D.A.; Crotzer, L.A.; Knapp, C.E.

    1998-07-01

    Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshless, Lagrangian numerical method for hydrodynamics calculations where calculational elements are fuzzy particles which move according to the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Each particle carries local values of density, temperature, pressure and other hydrodynamic parameters. A major advantage of SPH is that it is meshless, thus large deformation calculations can be easily done with no connectivity complications. Interface positions are known and there are no problems with advecting quantities through a mesh that typical Eulerian codes have. These underlying SPH features make fracture physics easy and natural and in fact, much of the applications work revolves around simulating fracture. Debris particles from impacts can be easily transported across large voids with SPH. While SPH has considerable promise, there are some problems inherent in the technique that have so far limited its usefulness. The most serious problem is the well known instability in tension leading to particle clumping and numerical fracture. Another problem is that the SPH interpolation is only correct when particles are uniformly spaced a half particle apart leading to incorrect strain rates, accelerations and other quantities for general particle distributions. SPH calculations are also sensitive to particle locations. The standard artificial viscosity treatment in SPH leads to spurious viscosity in shear flows. This paper will demonstrate solutions for these problems that they and others have been developing. The most promising is to replace the SPH interpolant with the moving least squares (MLS) interpolant invented by Lancaster and Salkauskas in 1981. SPH and MLS are closely related with MLS being essentially SPH with corrected particle volumes. When formulated correctly, JLS is conservative, stable in both compression and tension, does not have the SPH boundary problems and is not sensitive to particle placement. The other approach to

  8. On the thermodynamics of smooth muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhand, Jonas; McMeeking, Robert M.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2016-09-01

    Cell function is based on many dynamically complex networks of interacting biochemical reactions. Enzymes may increase the rate of only those reactions that are thermodynamically consistent. In this paper we specifically treat the contraction of smooth muscle cells from the continuum thermodynamics point of view by considering them as an open system where matter passes through the cell membrane. We systematically set up a well-known four-state kinetic model for the cross-bridge interaction of actin and myosin in smooth muscle, where the transition between each state is driven by forward and reverse reactions. Chemical, mechanical and energy balance laws are provided in local forms, while energy balance is also formulated in the more convenient temperature form. We derive the local (non-negative) production of entropy from which we deduce the reduced entropy inequality and the constitutive equations for the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, the heat flux, the ion and molecular flux and the entropy. One example for smooth muscle contraction is analyzed in more detail in order to provide orientation within the established general thermodynamic framework. In particular the stress evolution, heat generation, muscle shorting rate and a condition for muscle cooling are derived.

  9. Myocardin-dependent activation of the CArG box-rich smooth muscle gamma-actin gene: preferential utilization of a single CArG element through functional association with the NKX3.1 homeodomain protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Taurin, Sebastien; Sethakorn, Nan; Long, Xiaochun; Imamura, Masaaki; Wang, Da-Zhi; Zimmer, Warren E; Dulin, Nickolai O; Miano, Joseph M

    2009-11-20

    Serum response factor (SRF) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that binds a 10-bp element known as the CArG box, located in the proximal regulatory region of hundreds of target genes. SRF activates target genes in a cell- and context-dependent manner by assembling unique combinations of cofactors over CArG elements. One particularly strong SRF cofactor, myocardin (MYOCD), acts as a component of a molecular switch for smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation by activating cytoskeletal and contractile genes harboring SRF-binding CArG elements. Here we report that the human ACTG2 promoter, containing four conserved CArG elements, displays SMC-specific basal activity and is highly induced in the presence of MYOCD. Stable transfection of a non-SMC cell type with Myocd elicits elevations in endogenous Actg2 mRNA. Gel shift and luciferase assays reveal a strong bias for MYOCD-dependent transactivation through CArG2 of the human ACTG2 promoter. Substitution of CArG2 with other CArGs, including a consensus CArG element, fails to reconstitute full MYOCD-dependent ACTG2 promoter stimulation. Mutation of an adjacent binding site for NKX3.1 reduces MYOCD-dependent transactivation of the ACTG2 promoter. Co-immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase pulldown, and luciferase assays show a physical and functional association between MYOCD and NKX3.1; no such functional relationship is evident with the related NKX2.5 transcription factor despite its interaction with MYOCD. These results demonstrate the ability of MYOCD to discriminate among several juxtaposed CArG elements, presumably through its novel partnership with NKX3.1, to optimally transactivate the human ACTG2 promoter.

  10. Exploring Protein Dynamics Space: The Dynasome as the Missing Link between Protein Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensen, Ulf; Meyer, Tim; Haas, Jürgen; Rex, René; Vriend, Gert; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are usually described and classified according to amino acid sequence, structure or function. Here, we develop a minimally biased scheme to compare and classify proteins according to their internal mobility patterns. This approach is based on the notion that proteins not only fold into recurring structural motifs but might also be carrying out only a limited set of recurring mobility motifs. The complete set of these patterns, which we tentatively call the dynasome, spans a multi-dimensional space with axes, the dynasome descriptors, characterizing different aspects of protein dynamics. The unique dynamic fingerprint of each protein is represented as a vector in the dynasome space. The difference between any two vectors, consequently, gives a reliable measure of the difference between the corresponding protein dynamics. We characterize the properties of the dynasome by comparing the dynamics fingerprints obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of 112 proteins but our approach is, in principle, not restricted to any specific source of data of protein dynamics. We conclude that: 1. the dynasome consists of a continuum of proteins, rather than well separated classes. 2. For the majority of proteins we observe strong correlations between structure and dynamics. 3. Proteins with similar function carry out similar dynamics, which suggests a new method to improve protein function annotation based on protein dynamics. PMID:22606222

  11. Upsilon-quaternion splines for the smooth interpolation of orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory M

    2004-01-01

    We present a new method for smoothly interpolating orientation matrices. It is based upon quaternions and a particular construction of upsilon-spline curves. The new method has tension parameters and variable knot (time) spacing which both prove to be effective in designing and controlling key frame animations.

  12. Visuotactile interaction even in far sagittal space in older adults with decreased gait and balance functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Wataru; Honda, Keito; Furuta, Kento; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    Spatial proximity of signals from different sensory modalities is known to be a crucial factor in facilitating efficient multisensory processing in young adults. However, recent studies have demonstrated that older adults exhibit strong visuotactile interactions even when the visual stimuli were presented in a spatially disparate position from a tactile stimulus. This suggests that visuotactile peripersonal space differs between older and younger adults. In the present study, we investigated to what extent peripersonal space expands in the sagittal direction and whether this expansion was linked to the decline in sensorimotor functions in older adults. Vibrotactile stimuli were delivered either to the left or right index finger, while visual stimuli were presented at a distance of 5 cm (near), 37.5 cm (middle), or 70 cm (far) from each finger. The participants had to respond rapidly to a randomized sequence of unimodal (visual or tactile) and simultaneous visuotactile targets (i.e., a redundant target paradigm). Sensorimotor functions were independently assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and postural stability tests. Results showed that reaction times to the visuotactile bimodal stimuli were significantly faster than those to the unimodal stimuli, irrespective of age group [younger adults: 22.0 ± 0.6 years, older adults: 75.0 ± 3.3 years (mean ± SD)] and target distance. Of importance, a race model analysis revealed that the co-activation model (i.e., visuotactile multisensory integrative process) is supported in the far condition especially for older adults with relatively poor performance on the TUG or postural stability tests. These results suggest that aging can change visuotactile peripersonal space and that it may be closely linked to declines in sensorimotor functions related to gait and balance in older adults.

  13. State Space Modeling Using SAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Selukar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief introduction to the state space modeling capabilities in SAS, a well-known statistical software system. SAS provides state space modeling in a few different settings. SAS/ETS, the econometric and time series analysis module of the SAS system, contains many procedures that use state space models to analyze univariate and multivariate time series data. In addition, SAS/IML, an interactive matrix language in the SAS system, provides Kalman filtering and smoothing routines for stationary and nonstationary state space models. SAS/IML also provides support for linear algebra and nonlinear function optimization, which makes it a convenient environment for general-purpose state space modeling.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope segment phasing using differential optical transfer functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codona, Johanan L; Doble, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Differential optical transfer function (dOTF) is an image-based, noniterative wavefront sensing method that uses two star images with a single small change in the pupil. We describe two possible methods for introducing the required pupil modification to the James Webb Space Telescope, one using a small (telescope can be measured simultaneously. Also, since dOTF gives the pupil field amplitude as well as the phase, it could provide a first approximation or constraint to the planned iterative phase retrieval algorithms.

  15. Foundations of complex analysis in non locally convex spaces function theory without convexity condition

    CERN Document Server

    Bayoumi, A

    2003-01-01

    All the existing books in Infinite Dimensional Complex Analysis focus on the problems of locally convex spaces. However, the theory without convexity condition is covered for the first time in this book. This shows that we are really working with a new, important and interesting field. Theory of functions and nonlinear analysis problems are widespread in the mathematical modeling of real world systems in a very broad range of applications. During the past three decades many new results from the author have helped to solve multiextreme problems arising from important situations, non-convex and

  16. Descent methods for convex optimization problems in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. S. Ali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider optimization problems in Banach spaces, whose cost functions are convex and smooth, but do not possess strengthened convexity properties. We propose a general class of iterative methods, which are based on combining descent and regularization approaches and provide strong convergence of iteration sequences to a solution of the initial problem.

  17. Development of multi-functional composite structures with embedded electronics for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong Jang, Tae; Soo Oh, Dae; Kyu Kim, Jin; In Kang, Kyung; Ho Cha, Won; Woo Rhee, Seung

    2011-01-01

    Conventional spacecraft structural function has been limited to supporting loads and mounting avionics only. In contrast, the technology of 'multi-functional structures' can integrate thermal and electronic functions into the spacecraft's inherent load-bearing capability. In addition, sufficient radiation shielding effectiveness can be provided for the anticipated mission environment. Utilizing this concept, the ratio of electrical functionality to spacecraft volume can be dramatically increased and significant mass savings can be obtained. In this paper, spacecraft electronics are miniaturized using advanced IT applications such as flexible circuitry, miniaturized components, featherweight connectors, and so on, that they can be easily embedded within a structural panel. A sandwich structural panel consists of an aluminum honeycomb core and lightweight CFRP facesheets. Integration of electronics is implemented within the panel by mounting electronics on a multi-layered composite enclosure with multi-materials. This composite enclosure provides a load-bearing, effective thermal conduction, radiation shielding capabilities and an available space for embedding electronics. A series of environmental tests and analyses is carried out to demonstrate that the flight hardware is qualified for the expected mission environments. This approach will be utilized for the advanced small satellite 'STSAT-3' to validate the multi-functional structures concept.

  18. Chaos and Exponentially Localized Eigenstates in Smooth Hamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Santhanam, M S; Lakshminarayan, A

    1998-01-01

    We present numerical evidence to show that the wavefunctions of smooth classically chaotic Hamiltonian systems scarred by certain simple periodic orbits are exponentially localized in the space of unperturbed basis states. The degree of localization, as measured by the information entropy, is shown to be correlated with the local phase space structure around the scarring orbit; indicating sharp localization when the orbit undergoes a pitchfork bifurcation and loses stability.

  19. The Spaces of Functions of Two Variables of Bounded κΦ-Variation in the Sense of Schramm-Korenblum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azócar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, we introduce the concept of bounded κΦ-variation in the sense of Schramm-Korenblum for real functions with domain in a rectangle of R2. Secondly, we study some properties of these functions and we prove that the space generated by these functions has a structure of Banach algebra.

  20. Functional decor in the International Space Station: Body orientation cues and picture perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Richard G.; Clearwater, Yvonne A.; Barbour, Christopher G.; Towers, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    Subjective reports of American astronauts and their Soviet counterparts suggest that homogeneous, often symmetrical, spacecraft interiors can contribute to motion sickness during the earliest phase of a mission and can also engender boredom. Two studies investigated the functional aspects of Space Station interior aesthetics. One experiment examined differential color brightnesses as body orientation cues; the other involved a large survey of photographs and paintings that might enhance the interior aesthetics of the proposed International Space Station. Ninety male and female college students reclining on their backs in the dark were disoriented by a rotating platform and inserted under a slowly rotating disk that filled their entire visual field. The entire disk was painted the same color but one half had a brightness value that was about 69 percent higher than the other. The effects of red, blue, and yellow were examined. Subjects wearing frosted goggles opened their eyes to view the rotating, illuminated disk, which was stopped when they felt that they were right-side up. For all three colors, significant numbers of subjects said they felt right-side up when the brighter side of the disk filled their upper visual field. These results suggest that color brightness could provide Space Station crew members with body orientation cues as they move about. It was found that subjects preferred photographs and paintings with the greatest depths of field, irrespective of picture topic.

  1. A Quality Function Deployment Method Applied to Highly Reusable Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) currently in work the goal of which is to add definition and insight to the development of long term Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST). The objective here is twofold. First, to describe the process, the actual QFD experience as applies to the HRST study. Second, to describe the preliminary results of this process, in particular the assessment of possible directions for future pursuit such as promising candidate technologies or approaches that may finally open the space frontier. The iterative and synergistic nature of QFD provides opportunities in the process for the discovery of what is key in so far as it is useful, what is not, and what is merely true. Key observations on the QFD process will be presented. The importance of a customer definition as well as the similarity of the process of developing a technology portfolio to product development will be shown. Also, the relation of identified cost and operating drivers to future space vehicle designs that are robust to an uncertain future will be discussed. The results in particular of this HRST evaluation will be preliminary given the somewhat long term (or perhaps not?) nature of the task being considered.

  2. Bells Galore: Oscillations and circle-map dynamics from space-filling fractal functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente, C.E.; Cortis, A.; Sivakumar, B.

    2008-10-15

    The construction of a host of interesting patterns over one and two dimensions, as transformations of multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions related to simple affine mappings, is reviewed. It is illustrated that, while space-filling fractal functions most commonly yield limiting Gaussian distribution measures (bells), there are also situations (depending on the affine mappings parameters) in which there is no limit. Specifically, the one-dimensional case may result in oscillations between two bells, whereas the two-dimensional case may give rise to unexpected circle map dynamics of an arbitrary number of two-dimensional circular bells. It is also shown that, despite the multitude of bells over two dimensions, whose means dance making regular polygons or stars inscribed on a circle, the iteration of affine maps yields exotic kaleidoscopes that decompose such an oscillatory pattern in a way that is similar to the many cases that converge to a single bell.

  3. Star product realizations of kappa-Minkowski space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Sitarz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We define a family of star products and involutions associated with κ -Minkowski space. Applying corresponding quantization maps we show that these star products restricted to a certain space of Schwartz functions have isomorphic Banach algebra completions. For two particular star products...... it is demonstrated that they can be extended to a class of polynomially bounded smooth functions allowing a realization of the full Hopf algebra structure on κ -Minkowski space. Furthermore, we give an explicit realization of the action of the κ -Poincaré algebra as an involutive Hopf algebra on this representation...... of κ -Minkowski space and initiate a study of its properties....

  4. Space-Time Modelling of Groundwater Level Using Spartan Covariance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2014-05-01

    Geostatistical models often need to handle variables that change in space and in time, such as the groundwater level of aquifers. A major advantage of space-time observations is that a higher number of data supports parameter estimation and prediction. In a statistical context, space-time data can be considered as realizations of random fields that are spatially extended and evolve in time. The combination of spatial and temporal measurements in sparsely monitored watersheds can provide very useful information by incorporating spatiotemporal correlations. Spatiotemporal interpolation is usually performed by applying the standard Kriging algorithms extended in a space-time framework. Spatiotemoral covariance functions for groundwater level modelling, however, have not been widely developed. We present a new non-separable theoretical spatiotemporal variogram function which is based on the Spartan covariance family and evaluate its performance in spatiotemporal Kriging (STRK) interpolation. The original spatial expression (Hristopulos and Elogne 2007) that has been successfully used for the spatial interpolation of groundwater level (Varouchakis and Hristopulos 2013) is modified by defining the following space-time normalized distance h = °h2r-+-α h2τ, hr=r- ξr, hτ=τ- ξτ; where r is the spatial lag vector, τ the temporal lag vector, ξr is the correlation length in position space (r) and ξτ in time (τ), h the normalized space-time lag vector, h = |h| is its Euclidean norm of the normalized space-time lag and α the coefficient that determines the relative weight of the time lag. The space-time experimental semivariogram is determined from the biannual (wet and dry period) time series of groundwater level residuals (obtained from the original series after trend removal) between the years 1981 and 2003 at ten sampling stations located in the Mires hydrological basin in the island of Crete (Greece). After the hydrological year 2002-2003 there is a significant

  5. Non-smooth dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The book provides a self-contained introduction to the mathematical theory of non-smooth dynamical problems, as they frequently arise from mechanical systems with friction and/or impacts. It is aimed at applied mathematicians, engineers, and applied scientists in general who wish to learn the subject.

  6. Income smoothing by Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterenbrood, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that hospitals manage their earnings. However, these findings might be influenced by methodological issues. In this study, I exploit specific features of Dutch hospitals to study income smoothing while limiting these methodological issues. The managers of Dutch hospitals have the

  7. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  8. Solar Electric Propulsion System Integration Technology (SEPSIT). Volume 2: Encke rendezvous mission and space vehicle functional description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A solar electric propulsion system integration technology study is discussed. Detailed analyses in support of the solar electric propulsion module were performed. The thrust subsystem functional description is presented. The space vehicle and the space mission to which the propulsion system is applied are analyzed.

  9. Krylov-space approach to the equilibrium and nonequilibrium single-particle Green's function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Matthias; Gdaniec, Nadine; Potthoff, Michael

    2012-01-25

    The zero-temperature single-particle Green's function of correlated fermion models with moderately large Hilbert-space dimensions can be calculated by means of Krylov-space techniques. The conventional Lanczos approach consists of finding the ground state in a first step, followed by an approximation for the resolvent of the Hamiltonian in a second step. We analyze the character of this approximation and discuss a numerically exact variant of the Lanczos method which is formulated in the time domain. This method is extended to obtain the nonequilibrium single-particle Green's function defined on the Keldysh-Matsubara contour in the complex time plane which describes the system's nonperturbative response to a sudden parameter switch in the Hamiltonian. The proposed method will be important as an exact-diagonalization solver in the context of self-consistent or variational cluster-embedding schemes. For the recently developed nonequilibrium cluster-perturbation theory, we discuss its efficient implementation and demonstrate the feasibility of the Krylov-based solver. The dissipation of a strong local magnetic excitation into a non-interacting bath is considered as an example for applications.

  10. Modeling microbial community structure and functional diversity across time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peter E; Gibbons, Sean M; Gilbert, Jack A

    2012-07-01

    Microbial communities exhibit exquisitely complex structure. Many aspects of this complexity, from the number of species to the total number of interactions, are currently very difficult to examine directly. However, extraordinary efforts are being made to make these systems accessible to scientific investigation. While recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have improved accessibility to the taxonomic and functional diversity of complex communities, monitoring the dynamics of these systems over time and space - using appropriate experimental design - is still expensive. Fortunately, modeling can be used as a lens to focus low-resolution observations of community dynamics to enable mathematical abstractions of functional and taxonomic dynamics across space and time. Here, we review the approaches for modeling bacterial diversity at both the very large and the very small scales at which microbial systems interact with their environments. We show that modeling can help to connect biogeochemical processes to specific microbial metabolic pathways. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling solvation effects in real-space and real-time within density functional approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Alain [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Calle 30 # 502, 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Corni, Stefano; Pittalis, Stefano; Rozzi, Carlo Andrea [Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Centro S3, via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-10-14

    The Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) can be used in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT) and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT) to simulate the electronic and optical properties of molecules and nanoparticles immersed in a dielectric environment, typically liquid solvents. In this contribution, we develop a methodology to account for solvation effects in real-space (and real-time) (TD)DFT calculations. The boundary elements method is used to calculate the solvent reaction potential in terms of the apparent charges that spread over the van der Waals solute surface. In a real-space representation, this potential may exhibit a Coulomb singularity at grid points that are close to the cavity surface. We propose a simple approach to regularize such singularity by using a set of spherical Gaussian functions to distribute the apparent charges. We have implemented the proposed method in the OCTOPUS code and present results for the solvation free energies and solvatochromic shifts for a representative set of organic molecules in water.

  12. ATLAS: A Real-Space Finite-Difference Implementation of Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mi, Wenhui; Sua, Chuanxun; Zhoua, Yuanyuan; Zhanga, Shoutao; Lia, Quan; Wanga, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Miao, Maosheng; Wanga, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Orbital-free density functional theory (OF-DFT) is a promising method for large-scale quantum mechanics simulation as it provides a good balance of accuracy and computational cost. Its applicability to large-scale simulations has been aided by progress in constructing kinetic energy functionals and local pseudopotentials. However, the widespread adoption of OF-DFT requires further improvement in its efficiency and robustly implemented software. Here we develop a real-space finite-difference method for the numerical solution of OF-DFT in periodic systems. Instead of the traditional self-consistent method, a powerful scheme for energy minimization is introduced to solve the Euler--Lagrange equation. Our approach engages both the real-space finite-difference method and a direct energy-minimization scheme for the OF-DFT calculations. The method is coded into the ATLAS software package and benchmarked using periodic systems of solid Mg, Al, and Al$_{3}$Mg. The test results show that our implementation can achieve ...

  13. Green’s functions for a volume source in an elastic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Hay, Todd A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Green’s functions are derived for elastic waves generated by a volume source in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. The context is sources at shallow burial depths, for which surface (Rayleigh) and bulk waves, both longitudinal and transverse, can be generated with comparable magnitudes. Two approaches are followed. First, the Green’s function is expanded with respect to eigenmodes that correspond to Rayleigh waves. While bulk waves are thus ignored, this approximation is valid on the surface far from the source, where the Rayleigh wave modes dominate. The second approach employs an angular spectrum that accounts for the bulk waves and yields a solution that may be separated into two terms. One is associated with bulk waves, the other with Rayleigh waves. The latter is proved to be identical to the Green’s function obtained following the first approach. The Green’s function obtained via angular spectrum decomposition is analyzed numerically in the time domain for different burial depths and distances to the receiver, and for parameters relevant to seismo-acoustic detection of land mines and other buried objects. PMID:22423682

  14. Green's functions for a volume source in an elastic half-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A; Ilinskii, Yurii A; Hay, Todd A; Hamilton, Mark F

    2012-03-01

    Green's functions are derived for elastic waves generated by a volume source in a homogeneous isotropic half-space. The context is sources at shallow burial depths, for which surface (Rayleigh) and bulk waves, both longitudinal and transverse, can be generated with comparable magnitudes. Two approaches are followed. First, the Green's function is expanded with respect to eigenmodes that correspond to Rayleigh waves. While bulk waves are thus ignored, this approximation is valid on the surface far from the source, where the Rayleigh wave modes dominate. The second approach employs an angular spectrum that accounts for the bulk waves and yields a solution that may be separated into two terms. One is associated with bulk waves, the other with Rayleigh waves. The latter is proved to be identical to the Green's function obtained following the first approach. The Green's function obtained via angular spectrum decomposition is analyzed numerically in the time domain for different burial depths and distances to the receiver, and for parameters relevant to seismo-acoustic detection of land mines and other buried objects. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Remarks on the Conditional Quadratic and the Conditional D’Alembert Functional Equations on Particular Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Fochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let be a real normed space with dimension greater than 2 and let be a real functional defined on . Applying some ideas from the studies made on the conditional Cauchy functional equation on the restricted domain of the vectors of equal norm and the isosceles orthogonal vectors, the conditional quadratic equation and the D’Alembert one, namely, and , have been studied in this paper, in order to describe their solutions. Particular normed spaces are introduced for this aim.

  16. An earthquake rate forecast for Europe based on smoothed seismicity and smoothed fault contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemer, Stefan; Woessner, Jochen; Basili, Roberto; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of project SHARE (Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe) is to develop a community-based seismic hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. The logic tree of earthquake rupture forecasts comprises several methodologies including smoothed seismicity approaches. Smoothed seismicity thus represents an alternative concept to express the degree of spatial stationarity of seismicity and provides results that are more objective, reproducible, and testable. Nonetheless, the smoothed-seismicity approach suffers from the common drawback of being generally based on earthquake catalogs alone, i.e. the wealth of knowledge from geology is completely ignored. We present a model that applies the kernel-smoothing method to both past earthquake locations and slip rates on mapped crustal faults and subductions. The result is mainly driven by the data, being independent of subjective delineation of seismic source zones. The core parts of our model are two distinct location probability densities: The first is computed by smoothing past seismicity (using variable kernel smoothing to account for varying data density). The second is obtained by smoothing fault moment rate contributions. The fault moment rates are calculated by summing the moment rate of each fault patch on a fully parameterized and discretized fault as available from the SHARE fault database. We assume that the regional frequency-magnitude distribution of the entire study area is well known and estimate the a- and b-value of a truncated Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution based on a maximum likelihood approach that considers the spatial and temporal completeness history of the seismic catalog. The two location probability densities are linearly weighted as a function of magnitude assuming that (1) the occurrence of past seismicity is a good proxy to forecast occurrence of future seismicity and (2) future large-magnitude events occur more likely in the vicinity of known faults. Consequently

  17. Parabolic systems of Shilov-type with coefficients of bounded smoothness and nonnegative genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Litovchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shilov-type parabolic systems are parabolically stable systems for changing its coefficients unlike of parabolic systems by Petrovskii. That's why the modern theory of the Cauchy problem for class by Shilov-type systems is developing abreast how the theory of the systems with constant or time-dependent coefficients alone. Building the theory of the Cauchy problem for systems with variable coefficients is actually today. A new class of linear parabolic systems with partial derivatives to the first order by the time $t$ with variable coefficients that includes a class of the Shilov-type systems with time-dependent coefficients and non-negative genus is considered in this work. A main part of differential expression concerning space variable $x$ of each such system is parabolic (by Shilov expression. Coefficients of this expression are time-dependent, but coefficients of a group of younger members may depend also a space variable. We built the fundamental solution of the Cauchy problem for systems from this class by the method of sequential approximations. Conditions of  minimal smoothness on  coefficients of the systems by  variable $x$ are founded, the smoothness of solution is investigated and estimates of derivatives of this solution are obtained.  These results are important for  investigating  of the correct solution of the Cauchy problem for this systems in different functional spaces, obtaining forms of description of the solution of this problem and its properties.

  18. Smooth manifold structure for extreme channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, Raban; Colbeck, Roger

    2018-01-01

    A quantum channel from a system A of dimension dA to a system B of dimension dB is a completely positive trace-preserving map from complex dA × dA to dB × dB matrices, and the set of all such maps with Kraus rank r has the structure of a smooth manifold. We describe this set in two ways. First, as a quotient space of (a subset of) the rdB × dA dimensional Stiefel manifold. Second, as the set of all Choi-states of a fixed rank r. These two descriptions are topologically equivalent. This allows us to show that the set of all Choi-states corresponding to extreme channels from system A to system B of a fixed Kraus rank r is a smooth submanifold of dimension 2 r dAdB-dA2-r2 of the set of all Choi-states of rank r. As an application, we derive a lower bound on the number of parameters required for a quantum circuit topology to be able to approximate all extreme channels from A to B arbitrarily well.

  19. Spline smoothing of histograms by linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    An algorithm for an approximating function to the frequency distribution is obtained from a sample of size n. To obtain the approximating function a histogram is made from the data. Next, Euclidean space approximations to the graph of the histogram using central B-splines as basis elements are obtained by linear programming. The approximating function has area one and is nonnegative.

  20. [BEHAVIORAL AND FUNCTIONAL VESTIBULAR DISTURBANCES AFTER SPACE FLIGHT. 2. FISHES, AMPHIBIANS AND BIRDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2016-01-01

    The review contains data on functional shifts in fishes, amphibians and birds caused by changes in the otolith system operation after stay under weightlessness conditions. These data are of theoretical and practical significance and are important to resolve some fundamental problems of vestibulogy. The analysis of the results of space experiments has shown that weightlessness conditions do not exert a substantial impact on formation and functional state of the otolith system in embryonic fishes, amphibians and birds developed during space flight. Weightlessness conditions do pot inhibit embryonic development of lower vertebrates but even have rather beneficial effect on it. This is consistent with conclusions concerning development of mammalian fetuses. The experimental results show that weightlessness can cause similar functional and behavioral vestibular shifts both in lower vertebrates and in mammals. For example, immediately after an orbital flight the vestibuloocular reflex in fish larvae and tadpoles (without lordosis) was stronger than in control individuals. A similar shift of the otolith reflex was observed in the majority of cosmonauts after short-term orbital flights. Immediately after landing adult terrestrial vertebrates, as well as human beings, exhibit lower activity levels, worse equilibrium and coordination of movements. Another interesting finding observed after landing of the cosmic apparatus was an unusual looping character of tadpole swimming. It is supposed that the unusual motor activity of animals as well as appearance of illusions in cosmonauts and astronauts after switching from 1 to 0 g have the same nature and are related to the change in character of otolith organs stimulation. Considering this similarity of vestibular reactions, using animals seems rather perspective. Besides it allows applying in experiments various invasive techniques.

  1. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  2. Diagnosis of osteoarthritis by cartilage surface smoothness quantified automatically from knee MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummala, Sudhakar; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether surface smoothness of articular cartilage in the medial tibiofemoral compartment quantified from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be appropriate as a diagnostic marker of osteoarthritis (OA). Method: At baseline, 159 community-based subjects aged 21 to 81......, specifically cartilage volume from MRI, joint space width (JSW) from radiographs, and pain scores. Results: A total of 140 subjects concluded the 21-month study. Cartilage smoothness provided diagnostic ability in all compartments (P ... with pain severity (e.g., r = -0.32). The longitudinal change in smoothness was correlated with cartilage loss (r up to 0.60, P cartilage smoothness markers for diagnosis of moderate radiographic OA. Furthermore...

  3. The Novel KV7.2/KV7.3 Channel Opener ICA-069673 Reveals Subtype-Specific Functional Roles in Guinea Pig Detrusor Smooth Muscle Excitability and Contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provence, Aaron; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V

    2015-09-01

    The physiologic roles of voltage-gated KV7 channel subtypes (KV7.1-KV7.5) in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are poorly understood. Here, we sought to elucidate the functional roles of KV7.2/KV7.3 channels in guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility using the novel KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activator ICA-069673 [N-(2-chloro-5-pyrimidinyl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide]. We employed a multilevel experimental approach using Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, isometric DSM tension recordings, fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, and perforated whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Western blot experiments revealed the protein expression of KV7.2 and KV7.3 channel subunits in DSM tissue. In isolated DSM cells, immunocytochemistry with confocal microscopy further confirmed protein expression for KV7.2 and KV7.3 channel subunits, where they localize within the vicinity of the cell membrane. ICA-069673 inhibited spontaneous phasic, pharmacologically induced, and nerve-evoked contractions in DSM isolated strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of ICA-069673 on DSM spontaneous phasic and tonic contractions were abolished in the presence of the KV7 channel inhibitor XE991 [10,10-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone dihydrochloride]. Under conditions of elevated extracellular K(+) (60 mM), the effects of ICA-069673 on DSM tonic contractions were significantly attenuated. ICA-069673 decreased the global intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in DSM cells, an effect blocked by the L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor nifedipine. ICA-069673 hyperpolarized the membrane potential and inhibited spontaneous action potentials of isolated DSM cells, effects that were blocked in the presence of XE991. In conclusion, using the novel KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activator ICA-069673, this study provides strong evidence for a critical role for the KV7.2- and KV7.3-containing channels in DSM function at both cellular and tissue levels. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for

  4. Video tonal stabilization via color states smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xiang; Song, Mingli; Bu, Jiajun; Tan, Ping

    2014-11-01

    We address the problem of removing video color tone jitter that is common in amateur videos recorded with hand-held devices. To achieve this, we introduce color state to represent the exposure and white balance state of a frame. The color state of each frame can be computed by accumulating the color transformations of neighboring frame pairs. Then, the tonal changes of the video can be represented by a time-varying trajectory in color state space. To remove the tone jitter, we smooth the original color state trajectory by solving an L1 optimization problem with PCA dimensionality reduction. In addition, we propose a novel selective strategy to remove small tone jitter while retaining extreme exposure and white balance changes to avoid serious artifacts. Quantitative evaluation and visual comparison with previous work demonstrate the effectiveness of our tonal stabilization method. This system can also be used as a preprocessing tool for other video editing methods.

  5. Multimodal functional network connectivity: an EEG-fMRI fusion in network space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lei

    Full Text Available EEG and fMRI recordings measure the functional activity of multiple coherent networks distributed in the cerebral cortex. Identifying network interaction from the complementary neuroelectric and hemodynamic signals may help to explain the complex relationships between different brain regions. In this paper, multimodal functional network connectivity (mFNC is proposed for the fusion of EEG and fMRI in network space. First, functional networks (FNs are extracted using spatial independent component analysis (ICA in each modality separately. Then the interactions among FNs in each modality are explored by Granger causality analysis (GCA. Finally, fMRI FNs are matched to EEG FNs in the spatial domain using network-based source imaging (NESOI. Investigations of both synthetic and real data demonstrate that mFNC has the potential to reveal the underlying neural networks of each modality separately and in their combination. With mFNC, comprehensive relationships among FNs might be unveiled for the deep exploration of neural activities and metabolic responses in a specific task or neurological state.

  6. Recent applications of harmonic analysis to function spaces, differential equations, and data science novel methods in harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gia, Quoc; Mayeli, Azita; Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The second of a two volume set on novel methods in harmonic analysis, this book draws on a number of original research and survey papers from well-known specialists detailing the latest innovations and recently discovered links between various fields. Along with many deep theoretical results, these volumes contain numerous applications to problems in signal processing, medical imaging, geodesy, statistics, and data science. The chapters within cover an impressive range of ideas from both traditional and modern harmonic analysis, such as: the Fourier transform, Shannon sampling, frames, wavelets, functions on Euclidean spaces, analysis on function spaces of Riemannian and sub-Riemannian manifolds, Fourier analysis on manifolds and Lie groups, analysis on combinatorial graphs, sheaves, co-sheaves, and persistent homologies on topological spaces. Volume II is organized around the theme of recent applications of harmonic analysis to function spaces, differential equations, and data science, covering topics such a...

  7. Smooth paths of conditional expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  8. Beam smoothing and temporal effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, H.; Aydin, M.; Eliezer, S.; Goldsworthy, M.P.; Min, G.; Gahatak, A.K.; Lalousis, P.; Stening, R.J.; Szichman, H. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Boreham, B.W. [Queensland Inst. of Tech., Gardens Point, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Luther-Davies, B.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Rode, A.V. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1995-05-01

    Until recently, and in spite of the introduction of smoothing methods, direct drive laser fusion received lots of setbacks from experiments, this being due to nonlinear and anomalous phenomena. This report deals with a method of analysis which, as self-generated von-Laue gratings, preventing the propagation of laser radiation through the outermost plasma corona, and preventing energy deposition. (TEC). 36 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Color Enhancement in Endoscopic Images Using Adaptive Sigmoid Function and Space Variant Color Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Imtiaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes play an important role in diagnosing various gastrointestinal (GI tract related diseases. The improved visual quality of endoscopic images can provide better diagnosis. This paper presents an efficient color image enhancement method for endoscopic images. It is achieved in two stages: image enhancement at gray level followed by space variant chrominance mapping color reproduction. Image enhancement is achieved by performing adaptive sigmoid function and uniform distribution of sigmoid pixels. Secondly, a space variant chrominance mapping color reproduction is used to generate new chrominance components. The proposed method is used on low contrast color white light images (WLI to enhance and highlight the vascular and mucosa structures of the GI tract. The method is also used to colorize grayscale narrow band images (NBI and video frames. The focus value and color enhancement factor show that the enhancement level in the processed image is greatly increased compared to the original endoscopic image. The overall contrast level of the processed image is higher than the original image. The color similarity test has proved that the proposed method does not add any additional color which is not present in the original image. The algorithm has low complexity with an execution speed faster than other related methods.

  10. Color Enhancement in Endoscopic Images Using Adaptive Sigmoid Function and Space Variant Color Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Wahid, Khan A

    2015-01-01

    Modern endoscopes play an important role in diagnosing various gastrointestinal (GI) tract related diseases. The improved visual quality of endoscopic images can provide better diagnosis. This paper presents an efficient color image enhancement method for endoscopic images. It is achieved in two stages: image enhancement at gray level followed by space variant chrominance mapping color reproduction. Image enhancement is achieved by performing adaptive sigmoid function and uniform distribution of sigmoid pixels. Secondly, a space variant chrominance mapping color reproduction is used to generate new chrominance components. The proposed method is used on low contrast color white light images (WLI) to enhance and highlight the vascular and mucosa structures of the GI tract. The method is also used to colorize grayscale narrow band images (NBI) and video frames. The focus value and color enhancement factor show that the enhancement level in the processed image is greatly increased compared to the original endoscopic image. The overall contrast level of the processed image is higher than the original image. The color similarity test has proved that the proposed method does not add any additional color which is not present in the original image. The algorithm has low complexity with an execution speed faster than other related methods.

  11. Development of an Objective Space Suit Mobility Performance Metric Using Metabolic Cost and Functional Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Existing methods for evaluating EVA suit performance and mobility have historically concentrated on isolated joint range of motion and torque. However, these techniques do little to evaluate how well a suited crewmember can actually perform during an EVA. An alternative method of characterizing suited mobility through measurement of metabolic cost to the wearer has been evaluated at Johnson Space Center over the past several years. The most recent study involved six test subjects completing multiple trials of various functional tasks in each of three different space suits; the results indicated it was often possible to discern between different suit designs on the basis of metabolic cost alone. However, other variables may have an effect on real-world suited performance; namely, completion time of the task, the gravity field in which the task is completed, etc. While previous results have analyzed completion time, metabolic cost, and metabolic cost normalized to system mass individually, it is desirable to develop a single metric comprising these (and potentially other) performance metrics. This paper outlines the background upon which this single-score metric is determined to be feasible, and initial efforts to develop such a metric. Forward work includes variable coefficient determination and verification of the metric through repeated testing.

  12. Airway smooth muscle excitation-contraction coupling and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Simon; Helli, Peter B; Catalli, Adriana; Chew, Allyson; Janssen, Luke J

    2005-01-01

    The primary complaints from patients with asthma pertain to function of airway smooth muscle (ASM) function including shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. Thus, it is imperative to better understand the mechanisms underlying excitation-contraction coupling in ASM. Here, we review the various signaling pathways underlying contraction in ASM, and then examine how these are altered in asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (a hallmark feature of asthma). Throughout, we highlight how studies of vascular smooth muscle have helped or hindered progress in understanding ASM physiology and pathophysiology.

  13. Stable sheaves on a smooth quadric surface with linear Hilbert bipolynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballico, Edoardo; Huh, Sukmoon

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the moduli spaces of stable sheaves on a smooth quadric surface with linear Hilbert bipolynomial in some special cases and describe their geometry in terms of the locally free resolution of the sheaves.

  14. Eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem for Steklov's smoothing operator and differential-difference equations of mixed type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei I. Iakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that any \\(\\mu \\in \\mathbb{C}\\ is an infinite multiplicity eigenvalue of the Steklov smoothing operator \\(S_h\\ acting on the space \\(L^1_{loc}(\\mathbb{R}\\. For \\(\\mu \

  15. JWST Point Spread Function Quality and Stability: Ground Testing, Integrated Modeling, and Space Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael; Van Gorkom, Kyle; Bowers, Charles W.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Knight, J. Scott; Lightsey, Paul; Maghami, Peiman G.; Mustelier, David; Niedner, Malcolm B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.5 m) cryogenic segmented aperture telescope with science instruments that cover the near- and mid-infrared from 0.6-27 microns. The large aperture not only provides high photometric sensitivity, but it also enables high angular resolution across the bandpass, with a diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) at wavelengths longer than 2 microns. The JWST PSF quality and stability are intimately tied to the science capabilities as it is convolved with the astrophysical scene. However, the PSF evolves at a variety of timescales based on telescope jitter and thermal distortion as the observatory attitude is varied. We present the image quality and stability requirements, recent predictions from integrated modeling, measurements made during ground-based testing, and performance characterization activities that will be carried out as part of the commissioning process.

  16. Minimally spaced electrode positions for multi-functional chest sensors: ECG and respiratory signal estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klum Michael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unobtrusive medical instrumentation is a key in continuous patient monitoring. To increase compliance, multi-functional sensor concepts and measurement sites different from gold-standards are used. In this work, we aim to combine both approaches. We focus on minimally spaced electrode positions with high signal correlations to gold-standards. We present twofold experimental data from six and eleven healthy volunteers and provide chest positions with individual correlations up to 0.83 ± 0.06 for ECG and 0.73 ± 0.28 for the respiratory frequency. Using a performance index, we assess positions with correlations up to 0.77 ± 0.12 for ECG and 0.65 ± 0.35 for the respiratory frequency with 24 mm electrode distance.

  17. A Multi-Model Stereo Similarity Function Based on Monogenic Signal Analysis in Poisson Scale Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stereo similarity function based on local multi-model monogenic image feature descriptors (LMFD is proposed to match interest points and estimate disparity map for stereo images. Local multi-model monogenic image features include local orientation and instantaneous phase of the gray monogenic signal, local color phase of the color monogenic signal, and local mean colors in the multiscale color monogenic signal framework. The gray monogenic signal, which is the extension of analytic signal to gray level image using Dirac operator and Laplace equation, consists of local amplitude, local orientation, and instantaneous phase of 2D image signal. The color monogenic signal is the extension of monogenic signal to color image based on Clifford algebras. The local color phase can be estimated by computing geometric product between the color monogenic signal and a unit reference vector in RGB color space. Experiment results on the synthetic and natural stereo images show the performance of the proposed approach.

  18. Functional analysis and applied optimization in Banach spaces applications to non-convex variational models

    CERN Document Server

    Botelho, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts of real and functional analysis. It presents the fundamentals of the calculus of variations, convex analysis, duality, and optimization that are necessary to develop applications to physics and engineering problems. The book includes introductory and advanced concepts in measure and integration, as well as an introduction to Sobolev spaces. The problems presented are nonlinear, with non-convex variational formulation. Notably, the primal global minima may not be attained in some situations, in which cases the solution of the dual problem corresponds to an appropriate weak cluster point of minimizing sequences for the primal one. Indeed, the dual approach more readily facilitates numerical computations for some of the selected models. While intended primarily for applied mathematicians, the text will also be of interest to engineers, physicists, and other researchers in related fields.

  19. Scalable real space pseudopotential-density functional codes for materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Lena, Charles; Schofield, Grady; Saad, Yousef; Deslippe, Jack; Yang, Chao

    2015-03-01

    Real-space pseudopotential density functional theory has proven to be an efficient method for computing the properties of matter in many different states and geometries, including liquids, wires, slabs and clusters with and without spin polarization. Fully self-consistent solutions have been routinely obtained for systems with thousands of atoms. However, there are still systems where quantum mechanical accuracy is desired, but scalability proves to be a hindrance, such as large biological molecules or complex interfaces. We will present an overview of our work on new algorithms, which offer improved scalability by implementing another layer of parallelism, and by optimizing communication and memory management. Support provided by the SciDAC program, Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences. Grant Numbers DE-SC0008877 (Austin) and DE-FG02-12ER4 (Berkeley).

  20. Application of a barometer for assessment of oral functions: Donders space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, K; Yamada, Y; Kurose, M; Ofusa, W; Sugiyama, T; Ishida, R

    2017-01-01

    We developed a barometer applicable to a small space, to assess oral and pharyngeal functions. Negative oral pressure during rest and pressure changes during swallowing were measured in a space between the palate and tongue (STP). Twenty volunteers were asked to sit in a chair in a relaxed upright position. A sensor was placed on the posterior midline of hard palate. Recording commenced just before subjects closed their lips and continued. Subjects were asked to swallow saliva and keep the apposition. Finally, subjects were asked to open their mouth. Recordings were performed five times, and 5 s of continuous data in each phase was averaged. To verify the reliability of the system, the same procedure was accomplished with twin sensors. When the jaw and lips were closed, the pressure slightly decreased from atmospheric pressure (-0·17 ± 0·24-kPa). After swallowing, the pressure in STP showed more negative value (-0·50 ± 0·59-kPa). There is a significant difference between the values in open condition and after swallowing (P < 0·001) and between values after swallowing and final open condition (P < 0·05). Twin sensor showed almost the same trajectories of pressure changes for all the recordings. Obtained negative pressure might generate about 0·71-N of force and would be enough to keep the tongue in the palatal fossa at rest. The system detected large negative/positive pressure changes during swallowing. We conclude this system may be a tool to evaluate oral functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Potential Functions of Al2 by the Relativistic Fock-Space Coupled Cluster Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Kaldor

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Potential functions of the ground and low excited states of Al2 are calculated by the relativistic Fock-space coupled cluster method in the framework of the projected Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. A moderate-size basis [16s11p3d3f/6s6p3d2f] is used. 3Πu is confirmed as the ground state of the system. Its spin orbit splittings are reproduced well, with the Λ = 1, 2 states lying 32.5 and 66.1 cm−1, respectively, above the Λ = 0 minimum (experimental values are 30.4 and 63.4 cm−1. The bond is somewhat too weak, with De 0.14 eV below experiment, Re too high by 0.08 ˚A, and ωe 21 cm−1 too low. It is speculated that the better agreement obtained in earlier calculations may be due to neglect of basis set superposition errors. The description of bonding in the molecule may be improved by the use of a better basis and the inclusion of more correlation by the intermediate Hamiltonian coupled cluster method, which makes it possible to handle larger P spaces and extend the potential functions to the whole range of internuclear separations.

  2. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  3. On the computational efficiency of isogeometric methods for smooth elliptic problems using direct solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2014-09-17

    SUMMARY: We compare the computational efficiency of isogeometric Galerkin and collocation methods for partial differential equations in the asymptotic regime. We define a metric to identify when numerical experiments have reached this regime. We then apply these ideas to analyze the performance of different isogeometric discretizations, which encompass C0 finite element spaces and higher-continuous spaces. We derive convergence and cost estimates in terms of the total number of degrees of freedom and then perform an asymptotic numerical comparison of the efficiency of these methods applied to an elliptic problem. These estimates are derived assuming that the underlying solution is smooth, the full Gauss quadrature is used in each non-zero knot span and the numerical solution of the discrete system is found using a direct multi-frontal solver. We conclude that under the assumptions detailed in this paper, higher-continuous basis functions provide marginal benefits.

  4. Solubilization, purification and reconstitution of Ca(2+)-ATPase from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle microsomes by different detergents: preservation of native structure and function of the enzyme by DHPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Amritlal; Das, Sudip; Chakraborti, Tapati; Kar, Pulak; Ghosh, Biswarup; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    The properties of Ca(2+)-ATPase purified and reconstituted from bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle microsomes {enriched with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)} were studied using the detergents 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC), poly(oxy-ethylene)8-lauryl ether (C(12)E(8)) and Triton X-100 as the solubilizing agents. Solubilization with DHPC consistently gave higher yields of purified Ca(2+)-ATPase with a greater specific activity than solubilization with C(12)E(8) or Triton X-100. DHPC was determined to be superior to C(12)E(8); while that the C(12)E(8) was determined to be better than Triton X-100 in active enzyme yields and specific activity. DHPC solubilized and purified Ca(2+)-ATPase retained the E1Ca-E1*Ca conformational transition as that observed for native microsomes; whereas the C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 solubilized preparations did not fully retain this transition. The coupling of Ca(2+) transported to ATP hydrolyzed in the DHPC purified enzyme reconstituted in liposomes was similar to that of the native micosomes, whereas that the coupling was much lower for the C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 purified enzyme reconstituted in liposomes. The specific activity of Ca(2+)-ATPase reconstituted into dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles with DHPC was 2.5-fold and 3-fold greater than that achieved with C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100, respectively. Addition of the protonophore, FCCP caused a marked increase in Ca(2+) uptake in the reconstituted proteoliposomes compared with the untreated liposomes. Circular dichroism analysis of the three detergents solubilized and purified enzyme preparations showed that the increased negative ellipticity at 223 nm is well correlated with decreased specific activity. It, therefore, appears that the DHPC purified Ca(2+)-ATPase retained more organized and native secondary conformation compared to C(12)E(8) and Triton X-100 solubilized and purified preparations. The size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes measured

  5. The manned space-laboratories control centre - MSCC. Operational functions and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogl, H.; Kehr, J.; Wlaka, M.

    This paper describes the functions of the MSCC during the operations of the Columbus Attached Laboratory and the Free Flying Laboratory as part of the In-Orbit-Infrastructure Ground Segment. For the Attached Laboratory, MSCC payload operations coordination for European experiments within the Attached Laboratory and elsewhere on the Space Station Freedom will be explained. The Free Flying Laboratory will be operated and maintained exclusively from the MSCC during its 30 years lifetime. Several operational scenarios will demonstrate the role of the MSCC during routine - and servicing operations: of main importance are the servicing activities of the Attached Laboratory and the Free Flyer at the Space Station as well as servicing of the Free Flyer by the European Space Plane Hermes. The MSCC will have complex operational-, communications-and management interfaces with the IOI Ground Segment, the Space Station User community and with the international partners. Columbus User Support Centres will be established in many European member states, which have to be coordinated by the MSCC to ensure the proper reception of the scientific data and to provide them with quick access to their experiments in space. For operations planning and execution of experiments in the Attached Laboratory, a close cooperation with the Space Station control authorities in the USA will be established. The paper will show the development of the MSCC being initially used for the upcoming Spacelab Mission D-2 (MSCC Phase-1) and later upgraded to a Columbus dedicated control centre (MSCC Phase-2). For the initial construction phase the establishing of MSCC requirements, the philosophie used for the definition of the 'basic infrastructure' and key features of the installed facilities will be addressed. Resulting from Columbus and D-2 requirements, the sizing of the building with respect to controlrooms, conference rooms, office spare and simulation high-bay areas will be discussed. The defined 'basic

  6. Development and Provision of Functional Foods to Promote Health on Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Aguirre, D.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    During long-duration NASA space missions, such as proposed missions to Mars, astronauts may experience negative physiological effects such as bone loss. Functional foods such as high-lycopene, high-flavonoids and high-omega-3 products and fruits and vegetables may mitigate the negative effects of spaceflight on physiological factors including the bone health of crewmembers. Previous studies showed that current ISS provisions provide high-lycopene and high-omega-3 food items but the variety is limited, which could promote menu fatigue. Bioactive compounds can degrade like other chemical compounds and lose functionality. The native concentrations and stability of bioactive compounds have never been determined in spaceflight foods, and adequate information is not available for commercial products for the storage durations required for space exploration (5 years). The purpose of this task is to develop new spaceflight foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids, identify commercial products with these bioactive compounds that meet spaceflight requirements, and define the stability of these nutrients in storage to enable purposeful functional food incorporation into the space food system. The impact of storage temperature on the stability of lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, anthocyanins and sterols is being studied in 12 ISS menu items stored at three different temperatures (4, 21, 35 degree C) over 2 years. Additionally, nutrient and quality stability are being assessed on a larger food set stored at 21 degree C over 2 years that contains twelve newly developed foods, 10 commercial products repackaged to spaceflight requirements, and another 5 current ISS menu items expected to be good sources of omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, or flavonoids. All items were shipped overnight to the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvalis, OR) after processing and 1-year of storage and analyzed for bioactive

  7. Topological string in harmonic space and correlation functions in S{sup 3} stringy cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, El Hassan [Lab/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Faculte des Sciences de Rabat (Morocco) and GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, Siege focal, FS Rabat (Morocco) and Virtual African Centre for Basic Science and Technology, VACBT, Focal point, LabUFR-PHE, Rabat (Morocco)]. E-mail: h-saidi@fsr.ac.ma; Sedra, Moulay Brahim [Lab/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Faculte des Sciences de Rabat (Morocco) and Lab Physique de la Matiere et Rayonnement, Faculte des Sciences Kenitra (Morocco) and GNPHE, Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies, Siege focal, FS Rabat (Morocco) and Virtual African Centre for Basic Science and Technology, VACBT, Focal point, LabUFR-PHE, Rabat (Morocco)]. E-mail: sedra@ictp.it

    2006-08-07

    We develop the harmonic space method for conifold and use it to study local complex deformations of T*S{sup 3} preserving manifestly SL(2,C) isometry. We derive the perturbative manifestly SL(2,C) invariant partition function Z{sub top} of topological string B model on locally deformed conifold. Generic n momentum and winding modes of 2D c=1 noncritical theory are described by highest {upsilon}{sub (n,0)} and lowest components {upsilon}{sub (0,n)} of SL(2,C) spin s=n2 multiplets ({upsilon}{sub (n-k,k)}), 0=functions of the S{sup 3} quantum cosmology model of Gukov-Saraikin-Vafa are also studied.

  8. Mdm35p imports Ups proteins into the mitochondrial intermembrane space by functional complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yasushi; Iijima, Miho; Sesaki, Hiromi

    2010-09-01

    Ups1p, Ups2p, and Ups3p are three homologous proteins that control phospholipid metabolism in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS). The Ups proteins are atypical IMS proteins in that they lack the two major IMS-targeting signals, bipartite presequences and cysteine motifs. Here, we show that Ups protein import is mediated by another IMS protein, Mdm35p. In vitro import assays show that import of Ups proteins requires Mdm35p. Loss of Mdm35p led to a decrease in steady state levels of Ups proteins in mitochondria. In addition, mdm35Delta cells displayed a similar phenotype to ups1Deltaups2Deltaups3Delta cells. Interestingly, unlike typical import machineries, Mdm35p associated stably with Ups proteins at a steady state after import. Demonstrating that Mdm35p is a functional component of Ups-Mdm35p complexes, restoration of Ups protein levels in mdm35Delta mitochondria failed to restore phospholipid metabolism. These findings provide a novel mechanism in which the formation of functional protein complexes drives mitochondrial protein import.

  9. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  10. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  11. Courthouses as Spaces of Recognition, Functionality and Access to Law and Justice: A Portuguese Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrìcia Branco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most overlooked topics at the level of reflection regarding law and the legal system, has been the courthouse architecture. Architecture organizes and structures space, making it intelligible, understandable, and capable of being interpreted as possible, being that the exterior and interior, as well as materials and objects present therein can facilitate or inhibit our activities through how they mean and represent certain messages. Hence it becomes necessary to make an analysis of the spaces of justice - and here I have in mind the Courthouse as a privileged public space of justice – taking into consideration the circumstances of time, place of jurisdiction, the historical, political, regulatory, and socio-cultural contexts, as well as legal tradition. Thus, and by analyzing the trends (international and national of development of construction and / or adaptation (types of buildings and internal organization, focusing on different infrastructures and accessibility and respective use, including, here, the representations and spatial practices of the real actors (professionals and users, I propose to consider the importance of regarding courthouses as spaces of justice, through the lenses given by the functions of recognition, functionality and access to law and justice. Uno de los temas sobre los que menos se ha reflexionado en el ámbito del derecho y el sistema legal ha sido la arquitectura de los juzgados. La arquitectura organiza y estructura el espacio, haciéndolo inteligible, comprensible y capaz de interpretarlo como algo posible, ya que el exterior y el interior, así como los materiales y objetos presentes, pueden facilitar o inhibir nuestras actividades mediante la forma en que emiten y representan ciertos mensajes. Por lo tanto, es necesario realizar un análisis de los espacios de la Justicia - y aquí se entiende el juzgado como un espacio público privilegiado de la Justicia - teniendo en cuenta las circunstancias de

  12. Linear and fractional response for the SRB measure of smooth hyperbolic attractors and discontinuous observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Viviane; Kuna, Tobias; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-03-01

    We consider a smooth one-parameter family t\\mapsto ≤ft( {{f}t}:M\\to M\\right) of diffeomorphisms with compact transitive Axiom A attractors {{ Λ }t} , denoting by \\text{d}{ρt} the SRB measure of {{f}t}{{|}{{ Λ t}}} . Our first result is that for any function θ in the Sobolev space Hpr(M) , with 1 and 0  <  r  <  1/p, the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is α-Hölder continuous for all α . This applies to θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) (for all α <1 ) for h and g smooth and \\Theta the Heaviside function, if a is not a critical value of g. Our second result says that for any such function θ (x)=h(x) \\Theta ≤ft(g(x)-a\\right) so that in addition the intersection of ≤ft\\{x|g(x)=a\\right\\} with the support of h is foliated by ‘admissible stable leaves’ of f t , the map t\\mapsto {\\int}θ \\text{d}{ρt} is differentiable. (We provide distributional linear response and fluctuation-dissipation formulas for the derivative.) Obtaining linear response or fractional response for such observables θ is motivated by extreme-value theory.

  13. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE...

  14. ASMOOTH: A simple and efficient algorithm for adaptive kernel smoothing of two-dimensional imaging data

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeling, H; White, D.A.; Rangarajan, F. V. N.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for adaptive kernel smoothing (AKS) of two-dimensional imaging data has been developed and implemented using the Interactive Data Language (IDL). The functional form of the kernel can be varied (top-hat, Gaussian etc.) to allow different weighting of the event counts registered within the smoothing region. For each individual pixel the algorithm increases the smoothing scale until the signal-to-noise ratio (s.n.r.) within the kernel reaches a preset value. Thus, noise i...

  15. Vascular smooth muscle cells express the alpha(1A) subunit of a P-/Q-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+)Channel, and It is functionally important in renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Jensen, Boye L.; Andreasen, D

    2000-01-01

    in rat aorta, brain, aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5), VSMCs, and mesangial cells. Immunolabeling with an anti-alpha(1A) antibody was positive in acid-macerated, microdissected preglomerular vessels and in A7r5 cells. Patch-clamp experiments on aortic A7r5 cells showed 22+/-4% (n=6) inhibition of inward...... and Southern blotting analysis, mRNA encoding the alpha(1A) subunit was detected in microdissected rat preglomerular vessels and vasa recta, in cultures of rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and in cultured rat mesangial cells. With immunoblots, alpha(1A) subunit protein was demonstrated...... preglomerular resistance vessels and aorta, as well as mesangial cells, and that P-type VDCCs contribute to Ca(2+) influx in aortic and renal VSMCs and are involved in depolarization-mediated contraction in renal afferent arterioles....

  16. Quantifying multi-dimensional functional trait spaces of trees: empirical versus theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, K.; Fell, M.; Barber, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical, field studies of plant functional traits have revealed important trade-offs among pairs or triplets of traits, such as the leaf (LES) and wood (WES) economics spectra. Trade-offs include correlations between leaf longevity (LL) vs specific leaf area (SLA), LL vs mass-specific leaf respiration rate (RmL), SLA vs RmL, and resistance to breakage vs wood density. Ordination analyses (e.g., PCA) show groupings of traits that tend to align with different life-history strategies or taxonomic groups. It is unclear, however, what underlies such trade-offs and emergent spectra. Do they arise from inherent physiological constraints on growth, or are they more reflective of environmental filtering? The relative importance of these mechanisms has implications for predicting biogeochemical cycling, which is influenced by trait distributions of the plant community. We address this question using an individual-based model of tree growth (ACGCA) to quantify the theoretical trait space of trees that emerges from physiological constraints. ACGCA's inputs include 32 physiological, anatomical, and allometric traits, many of which are related to the LES and WES. We fit ACGCA to 1.6 million USFS FIA observations of tree diameters and heights to obtain vectors of trait values that produce realistic growth, and we explored the structure of this trait space. No notable correlations emerged among the 496 trait pairs, but stepwise regressions revealed complicated multi-variate structure: e.g., relationships between pairs of traits (e.g., RmL and SLA) are governed by other traits (e.g., LL, radiation-use efficiency [RUE]). We also simulated growth under various canopy gap scenarios that impose varying degrees of environmental filtering to explore the multi-dimensional trait space (hypervolume) of trees that died vs survived. The centroid and volume of the hypervolumes differed among dead and live trees, especially under gap conditions leading to low mortality. Traits most predictive

  17. Methods of solving of the optimal stabilization problem for stationary smooth control systems. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kondrat'ev

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article some ideas of Hamilton mechanics and differential-algebraic Geometry are used to exact definition of the potential function (Bellman-Lyapunov function in the optimal stabilization problem of smooth finite-dimensional systems.

  18. Phenotype modulation of airway smooth muscle in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.

    The biological responses of airway smooth muscle (ASM) are diverse, in part due to ASM phenotype plasticity. ASM phenotype plasticity refers to the ability of ASM cells to change the degree of a variety of functions, including contractility, proliferation, migration and secretion of inflammatory

  19. Full-waveform inversion using a nonlinearly smoothed wavefield

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-12-08

    Conventional full-waveform inversion (FWI) based on the least-squares misfit function faces problems in converging to the global minimum when using gradient methods because of the cycle-skipping phenomena. An initial model producing data that are at most a half-cycle away from the observed data is needed for convergence to the global minimum. Low frequencies are helpful in updating low-wavenumber components of the velocity model to avoid cycle skipping. However, low enough frequencies are usually unavailable in field cases. The multiplication of wavefields of slightly different frequencies adds artificial low-frequency components in the data, which can be used for FWI to generate a convergent result and avoid cycle skipping. We generalize this process by multiplying the wavefield with itself and then applying a smoothing operator to the multiplied wavefield or its square to derive the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield, which is rich in low frequencies. The global correlation-norm-based objective function can mitigate the dependence on the amplitude information of the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. Therefore, we have evaluated the use of this objective function when using the nonlinearly smoothed wavefield. The proposed objective function has much larger convexity than the conventional objective functions. We calculate the gradient of the objective function using the adjoint-state technique, which is similar to that of the conventional FWI except for the adjoint source. We progressively reduce the smoothing width applied to the nonlinear wavefield to naturally adopt the multiscale strategy. Using examples on the Marmousi 2 model, we determine that the proposed FWI helps to generate convergent results without the need for low-frequency information.

  20. NASA's Advanced TPS Materials and Technology Development: Multi-Functional Materials and Systems for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay; Ellerby, Donald T.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Beck, Robin A S.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's future missions will be more demanding. They require materials to be mass efficient, robust, multi-functional, scalable and able to be integrated with other subsystems to enable innovative missions to accomplish future science missions. Thermal protection systems and materials (TPSM) are critical for the robotic and human exploration of the solar system when it involves entry. TPSM is a single string system with no back-up. Mass efficiency and robustness are required. Integration of TPSM with the aeroshell is both a challenge and an opportunity. Since 2010, NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate has invested in innovative new materials and systems across a spectrum of game changing technologies. In this keynote address, we plan to highlight and present our successful approaches utilized in developing four different materials and system technologies that use innovative new manufacturing techniques to meet mission needs. 3-D weaving and felt manufacturing allowed us to successfully propose new ways of addressing TPSM challenges. In the 3-D MAT project, we developed and delivered a multi-functional TPS materials solution, in under three years that is an enabler for Lunar Capable Orion Spacecraft. Under the HEEET project, we are developing a robust heat-shield that can withstand extreme entry conditions, both thermally and mechanically, for entry at Venus, Saturn or higher speed sample return missions. The improved efficiency of HEEET allows science missions entry at much reduced G'loads enabling delicate science instruments to be used. The ADEPT concept is a foldable and deployable entry system and the critical component is a multi-functional fabric that is foldable and deployable and also functions as a mechanical aeroshell and a TPS. The fourth technology we will highlight involves felt to address integration challenges of rigid ablative system such as PICA that was used on MSL. The felt technology allows us to develop a compliant TPS for easy

  1. Second-order functional renormalization group approach to one-dimensional systems in real and momentum space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbierski, Björn; Karrasch, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    We devise a functional renormalization group treatment for a chain of interacting spinless fermions which is correct up to second order in interaction strength. We treat both inhomogeneous systems in real space as well as the translationally invariant case in a k -space formalism. The strengths and shortcomings of the different schemes as well as technical details of their implementation are discussed. We use the method to study two proof-of-principle problems in the realm of Luttinger liquid physics, namely, reflection at interfaces and power laws in the occupation number as a function of crystal momentum.

  2. Three order state space modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with energy function definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becherif, M. [University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, SeT-FCLab, UTBM, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Hissel, D. [University of Franche Comte, FEMTO-ST/FCLab, UMR CNRS 6174, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Gaagat, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, Assam (India); Wack, M. [SeT, UTBM, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2010-10-01

    The fuel cell is a complex system which is the centre of a lot of multidisciplinary research activities since it involves intricate application of various fields of study. The operation of a fuel cell depends on a wide range of parameters. The effect of one cannot be studied in isolation without disturbing the system which makes it very difficult to comprehend, analyze and predict various phenomena occurring in the fuel cell. In the current work, we present an equivalent electrical circuit of the pneumatics and fluidics in a fuel cell stack. The proposed model is based on the physical phenomena occurring inside fuel cell stack where we define the fluidic-electrical and pneumatic-electrical analogy. The effect of variation in temperature and relative humidity on the cell are considered in this model. The proposed model, according to the considered hypothesis, is a simple three order state space model which is suitable for the control purpose where a desired control structure can be formulated for high-end applications of the fuel cell as a subpart of a larger system, for instance, in hybrid propulsion of vehicles coupled with batteries and supercapacitors. Another key point of our work is the definition of the natural fuel cell stack energy function. The circuit analysis equations are presented and the simulated model is validated using the experimental data obtained using the fuel cell test bench available in Fuel Cell Laboratory, France. (author)

  3. Three order state space modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell with energy function definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherif, M.; Hissel, D.; Gaagat, S.; Wack, M.

    The fuel cell is a complex system which is the centre of a lot of multidisciplinary research activities since it involves intricate application of various fields of study. The operation of a fuel cell depends on a wide range of parameters. The effect of one cannot be studied in isolation without disturbing the system which makes it very difficult to comprehend, analyze and predict various phenomena occurring in the fuel cell. In the current work, we present an equivalent electrical circuit of the pneumatics and fluidics in a fuel cell stack. The proposed model is based on the physical phenomena occurring inside fuel cell stack where we define the fluidic-electrical and pneumatic-electrical analogy. The effect of variation in temperature and relative humidity on the cell are considered in this model. The proposed model, according to the considered hypothesis, is a simple three order state space model which is suitable for the control purpose where a desired control structure can be formulated for high-end applications of the fuel cell as a subpart of a larger system, for instance, in hybrid propulsion of vehicles coupled with batteries and supercapacitors. Another key point of our work is the definition of the natural fuel cell stack energy function. The circuit analysis equations are presented and the simulated model is validated using the experimental data obtained using the fuel cell test bench available in Fuel Cell Laboratory, France.

  4. An analysis of smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.W.; Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Mello, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) is a gridless Lagrangian technique which is appealing as a possible alternative to numerical techniques currently used to analyze high deformation impulsive loading events. In the present study, the SPH algorithm has been subjected to detailed testing and analysis to determine its applicability in the field of solid dynamics. An important result of the work is a rigorous von Neumann stability analysis which provides a simple criterion for the stability or instability of the method in terms of the stress state and the second derivative of the kernel function. Instability, which typically occurs only for solids in tension, results not from the numerical time integration algorithm, but because the SPH algorithm creates an effective stress with a negative modulus. The analysis provides insight into possible methods for removing the instability. Also, SPH has been coupled into the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO, and a weighted residual derivation of the SPH equations has been obtained.

  5. On the dynamic smoothing of mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, S.; Porporato, A.

    2017-06-01

    After their formation, mountainous landscapes gradually evolve toward smoother geometries controlled by the interplay of erosion and sedimentation. The statistical mechanical properties of this process and the link between topography and geology have remained largely unexplored. We analyze the slope statistics of different mountains worldwide, showing that landscape age is fingerprinted in their distribution tails. Data reveal a universal relaxation process, through an algebraic decay progressively replaced by an exponential one, with exponents described by a global monotonic function. We then investigate the dominant components of this dynamic smoothing using a landscape evolution model, showing that the time evolution of slope statistics results from a delicate balance between diffusive soil creep, noise, and advective river incision, with the relaxation phase mainly dominated by diffusion. Results may suggest ways to formulate reduced order topographic evolution models for geomorphological and climatological applications, and to explore similarities in surface evolution in different contexts.

  6. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Gallacher, John; Palmer, Stephen; Fone, David

    2014-03-19

    The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity physical function living in

  7. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: results from Gujarat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-10-01

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log-log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from {f}-1.23 to {f}-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a {f}-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an {f}-1.76 spectrum. This suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  8. Smoothing the payoff for efficient computation of Basket option prices

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian

    2017-07-22

    We consider the problem of pricing basket options in a multivariate Black–Scholes or Variance-Gamma model. From a numerical point of view, pricing such options corresponds to moderate and high-dimensional numerical integration problems with non-smooth integrands. Due to this lack of regularity, higher order numerical integration techniques may not be directly available, requiring the use of methods like Monte Carlo specifically designed to work for non-regular problems. We propose to use the inherent smoothing property of the density of the underlying in the above models to mollify the payoff function by means of an exact conditional expectation. The resulting conditional expectation is unbiased and yields a smooth integrand, which is amenable to the efficient use of adaptive sparse-grid cubature. Numerical examples indicate that the high-order method may perform orders of magnitude faster than Monte Carlo or Quasi Monte Carlo methods in dimensions up to 35.

  9. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part II: N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Seljak, Uroš; McDonald, Patrick; Desjacques, Vincent

    2012-02-01

    Measurement of redshift-space distortions (RSD) offers an attractive method to directly probe the cosmic growth history of density perturbations. A distribution function approach where RSD can be written as a sum over density weighted velocity moment correlators has recently been developed. In this paper we use results of N-body simulations to investigate the individual contributions and convergence of this expansion for dark matter. If the series is expanded as a function of powers of μ, cosine of the angle between the Fourier mode and line of sight, then there are a finite number of terms contributing at each order. We present these terms and investigate their contribution to the total as a function of wavevector k. For μ2 the correlation between density and momentum dominates on large scales. Higher order corrections, which act as a Finger-of-God (FoG) term, contribute 1% at k ~ 0.015hMpc-1, 10% at k ~ 0.05hMpc-1 at z = 0, while for k > 0.15hMpc-1 they dominate and make the total negative. These higher order terms are dominated by density-energy density correlations which contributes negatively to the power, while the contribution from vorticity part of momentum density auto-correlation adds to the total power, but is an order of magnitude lower. For μ4 term the dominant term on large scales is the scalar part of momentum density auto-correlation, while higher order terms dominate for k > 0.15hMpc-1. For μ6 and μ8 we find it has very little power for k < 0.15hMpc-1, shooting up by 2-3 orders of magnitude between k < 0.15hMpc-1 and k < 0.4hMpc-1. We also compare the expansion to the full 2-d Pss(k,μ), as well as to the monopole, quadrupole, and hexadecapole integrals of Pss(k,μ). For these statistics an infinite number of terms contribute and we find that the expansion achieves percent level accuracy for kμ < 0.15hMpc-1 at 6-th order, but breaks down on smaller scales because the series is no longer perturbative. We explore resummation of the terms into

  10. [Phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernous smooth musle cells and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Lü, Bo-dong; Huang, Xiao-jun

    2010-03-01

    Corpus cavernous smooth muscle cells are the main functional component of the corpus cavernosum penis, whose phenotypic modulation is the key initial step in the proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells. Therefore, an insight into the mechanism of the phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells and its influencing factors is important for the prevention and management of penis erectile dysfunction. Smooth muscle cells are generally divided into contracting (differentiated) and composing (undifferentiated, proliferated or dedifferentiated) types. It is found that TGF-beta, transcription factor E2F1, BTEB2 and insulin may affect the phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells. This paper presents an overview of the progress in the researches on the phenotypic modulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle cells and its influencing factors.

  11. Context-dependent functional dispersion across similar ranges of trait space covered by intertidal rocky shore communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Nelson; Segovia-Rivera, Viviana; Fica, Eliseo; Bonta, César C; Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2017-03-01

    Functional diversity is intimately linked with community assembly processes, but its large-scale patterns of variation are often not well understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal changes in multiple trait dimensions ("trait space") along vertical intertidal environmental stress gradients and across a landscape scale. We predicted that the range of the trait space covered by local assemblages (i.e., functional richness) and the dispersion in trait abundances (i.e., functional dispersion) should increase from high- to low-intertidal elevations, due to the decreasing influence of environmental filtering. The abundance of macrobenthic algae and invertebrates was estimated at four rocky shores spanning ca. 200 km of the coast over a 36-month period. Functional richness and dispersion were contrasted against matrix-swap models to remove any confounding effect of species richness on functional diversity. Random-slope models showed that functional richness and dispersion significantly increased from high- to low-intertidal heights, demonstrating that under harsh environmental conditions, the assemblages comprised similar abundances of functionally similar species (i.e., trait convergence), while that under milder conditions, the assemblages encompassed differing abundances of functionally dissimilar species (i.e., trait divergence). According to the Akaike information criteria, the relationship between local environmental stress and functional richness was persistent across sites and sampling times, while functional dispersion varied significantly. Environmental filtering therefore has persistent effects on the range of trait space covered by these assemblages, but context-dependent effects on the abundances of trait combinations within such range. Our results further suggest that natural and/or anthropogenic factors might have significant effects on the relative abundance of functional traits, despite that no trait addition or extinction is detected.

  12. Porcine Stomach Smooth Muscle Force Depends on History-Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Tomalka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The stomach serves as food reservoir, mixing organ and absorption area for certain substances, while continually varying its position and size. Large dimensional changes during ingestion and gastric emptying of the stomach are associated with large changes in smooth muscle length. These length changes might induce history-effects, namely force depression (FD following active muscle shortening and force enhancement (FE following active muscle stretch. Both effects have impact on the force generating capacity of the stomach, and thus functional relevance. However, less is known about history-effects and active smooth muscle properties of stomach smooth muscle. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical muscle properties as force-length and force-velocity relations (FVR of porcine stomach smooth muscle strips, extended by the analysis of history-effects on smooth muscle force. Therefore, in total n = 54 tissue strips were dissected in longitudinal direction from the ventral fundus of porcine stomachs. Different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed during electrical muscle stimulation. Cross-sectional areas (CSA of smooth muscles were determined from cryo-histological sections stained with Picrosirius Red. Results revealed that maximum smooth muscle tension was 10.4 ± 2.6 N/cm2. Maximum shortening velocity (Vmax and curvature factor (curv of the FVR were 0.04 ± 0.01 [optimum muscle length/s] and 0.36 ± 0.15, respectively. The findings of the present study demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 FD [up to 32% maximum muscle force (Fim] and FE (up to 16% Fim of gastric muscle tissue, respectively. The FE- and FD-values increased with increasing ramp amplitude. This outstanding muscle behavior is not accounted for in existing models so far and strongly supports the idea of a holistic reflection of distinct stomach structure and function. For the first time this study provides a comprehensive set of

  13. Autoregressive smoothing of GOMOS transmittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussen, D.; Vanhellemont, F.; Bingen, C.; Kyrölä, B.; Tamminen, J.; Sofieva, V.; Hassinen, S.; Seppälä, A.; Verronen, P. T.; Bertaux, J. L.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; d'Andon, O. Fanton; Barrot, G.; Mangin, A.; Theodore, B.; Guirlet, M.; Renard, J. B.; Fraisse, R.; Snoeij, P.; Koopman, R.; Saavedra, L.

    GOMOS is a stellar occultation instrument onboard ENVISAT. It has already measured several hundreds of thousands occultations since March 2002. In some circumstances, the obliqueness of the star setting causes the remote sounding of possible horizontal turbulence that cannot be adequately corrected by using the fast photometer signals, leading to the presence of residual scintillation in the atmospheric transmittance. We investigate the mechanism that produces this spurious signal that may cause the retrieval of wavy constituent profiles. A special algorithm of vertical autoregressive smoothing (VAS) is proposed that takes into account the physical correlation between adjacent measurements at different tangent altitudes. A regularization parameter of the method may be optimized on basis of the minimal correlation between the residuals as prescribed by the Durbin-Watson statistics. The improvements obtained in the retrieval of both O 3 and NO 2 number density profiles is presented and discussed with respect to the results of the official data processing model.

  14. Changes in neuroreceptor funtion of tracheal smooth muscle following acute ozone exposure of guinea pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, H.J.M.; Voss, H.P.; Kramer, K.; Boere, A.J.F.; Dormans, J.A.M.A.; van Bree, L.; Bast, A.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effect of in vivo ozone inhalation (3 ppm, 2 h) on neuroreceptor function in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle in vitro and the role of the epithelial layer in this process. Changes in smooth muscle tension after stimulation of the muscarinic- and β-adrenergic receptor were recorded

  15. Study of limit cycles in piecewise smooth perturbations of Hamiltonian centers via regularization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we study the existence and positions of limit cycles in piecewise smooth perturbations of planar Hamiltonian centers. By using the regularization method we provide an analytical expression for the first order Melnikov function frequently used in the literature directly from the original non-smooth problem.

  16. Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector p-Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth ...

  17. Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector -Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth conditions on ...

  18. Manual control in space research on perceptual-motor functions under zero gravity conditions (L-10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Are human abilities to control vehicles and other machines the same in space as those on Earth? The L-10 Manual Control Experiment of the First Materials Processing Tests (FMPT) started from this question. Suppose a pilot has the task to align the head of a space vehicle toward a target. His actions are to look at the target, to determine the vehicle movement, and to operate the manipulator. If the activity of the nervous system were the same as on Earth, the movements, of the eye and hand would become excessive because the muscles do not have to oppose gravity. The timing and amount of movement must be arranged for appropriate actions. The sensation of motion would also be affected by the loss of gravity because the mechanism of the otolith, the major acceleration sensor, depends on gravity. The possible instability of the sensation of direction may cause mistakes in the direction of control of manipulator movement. Thus, the experimental data can be used for designing man-machine systems in space, as well as for investigation of physiological mechanisms. In this experiment, the direction of vehicle heading is expressed by a light spot on an array of light emitting diodes and the manipulator is of a finger stick type. As the light spot moves up and down, the Japanese Payload Specialist, and the subject, must move the manipulator forward and backward to keep the movement of the light spot within the neighborhood of the central point of the display. The position of the light spot is computed in such a manner that when the stick is kept at the neutral position, a motion whose acceleration is proportional to the angle of deflection is added to the movement of the light spot. The Operator Describing Function, which is an expression of human control characteristics, can be calculated from 2 minutes of raw data of the light spot position and stick deflection. The 2 minutes of operation is called a run, and 8 runs with resting periods composes a session. The on

  19. Dual conformal transformations of smooth holographic Wilson loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekel, Amit [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-01-19

    We study dual conformal transformations of minimal area surfaces in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} corresponding to holographic smooth Wilson loops and some other related observables. To act with dual conformal transformations we map the string solutions to the dual space by means of T-duality, then we apply a conformal transformation and finally T-dualize back to the original space. The transformation maps between string solutions with different boundary contours. The boundary contours of the minimal surfaces are not mapped back to the AdS boundary, and the regularized area of the surface changes.

  20. Wigner’s phase-space function and atomic structure: II. Ground states for closed-shell atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1987-01-01

    display and analyze the function for the closed-shell atoms helium, beryllium, neon, argon, and zinc in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The quantum-mechanical exact results are compared with those obtained with the approximate Thomas-Fermi description of electron densities in phase space....