WorldWideScience

Sample records for smoking status presence

  1. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  2. Smoking status and the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Smoking, with a prevalence ranging from 42% to 91%, and secondhand smoke (SHS), with a high exposure level of 3 to 11 μg/m, are frequently seen in prisons. We aimed at investigating the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among inmates and prison staff. This study included prisoners and prison staff in Bolvadin Closed and Open Prison in Turkey. All volunteers went through a standard spirometry and completed the Fagerstrom Test for nicotine dependence. A total of 179 volunteers, 109 of whom were prisoners and 70 prison staff, were involved in the study. Average age was 35.6 ± 11.9 years. There were 123 smokers (68.7%), 26 ex-smokers (14.5%), and 30 nonsmokers (16.8%). Up to 89.4% of participants reported that they were exposed to SHS. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) value was found to be 3.68 ± 0.80 (93.9 ± 15.1%), forced vital capacity (FVC) value to be 3.87 ± 0.83 (83.1 ± 14.3%), and FEV1/FVC to be 98.4 ± 19.6. Eighteen inmates and 2 prison staff members had the diagnosis of COPD; 22 prisoners (20.2%) and 4 prison staff members (5.7%) had COPD. There were pulmonary symptoms in 49.2% of the volunteers; the symptoms were statistically higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers (P = 0.000). There was a statistically significant relationship between exposure to SHS and presence of COPD (P = 0.043), and pulmonary symptoms (P = 0.008). The frequency of smoking in this prison was considerably high (68.7%, compared against 22%-31% in non-incarcerated populations). The prevalence of COPD was also found high among inmates (20.2% vs 4.2%-23% in non-incarcerated populations). Therefore, pulmonary symptoms should be examined carefully when screening prisoners, including consideration for the use of lung spirometry and screening for tobacco use disorder.

  3. Preoperative Smoking Status and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Grønkjær; Eliasen, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type.......To systematically review and summarize the evidence of an association between preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type....

  4. [Smoking and educational status in Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, B; Kpebo, O D; Horo, K; N'Gom, A; Godé, C; Ahui, B; Koffi, N; Aka-Danguy, E

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is a scourge that continues to increase in developing countries despite its known consequences. Is the population of the Ivory Coast sufficiently informed about the consequences of smoking? For this reason, we decided to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking among the people of Abidjan. To evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking in the population of Abidjan. To relate this knowledge to the educational level and smoking status. We evaluated knowledge about smoking and its consequences as a function of educational level and smoking status in the population of Abidjan over the age of 15 years. This was undertaken in 3 months, from November 2005 to January 2006, in the two busiest communes in Abidjan. The minimum number of persons required was 1152 but, in fact, we interviewed 1409. The prevalence of smoking was 36.5% with a predominance of males (sex ratio = 3:11). They were mainly young with a mean age of 27.44 years. This population's main sources of information on the ill effects of smoking were the mass media. In general, the subjects did not have a good understanding of smoking and its consequences. With regard to the diseases related to smoking, bronchial carcinoma and cardiovascular disorders were the best known, in 53.1 and 18.1%, respectively. With regard to the components of tobacco, nicotine was the best known (92.6%). Knowledge was related to the level of education: the subjects of a higher educational level were the most knowledgeable about the consequences of smoking. As a result, these subjects were less attached to smoking than the less educated. The consequences of smoking are poorly understood by the general population. With regard to the level of education, the better educated had a better understanding of the effects of smoking and were also those who smoked the least. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Factors Associated with Parents’ Perceptions of Parental Smoking in the Presence of Children and Its Consequences on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parental smoking is the major source of children’s secondhand smoke exposure and is influenced by parents’ perception of children’s exposure. However, the factors associated with these perceptions remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with parents’ perceptions about parental smoking in the presence of children and its consequences. We conducted a cross-sectional study on parents’ perceptions of parental smoking and measured their evaluations of its consequences using a self-report questionnaire. Other variables include socio-demographic characteristics and smoking-related experience. Results show that parents’ gender, education level, occupational type, smoking status, and agreement on a home smoking ban independently predict parents’ evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking in the presence of children. Parents’ gender, education level, annual family income, smoking status, agreement on a home smoking ban, and evaluation of the consequences of parental smoking independently predicted parents’ perceptions. Findings indicated that a specific group expressed greater acceptance of parental smoking and was less aware of its risks. Motivating parents to create a smoke-free home and increasing awareness of the adverse consequences of parental smoking is beneficial in reinforcing attitudes opposed to parental smoking. PMID:23296207

  6. Link between perceived smoking behaviour at school and students smoking status: a large survey among Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, I; D'Egidio, V; Grassucci, D; Gelardini, M; Ardizzone, C; La Torre, G

    2017-10-01

    To investigate a possible link between sociodemographic factors, the perception of smoking habits at school and smoking status of Italian adolescents attending secondary school. The study was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous online survey was employed to gather information on age, gender, smoking status and to examine the perception of smoking behaviour on the school premises. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed for the univariate analysis and logistic and multinomial regressions for the multivariate analysis. The statistical analyses included 1889 students. Univariate analysis showed significant differences concerning knowledge between smoker and non-smoker concerning the harmfulness of smoking (P smoking at school (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89]). Students older than 19 years most often begin smoking because their friends smoke compared with younger students (adjusted odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval 0.48-2.89]). School environment and behaviour of role models play a crucial part in student smoking. To prevent and reduce youth tobacco smoking, not merely the presence of preventive measures is important but greater attention needs to be placed on the enforcement of smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physician smoking status, attitudes toward smoking, and cessation advice to patients: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipe, Andrew; Sorensen, Michelle; Reid, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The smoking status of physicians can impact interactions with patients about smoking. The 'Smoking: The Opinions of Physicians' (STOP) survey examined whether an association existed between physician smoking status and beliefs about smoking and cessation and a physician's clinical interactions with patients relevant to smoking cessation, and perceptions of barriers to assisting with quitting. General and family practitioners across 16 countries were surveyed via telephone or face-to-face interviews using a convenience-sample methodology. Physician smoking status was self-reported. Of 4473 physicians invited, 2836 (63%) participated in the survey, 1200 (42%) of whom were smokers. Significantly fewer smoking than non-smoking physicians volunteered that smoking was a harmful activity (64% vs 77%; Pnon-smoking physicians identified willpower (37% vs 32%; P<0.001) and lack of interest (28% vs 22%; P<0.001) as barriers to quitting, more smoking physicians saw stress as a barrier (16% vs 10%; P<0.001). Smoking physicians are less likely to initiate cessation interventions. There is a need for specific strategies to encourage smoking physicians to quit, and to motivate all practitioners to adopt systematic approaches to assisting with smoking cessation.

  8. The Importance of Partner Support and Psychological Status in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The habit of smoking is more common in members of a family living in the same house. People with psychiatric symptoms smoke more cigarettes. We conducted a study to examine whether the psychological status of couples and partner support affects smoking cessation success. Methods: The outpatients who started taking a therapy for smoking cessation between July 2014 and January 2015 in our clinic were included in this prospective, single-center study. Each couple was assessed on the basis of the Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS and Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS. The smoking status of the participants was assessed after 6 months, and they filled out the Partner Interaction Questionnaire (PIQ. Results: Of 141 volunteers, 55% joined the smoking cessation program as couples. A total of 55.3% of the participants managed to quit smoking. Further, 42.3% of couples quitted smoking. Nearly 96.2% of couples had the same result regarding smoking cessation. The smoking cessation rate was significantly lower in couples with high anxiety depression scores (participant: p=0.028 and 0.037; partner: p=0.003 and 0.007, smoker partners (p<0.01, and participants with low marital adjustments (p<0.01. Logistic regression analysis showed that the independent parameters affecting smoking cessation success were support and the smoking status of partners (p<0.001 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: Partner support and psychological status were important parameters associated with smoking cessation. The presence of non-smoker partners made quitting smoking easier. Reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms and support of partners may help in smoking cessation.

  9. The impact of smoking status on the health status of heart failure patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conard, Mark W

    2012-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Yet, little is known about smoking\\'s effects on the health status of established HF patients. HF patients were recruited from outpatient clinics across North America. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) was used to assess disease-specific health status. Smoking behaviors were classified as never having smoked, prior smoker, and as having smoked within the past 30 days. Risk-adjusted multivariable regression was used to evaluate the association of smoking status with baseline and 1-year KCCQ overall summary scores. Smoking was not associated with baseline health status. However, a significant effect was observed on 1-year health status among outpatients with HF with current smokers reporting significantly lower KCCQ scores than never smokers or ex-smokers. These findings highlight an additional adverse consequence of smoking in HF patients not previously discussed.

  10. [Smoking status among urban family and the measures of smoking control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ciyin; Ma, Grace; Zhai, Chengkai; Cao, Pei

    2009-01-01

    To find out the smoking status among the families and their members, in order to hold their knowledge, attitude, practice on smoking and its influence and to put forward the countermeasure of smoking Control. A questionnaire surveys were conducted among 419 people which came from 419 families. 409 qualified questionnaire were obtained. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, test and logistic analysis. The family current smoking rates were 68.2%, the smoking rates of past family were 90.2%, the current smoking rates of individual were 31.5%, the individual past smoking rates were 39.9%. Those who attempted smoking under the age of 18 years accounted for 46.6%. Those who smoked their first cigarette from friends accounted for 48.1%. The comparisons of knowledge, attitude between smoking-ever family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P attitude between smoking family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P < 0.05). Those who were married women, and had career had high score of KAP. The contents of education of the decreases of smoking rates were on the following: (1) Smoking damages health. (2) Smoking should not be used as means of communication. (3) Feel offensive when someone smoking around. (4) Most persons still don't smoke. The key place of smoking control could be family. Smoking control could depend on married female. The key crowd of tobacco control could be children and youngsters. Not offering smoke and not advise others to smoking could be the key measures of smoking control.

  11. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Szatko, Franciszek

    2017-09-21

    The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles ( p < 0.05). Those aware of the fact that smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned ( p < 0.05). The study results highlight the need for programs and policies to eliminate involuntary smoking among young people.

  12. Involuntary Smoking in Adolescents, Their Awareness of Its Harmfulness, and Attitudes towards Smoking in the Presence of Non-Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine involuntary smoking among young people, their awareness of its harmfulness and the factors associated with attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3552 students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland. Almost 40% of the participants were exposed to involuntary smoking at home and 60% outside of home on a daily or almost daily basis. More than 80% of the students felt that smoking should be banned around children at home, 59% thought it should be banned in vehicles, and 41% in the presence of non-smokers. The majority of the students were aware of the health consequences of active smoking, and 69% understood the threats of passive smoking. Females, never-smokers and current non-smokers, as well as those without smoking parents were more likely to claim that smoking should be banned at home and in vehicles (p < 0.05. Those aware of the fact that smoking was harmful to health, who discussed those issues with their parents and teachers, and who saw school tobacco control policies, were more likely to maintain that passive smoking should be banned (p < 0.05. The study results highlight the need for programs and policies to eliminate involuntary smoking among young people.

  13. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...

  14. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.

  15. Exploration of Incarcerated Men's and Women's Attitudes of Smoking in the Presence of Children and Pregnant Women: Is There a Disparity Between Smoking Attitudes and Smoking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Roberts, Mary B; van den Berg, Jacob J; Bock, Beth; Stein, Lyn A R; Martin, Rosemarie A; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2016-05-01

    A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults' attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes. Two hundred forty-seven incarcerated adults participated in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial in a tobacco-free prison. An instrument was developed to examine smoking attitudes and behaviors around children and pregnant women. Moderating effects of smoking factors on post-release abstinence were examined by evaluating interactions between smoking factors and treatment group. Four factors were defined using factor analysis: smoking around children; impact of smoking on child's health; awareness of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk for pregnant women; and importance of smoking avoidance during pregnancy. We found moderation effects of smoking factors on smoking outcomes which included: treatment group by smoking behavior around children (β = 0.8085; standard error [SE] = 0.4002; P = .04); treatment group by impact of smoking on child's health (β = 1.2390; SE = 0.5632; P = .03) and for those smoking 50% fewer cigarettes post-release, treatment group by smoking impact on child's health (β = 1.2356; SE = 0.4436; P smoking around children and pregnant women and awareness of ETS risk for pregnant women was not found to be significantly associated with smoking outcomes and requires additional investigation. Among individuals who continue to smoke post-release, effective ETS interventions are needed aimed at protecting children and pregnant women with whom they live. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  16. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective produc...

  17. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with smoke-free laws but not urban/rural status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hwang, Yunhyung; Hahn, Ellen J; Bratset, Hilarie; Robertson, Heather; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with and without smoke-free laws in urban and rural communities. The research hypothesis was that SHS exposure in public places could be improved by smoke-free law regardless of urban and rural status. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in 53 communities (16 urban and 37 rural) before smoke-free laws; 12 communities passed smoke-free laws during the study period. Real-time measurements of particulate matter with 2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were taken 657 times from 586 distinct venues; about 71 venues had both pre- and post-law measurements. Predictors of log-transformed PM2.5 level were determined using multilevel modeling. With covariates of county-level percent minority population, percent with at least high school education, adult smoking rate, and venue-level smoker density, indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type and their interaction. The geometric means for restaurants, bars, and other public places in communities without smoke-free policies were 22, 63, and 25 times higher than in those with smoke-free laws, respectively. Indoor air quality was not associated with urban status of venue, and none of the interactions involving urban status were significant. SHS exposure in public places did not differ by urban/rural status. Indoor air quality was associated with smoke-free law status and venue type. This study analyzed 657 measurements of indoor PM2.5 level in 53 communities in Kentucky, USA. Although indoor air quality in public places was associated with smoke-free policy status and venue type, it did not differ by urban and rural status. The finding supports the idea that population in rural communities can be protected with smoke-free policy. Therefore, it is critical to implement smoke-free policy in rural communities as well as urban areas.

  18. Validity of subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Bender,* Patrick Haubruck,* Sonja Boxriker, Sebastian Korff, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine.  Methods: We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated.  Results: Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23% and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6% had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL, whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL. Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up.  Conclusion: In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk

  19. The effect of smoking status on burn inhalation injury mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlin, Laquanda; Stanford, Lindsay; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Three factors that effect burn mortality are age, total body surface of burn (TBSA), and inhalation injury. Of the three, inhalation injury is the strongest predictor of mortality thus its inclusion in the revised Baux score (age+TBSA+17* (inhalation injury, 1=yes, 0=no)). However, the weighted contribution of specific comorbidities such as smoker status on mortality has traditionally not been accounted for nor studied in this subset of burn patients. We therefore sought to examine the impact of current tobacco and/or marijuana smoking in patients with inhalation injury. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002 to 2012. Independent variables analyzed included basic demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, TBSA, pre-existing comorbidities, and smoker status. Bivariate analysis was performed and logistic regression modeling using significant variables was utilized to estimate odds of mortality. There were a total of 7640 patients over the study period. 7% (n=580) of the burn cohort with inhalation injury were included in this study. In-hospital burn mortality for inhalation injury patients was 23%. Current smokers (20%) included cigarette smokers and marijuana users, 19% and 3%, respectively. Preexisting respiratory disease (17%) was present in 36% of smokers compared to 13% of non-smokers (psmoke inhalation injury. Future prospective studies in human and/or animal models are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Social influences on smoking in American workers: the role of the presence of smokers in the workplace and in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole K; Holahan, Charles J; Li, Xiaoyin; Jung, Sooin

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence of smokers in the workplace and smokers in the home and current smoking status among employed men and women. Analysis of data from the second wave of the nationally representative Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2006). Sample of 627 currently employed men and women, aged 34 to 82 (M = 51), who had been regular cigarette smokers at some time. Survey items indexing presence of smokers in the respondents' immediate work area and home and their current smoking status. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, gender, education, race, and job type. Examined together, smokers in the workplace (OR = 2.83) and smokers in the home (OR = 6.09) were uniquely associated with current smoking status. Moreover, smokers in the home reduced the association between smokers in the workplace and current smoking. The presence of smokers in the workplace was associated with a more than fourfold increase in current smoking among respondents with no smokers in the home, but was unrelated to current smoking among respondents with smokers in the home. Failure to consider the presence of smokers in the home significantly limits the potential impact of workplace smoking interventions.

  1. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  2. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Hormone-metabolic status in moderately smoking breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tsyrlina, E V; Semiglazov, V F; Kovalenko, I G; Gamayunova, V B; Evtushenko, T P; Ivanova, O A

    1997-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen primary breast cancer (BC) patients, 35 of whom were smokers, in clinical stages I-II of the disease were examined. In order to investigate whether smoking changes endocrine function in BC patients, some indices of the hormone-metabolic status of smoking and non-smoking patients of reproductive and menopausal age were compared. It was found that in smokers with BC there was a decline in body weight and body fat content, a lack of lean body mass accumulation along with body mass increase, a tendency to hypotriglyceridemia and hypoinsulinemia, accelerated development of the upper type of body fat distribution with ageing, intensified gonadotropin secretion, shifts in steroidogenesis and SHBG level and elevated catecholamine execretion. It is suggested that a possible relation between hormone-mediated effects inherent to smoking and the mechanisms promoting genotoxic type of hormonal carcinogenesis and the factors of breast cancer prognosis cannot be excluded.

  4. [Smoking in the presence of infants; a survey among parents attending well-baby clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasing, R A; Gena, S A; Simon, J G; Kossen-Boot, H; Meulmeester, J F; van den Oudenrijn, C

    1994-07-09

    To determine the exposure to cigarette smoke of infants aged 0-14 months. Cross-sectional. The area of Westfriesland, the Netherlands. All parents of infants 8 days, 3, 5, 9, and 14 months old who visited the infant welfare centre in 1992 were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in by 75% of the parents. Smoking before pregnancy was reported by 38% of the mothers, 25% smoked for more than 12 weeks during pregnancy. Almost 50% of all infants were exposed to cigarette smoke at home: 31% of the fathers, 27% of the mothers and 21% others smoked at home. The number of parents who smoked > or = 16 cigarettes a day at home was significantly higher in the weekend than on working days. Nobody smoked in the bedroom of the infant, 42% smoked in the living room, 21% smoked during nursing the infant and 11% smoked in the car in the presence of the infant. Infants are often exposed to cigarette smoke at home, during nursing and in the car.

  5. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  6. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  7. Predicting Smoking Status Using Machine Learning Algorithms and Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Frank

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has been proven to negatively affect health in a multitude of ways. As of 2009, smoking has been considered the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, continuing to plague the country’s overall health. This study aims to investigate the viability and effectiveness of some machine learning algorithms for predicting the smoking status of patients based on their blood tests and vital readings results. The analysis of this study is divided into two parts: In part 1, we use One-way ANOVA analysis with SAS tool to show the statistically significant difference in blood test readings between smokers and non-smokers. The results show that the difference in INR, which measures the effectiveness of anticoagulants, was significant in favor of non-smokers which further confirms the health risks associated with smoking. In part 2, we use five machine learning algorithms: Naïve Bayes, MLP, Logistic regression classifier, J48 and Decision Table to predict the smoking status of patients. To compare the effectiveness of these algorithms we use: Precision, Recall, F-measure and Accuracy measures. The results show that the Logistic algorithm outperformed the four other algorithms with Precision, Recall, F-Measure, and Accuracy of 83%, 83.4%, 83.2%, 83.44%, respectively.

  8. [Midwives and smoking--attitudes, smoking status and counselling competence in the course of training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, K; Laux, M; Koch, F; Groneberg, D A; Kusma, B; Schwarz, C; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Midwives can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use among pregnant women and young families. It can be assumed that personal smoking behaviour and knowledge of harmful effects influences counselling activities. The aim of this study was to assess smoking status, nicotine dependency and the will to change of midwifery students in german-speaking countries. Broad data on this population is not available so far. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian, German and Swiss midwifery schools. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, personal attitudes towards smoking, knowledge of cessation strategies, perceived self-efficacy and competence to counsel pregnant women regarding their smoking habits of midwifery trainees were examined. 1 126 students and 38 teaching midwives answered this questionnaire (RR=61.8%). 22.7% are daily or occasional smokers. 6.8% have to be considered as medium and heavy smokers. 98.1% consider cessation counselling for pregnant and breast-feeding women as a midwife's task, while 76.5% feel competent enough to do so. 75.5% rate cessation counselling through midwives as effective stop-smoking procedures compared to blurry knowledge on related health risks and effective stop-smoking strategies. The self-reported smoking prevalence is considerably lower than in previous studies and other populations. Knowledge of harmful effects and of effective treatment options needs improvement. Counselling competence needs to be included in a broader way in midwifery curricula. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective productivity and absenteeism data were supplied by the employer. Subjective assessments of productivity were collected using a self report instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ).
RESULTS—Current smokers had significantly greater absenteeism than did never smokers, with former smokers having intermediate values; among former smokers, absenteeism showed a significant decline with years following cessation. Former smokers showed an increase in seven of 10 objective productivity measures as compared to current smokers, with a mean increase of 4.5%. While objective productivity measures for former smokers decreased compared to measures for current smokers during the first year following cessation, values for former smokers were greater than those for current smokers by 1-4 years following cessation. Subjective assessments of "productivity evaluation by others" and "personal life satisfaction" showed significant trends with highest values for never smokers, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for former smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—Workplace productivity is increased and absenteeism is decreased among former smokers as compared to current smokers. Productivity among former smokers increases over time toward values seen among never smokers. Subjective measures of productivity provide indications of novel ways of productivity assessment that are sensitive to smoking status.


Keywords: smoking cessation; workplace; absenteeism; productivity

  10. Exploration of parental smokers' experience, perceptions, and family's influences on their smoking in the presence of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chung, Mei-Chen; Hsiao, Fei-Hsiu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore parents' experience and perceptions of smoking in the presence of children. Findings regarding patterns of parents' smoking in the presence of children were situation specific. When thinking of smoking with children around, parents engaged in a process of weighing the importance of the need to smoke and adverse effects from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, a consideration based mostly on their experience. A pattern of correspondence was identified between family's level of concern and promoting change among smokers. Many strategies participants used to prevent children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure were relatively ineffective and needed to be addressed.

  11. Smoking-attributable medical expenditures by age, sex, and smoking status estimated using a relative risk approach☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciosek, Michael V.; Xu, Xin; Butani, Amy L.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To accurately assess the benefits of tobacco control interventions and to better inform decision makers, knowledge of medical expenditures by age, gender, and smoking status is essential. Method We propose an approach to distribute smoking-attributable expenditures by age, gender, and cigarette smoking status to reflect the known risks of smoking. We distribute hospitalization days for smoking-attributable diseases according to relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality, and use the method to determine national estimates of smoking-attributable expenditures by age, sex, and cigarette smoking status. Sensitivity analyses explored assumptions of the method. Results Both current and former smokers ages 75 and over have about 12 times the smoking-attributable expenditures of their current and former smoker counterparts 35–54 years of age. Within each age group, the expenditures of formers smokers are about 70% lower than current smokers. In sensitivity analysis, these results were not robust to large changes to the relative risks of smoking-attributable mortality which were used in the calculations. Conclusion Sex- and age-group-specific smoking expenditures reflect observed disease risk differences between current and former cigarette smokers and indicate that about 70% of current smokers’ excess medical care costs is preventable by quitting. PMID:26051203

  12. Factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act (Taiwan) was amended to more effectively restrict smoking in indoor public places and workplaces in Taiwan. However, the lack of prohibitions for smoking in private homes may place family members at increased risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The aim of our study was to determine the factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Methods In 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study of factors associated with parental smoking in the presence of children at home in Taiwan using self-administered questionnaires. Quota sampling was used to select five primary schools from four different regions of Taiwan. Parents were surveyed to identify parental smokers and 307 parental smokers were selected for participation in our study. Questionnaire data regarding parental smoking in the presence of children at home and related interactions among family members were analyzed. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the best-fit model for examining the relationships among the variables related to parental smoking in the presence of children at home. Results Two-thirds of parents who smoked reported smoking in the presence of their children. The results of the hierarchical logistic regression analysis identified the smokers’ compliance with their family’s antismoking responses, mutual agreement with smoking bans, daily smoking, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day, the education level of the parental smoker, and the annual family income as determinants of smoking in the presence of children at home. Conclusions Households with smoking parents should be targeted for interventions to encourage the adoption and enforcement of home smoking bans. Educational interventions that promote smoke-free homes for children and provide support to help parents stop smoking are critical factors in reducing the frequency of children’s ETS exposure in the home. PMID

  13. Assessment of maternal smoking status during pregnancy and the associations with neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rachel; Kruithof, Claudia; Steegers, Eric A P; Tiemeier, Henning; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-12-01

    Single assessment of smoking during pregnancy may lead to misclassification due to underreporting or failure of smoking cessation. We examined the percentage of mothers who were misclassified in smoking status based on single assessment, as compared with repeated assessment, and whether this misclassification leads to altered effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal complications. This study was performed in 5,389 mothers participating in a prospective population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Smoking status was assessed 3 times during pregnancy using questionnaires. Information on birth weight and neonatal complications was obtained from hospital records. For categorizing mothers per smoking status, Cohen's Kappa coefficient was .86 (p pregnancy, 1.7% (70 of 4,141) and 33.7% (217 of 643), respectively, were reclassified to continued smoking based on repeated assessment. Younger, shorter lower educated mothers who had non-European ethnicity experienced more stress, consumed more alcohol, and did not use folic acid supplements had higher risk of underreporting their smoking status or failure of smoking cessation. Marginal differences were found on the associations of maternal smoking with neonatal complications between single or repeated assessment. Our results suggest that single assessment of smoking during pregnancy leads to underestimation of the continued smoking prevalence, especially among mothers who reported quitting smoking in first trimester. However, this underestimation does not materially change the effect estimates for the associations between maternal smoking and neonatal outcomes.

  14. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand sm...

  15. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  16. A structural equation modeling approach to understanding pathways that connect socioeconomic status and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sydney A; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Wagener, Theodore L; Terrell, Deirdra R; Campbell, Janis E

    2018-01-01

    The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status) that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.

  17. Exploration of Incarcerated Men’s and Women’s Attitudes of Smoking in the Presence of Children and Pregnant Women: Is There a Disparity Between Smoking Attitudes and Smoking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary B.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Bock, Beth; Stein, Lyn A. R.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: A major health challenge facing persons who are incarcerated is tobacco smoking. Upon reentry to the community, concerns regarding smoking cessation may be less likely to receive needed attention. Many individuals have partners who are pregnant and/or reside in households where children and pregnant women live. We explored incarcerated adults’ attitudes of smoking in the presence of children and pregnant women and how post-release smoking behaviors are influenced by their attitudes. Methods: Two hundred forty-seven incarcerated adults participated in a smoking cessation randomized clinical trial in a tobacco-free prison. An instrument was developed to examine smoking attitudes and behaviors around children and pregnant women. Moderating effects of smoking factors on post-release abstinence were examined by evaluating interactions between smoking factors and treatment group. Results: Four factors were defined using factor analysis: smoking around children; impact of smoking on child’s health; awareness of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk for pregnant women; and importance of smoking avoidance during pregnancy. We found moderation effects of smoking factors on smoking outcomes which included: treatment group by smoking behavior around children (β = 0.8085; standard error [ SE ] = 0.4002; P = .04); treatment group by impact of smoking on child’s health (β = 1.2390; SE = 0.5632; P = .03) and for those smoking 50% fewer cigarettes post-release, treatment group by smoking impact on child’s health (β = 1.2356; SE = 0.4436; P smoking around children and pregnant women and awareness of ETS risk for pregnant women was not found to be significantly associated with smoking outcomes and requires additional investigation. Among individuals who continue to smoke post-release, effective ETS interventions are needed aimed at protecting children and pregnant women with whom they live. PMID:26014453

  18. Effect of Smoking Status on Successful Arthrodesis, Clinical Outcome, and Complications After Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Fadhil, Matthew; Chang, Nicholas; Giang, Gloria; Gragnaniello, Cristian; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2018-02-01

    Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a surgical technique indicated for the treatment of several lumbar pathologies. Smoking has been suggested as a possible cause of reduced fusion rates after ALIF, although the literature regarding the impact of smoking status on lumbar spine surgery is not well established. This study aims to assess the impact of perioperative smoking status on the rates of perioperative complications, fusion, and adverse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing ALIF surgery. A retrospective analysis was performed on a prospectively maintained database of 137 patients, all of whom underwent ALIF surgery by the same primary spine surgeon. Smoking status was defined by the presence of active smoking in the 2 weeks before the procedure. Outcome measures included fusion rates, surgical complications, Short-Form 12, and Oswestry Disability Index. Patients were separated into nonsmokers (n = 114) and smokers (n = 23). Univariate analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients with successful fusion differed significantly between the groups (69.6% vs. 85.1%, P = 0.006). Pseudarthrosis rates were shown to be significantly associated with perioperative smoking. Results for other postoperative complications and clinical outcomes were similar for both groups. On multivariate analysis, the rate of failed fusion was significantly greater for smokers than nonsmokers (odds ratio 37.10, P = 0.002). The rate of successful fusion after ALIF surgery was found to be significantly lower for smokers compared with nonsmokers. No significant association was found between smoking status and other perioperative complications or adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  20. [Teenage and adult pregnancy: different correlations between socio-economic status and smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Brigitta; Bácskai, Erika; Gerevich, József; Czobor, Pál

    2013-03-10

    Smoking occurs frequently during pregnancy, thereby putting mother and child at health risks. Low socio-economic status is a risk factor for smoking. To investigate the relationship between smoking and low income in teenage and adult pregnancy, which is an important measure of poor socioeconomic status. The authors used subject-level data from the US NSDUH database, which contains information on pregnancies and smoking. Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher, whereas adult pregnancy with lower prevalence of smoking, compared to the age-matched female population. The association between income and smoking is age-dependent. Among adults there is an inverse relationship (high income -- low-risk of smoking), while in teenage pregnancy smoking increases with income. To investigate in teenage and adult pregnancy the relationship between smoking and low income, which is an important measure of poor socio-economic status. Higher socioeconomic status may be associated with risky behaviour, thereby increasing both the risk of smoking and early pregnancy.

  1. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of smoking among diabetes patients ... of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients were reviewed to assess the prevalence of smoking. ... were the most prevalent race among smokers, compared with Malay and ...

  2. Associations Between Pain, Current Tobacco Smoking, Depression, and Fibromyalgia Status Among Treatment-Seeking Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesling, Jenna; Brummett, Chad M; Meraj, Taha S; Moser, Stephanie E; Hassett, Afton L; Ditre, Joseph W

    2015-07-01

    As smoking impacts physiological pathways in the central nervous system, it is important to consider the association between smoking and fibromyalgia, a pain condition caused predominantly by central nervous system dysfunction. The objectives were to assess the prevalence of current smoking among treatment-seeking chronic pain patients with (FM+) and without (FM-) a fibromyalgia-like phenotype; test the individual and combined influence of smoking and fibromyalgia on pain severity and interference; and examine depression as a mediator of these processes. Questionnaire data from 1566 patients evaluated for a range of conditions at an outpatient pain clinic were used. The 2011 Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia were used to assess the presence of symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Current smoking was reported by 38.7% of FM+ patients compared to 24.7% of FM- patients. FM+ smokers reported higher pain and greater interference compared to FM+ nonsmokers, FM- smokers, and FM- nonsmokers. There was no interaction between smoking and fibromyalgia. Significant indirect effects of fibromyalgia and smoking via greater depression were observed for pain severity and interference. Current smoking and positive fibromyalgia status were associated with greater pain and impairment among chronic pain patients, possibly as a function of depression. Although FM+ smokers report the most negative clinical symptomatology (i.e., high pain, greater interference) smoking does not appear to have a unique association with pain or functioning in FM+ patients, rather the effect is additive. The 38.7% smoking rate in FM+ patients is high, suggesting FM+ smokers present a significant clinical challenge. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  3. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  4. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  5. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-03-03

    Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8) and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3). Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  6. Smoking status and associated factors among male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Leung, Brenda; Tam, Nancy; Xu, Huilan; Gleeson, Suzanne; Wen, Li Ming

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed The smoking rate among male Chinese migrants in Australia is higher than among the general population. This study investigated the smoking rate of male Chinese restaurant workers in metropolitan Sydney, and explored factors associated with smoking and quitting. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by Chinese workers in selected Chinese restaurants in metropolitan Sydney from October-December 2012. Eighty-nine Chinese restaurants were approached and 54 (61%) took part in the study. The questionnaire asked participants about their smoking status, knowledge of and attitudes to smoking and quitting as well as socio-demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was built to assess the associated factors. Results Of the 382 participants who completed the survey, 171 (45%) were current smokers and 50% of current smokers wanted to quit smoking. Participants who spoke Mandarin, had lower English proficiency, did not realise environmental smoke harms children, did not prefer a smoke-free environment or had more than 50% of relatives or friends who smoked were more likely to be current smokers. Participants who were aged 18-29 years, did not understand the benefits of quitting smoking or did not prefer a smoke-free environment were less likely to want to quit. Conclusions Nearly 50% of male Chinese restaurant workers surveyed in this study were current smokers. Key factors associated with the participants' smoking or quitting status are: aged 18-29 years; speaking Mandarin; lower English literacy; and not knowing the dangers of smoking. So what? Tobacco control programs targetted at male Chinese restaurant workers that raise awareness of the harm caused by smoking and the benefits of quitting smoking are required to enhance intention to quit smoking within this population.

  7. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and

  8. Adolescent romantic relationships and change in smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Pollard, Michael S; Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D

    2011-04-01

    Although smoking rates have decreased, smoking among adolescents continues to be a problem. Previous research has shown the importance of peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior but has mostly neglected the impact of adolescent romantic relationships. This study examines the influence of romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers on smoking initiation and cessation over a one-year period using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For initial non-smokers, we examined whether the total length of time in romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers at Wave I, as well as amount of exposure to smoking through romantic partners, predicted smoking initiation at Wave II. Among initial regular smokers, we examined whether these same relationship characteristics predicted smoking cessation at Wave II. These analyses were conducted separately for respondents in any type of romantic relationship, as well as just those respondents in close romantic relationships. Results indicated that, for close romantic relationships, cessation was more likely among smokers with more time in relationships with non-smoking partners. Greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly decreased the likelihood of cessation among initial smokers and increased the likelihood of initiation among initial non-smokers. For all relationships, greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly reduced the likelihood of cessation. These associations held when controlling for best friend smoking, as well as demographic factors and school-level smoking, suggesting that peer-based smoking programs aimed at adolescents should incorporate a focus on romantic relationships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect Of Smoking On Thyroid Status In Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Jalaj Saxena; P N Singh; Uma Srivastavaq; A Q Siddiqui

    1997-01-01

    Research Problem: Whal is Ihe impact of smoking cigarettes on thyroid functions in depression patients. Objective: To estimate T3, T4 and TSH in depressed smokers. Study Design:   Hospital   based clinical  study. Setting: Psychiatry out - door patients. Participants: Depression patients with or without history of smoking. Sample Size:     Twenty five  patients  of depression. Study Variables: Smoking, Non - smoking, T3 , T4 , TSH Statistical Analysis: Student t- test. Result: The patients of...

  10. Smoking status in relation to serum folate and dietary vitamin intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardavas, C.I.; Linardakis, M.K.; Hatzis, C.M.; Malliaraki, N.; Saris, W.H.; Kafatos, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoke itself is an abundant source of free radicals and a major cause of oxidative stress, to which plasma antioxidants function as a vital protective and counterbalancing mechanism. The objective of this study was to investigate into the relationship between smoking status and

  11. [Relation of the blood pressure, lipids and body mass index by smoking status among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Young Soon; Lee, Hea Shoon

    2007-10-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure, lipids and body mass index by smoking status among adolescents. This study was designed as a descriptive correlational study. General and smoking characteristics were collected using a questionnaire. The smoking group consisted of 42 (33%) students and the non smoking group 85 (67%) students. Blood pressure, lipids, height and weight were measured, and body mass index was calculated to kg/m2. The collected data was analyzed by the n(%), chi2-test, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient (SPSS 12.0). 1. The smoking level was different between grade, smoking status among the family, the contentment of their relationship with their parents, school life and teachers. 2. The smoking group's systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index were higher than those of the non smoking group. 3. The smoking amount had a significant positive correlation between total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The result of this study offered basic data to develop intervention programs to prevent hypertension and hyperlipidemia in smoking adolescents.

  12. Smoking status predicts cancer patients' quality of life over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Martinez

    2018-03-01

    These results extend previous findings showing that QOL improves in cancer patients who quit smoking. Specifically, patients who quit smoking experience a greater reduction in depression and pain levels at all time points, and the reduction increases over time. In the case of fatigue, the results suggest that patients experience the greatest improvement with longer (≥ 4 months abstinence.

  13. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the respondents (87%) acknowledged the harmful effects of direct smoking. ... for local authorities to regulate smoking in public places (78%), for government assistance to fanners for tobacco crop replacement (53%) and for an increase in tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health purposes (50%).

  14. Parental education and family status--association with children's cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloudíková, Iva; Hrubá, Drahoslava; Samara, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Social influences are among the most important factors associated with children's and adolescents' smoking. Social norms in families, peer groups, professional and municipal communities influence the individuals ones by the process of socialization obtained mainly by interactions and observations. Especially social context of the home environment expressed by household smoking restriction serves as a socialization mechanism that dissuades from the using of tobacco. Parental anti-smoking socialization practices (their attitudes and knowledge about children smoking, discussion about smoking in appropriate quality and frequency, smoking environment in homes) are influenced by their education and family status. Markers of social environment (the level of mothers' and fathers' education, family status) were investigated during interview with 5th graders included in the cohort participating in the programme "Non-smoking Is Normal". Data about the self-reported exposure to passive smoking at homes and cars were taken into consideration. Information about discussions with parents about smoking, opinions about adults smoking, experimentation with smoking, and concurrent decision about smoking in the future were obtained from 766 children aged 11 years. Those who did not know parental education or family status were excluded from the evaluation. Differences were evaluated using the chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel, Fisher and Yates corrected tests in the statistic software Epi Info, version 6. The level of mothers' and fathers' education significantly influenced the exposure of children to passive smoking. Compared to families of higher educated parents, children living in families with middle and low levels of parents' education were significantly more exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home and in car (RR 1.38; 95% CI 1.04-1.83) and fewer of them live in non-smoking environments. In the whole cohort, 67.5% children have not smoked even one puff yet, 17.2% reported one

  15. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  16. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of smoking among diabetes patients attending Diabetes. Outpatient Clinic at Penang .... (2,547) medical records of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients were .... American Diabetes Association. Standards of ...

  17. Effect Of Smoking On Thyroid Status In Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaj Saxena

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: Whal is Ihe impact of smoking cigarettes on thyroid functions in depression patients. Objective: To estimate T3, T4 and TSH in depressed smokers. Study Design:   Hospital   based clinical  study. Setting: Psychiatry out - door patients. Participants: Depression patients with or without history of smoking. Sample Size:     Twenty five  patients  of depression. Study Variables: Smoking, Non - smoking, T3 , T4 , TSH Statistical Analysis: Student t- test. Result: The patients of both the study group and control group had subnormal T3 but in smokers it was significantly lower than in non - smoker patients. T4 was within the normal range in both the groups, but it was significantly higher in smokers. TSH levels were normal in both the groups of patients and there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: A low T3 state exists in depression with further worsening of the condition in depressed patients who smoke, which might have an impact on therapeutic outcome. Therefore, avoidance of smoking in depression patients is suggested

  18. Smoke-Free Policies Among Asian-American Women: Comparisons by Education Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S.

    2009-01-01

    Background California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. Methods The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (≤ high school graduate) or higher education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Results Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. Conclusions The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments. PMID:19591754

  19. Smoke-free policies among Asian-American women: comparisons by education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice; Wong, Candice; Chen, Moon S

    2009-08-01

    California has significantly decreased racial/ethnic and educational disparities in smoke-free home and indoor work policies. California's ethnic-specific surveys present an opportunity to disaggregate data and examine the impact of California's smoke-free social norm campaign for Asian-American women. The California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese Americans and Korean Americans were conducted in 2003 and analyzed in 2008 to compare women with lower (education status for smoke-free policy adoption and enforcement. Lower-educated and higher-educated women had similar proportions of smoke-free policies at home (58%) or indoor work (90%). However, lower-educated women were more likely than higher-educated women to report anyone ever smoking at home (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.06, 2.48, p=0.03) and exposure during the past 2 weeks at an indoor workplace (OR=2.43, 95% CI= 1.30, 4.55, p=0.005), even after controlling for ethnicity, smoke-free policy, knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure, and acculturation. There was no interaction between education and knowledge about secondhand smoke health harms. The intended consequences of California's tobacco-control efforts have resulted in similar rates of smoke-free policies at home and in indoor work environments among Asian-American women across educational levels. However, an unintended consequence of this success is a disparity in enforcement by educational status, with lower-educated Asian-American women reporting greater smoke exposure despite similar rates of knowledge about the health consequences of secondhand smoke exposure. Besides establishing policies, lower-educated Asian-American women may need to be empowered to assert and enforce their right to smoke-free environments.

  20. Massachusetts Medicaid members that smoked in 2008: Characteristics associated with smoking status in 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis D Henry

    Full Text Available The smoking rate among non-elderly Medicaid enrollees is more than double the rate for those privately insured; smoking-related conditions account for 15% of Medicaid expenditures. Under state health reform, Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth made tobacco cessation treatment available beginning in 2006. We used surveys conducted in 2008 and 2014 to examine changes in smoking abstinence rates among MassHealth members identified as smokers and to identify factors associated with being a former smoker. Members previously identified as smokers were surveyed by mail or phone; 2008 and 2014 samples included 3,116 and 2,971 members, respectively. Surveys collected demographic and health information, asked members whether they smoked cigarettes "every day, some days or not at all', and asked questions to assess smoking intensity among current smokers. The 2014 survey included an open ended-question asking members "what helped the most" in quitting or quit attempts. We observed a significant decrease in members reporting smoking "every/some days" of 15.5 percentage points (p < .0001 from 2008 to 2014, and a significant decrease in smokers reporting smoking "more than 10 cigarettes on days smoked" of 16.7 percentage points (p < .0001. Compared to smokers, former smokers more frequently reported health concerns, the influence of family members, and the use of e-cigarettes as helping the most in quitting. Expanded access to tobacco cessation treatment under the Affordable Care Act may have help to reduce the high smoking rates among Medicaid enrollees. Additionally, smokers' concerns about health and the influence of family and friends provide opportunities for targeted intervention and messaging about quitting.

  1. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ford

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes, daily (24 h average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5 with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  2. Status update: is smoke on your mind? Using social media to assess smoke exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Bonne; Burke, Moira; Lassman, William; Pfister, Gabriele; Pierce, Jeffrey R.

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events. Most current methods for assessing these smoke events (ground-based measurements, satellite observations, and chemical transport modeling) are limited temporally, spatially, and/or by their level of accuracy. In this work, we explore using daily social media posts from Facebook regarding smoke, haze, and air quality to assess population-level exposure for the summer of 2015 in the western US. We compare this de-identified, aggregated Facebook dataset to several other datasets that are commonly used for estimating exposure, such as satellite observations (MODIS aerosol optical depth and Hazard Mapping System smoke plumes), daily (24 h) average surface particulate matter measurements, and model-simulated (WRF-Chem) surface concentrations. After adding population-weighted spatial smoothing to the Facebook data, this dataset is well correlated (R2 generally above 0.5) with the other methods in smoke-impacted regions. The Facebook dataset is better correlated with surface measurements of PM2. 5 at a majority of monitoring sites (163 of 293 sites) than the satellite observations and our model simulation. We also present an example case for Washington state in 2015, for which we combine this Facebook dataset with MODIS observations and WRF-Chem-simulated PM2. 5 in a regression model. We show that the addition of the Facebook data improves the regression model's ability to predict surface concentrations. This high correlation of the Facebook data with surface monitors and our Washington state example suggests that this social-media-based proxy can be used to estimate smoke exposure in locations without direct ground-based particulate matter measurements.

  3. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    specific groups in Malaysia [7-9]. The current study was aimed at determining the prevalence of smoking among type 2 diabetes patients in. Penang Island, Malaysia. METHODS. Study design. Penang General Hospital is the largest tertiary public hospital in the state of Penang. It provides health care, emergency treatment ...

  4. Structural Discrimination is Associated With Smoking Status Among a National Sample of Transgender Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shires, Deirdre A; Jaffee, Kim D

    2016-06-01

    Limited evidence suggests that transgender individuals smoke at significantly higher rates than the general population. We aimed to determine whether structural or everyday discrimination experiences predict smoking behavior among transgender individuals when sociodemographic, health, and gender-specific factors were controlled. Data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 4781), a cross-sectional online and paper survey distributed to organizations serving the transgender community, were analyzed in order to determine the association between current smoking and discrimination experiences and other potential predictors. Logistic regression models were used to establish factors that predict smoking. Participants reported experiencing both structural (80.4%) and everyday (65.9%) discrimination. Multivariate analyses showed that participants who reported attending some college, graduating college, or having a graduate degree were less likely to smoke compared to those with a high school degree or less. Uninsured participants were more likely to report smoking compared to those with private insurance. Those who used alcohol or drugs for coping were also more likely to smoke. Participants whose IDs and records listed their preferred gender were less likely to smoke (OR = 0.84); those who had experienced structural discrimination were more like to report smoking (OR = 1.65). Further research is needed in order to explore the relationship between smoking and legal transition among transgender individuals. Strategies to prevent smoking and encourage cessation among this vulnerable population are also needed. In addition, comprehensive collection of gender identity data in the context of national surveys, tobacco-related research, and clinical settings is sorely needed. This study establishes a link between experiences of structural discrimination among transgender individuals and smoking status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  5. [The current status of passive smoking in Chinese families and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Xu, Xue-Fang; Ma, Shao-Jun; Mei, Cui-Zhu; Wang, Jun-Fang; Chen, Ai-Ping; Yang, Gong-Huan

    2008-03-01

    To understand the prevalence of passive smoking in Chinese families and discuss its associated factors, as to providing scientific evidence for establishing tobacco control measures in China. Cross-sectional survey: from June to September, 2004, we randomly selected six counties in three different provinces ( Mianzhu and Xichong of Sichuan Province; Anyi and Hukou of Jiangxi Province; Xinan and Yanshi of Henan Province) and performed face-to-face questionnaire survey on citizens between 18 and 69 years old. All the data were double independently input by professional data entry company to ensure data accuracy. The prevalence of home passive smoking exposure in families with different demographic characteristics was described by using prevalence, and the possible correlated factors of home passive smoking exposure as independent variables, multiple factors were analyzed using Logistic Stepwise Regression Analysis method. The analysis on 8142 nonsmokers revealed that the rate of passive smoking was 28.42%, with 27.38% of male and 28.93% of female suffering from passive smoking. All 87.19% of the smokers would smoke in front of their families. As many as 42.14% of the nonsmokers would offer cigarettes to their guests, while about 46.82% of the nonsmokers would suggest smokers to smoke outdoor. Home restriction on tobacco was extremely rare and only 6.33% of all the families completely forbade smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of non-conditions revealed that, there was a lower level of involuntary tobacco smoke exposure in female, older age group, lower education level, divorced, or widowed families. There was no difference in involuntary tobacco smoke exposure between town dwellers and county dwellers, but such difference did exist in different districts. The three provinces under investigation should have severe involuntary tobacco smoking exposure. Gender, age, literacy level, occupation and region should be all factors that influence the status of

  6. The global smoking epidemic: a history and status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2004-05-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that tobacco causes approximately 5 million deaths annually worldwide, a number expected to double by 2025. Cigarette consumption grew from only a few billion per year in 1900 to present values of approximately 5.5 trillion worldwide. Historical causes for the rise of smoking include the invention of flue curing, safety matches, and cigarette rolling machines, but also the distribution of cigarettes to soldiers during World War I, mass marketing, the failure of governments to limit consumption, and the duplicitous denial of hazards by manufacturers. Cancers of the lip, throat, and tongue were linked to tobacco as early as the 18th century, but a lung cancer hazard from smoking was not suspected until the first decade of the 20th century. Epidemiologic evidence began to emerge in the 1920s, and by the 1950s, the causal link with cigarette smoking was well established. Epidemiologic studies, animal experiments, and studies demonstrating pathologic changes in lung tissues at autopsy were 3 pivotal sources of evidence. However, the tobacco industry refused to concede the reality of tobacco hazards until the late 1990s. Instead, the industry sought to target physicians and others with its message of "no proof," using subtle techniques of deception, including the funding of spurious research, duplicitous press releases, propaganda efforts directed at physicians, and the employment of historians to construct exculpatory narratives. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control promises to standardize global tobacco control measures, including policies to limit smuggling. Effective means of reducing tobacco use include counter-advertising, increased taxation, smoke-free workplace legislation, and litigation against the industry.

  7. Smoking status and psychosocial factors in binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    To examine eating-disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12years and BMI=32.9±9.5kg/m(2); 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination -Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating-disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Smoking Status and Psychosocial Factors in Binge Eating Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine eating disorder psychopathology and depressive symptoms by smoking status (never, former, or current smoker) in persons with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods Participants were 575 adult volunteers from the community (mean age=36.0±12 years and BMI=32.9±9.5 kg/m2; 80% white; 88% female) who were classified with BED (n=410) or BN (n=165). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including items about current and historical cigarette smoking, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among those with BED, depressive symptoms were significantly higher in current smokers than former or never smokers (p=.001). There were no significant differences in depressive symptoms by smoking status in participants with BN and no differences in eating disorder psychopathology by smoking status in either the BED or BN groups. Discussion In this non-clinical group of community volunteers, we found that smoking history or status was not associated with eating disorder psychopathology in participants classified with BED and BN but was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in participants with BED. PMID:26741260

  9. Factors associated with different smoking status in European adolescents: results of the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzer, Raphaela; Haring, C; Buchheim, A; Oehler, S; Carli, V; Wasserman, C; Kaess, M; Apter, A; Balazs, J; Bobes, J; Brunner, R; Corcoran, P; Cosman, D; Hoven, C W; Kahn, J P; Keeley, H S; Postuvan, V; Podlogar, T; Sisask, M; Värnik, A; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2017-11-01

    Early onset and long-term smoking are associated with physical and psychological health problems. The aim of the presented analysis was to investigate risk and influencing factors for different smoking status in a big sample of European adolescents. In the context of the "saving and empowering young lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study we surveyed 12,328 adolescents at the age of 13-17 from 11 countries. The survey took place in a school-based context using a questionnaire. Overall 58% reported the onset of ever-smoking under the age of 14 and 30.9% smoke on a daily basis. Multinomial logistic regression model showed significant positive associations between adolescent smoking and internalizing problems (suicidal behavior, direct self-injurious behavior, anxiety), externalizing problems (conduct problems, hyperactivity, substance consumption) and family problems (parental substance consumption, broken home). Our data show that smoking among adolescents is still a major public health problem and adolescents who smoke are at higher risk for mental problems. Further, adolescent smoking is associated with broken home families and parental behaviors. Therefore, early preventive measures are necessary not only for adolescents, but also for their parents.

  10. The link between smoking status and co-morbid conditions in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Pamela; Flick, Louise; Salter, Amber; Dixon, David; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) comorbidities and quality of life (QOL) may be affected by tobacco use. To evaluate the associations between smoking status, in particular quit attempts, and comorbidities among individuals with MS. We used a web-based survey to obtain cross-sectional data from 335 individuals with MS who were members of the Gateway Chapter of the National MS Society email registry. We then examined the associations between smoking variables (current use, frequency, and quit attempts) and comorbidities. The prevalence of participants who ever smoked was 50%, which is greater than that reported for the general population; 20% were current smokers. Migraine headaches were associated with current use and everyday smoking, and those with recent failed quit attempts had a higher prevalence of depression than those who were current smokers but who did not attempt to quit or had successfully quit in the past year. Given the associations between smoking and comorbidities in individuals with MS, health care providers should both (1) assess smoking history and quit attempts, and (2) encourage individuals with MS who smoke to become non-smokers and refer for treatment, as indicated. In order to increase the chances that individuals will be successful in becoming non-smokers, clinicians would do well to also assess and treat depression in their patients who smoke and are also depressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between ART adherence and smoking status among HIV+ individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose L; Catley, Delwyn; Lee, Hyoung S; Goggin, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent among HIV+ individuals and studies indicate that it may be associated with poor ART adherence, though the relationship is poorly understood. In addition little is known about interest in quitting among HIV+ smokers who are having adherence difficulties. We examined smoking and ART adherence among 203 HIV+ individuals enrolled in a randomized trial of interventions to increase ART adherence. Prior analyses indicated there were no overall treatment group effects. Smoking status and motivation to quit was assessed at baseline and ART adherence was assessed at week 12, 24, 36, and 48. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation analysis that controlled for treatment group revealed that smoking status was not significantly related to adherence over time. Motivation to quit was high with 58 % intending to quit in the next 6 months and 25 % intending to quit in the next 30 days. Findings suggest that smoking is not associated with adherence among those with adherence difficulties. However it does not diminish importance of addressing both behaviors especially given HIV+ smokers substantial interest in changing smoking behavior.

  12. Smoking and Early COPD as Independent Predictors of Body Composition, Exercise Capacity, and Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, Renata; Bertani, André Luís; Garcia, Thaís; Mesquita, Carolina Bonfanti; Knaut, Caroline; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tobacco smoke, mild/moderate COPD disease and their combined effect on health status (HS), body composition (BC), and exercise capacity (EC) impairment are still unclear. We hypothesized that smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on these outcomes. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack/years), 32 mild/moderate COPD (current smokers or former smokers), and 32 never smokers. All individuals underwent medical and smoking status evaluations, pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry, BC [fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM index (FFMI)], EC [six-minute walk distance (6MWD)] and HS [Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36)]. FFM (p = 0.02) and FFMI (p = 0.008) were lower in COPD than never smokers. 6MWT, as a percentage of reference values for the Brazilian population, was lower in COPD and smokers than never smokers (p = 0.01). Smokers showed worse SF-36 score for functional capacity than never smokers (psmoking were inversely associated with FFMI, 6MWD and HS. Smoking and early COPD have a joint negative influence on body composition, exercise capacity and health status.

  13. Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. Methods This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Results Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Conclusions Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. PMID:24789604

  14. Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Renee Boeck

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthy therapeutic relationships enhance wholeness and healing; they are the key to effective health promotion. Therapeutic nursing presence demonstrates caring, empathy, and connection, qualities required to build rapport and trust between nurse and patient. This concept analysis’ purpose was to illuminate the various forms of the meanings of presence and the value placed on them. The science of nursing often precedes the art and spirituality of nursing. This is due to focusing primarily on the high acuity of the patients being seen in conjunction with shortage of personnel and resources. Patient dissatisfaction continues to be a growing concern. The nursing shortage crisis continues along with more nurses experiencing moral distress, compassion fatigue, and/or burnout. In nurses’ haste to complete their duties, are we facing the risk of overlooking one of the original gifts of the nursing profession? This would be the gift of genuine presence. This concept analysis aims to identify the attributes that are essential to the concept of presence, and to clarify its nursing usage, by following the strategy suggested by Walker and Avant. It is important to reflect on various ways of providing presence in the clinical setting. By exploring the spiritual, literary, psychological, and nursing literature, there is a diverse yet similar interconnectivity of what presence may represent. Observations and experiences of a range of sensatory and kinesthetic perceptions are revealed to ascertain the attributes discerning commonalities and themes of presence. Nursing presence is considered to be an essential state of holistic nursing as well as a core competency in contemporary nursing. Clarifying the significance of presence in nursing invites the prospect of additional evidence-based research that may place the intrinsic value of presence as a continuing theoretical foundation.

  15. A longitudinal study on determinants of the intention to start smoking among Non-smoking boys and girls of high and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Henricus-Paul; Mercken, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Oenema, Anke

    2015-07-13

    This study identifies differences in socio-cognitive factors as they relate to the intention to smoke among boys and girls living in high socioeconomic status (HSES) and low socioeconomic status (LSES) neighborhoods. A total of 1,643 children (aged 10-12 years) completed a web-based questionnaire assessing their intention, attitude, social influences, and self-efficacy toward smoking at baseline and at one year follow-up. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relations between intention and predictor variables (i.e. attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy). Three-way interaction terms were added to the first analysis to examine potential interactions of gender, socioeconomic status and predictor variables. A 3-way interaction effect was present, and therefore subgroup analyses for HSES and LSES boys and girls were warranted. The results indicated that positive attitudes toward smoking were related to the intention to smoke among HSES boys, whereas HSES girls had higher intentions to smoke if they perceived fewer disadvantages of smoking (OR: 0.42; 95 % CI: 0.22-0.82). The intention to smoke among LSES boys was predicted by perceived social norms (OR: 0.49; 95 % CI: 0.25-0.93); in LSES girls, the smoking behavior of people in their environment was most strongly related to their smoking intention (OR: 5.55; 95 % CI: 2.81-10.93). To prevent youth smoking, HSES boys and girls may benefit from interventions that address attitudes. Boys from an LSES neighborhood may profit from smoking prevention interventions that target social norms, while LSES girls may benefit from strategies aimed at resisting the influence of smokers in their environment. The 'Fun without Smokes' study is approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Atrium-Orbis-Zuyd Hospital (NL32093.096.11/MEC 11-T-25) and registered in the Dutch Trial Register ( NTR3116 ).

  16. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  17. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004

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    Muula Adamson S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is a leading cause of death globally. There are limited reports on current cigarette smoking prevalence and its associated-antismoking messages among adolescents in conflict zones of the world. We, therefore, conducted secondary analysis of data to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, and to determine associations of antismoking messages with smoking status. Methods We used data from the Somaliland Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS of 2004 to estimate the prevalence of smoking. We also assessed whether being exposed to anti-smoking media, education and having discussed with family members on the harmful effects of smoking were associated with smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess these associations. Current smoking was defined as having reported smoking cigarettes, even a single puff, in the last 30 days preceding the survey (main outcome. Results Altogether 1563 adolescents participated in the survey. However, 1122 had data on the main outcome. Altogether, 15.8% of the respondents reported having smoked cigarettes (10.3% among males, and 11.1% among females. Factors that were associated with reported non-smoking were: discussing harmful effects of smoking cigarettes with their family members (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52, 0.71; being taught that smoking makes teeth yellow, causes wrinkles and smokers smell badly (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.52, 0.74; being taught that people of the respondent's age do not smoke (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.69, 0.95; and having reported that religious organizations discouraged young people smoking (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60, 0.82. However, exposure to a lot many antismoking messages at social gatherings was associated with smoking. Exposure to antismoking print media was not associated with smoking status. Conclusion A combination of school and home based antismoking interventions may be effective in controlling adolescent smoking in Somaliland.

  18. Sensitivity of Claims-Based Algorithms to Ascertain Smoking Status More Than Doubled with Meaningful Use.

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    Huo, Jinhai; Yang, Ming; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen

    2018-03-01

    The "meaningful use of certified electronic health record" policy requires eligible professionals to record smoking status for more than 50% of all individuals aged 13 years or older in 2011 to 2012. To explore whether the coding to document smoking behavior has increased over time and to assess the accuracy of smoking-related diagnosis and procedure codes in identifying previous and current smokers. We conducted an observational study with 5,423,880 enrollees from the year 2009 to 2014 in the Truven Health Analytics database. Temporal trends of smoking coding, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were measured. The rate of coding of smoking behavior improved significantly by the end of the study period. The proportion of patients in the claims data recorded as current smokers increased 2.3-fold and the proportion of patients recorded as previous smokers increased 4-fold during the 6-year period. The sensitivity of each International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code was generally less than 10%. The diagnosis code of tobacco use disorder (305.1X) was the most sensitive code (9.3%) for identifying smokers. The specificities of these codes and the Current Procedural Terminology codes were all more than 98%. A large improvement in the coding of current and previous smoking behavior has occurred since the inception of the meaningful use policy. Nevertheless, the use of diagnosis and procedure codes to identify smoking behavior in administrative data is still unreliable. This suggests that quality improvements toward medical coding on smoking behavior are needed to enhance the capability of claims data for smoking-related outcomes research. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

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    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic characteristics of patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma according to tumor HPV status, patient smoking status, and sexual behavior.

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    Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Bell, Diana; Hanby, Duncan; Li, Guojun; Wang, Li-E; Wei, Qingyi; Williams, Michelle D; Sturgis, Erich M

    2015-09-01

    Patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have distinct risk factor profiles reflected in the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of their tumor, and these profiles may also be influenced by factors related to socioeconomic status (SES). The goal of this study was to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of a large cohort of patients with OPC according to HPV status, smoking status, and sexual behavior. Patients with OPC prospectively provided information about their smoking and alcohol use, socioeconomic characteristics, and sexual behaviors. HPV status was determined by a composite of immunohistochemistry for p16 expression, HPV in situ hybridization, and PCR assay in 356 patients. Standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to compare socioeconomic characteristics between patient subgroups. Patients with HPV-positive OPC had higher levels of education, income, and overall SES. Among patients with HPV-positive OPC, never/light smokers had more than 5 times the odds of having at least a bachelor's degree and being in the highest level of SES compared with smokers. Patients with HPV-positive OPC and those with higher levels of education and SES had higher numbers of lifetime any and oral sex partners, although not all of these differences were significant. Socioeconomic differences among subgroups of OPC patients have implications for OPC prevention efforts, including tobacco cessation, behavior modification, and vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking status in parents of children hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory system disorders

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    Nursan Cinar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the statuses of hospitalized children with diagnosis of respiratory tract disease with cigarette use in the parents. This descriptive study was conducted in a Gowerment Hospital in the Sakarya city center in Turkey between June 2007 and June 2008. The inclusion criterion was willingness of families with children hospitalized due to diagnosis of respiratory disease to particípate in the study. Data were collected from 345 parents using the questionnaire prepared by researchers. In our study parental smoking was observed in 42.3% of fathers, 7.8% mothers and for 20.9% both parents were smoking. It was found that the hospitalization rates were more than two times higher in children diagnosed with pneumonia and bronchitis and three times higher in children hospitalized for asthma whose parents smoke at home compared to those whose parents are non-smokers. Health care professionals who take care of children need to discuss the harmful effects of smoking and the importance of reducing childhood exposure to secondhand smoke; parents should be educated and encouraged not to smoke.

  2. Assessing smoking status in disadvantaged populations: is computer administered self report an accurate and acceptable measure?

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    Bryant Jamie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.

  3. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees.

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    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee.

  4. Association between cotinine-verified smoking status and hypertension in 167,868 Korean adults.

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    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies showed inconsistent results concerning the relationship between chronic smoking and blood pressure. Most of the studies involved self-reported smoking status. This study was performed to evaluate the association of urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status with hypertension and blood pressure in Korean adults. Among individuals enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study, 167,868 participants (men, 55.7%; age, 37.5 ± 6.9 years) between 2011 and 2013 who had urinary cotinine measurements were included. Individuals with urinary cotinine levels ≥50 ng/mL were defined as cotinine-verified current smokers. The prevalence of hypertension and cotinine-verified current smokers in the overall population was 6.8% and 22.7%, respectively (10.0% in men and 2.8% in women for hypertension: 37.7% in men and 3.9% in women for cotinine-verified current smokers). In a multivariate regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol drinking, vigorous exercise, and diabetes, cotinine-verified current smoking was associated with lower prevalence of hypertension compared with cotinine-verified never smoking (OR[95% CI], 0.79 [0.75, 0.84]). Log-transformed cotinine levels and unobserved smoking were negatively associated with hypertension, respectively (0.96 [0.96, 0.97] and 0.55 [0.39, 0.79]). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the cotinine-verified current smoking was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) (regression coefficient[95% CI], -1.23[-1.39, -1.07] for systolic BP and -0.71 [-0.84, -0.58] for diastolic BP). In subgroup analyses according to sex, the inverse associations between cotinine-verified current smoking and hypertension were observed only in men. This large observational study showed that cotinine-verified current smoking and unobserved smoking were inversely associated with hypertension in Korean adults, especially only in

  5. Inferring Smoking Status from User Generated Content in an Online Cessation Community.

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    Amato, Michael S; Papandonatos, George D; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Zhao, Kang; Cohn, Amy M; Pearson, Jennifer L; Graham, Amanda L

    2018-01-22

    User generated content (UGC) is a valuable but underutilized source of information about individuals who participate in online cessation interventions. This study represents a first effort to passively detect smoking status among members of an online cessation program using UGC. Secondary data analysis was performed on data from 826 participants in a web-based smoking cessation randomized trial that included an online community. Domain experts from the online community reviewed each post and comment written by participants and attempted to infer the author's smoking status at the time it was written. Inferences from UGC were validated by comparison with self-reported 30-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA). Following validation, the impact of this method was evaluated across all individuals and timepoints in the study period. Of the 826 participants in the analytic sample, 719 had written at least one post from which content inference was possible. Among participants for whom unambiguous smoking status was inferred during the 30 days preceding their 3-month follow-up survey, concordance with self-report was almost perfect (kappa = 0.94). Posts indicating abstinence tended to be written shortly after enrollment (median = 14 days). Passive inference of smoking status from UGC in online cessation communities is possible and highly reliable for smokers who actively produce content. These results lay the groundwork for further development of observational research tools and intervention innovations. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Association between lifetime exposure to passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by hormone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women.

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    Loreta Strumylaite

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is inconsistently associated with breast cancer. Although some studies suggest that breast cancer risk is related to passive smoking, little is known about the association with breast cancer by tumor hormone receptor status. We aimed to explore the association between lifetime passive smoking and risk of breast cancer subtypes defined by estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status among non-smoking Caucasian women. A hospital-based case-control study was performed in 585 cases and 1170 controls aged 28-90 years. Information on lifetime passive smoking and other factors was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used for analyses restricted to the 449 cases and 930 controls who had never smoked actively. All statistical tests were two-sided. Adjusted odds ratio of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.72-1.41 in women who experienced exposure to passive smoking at work, 1.88 (95% CI: 1.38-2.55 in women who had exposure at home, and 2.80 (95% CI: 1.84-4.25 in women who were exposed at home and at work, all compared with never exposed regularly. Increased risk was associated with longer exposure: women exposed ≤ 20 years and > 20 years had 1.27 (95% CI: 0.97-1.66 and 2.64 (95% CI: 1.87-3.74 times higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed (Ptrend 0.05. There was evidence of interaction between passive smoking intensity and menopausal status in both overall group (P = 0.02 and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer group (P < 0.05. In Caucasian women, lifetime exposure to passive smoking is associated with the risk of breast cancer independent of tumor hormone receptor status with the strongest association in postmenopausal women.

  7. Oral fluid nicotine markers to assess smoking status and recency of use

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    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Marrone, Gina F.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Singleton, Edward G.; Heishman, Stephen J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral fluid collection is non-invasive and easily observed making it an attractive matrix for objectively determining smoking status. Despite large inter-subject variability, cotinine oral fluid concentrations correlate with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Few studies, however, assessed nicotine markers in oral fluid other than cotinine; other markers might improve smoking status assessment and/or time of last cigarette. Materials and Methods Smoking histories and oral fluid specimens were collected from non-treatment-seeking light (1–10 CPD) and heavy smokers (>10 CPD), and from environmentally exposed and nonexposed nonsmokers who provided written informed consent for this Institutional Review Board-approved study. Nicotine, cotinine, hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) and norcotinine oral fluid concentrations were quantified via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Comparison of 1, 3 and 10ng/mL oral fluid LCMSMS cutoffs demonstrated that 10ng/mL cutoffs performed optimally for cotinine, OH-cotinine, nicotine and norcotinine identifying 98, 97, 88 and 15% of self-reported smokers; 1% nonsmokers had >10ng/mL cotinine. No self-reported nonsmoker had >10ng/mL OH-cotinine, nicotine or norcotinine. Norcotinine was only identified in smokers’ oral fluid. Oral fluid nicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios were negatively correlated with time of last smoking (r=−0.53, −0.23, and −0.51; pnicotine, cotinine and nicotine/cotinine ratios may be useful for determining smoking recency in “spot samples” collected during nicotine cessation treatment. PMID:21860341

  8. STRESS LEVEL AND SMOKING STATUS IN CENTRAL IRAN: ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM

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    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals are faced with numerous stressful life events which can negatively influence mental health. Many individuals use smoking as a means of confronting stress. Given the relatively high prevalence of smoking in central Iran, the present study was conducted to compare stress levels in smokers, non-smokers and those who had quit smoking.    METHODS: This study was conducted as part of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Program on 9752 individuals in the cities of Isfahan, Arak, and Najafabad in 2008. Sampling was performed using multi-stage cluster randomization method. Data on age, sex, demographic characteristics, and smoking status was collected through interviews. Stress level detected by General Health questionnaire.Logistic regression and chi- squere test was used for data analyzing.    RESULTS: In the present study, 30% of non-smokers, 32.1% ex- smoker and 36.9% of smokers had GHQ of 4 and higher (P = 0.01. In regression analysis, the final model which was controlled for age, sex, socioeconomic statues (including place of residence, marital status and education level showed that the odds ratio of stress in smokers and ex- smoker was significantly higher than in non-smokers (OR = 1.66 and OR = 1.12, respectively.    CONCLUSION: Since in conducted studies, mental problems and stresses have had an important role in people’s smoking, it seems suitable to use the results of this study to present intervention for correct methods of coping with stress towards reducing the prevalence of smoking in the community.Keywords: Cigarette, Stress, Community-based Program.

  9. Smoking status and abdominal obesity among normal- and overweight/obese adults: Population-based FINRISK study

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    Eeva-Liisa Tuovinen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported direct associations of smoking with body mass index (BMI and abdominal obesity. However, the interplay between them is poorly understood. Our first aim was to investigate the interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity (waist circumference, WC. Our second aim was to examine how the association of smoking status with WC varies among normal and overweight/obese men and women. We examined 5833 participants from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. The interactions between smoking and BMI on WC were analyzed. Participants were categorized into eight groups according to BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese and smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker, occasional/light/moderate daily smoker, heavy daily smoker. The associations between each BMI/smoking status -group and WC were analyzed by multiple regressions, the normal-weight never smokers as the reference group. The smoking status by BMI-interaction on WC was significant for women, but not for men. Among the overweight/obese women, ex-smokers (β = 2.73; 1.99, 3.46 and heavy daily smokers (β = 4.90; 3.35, 6.44 had the highest estimates for WC when adjusted for age, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity. In comparison to never smoking overweight/obese women, the β-coefficients of ex-smokers and heavy daily smokers were significantly higher. Among men and normal weight women the β -coefficients did not significantly differ by smoking status. An interaction between smoking status and BMI on abdominal obesity was observed in women: overweight/obese heavy daily smokers were particularly vulnerable for abdominal obesity. This risk group should be targeted for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  10. Is There an Association Between Smoking Status and Prosthetic Joint Infection After Primary Total Joint Arthroplasty?

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    Gonzalez, Amanda I; Luime, Jolanda J; Uçkay, Ilker; Hannouche, Didier; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Lübbeke, Anne

    2018-02-23

    Recent reports highlighted the association between smoking and higher risk of postsurgical infections. The aim was to compare the incidence of prosthetic joint infection after primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) according to smoking status. A prospective hospital registry-based cohort study was performed including all primary knee and hip TJAs performed between March 1996 and December 2013. Smoking status preoperatively was classified into never, former, and current smoker. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for prosthetic joint infection according to smoking status were assessed within the first year and beyond. We included 8559 primary TJAs (mean age 69.5 years), and median follow-up was 67 months. There were 5722 never, 1315 former, and 1522 current smokers. Incidence rates of infection within the first year for never, former, and current smokers were, respectively, 4.7, 10.1, and 10.9 cases/1000 person-years, comparing ever vs never smokers, crude and adjusted HRs were 2.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.98) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.04-3.2). Beyond the first year, crude and adjusted HRs were 1.37 (95% CI 0.78-2.39) and 1.12 (95% CI 0.61-2.04). Smoking increased the infection risk about 1.8 times after primary hip or knee TJA in both current and former smokers. Beyond the first year, the infection risk was similar to never smokers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis

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    Leyland Alastair H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

  12. Smoking status and sex as indicators of differences in 2582 obese patients presenting for weight management

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    Abunassar MJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Abunassar1, George A Wells2, Robert R Dent31Faculty of Medicine, 2Heart Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3The Ottawa Hospital Weight Management Clinic, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death. Very little tobacco exposure can increase cardiovascular disease risk. The relationship between smoking, sex, and weight remains unclear.Methods: Between September 1992 and June 2007, 2582 consenting patients starting the Ottawa Hospital Weight Management program were grouped by sex and smoking status. “Former smokers” (771 females, 312 males had quit for at least 1 year. “Smokers” (135 females, 54 males smoked >9 cigarettes daily. There were 979 females and 331 males who never smoked. Using SAS 9.2 statistical software, the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, major depressive disorder (MDD, and medication use among the groups was compared (Chi-square [χ2]. Anthropometric measurements, lipid, glucose and thyroid levels were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Interactions were assessed using 2-way ANOVA analysis for continuous data, and logistic regression for discrete data.Results: Smokers were more likely to have MDD (χ2, lower high-density lipoprotein levels and higher triglyceride levels than other groups. Former smokers had a greater prevalence of CAD, T2DM on pharmacotherapy, and impaired fasting glucose than other groups. They were also more likely to be taking lipid-lowering agents and antihypertensives (χ2. Never smokers had less MDD, CAD, and were less likely to be on antidepressants than the other groups. Males were more likely to have CAD and T2DM than females. Females were more likely to have MDD than males. Interactions between smoking status and sex were found for age, weight, fasting glucose and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.Conclusion: Obese never smokers suffer from the fewest chronic diseases

  13. The Impact of Smoking Status on the Efficacy of Erlotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Yilong WU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Erlotinib is a targeted treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Smoking status may be one of influencing factors of the efficacy of erlotinib. The aim of this study is to explore the impact of smoking status on the efficacy of erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods Patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who had been previously treated with at least one course of platinum based chemotherapy received 150 mg oral doses of erlotinib once daily until disease progression. Response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival were analyzed in the different smoking status groups. Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival rate. Results Fortyeight patients were enrolled into the study from December 2005 to September 2006. We followed up these patients until 28th December, 2008. Median follow up time was 30 months. The compliance rate was 100%. The response rate was 32.1% in the smoking group and 35% in the never smoking group (P=0.836; The median progression-free survival was 3 months and 9 months, respectively (P=0.033. The median overall survival was 5 months and 17 months, respectively (P=0.162. Conclusion Erlotinib is an effective drug for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with different smoking status. Progressionfree survival is better in the never smoking patients than the smoking patients.

  14. Guilt, censure, and concealment of active smoking status among cancer patients and family members after diagnosis: a nationwide study.

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    Shin, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Hyock; Kim, So Young; Park, Eal Whan; Yang, Hyung Kook; Ahn, Eunmi; Park, Seon Mee; Lee, Young Joon; Lim, Myong Cheol; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to identify the prevalence of feelings of guilt, censure, and concealment of smoking status among cancer patients and their family members who continued to smoke after the patient's diagnosis. Among 990 patient-family member dyads, 45 patients and 173 family members who continued to smoke for at least 1 month after the patients' diagnoses were administered questions examining feelings of guilt, censure, and smoking concealment. Most patients who continued to smoke reported experiencing feelings of guilt toward their families (75.6%) and censure from their family members (77.8%), and many concealed their smoking from their family members (44.4%) or healthcare professionals (46.7%). Family members who continued to smoke also reported feelings of guilt with respect to the patient (63.6%) and that the patient was critical of them (68.9%), and many concealed their smoking from the patient (28.5%) or healthcare professionals (9.3%). Patients' feeling of guilt was associated with concealment of smoking from family members (55.9% vs. 10.0%) or health care professionals (55.9% vs. 20.0%). Family members who reported feeling guilty (36.5% vs. 16.3%) or censured (34.5% vs. 16.7%) were more likely to conceal smoking from patients. Many patients and family members continue to smoke following cancer diagnosis, and the majority of them experience feelings of guilt and censure, which can lead to the concealment of smoking status from families or health care professionals. Feelings of guilt, censure, and concealment of smoking should be considered in the development and implementation of smoking cessation programs for cancer patients and family members. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke.

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    Gao, Shu-guang; Cheng, Ling; Li, Kang-hua; Liu, Wen-He; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Wei, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Fang-jie; Xiao, Wen-feng; Xiong, Yi-lin; Tian, Jian; Zeng, Chao; Sun, Jin-peng; Xie, Qiang; Lei, Guang-hua

    2012-06-19

    Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF). However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption), affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface), and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  16. Smoking status and cognitive performance among vocational school students in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengjuan; Huang, Lili; Zhou, Shuang; Shi, Qiang; Xiao, Dan; Wang, Chen

    2018-02-01

    In countries where smoking is associated with lower socioeconomic status, smokers tend to perform worse on cognitive tasks than non-smokers. China is now undergoing a similar process with a recent study showing that there is a reduced cognitive performance in middle aged but not in elderly smokers. We examined the links between smoking status and cognitive functioning among vocational school students in Beijing, China. A total of 213 students aged 16-20 (98 smokers and 115 non-smokers) were recruited from three vocational schools in Beijing. Participants completed three subtests of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (information, arithmetic, digit span) and Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Smokers also completed a cigarette smoking questionnaire and Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Smokers performed worse than non-smokers in tests of arithmetic and digit span forward (t = 4.25, 2.05, both P < .05). Scores on digit span backward did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but among smokers, the performance on this subtest was related to the age of starting smoking (r = 0.26, p < .001). Cognitive performance in smokers was not related to tobacco dependence or intensity of smoking. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a higher total DEX score and higher scores on three of its five subscales (Inhibition, Knowing-doing dissociation and Social regulation, all p < .05). Another subscale, In-resistance, did not differentiate smokers and non-smokers, but differentiated smokers with lower and higher levels of nicotine dependence (t = -2.12, p < .05). Smokers performed worse on some cognitive tasks than non-smokers and scored higher on a questionnaire assessing executive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Five-way Smoking Status Classification Using Text Hot-Spot Identification and Error-correcting Output Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Aaron M.

    2008-01-01

    We participated in the i2b2 smoking status classification challenge task. The purpose of this task was to evaluate the ability of systems to automatically identify patient smoking status from discharge summaries. Our submission included several techniques that we compared and studied, including hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, inverse class frequency weighting, error-correcting output codes, and post-processing rules. We evaluated our approaches using the same methods as the i2...

  18. Smoking status is inversely associated with overall diet quality: Findings from the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Baydarlioglu, Burcu; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Stranges, Saverio; Lemmens, Paul; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2017-10-01

    Relationships between food consumption/nutrient intake and tobacco smoking have been described in the literature. However, little is known about the association between smoking and overall diet quality. This study examined the associations between eight diet quality indices, namely, the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Recommendation Compliance Index (RCI), Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score, Energy Density Score (EDS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), Recommended Food Score (RFS), non-Recommended Food Score (non-RFS), and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and smoking status with a focus on smoking intensity. Analyses were based on a sample of 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) survey, a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-69 years. Nutritional data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were used to compute selected diet quality indices. Participants were classified as never smoker, former smoker (≥12 months cessation period), occasional or light smokers (≤1 cig/d), moderate smokers (≤20 cig/d) and heavy smokers (>20 cig/d). Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed, after adjustment for several potential covariates. Compared to the other groups, heavy smokers had significantly higher prevalence of dyslipidemia (83%), obesity (34%), and elevated glycemic biomarkers. About 50% of former smokers had hypertension. Diet quality of heavy smokers was significantly poorer than those who never smoked independent of several socioeconomic, lifestyle, and biologic confounding factors (all p diet, as expressed by higher DII scores (P diet quality. The implication is that efforts aimed at tobacco control should target heavy smokers and intervention on smoking cessation should take into account diet quality of smokers and their nutritional habits, to increase effectiveness and relevance of public health messages. Copyright © 2016

  19. The association between self-reported versus nicotine metabolite-confirmed smoking status and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Jin; Han, Ji Min; Kang, Jung Gyu; Kim, Bum Soo; Kang, Jin Ho

    2018-05-01

    There are no data comparing the relationship between coronary artery calcification and self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking. This study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and urinary cotinine or self-reported smoking status in Korean adults. Study participants included 22 797 individuals (19 181 men; mean age±SD 39.2±7.1 years) who were enrolled in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study between 2011 and 2013, and who had urinary cotinine and CAC measurements. Cotinine-verified current smokers were defined as having a urinary cotinine level of above 50 ng/ml. The prevalence of never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers according to the self-reported questionnaires was 44.6, 24.2, and 31.2%, respectively, and that of cotinine-verified current smokers was 30.2%. The prevalence of the presence of CAC in self-reported current smokers was higher than that in self-reported never/former smokers (13.7 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001), and that in cotinine-verified current smokers was higher than that in cotinine-verified never smokers (14.0 vs. 10.2%, P<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for the variables with univariate relationships showed that self-reported former smokers and current smokers had significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of CAC compared with self-reported never smokers [OR (95% confidence interval): 1.20 (1.03-1.40) in former smokers and 1.29 (1.11-1.50) in current smokers]. Cotinine-verified current smokers also showed a significant association with the presence of CAC [1.23 (1.12-1.35)]. Furthermore, log-transformed cotinine levels increased the OR for the presence of CAC [1.03 (1.01-1.05)]. This study is the first large cohort study to show that both self-reported and cotinine-verified smoking is associated independently with the presence of CAC in Korean adults.

  20. The effect of statins on cardiovascular outcomes by smoking status: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursoniu, Sorin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Serban, Maria-Corina; Penson, Peter; Toth, Peter P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ray, Kausik K.; Kees Hovingh, G.; Kastelein, John J.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. The impact of statin therapy on CVD risk by smoking status has not been fully investigated. Therefore we assessed the impact of statin therapy on CVD outcomes by smoking status through a systematic review

  1. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  2. Smoking status of parents, siblings and friends: Predictors of regular smoking? Findings from a longitudinal twin-family study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Willemsen, G.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between regular smoking behavior and the smoking behavior of parents, siblings and friends was investigated using data from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cross-sectional analyses of data of 3906 twins showed significant associations between smoking behavior of the participant and

  3. Results from a community-based program evaluating the effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To Teresa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking has been associated with accelerated decline in lung function, increased health services use and asthma severity in patients with asthma. Previous studies have provided insight into how smoking cessation improves lung function among asthma patients, however, fail to provide measurable asthma symptom-specific outcomes after smoking cessation. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control and health services use in adults with asthma. Methods The study was conducted in eight primary care practices across Ontario, Canada participating in a community-based, participatory, and evidence-based Asthma Care Program. Patients aged 18 to 55 identified with physician-diagnosed mild to moderate asthma were recruited. In addition to receiving clinical asthma care, participants were administered a questionnaire at baseline and 12-month follow-up visits to collect information on demographics, smoking status, asthma symptoms and routine health services use. The effect of changing smoking status on asthma symptom control was compared between smoking groups using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests where appropriate. Mixed effect models were used to measure the impact of the change in smoking status on asthma symptom and health services use while adjusting for covariates. Results This study included 519 patients with asthma; 11% of baseline smokers quit smoking while 4% of baseline non-smokers started smoking by follow-up. Individuals who quit smoking had 80% lower odds of having tightness in the chest (Odds ratio (OR = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.82 and 76% lower odds of night-time symptoms (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.85 compared to smokers who continued to smoke. Compared to those who remained non-smokers, those who had not been smoking at baseline but self-reported as current smoker at follow-up had significantly higher odds of chest tightness (OR = 1

  4. Towards a smoke-free hospital: how the smoking status of health professionals influences their knowledge, attitude and clinical activity. Results from a hospital in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, E; Marani, A; Salvati, O; Mangiaracina, G; Prestigiacomo, C; Osborn, J F; Cattaruzza, M S

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the prevalence of smoking among health professionals is higher than in the general population and this might hamper their role in the promotion of health. This study aimed to investigate how the smoking status of healthcare professionals might influence knowledge, attitudes and clinical practice in a hospital in central Italy in order to enforce effective tobacco control measures. Physicians and professionals of the hospital were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire which yielded epidemiological and environmental information on knowledge, attitude, clinical practice and quality of the hospital environments, in relation to smoking. Overall, among the employees of the hospital, the smoking prevalence was 47%, (42% among physicians and 43% among nurses); 30% admitted smoking in the hospital and three quarters of the smokers would like to quit. Some knowledge, opinions and attitudes differ statistically among the smoking categories. For example, only 35% of the smokers admitted that smoking is more dangerous to health than atmospheric and car pollution compared with 60% of the ex or never smokers (p=0.04). Fewer smokers realize that their behavior is seen as a role model by patients. A greater percentage of smokers state that patients (34%) and visitors (43%) often smoke in hospital and these percentages are significantly higher than those reported by ex or never smokers (p≤0.05). All smokers claim that they never smoke in patient rooms, infirmaries and clinics, whereas over 20% of ex or never smokers report that smoking sometimes occurs in these places (p=0.015). The mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the 25 rooms was 2.4 μg/m3 with a range from 1 to 7 μg/m3. This study implies that the prevalence of smoking among health professionals may be very high, and might be twice the rate observed in the general population. Generally, smokers report less knowledge compared with ex and never-smokers and it seems that they systematically underestimate the

  5. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  6. Smoking Status, Changes in Smoking Status and Health-Related Quality of Life: Findings from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guitérrez-Bedmar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.

  7. Tobacco Smoking Status and Perception of Health among a Sample of Jordanian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukaina Alzyoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available from Jordan examining patterns of tobacco use among adolescents, or how use is related to health perceptions. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to assess the relationship between use and health-related perceptions. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 11–18 year old school students from a major governorate in Jordan. Using a multistage random sampling 1050 students were selected. Students were categorized as non-smokers, cigarette-only smokers, waterpipe-only smokers, or dual smokers. Rates of waterpipe-only and cigarette-only smoking were 7% and 3%, respectively, and were similar for boys and girls. In contrast, the rate of dual use was much higher than for single product use and was double in girls compared to boys (34% vs. 17%. Dual-smokers were significantly more likely to think that it is safe to smoke as long as the person intends to quit within two years compared to non-smokers, and had lower self-rated health status than other groups. This is the first study among Arab adolescents to document high rates of dual tobacco use, especially pronounced among girls. The study findings have significant implications for designing tobacco smoking prevention programs for school health settings.

  8. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin B; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-04-01

    A woman's psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth (PTB) in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. In all, 210 participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (Internal Control, Chance, Powerful Others). Women who experienced preterm delivery and those who smoked during pregnancy scored the Chance category significantly higher than those who delivered term infants (p = .05; p = .004, respectively). This suggests those who smoked during pregnancy had a greater degree of belief that Chance influenced their infant's health status. Cultural differences also emerged specific to the impact of health care providers on PTB; with Hispanic women scoring Powerful Others the highest among the groups (p = .02). Nurses can plan a critical role in identifying at-risk women (smoking, strong Chance beliefs) while providing a clear message that taking action and modifying high-risk behaviors can reduce risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. The prognostic importance of smoking status at the time of acute myocardial infarction in 6676 patients. TRACE Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen; Køber, L; Ottesen, M M

    1999-01-01

    with an infarction in order to further study the prognostic importance of smoking status at the time of myocardial infarction. The study cohort comprised 6676 patients with an enzyme-confirmed myocardial infarction admitted to 27 Danish hospitals over a 26-month period between 1990 and 1992. Smoking status......Smoking is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease, but several studies have shown smoking to be associated with a favourable prognosis in patients who have suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied a large group of consecutive patients admitted alive to hospital...... was determined at the time of hospitalisation and complete follow-up was obtained in October 1996. Smokers were on average 10 years younger, had fewer concomitant cardiac risk factors, and were more likely to be male and to receive thrombolytic therapy more frequently than non-smokers. In univariate analysis...

  10. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  11. [The relationship between smoking status and epidermiology of asthma in people aged over 14 years in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Y; Lin, J T; Chen, P; Zhou, X; Wan, H Y; Yin, K S; Ma, L J; Wu, C G; Li, J; Liu, C T; Su, N; Liu, G L; Xie, H; Tang, W; Huang, M; Chen, Y H; Liu, L J; Song, Y; Chen, X L; Zhang, Y M; Wang, W Y; Li, W; Sun, L C

    2017-07-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between bronchial asthma and smoking status in Chinese people. Methods: Asthma epidemiological survey and stratified-cluster-random method survey were performed in residents over 14 years in 8 provinces (cities) of China from February 2010 to August 2012. Asthma was diagnosed based upon case history, clinical signs and lung function test. Smoking status was investigated by questionnaire. Results: Sampling population was 180 099 and 164 215 were valid. A total of 2 034 subjects were diagnosed as asthma including 79 692 men and 84 523 women. The overall prevalence rate of asthma was 1.24% (2 034/164 215). Smokers were 23.8% (39 137/164 215) in the whole population. Smokers were 34.5% (702/2 034) in asthmatic patients, compared with 23.7% (38 435/162 181) in no-asthmatic population. The incidence of asthma was 1.79% and 1.06% in smokers and non-smokers respectively ( P smoking was 1.70 (95% CI 1.55-1.86, P smoking group was higher than that in smoking group(43.2% vs 35.3%). The times of hospitalization due to acute exacerbations(0.51 vs 0.41 events/person/year), total hospitalization rate(27.35% vs 20.12%), annual emergency room visits (0.80 vs 0.60 events/person/year) and emergency room visit rate (31.77% vs 24.47%) were all much higher in smoking asthmatic patients than those in non smoking asthmatic patients, indicating that the level of asthma control in smoking patients was significantly worse than in non smoking patients. Conclusions: The smoking rate in Chinese people over 14 years is still high. The prevalence rate of asthma in smokers is significantly higher than that of non-smokers. The level of asthma control in smokers is significantly worse than that in non smokers.

  12. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  13. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  14. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process. : In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  15. Association of Education and Smoking Status on Risk of Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyeong; Noh, Juhwan; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-06-19

    Background: Exposure to smoke, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, is also a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, and behavior risk factor-related variables and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007-2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and the prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios ( p education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, a lack of alcohol intake, and a lack of moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations ( p education, urban residence, a lack of moderate physical activity, a lack of alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, as well as ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.

  16. [The ban on smoking in public places (Decree No. 2006-1386 of 15th November 2006): Impact over 12 months on smoking status of hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel-Donnarel, E; Baumstarck-Barrau, K; Barlesi, F; Lehucher-Michel, M-P

    2010-03-01

    In France, the decree No. 2006-1386 banned smoking in public places such as hospitals. The aim of our study was to describe the impact of the legislation on the smoking status of hospital nurses. A descriptive study was undertaken in a university hospital of Marseilles, under the responsibility of the occupational medicine service. Between April and June 2008, a questionnaire was distributed to the nurses who had been working for more than one year. The following data were collected: demographic information, smoking status, behaviour and attitudes regarding smoking addiction, knowledge regarding existing preventive measures. Sixty-four percent of 715 eligible subjects responded; thirty percents reported themselves as current smokers, 25 % as ex-smokers and 45 % as non-smokers. Among the smokers, 68 % said that they had decreased their tobacco consumption during their working hours and 28 % their overall daily consumption. Among ex-smokers, 20 % declared that they were in the process of quitting. The nurses had decreased their tobacco consumption at work and these positive results should be confirmed over a long-term perspective. The preventive role of the occupational physician could be reinforced. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of tobacco smoking on the presence of asbestosis at postmortem and on the reading of irregular opacities on roentgenograms in asbestos-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnizdo, E.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    A statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and radiologic readings of irregular opacities was observed in a case-control study of 430 South African asbestos miners (OR = 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.50; 6.11). In another case-control study of 487 dead South African asbestos miners, no positive association between smoking and autopsy findings for asbestosis was observed (OR = 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.20; 1.29). The association between greater than slight asbestosis (moderate and marked) and smoking (yes/no) was not significant (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.44), and the adjusted odds ratio was 1.25 with 95% confidence interval (0.20; 7.78). In addition, the certification in life for asbestosis, based on chest roentgenogram readings for irregular opacities, was also found to have a tendency to be related to smoking. Thus, the findings of these studies do not support the hypothesis that smoking is associated with the presence of asbestosis at autopsy or that smoking and asbestos dust act synergistically in producing asbestosis at autopsy. But the findings of this and other studies suggest that smoking does produce some change in the lung structure that can be visible on the roentgenogram and can be wrongly interpreted as irregular opacities caused by asbestosis

  18. Presence of trypanosome species and anemic status of dogs in Zuru, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Rabecca Tono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the presence and prevalence of trypanosome species in local dogs between January and July, 2010 in the Zuru area of Kebbi State, Nigeria.Standard trypanosome detection methods comprising of wet blood films, thin films and microhaematocrit centrifugation technique were used to detect trypanosomes; while the degree of anemia was determined through the use of FAMACHA® eye colour chart and packed cell volume values. A total of 567 dogs were enumerated in fourteen locations within the study area out of which 192 (33.7% were randomly examined and 4 (2.08% were positive for the presence of trypanosomes. All positive samples morphologically belong to the Trypanosoma brucei group. The obtained PCV values showed that 50 (26.04% dogs were anemic, while the FAMACHA® detected anemia status of varying degrees in 104 (77% sampled dogs.These findings are significant as this is the first time that the trypanosome infection will be reported in dogs from the study area. This study establishes the presence of Trypanosoma brucei group in the study area, which is of zoonotic and economic importance.

  19. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  20. Diet quality, physical activity, smoking status, and weight fluctuation are associated with weight change in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Jasuja, Guneet K; Pencina, Michael J; McKeon-O'Malley, Catherine; Fox, Caroline S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of diet quality on weight change, relative to other body weight determinants, is insufficiently understood. Furthermore, research on long-term weight change in U.S. adults is limited. We evaluated prospectively patterns and predictors of weight change in Framingham Offspring/Spouse (FOS) women and men (n = 1515) aged > or =30 y with BMI > or = 18.5 kg/m2 and without cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline over a 16-y period. Diet quality was assessed using the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score. In women, older age (P Diet quality interacted with former smoking status (P-interaction = 0.02); former smokers with lower diet quality gained an additional 5.2 kg compared with those with higher diet quality (multivariable-adjusted P-trend = 0.06). Among men, older age (P smoking (P smoking status (P smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  2. Night eating syndrome and its association with weight status, physical activity, eating habits, smoking status, and sleep patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Potter, Stacey; Szymanski, Hailey; Smith, Karen; Pringle, Lindsay; Herman, Christine; Uribe, Manuela; Fu, Zhuxuan; Chung, Mei; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-09-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal ingestion. The main objective of this study was to assess the percentage of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with the diagnostic criteria for NES, and explore its association with body mass index (BMI), dietary habits, physical activity, smoking status, and sleep patterns, among a sample of college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 413 undergraduate students, mean age of 20.6 ± 1.68 SD, at Central Michigan University. Students completed an online survey including demographic information and the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Participants were grouped based on self-reporting of the presence and frequency of night eating-related symptoms and behaviors related to the diagnostic criteria for NES as follows: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full-syndrome night eater. Pearson's Chi-squared, Student's t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to test the association between students with and without any night eating behavior in relation to BMI, lifestyle variables, and sleep duration/quality. Results showed that the proportion of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with full-syndrome of NES was 1.2%. There were no significant differences between students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with any level of NES and those without any night eating behavior regarding BMI, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking status. NES was significantly related to sleep duration (P = 0.023). Students complying with symptoms consistent with any level of NES reported shorter sleep time and had higher total PSQI score (6.73 ± 4.06) than students without the syndrome (5.61 ± 2.61) (P = 0.007). Although the percentage of students complying with full-syndrome NES was relatively low in our student sample

  3. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  4. A social–contextual investigation of smoking among rural women: multi-level factors associated with smoking status and considerations for cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Thomson, Tiffany L; Lu, Bo; Peng, Juan; Krebs, Valdis; Doogan, Nathan J; Ferketich, Amy K; Post, Douglas M; Browning, Christopher R; Paskett, Electra D; Wewers, Mary E

    2018-03-01

    The social-contextual model of tobacco control and the potential mechanisms of the maintenance or cessation of smoking behavior among disadvantaged women, including rural residents, have yet to be comprehensively studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between selected individual, interpersonal, workplace, and neighborhood characteristics and smoking status among women in Appalachia, a US region whose residents experience a disproportionate prevalence of tobacco-related health disparities. These findings may assist in efforts to design and test scientifically valid tobacco control interventions for this and other disadvantaged populations. Women, 18 years of age and older, residing in three rural Ohio Appalachian counties, were recruited using a two-phase address-based sampling methodology for a cross-sectional interview-administered survey between August 2012 and October 2013 (N=408). Multinomial logistic regression was employed to determine associations between select multilevel factors (independent variables) and smoking status (dependent variable). The sample included 82 (20.1%) current smokers, 92 (22.5%) former smokers, and 234 (57.4%) women reporting never smoking (mean age 51.7 years). In the final multivariable multinomial logistic regression model, controlling for all other significant associations, constructs at multiple social-contextual levels were associated with current versus either former or never smoking. At the individual level, for every additional year in age, the odds of being a former or never smoker increased by 7% and 6% (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval(CI)): 1.07 (1.0-1.11) and 1.06 (1.02-1.09)), respectively, as compared to the odds of being a current smoker. With regard to depression, for each one unit increase in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score, the odds of being a former or never smoker were 5% and 7% lower (OR(95%CI): 0.95(0.91-0.999) and 0.93(0.88-0.98)), respectively

  5. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedgwick JEC

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and microvascular complications. We evaluated cigarette smoking in people with diabetes mellitus in a socio-economically deprived area. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey of people registered with diabetes mellitus at 29 general practices in inner London. Responses were analysed for 1,899 (64% respondents out of 2,983 eligible. Results There were 1,899 respondents of whom 968 (51% had never smoked, 296 (16% were current smokers and 582 (31% were ex-smokers. Smoking was more frequent in white Europeans (men 22%, women 20%, than in African Caribbeans (men 15%, women 10% or Africans (men 8%, women 2%. Smoking prevalence decreased with age. Smokers were more likely to be living in rented accommodation (odds ratio, OR 2.02, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 2.74. After adjusting for confounding, current smokers had lower SF-36 scores than subjects who had never smoked (mean difference in physical functioning score -5.6, 95% confidence interval -10.0 to -1.2; general health -6.1, -9.7 to -2.5. Current smokers were less likely to have attended a hospital diabetic clinic in the last year (OR 0.59, 0.44 to 0.79, and their hypertension was less likely to be treated (OR 0.47, 0.30 to 0.74. Conclusions Compared with non-smokers, smokers had lower socio-economic status and worse health status, but were less likely to be referred to hospital or treated for their hypertension. People with diabetes who smoke can be regarded as a vulnerable group who need more intensive support and treatment.

  6. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. © 2014 APJPH.

  7. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. IL1RN and KRT13 Expression in Bladder Cancer: Association with Pathologic Characteristics and Smoking Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Worst

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To validate microarray data on cytokeratin 13 (KRT13 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN expression in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCB and to correlate our findings with pathologic characteristics and tobacco smoking. Methods. UCB tissue samples (n=109 and control samples (n=14 were obtained from transurethral resection and radical cystectomy specimens. Immunohistochemical staining of KRT13 and IL1RN was performed and semiquantitative expression scores were assessed. Smoking status was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire. Expression scores were correlated with pathologic characteristics (tumor stage and grade and with smoking status. Results. Loss of KRT13 and IL1RN expression was observed in UCB tissue samples when compared to controls (P=0.007, P=0.008 in which KRT13 and IL1RN expression were high. IL1RN expression was significantly reduced in muscle-invasive tumors (P=0.003. In tissue samples of current smokers, a significant downregulation of IL1RN was found when compared to never smokers (P=0.013. Conclusion. Decreased expressions of KRT13 and IL1RN are common features of UCB and are associated with aggressive disease. Tobacco smoking may enhance the loss of IL1RN, indicating an overweight of proinflammatory mediators involved in UCB progression. Further validation of the influence of smoking on IL1RN expression is warranted.

  9. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998-1999 and 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Vickie L; Fagan, Pebbles; Alexander, Linda A Jouridine; Clayton, Richard; Doucet, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-09-01

    Recognition of the health consequences of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has led government agencies and many employers to establish policies that restrict cigarette smoking in public and workplaces. This cross sectional study examines the association of workplace smoking policies and home smoking restrictions with current smoking among women. Participants were employed US women ages 18-64 who were self respondents to the 1998-1999 or 2000-2001 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey supplements. Cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses examine the association of selected demographic characteristics, occupation, income, workplace and home smoking policies/restrictions with current smoking, consumption patterns, and quit attempts among women by poverty level for five race/ethnic groups. The prevalence of either having an official workplace or home smoking policy that completely banned smoking increased with increased distance from the poverty level threshold. A complete ban on home smoking was more frequently reported by African American and Hispanic women although Hispanic women less frequently reported an official workplace smoking policy. In general, policies that permitted smoking in the work area or at home were associated with a higher prevalence of current smoking but this varied by poverty level and race/ethnicity. Home smoking policies that permitted smoking were associated with lower adjusted odds of having a least one quit attempt for nearly all poverty level categories but there was no association between having one quit attempt and workplace policies. Home smoking policies were more consistently associated with a lower prevalence of current smoking irrespective of poverty status or race/ethnicity than workplace policies. These findings underscore the importance of examining tobacco control policies in multiple domains (work and home) as well as by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position.

  10. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Do smoking and fruit and vegetable intake mediate the association between socio-economic status and plasma carotenoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Totland, Torunn H; Bastani, Nasser; Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Tell, Grethe S; Andersen, Lene F

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to study whether the association between educational attainment and antioxidant status is mediated by smoking and fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional analyses of the Oslo Youth Study 2006 wave were carried out. Information about education, smoking habits and diet was collected by questionnaire for 261 subjects (142 women and 119 men aged 38-42 years). Blood samples, height and weight measurements were taken by the participants' General Practitioner. Blood were analysed for plasma carotenoids. Linear regression analyses were used to examine whether smoking and fruit and vegetable intake mediate the association between education and plasma carotenoids. Educational level was positively associated with β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin, but not with total carotenoids, β-carotene or lycopene. Education was negatively associated with smoking and positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Smoking was negatively associated with β-cryptoxanthin, and fruit and vegetable intake was positively associated with β-cryptoxanthin (adjusted for educational level). Moreover, cigarette consumption mediated the association between education and β-cryptoxanthin by 37%, while fruit and vegetable intake mediated this association by 18%. The total mediation effect was 55%. Smoking seemed to be more important as a mediator between education and plasma levels of β-cryptoxanthin than the intake of fruit and vegetables, but more studies are needed to establish the relative importance of smoking and diet as mediators of the association between education and antioxidant status. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks’ Diminished Return

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    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. Aims: To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2017 (n = 3217. HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites (n = 1868; 82% or Blacks (n = 409; 18%. The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. Results: In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. Conclusions: In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  13. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  14. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age: Impulsivity, cigarette smoking status, and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Laura L; Hand, Dennis J; Priest, Jeff S; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    The study aim was to examine impulsivity and other risk factors for e-cigarette use among women of reproductive age comparing current daily cigarette smokers to never cigarette smokers. Women of reproductive age are of special interest because of the additional risk that tobacco and nicotine use represents should they become pregnant. Survey data were collected anonymously online using Amazon Mechanical Turk in 2014. Participants were 800 women ages 24-44years from the US. Half (n=400) reported current, daily smoking and half (n=400) reported smoking e-cigarette use were examined using logistic regression. Daily cigarette smoking was associated with greater impulsivity, lower education, past illegal drug use, and White race/ethnicity. E-cigarette use in the overall sample was associated with being a cigarette smoker and greater education. E-cigarette use among current smokers was associated with increased nicotine dependence and quitting smoking; among never smokers it was associated with greater impulsivity and illegal drug use. E-cigarette use was associated with hookah use, and for never smokers only with use of cigars and other nicotine products. E-cigarette use among women of reproductive age varies by smoking status, with use among current smokers reflecting attempts to quit smoking whereas among non-smokers use may be a marker of a more impulsive repertoire that includes greater use of alternative tobacco products and illegal drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined the association between trajectories of cigarette smoking and unemployment across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Methods: Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 upstate New York counties. Data were collected at 7 timepoints. Results: Using growth mixture modeling, 5 trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. The trajectory groups were as follows: heavy/continuous smokers, occasional smokers, late-starting smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s trajectory group membership and unemployment in the fifth decade of life. The association was determined with controls for age, gender, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, current marijuana use, physical diseases, occupation, educational level, past unemployment experience, socioeconomic status measures of family of origin, depressive mood, and self-control from adolescence through the early 40s. The findings indicate that patterns of adolescent and young adult cigarette smoking have implications for later unemployment. Overall, the results showed that people who fell into the categories of heavy/continuous smokers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84) and occasional smokers (AOR = 4.03) were more likely to be unemployed at mean age 43 when compared with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between the quitters/decreasers and the nonsmokers with respect to unemployment. Conclusions: Intervention programs designed to deal with unemployment should consider focusing on heavy/continuous and occasional cigarette smokers as risk factors for unemployment. PMID:24997307

  16. The role of tobacco-specific media exposure, knowledge, and smoking status on selected attitudes toward tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-02-01

    In August 2007, the President's Cancer Panel urged the leadership of the nation to "summon the political will to address the public health crisis caused by tobacco use" (President's Cancer Panel, N, 2007, Promoting healthy lifestyles: Policy, program, and personal recommendations for reducing cancer risk. http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/pcp07rpt/pcp07rpt.pdf). While some research has examined predictors of public support for tobacco control measures, little research has examined modifiable factors that may influence public attitudes toward tobacco control. We used the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey 2 to examine the contribution of smoking status, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco, and tobacco-specific media exposure (antitobacco messages, news coverage of tobacco issues, and protobacco advertising) on U.S. adults' attitudes toward tobacco control. In addition, we assessed whether smoking status moderates the relationship between tobacco-specific media exposure and policy attitudes. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were employed. Results suggest that knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and smoking status are associated with attitudes toward tobacco control and that exposure to tobacco-specific information in the media plays a role only in some instances. We found no evidence of effect modification by smoking status on the impact of exposure to tobacco-specific media on attitudes toward tobacco control. Understanding the impact of readily modifiable factors that shape policy attitudes is essential if we are to target outreach and education in a way that is likely to sway public support for tobacco control.

  17. Deterioration of lung function is associated with presence of IgM rheumatoid factor and smoking in patients with systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, B.; Ullman, S.; Halberg, P.

    2008-01-01

    of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) the influence of smoking and IgM RF on the lung function was calculated. One hundred fifty-five persons with SSc had vital capacity (VC) and diffusing capacity (DLco) measured at least twice with at least 1-year interval as percents of predicted values according......Smoking is a known risk factor for the development of several lung diseases, autoimmune diseases, and IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) in nonrheumatic persons. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis and IgM RF the diffusion capacity is decreased in smokers but not in nonsmokers. In the present study......M RF was found only in smokers or previous smokers, P = 0.007 and P = 0.01, respectively. These findings were confirmed by means of multiple regression analyses. The presence of IgM RF in smoking SSc patients is associated with deteriorating lung function. Whether this is a causal association...

  18. Prognostic impact of body mass index stratified by smoking status in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peng Sun,1,2,* Fei Zhang,1,2,* Cui Chen,3,* Chao Ren,1,2 Xi-Wen Bi,1,2 Hang Yang,1,2 Xin An,1,2 Feng-Hua Wang,1,2 Wen-Qi Jiang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, 3Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: As smoking affects the body mass index (BMI and causes the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, the prognostic impact of BMI in ESCC could be stratified by smoking status. We investigated the true prognostic effect of BMI and its potential modification by smoking status in ESCC. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 459 patients who underwent curative treatment at a single institution between January 2007 and December 2010. BMI was calculated using the measured height and weight before surgery. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the relationships between smoking status and other clinicopathological variables. The Cox proportional hazard models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses of variables related to overall survival. Results: BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was a significantly independent predictor of poor survival in the overall population and never smokers after adjusting for covariates, but not in ever smokers. Among never smokers, underweight patients (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a 2.218 times greater risk of mortality than non-underweight (BMI =18.5 kg/m2 patients (P=0.015. Among ever smokers, BMI <18 kg/m2 increased the risk of mortality to 1.656 (P=0.019, compared to those having BMI =18 kg/m2. Conclusion: Our study is likely the first to show that the prognostic effect of BMI was substantial in ESCC, even after stratifying by smoking status. Furthermore, the risk of death due to low BMI would be significantly increased in never smokers. We believe that

  19. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, W; Lambert, T W

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10--15 years as non-smokers. Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires. Oxfordshire, UK. 2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers. Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour. Changes in smoking behaviour, attitudes measured after one year. After a year, smoking uptake was 7.8% in the control group compared with 5.1% in the intervention group (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 2.2). Among boys the corresponding results were 5.2% and 2.4% (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.6), and among girls 10.0% and 7.5% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.1). Among boys aged 14-15 the uptake rate was 12.8% in the control group compared with 5.4% in the intervention group. However, among girls of the same age the intervention was less effective, with smoking uptake of 15.1% in the control group and 12.8% in the intervention group. The intervention was more effective among young people whose initial attitudes identified them as definite non-smokers than those who were potential smokers. The intervention substantially reduced smoking uptake among the young people, particularly boys. Primary health care teams can play an important role in maintaining the non-smoking status of their young patients. Confidential postal contact from the doctor direct to the young person at home is influential and cost-effective.

  20. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Racial and non-racial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults 10 years after apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-11-01

    Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa. This analysis examined chronic (day-to-day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and non-racial (eg, age, gender or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health study. Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN. Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.85) and chronic non-racial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and non-racial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking. Racial and non-racial discrimination may be related to South African adults' smoking behaviour, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalisability and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Association between Smoking Status and Food and Nutrient Consumption in Japanese: a Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, Kiyonori; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low although the smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called "Japanese smoking paradox". A healthy diet is proposed to attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status (SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers) groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Food and nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linear models, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately. In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol and other 8 foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber, isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intake of 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.

  3. High intensity smoking cessation interventions: Cardiac patients of low socioeconomic status and low intention to quit profit most.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, N; de Vries, H; Lechner, L; Van Acker, F; Froelicher, E S; Verheugt, F; Mudde, A; Bolman, C

    2017-01-01

    Without assistance, smokers being admitted to the hospital for coronary heart disease often return to regular smoking within a year. This study assessed the 12-month effectiveness of a telephone and a face-to-face counselling intervention on smoking abstinence among cardiac patients. Differential effects for subgroups varying in their socioeconomic status and intention to quit smoking were also studied. A randomised controlled trial was used. During hospital stay, smokers hospitalised for coronary heart disease were assigned to usual care (n = 245), telephone counselling (n = 223) or face-to-face counselling (n = 157). Eligible patients were allocated to an intervention counselling group and received nicotine patches. After 12 months, self-reported continued abstinence was assessed and biochemically verified in quitters. Effects on smoking abstinence were tested using multilevel logistic regression analyses applying the intention-to-treat approach. Compared with usual care, differential effects of telephone and face-to-face counselling on continued abstinence were found in patients with a low socioeconomic status and in patients with a low quit intention. For these patients, telephone counselling increased the likelihood of abstinence threefold (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI 1.32-7.31, p = 0.01), whereas face-to-face counselling increased this likelihood fivefold (OR = 5.30, 95 % CI 2.13-13.17, p socioeconomic status and low quit intentions. The present study indicates that patients of high socioeconomic status and high quit motivation require different cessation approaches.

  4. [Current status and issues of anti-smoking measures in the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mayumi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Compared with developed foreign countries, anti-smoking measures in Japan is lagging behind. As a country that has signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should be run the appropriate tobacco control. For example, in many stores of the service industry that smoking is allowed, employees are working while being exposed to second-hand smoke. Even in workplace air polluted environment, employees will not be able to leave there. Such a harsh environment to ignore health and safety, it must be eliminated as soon as possible. In order to protect the health of workers, the workplace should be smoke free.

  5. Cigarette smoking, pocket money and socioeconomic status: results from a national survey of 4th form students in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray; Robinson, Elizabeth

    2002-07-26

    To investigate whether pocket money amount and socio-economic status are risk factors for smoking in 14 and 15 year old children. This was a national cross-sectional survey of 4th form students who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2000. Socio-economic status was determined from the Ministry of Education school socio-economic deciles. Questionnaires from 14793 girls and 14577 boys were analysed. Socioeconomic status (SES) was inversely associated with smoking prevalence in girls only (ppocket money than those in high SES decile schools (ppocket money >$30, $21-30, or $11-20, the adjusted relative risks for smoking > or = monthly were 1.73 (95% CI 1.61, 1.85), 1.48 (1.35, 1.62), and 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) in girls, and 1.57 (1.46, 1.70), 1.32 (1.19, 1.46), and 1.11 (1.00, 1.23) in boys, respectively. The proportion of smokers purchasing cigarettes increased with amount of pocket money received in the last 30 days (ppocket money amount in adolescents. This finding has important public health significance, but further research is required to determine if the association is causal.

  6. The influence of radiographic phenotype and smoking status on peripheral blood biomarker patterns in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Bon

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by both airway remodeling and parenchymal destruction. The identification of unique biomarker patterns associated with airway dominant versus parenchymal dominant patterns would support the existence of unique phenotypes representing independent biologic processes. A cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association of serum biomarkers with radiographic airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD.Serum from 234 subjects enrolled in a CT screening cohort was analyzed for 33 cytokines and growth factors using a multiplex protein array. The association of serum markers with forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted (FEV1% and quantitative CT measurements of airway thickening and emphysema was assessed with and without stratification for current smoking status. Significant associations were found with several serum inflammatory proteins and measurements of FEV1%, airway thickening, and parenchymal emphysema independent of smoking status. The association of select analytes with airway thickening and emphysema was independent of FEV1%. Furthermore, the relationship between other inflammatory markers and measurements of physiologic obstruction or airway thickening was dependent on current smoking status.Airway and parenchymal phenotypes of COPD are associated with unique systemic serum biomarker profiles. Serum biomarker patterns may provide a more precise classification of the COPD syndrome, provide insights into disease pathogenesis and identify targets for novel patient-specific biological therapies.

  7. Five-way smoking status classification using text hot-spot identification and error-correcting output codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron M

    2008-01-01

    We participated in the i2b2 smoking status classification challenge task. The purpose of this task was to evaluate the ability of systems to automatically identify patient smoking status from discharge summaries. Our submission included several techniques that we compared and studied, including hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, inverse class frequency weighting, error-correcting output codes, and post-processing rules. We evaluated our approaches using the same methods as the i2b2 task organizers, using micro- and macro-averaged F1 as the primary performance metric. Our best performing system achieved a micro-F1 of 0.9000 on the test collection, equivalent to the best performing system submitted to the i2b2 challenge. Hot-spot identification, zero-vector filtering, classifier weighting, and error correcting output coding contributed additively to increased performance, with hot-spot identification having by far the largest positive effect. High performance on automatic identification of patient smoking status from discharge summaries is achievable with the efficient and straightforward machine learning techniques studied here.

  8. Sex, smoking, and socioeconomic status are associated with body composition among tuberculosis patients in a Deuterium Dilution Cross-Sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    /m(2) [(95% CI = 0.02, 1.5); P= 0.045] lower fat mass index, but smoking did not affect fat-free mass. High socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with higher fat as well as fat-free mass. HIV infection, cluster of differentiation 4 count, and antiretroviral therapy were not correlates. Sex, smoking...

  9. Presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Kimijima, Michio; Muto, Takashi; Kimura, Kazumoto

    2012-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight increases the risks of lifestyle-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease) in outpatients with mood disorders. In this cross-sectional survey, using data from 213 outpatients with mood disorders (95 men, 118 women), we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipedemia, and cardiovascular disease, using a binary logistic regression model; we then calculated the adjusted OR values for smokers and non-smokers with body mass indexes (BMIs) of <25 or ≥25 kg/m². Next, we examined the data for the presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight, using three measures of additive interaction: relative excess risk due to the interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to the interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S). Smokers with BMI <25 kg/m² had a significantly lower risk of hypertension (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.81) than non-smokers with BMI <25 kg/m² (reference group). Compared with the reference group, overweight non-smokers had a significantly higher risk (2.82, 1.34-6.19) of hypertension, and overweight smokers had a higher risk (4.43, 1.28-15.26) of hypertension and very high risks of diabetes (8.24, 2.47-27.42) and cardiovascular disease (13.12, 1.95-88.41). The highest RERI was derived from the relation with cardiovascular disease. The highest AP and S were derived from the relation with type 2 diabetes. There was no interaction of smoking and being overweight with dyslipidemia. The presence of an interaction between smoking and being overweight exacerbates the risks of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in outpatients with mood disorders.

  10. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, W.; Lambert, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10-15 years as non-smokers.
DESIGN—Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires.
SETTING—Oxfordshire, UK.
SUBJECTS—2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers.
INTERVENTION—Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Changes in smoking behaviour, attitudes measured after one year.
RESULTS—After a year, smoking uptake was 7.8% in the control group compared with 5.1% in the intervention group (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 2.2). Among boys the corresponding results were 5.2% and 2.4% (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.6), and among girls 10.0% and 7.5% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.1). Among boys aged 14-15 the uptake rate was 12.8% in the control group compared with 5.4% in the intervention group. However, among girls of the same age the intervention was less effective, with smoking uptake of 15.1% in the control group and 12.8% in the intervention group. The intervention was more effective among young people whose initial attitudes identified them as definite non-smokers than those who were potential smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—The intervention substantially reduced smoking uptake among the young people, particularly boys. Primary health care teams can play an important role in maintaining the non-smoking status of their young patients. Confidential postal contact from the doctor direct to the young person at home is influential and cost-effective.


Keywords: smoking initiation; smoking prevention; young people; primary care PMID:11226356

  11. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (pConclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  12. Lung Microbiota Is Related to Smoking Status and to Development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ariane R; Lynch, Susan V; Langelier, Chaz; Christie, Jason D; McCauley, Kathryn; Nelson, Mary; Cheung, Christopher K; Benowitz, Neal L; Cohen, Mitchell J; Calfee, Carolyn S

    2018-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients after severe trauma; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. To determine whether cigarette smoking contributes to ARDS development after trauma by altering community composition of the lung microbiota. We studied the lung microbiota of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the ICU after severe blunt trauma. To do so, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing of endotracheal aspirate samples obtained on ICU admission (n = 74) and at 48 hours after admission (n = 30). Cigarette smoke exposure (quantified using plasma cotinine), ARDS development, and other clinical parameters were correlated with lung microbiota composition. Smoking status was significantly associated with lung bacterial community composition at ICU admission (P = 0.007 by permutational multivariate ANOVA [PERMANOVA]) and at 48 hours (P = 0.03 by PERMANOVA), as well as with significant enrichment of potential pathogens, including Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Haemophilus, and Treponema. ARDS development was associated with lung community composition at 48 hours (P = 0.04 by PERMANOVA) and was characterized by relative enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae and of specific taxa enriched at baseline in smokers, including Prevotella and Fusobacterium. After severe blunt trauma, a history of smoking is related to lung microbiota composition, both at the time of ICU admission and at 48 hours. ARDS development is also correlated with respiratory microbial community structure at 48 hours and with taxa that are relatively enriched in smokers at ICU admission. The data derived from this pilot study suggest that smoking-related changes in the lung microbiota could be related to ARDS development after severe trauma.

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RULES IN FIVE LEADING STANDARDS FOR SMOKE DETECTORS SITING IN THE PRESENCE OF A CEILING IRREGULARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan BLAGOJEVIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subdividing elements and different structures on the ceiling like beams or similar, significantly affect the location of the smoke detector, because they change the flow of combustion products. From point of view of fire detection system, designers it is very interesting how to arrange and distribute smoke detectors in applications when beams are formed structure like a “honeycomb” The European norm 54-14 is mandatory, but in practice, a main question appears: “Do we have the explanations detailed enough for all of the situations that could occur related to length, width and depth of honeycomb cells”? The main goal of this paper is to show the differences between the rules and the instructions in five standards: EN 54-14, VDE 0833-2, BS 5839-1, NPB 88, NFPA 72, and to find the best solution for various situations in practice.

  14. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress, and current smoking status: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Peppone, Luke J; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J; Carroll, Jennifer K; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination-smoking association. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment.

  15. Perceived Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Current Smoking Status: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race Module, 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J.; Alcaraz, Kassandra; McQueen, Amy; Guido, Joseph J.; Carroll, Jennifer K.; Shacham, Enbal; Morrow, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between perceived discrimination and smoking status and whether psychological distress mediated this relationship in a large, multiethnic sample. Methods. We used 2004 through 2008 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Reactions to Race module to conduct multivariate logistic regression analyses and tests of mediation examining associations between perceived discrimination in health care and workplace settings, psychological distress, and current smoking status. Results. Regardless of race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination was associated with increased odds of current smoking. Psychological distress was also a significant mediator of the discrimination–smoking association. Conclusions. Our results indicate that individuals who report discriminatory treatment in multiple domains may be more likely to smoke, in part, because of the psychological distress associated with such treatment. PMID:22420821

  16. Is there an association between home-tobacco outlet proximity and smoking status in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; K Seid, Abdu; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    and/or tobacco outlets on smoking habits for the first time in a population based survey in Denmark. Method: Data came from the 2011 Danish national alcohol and drug survey of the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research of Aarhus University (response rate 64%) and registries of Statistics Denmark were...... between residing close to a tobacco outlet and the prevalence of current and previous smoking. However, no significant association was found between distance from residence to tobacco outlets and smoking habits. Discussion: The prevalence of current smokers (24%) is in accordance with the 2011 annual......Abstract It is well established that exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotion or impulse purchases and access to and distance to tobacco outlets are related to youth and adult smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of distance from residence to the nearest alcohol...

  17. Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine-Cotinine Verified Smoking Status among Korean Male Adults: Analysis of Health Check-Up Data from a Single Private Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngju; Choi, Yoon-Jung; Oh, Seung-Won; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kwon, Hyuktae; Um, Yoo-Jin; Ahn, Sang Hyun; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Cheol Min

    2016-05-01

    Enquiry into smoking status and recommendations for smoking cessation is an essential preventive service. However, there are few studies comparing self-reported (SR) and cotinine-verified (CV) smoking statuses, using medical check-up data. The rates of discrepancy and under-reporting are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study using health examination data from Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital in 2013. We analyzed SR and CV smoking statuses and discrepancies between the two in relation to sociodemographic variables. We also attempted to ascertain the factors associated with a discrepant smoking status among current smokers. In the sample of 3,477 men, CV smoking rate was 11.1% higher than the SR rate. About 1 in 3 participants either omitted the smoking questionnaire or gave a false reply. The ratio of CV to SR smoking rates was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-1.61). After adjusting for confounding factors, older adults (≥60 years) showed an increased adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for discrepancy between SR and CV when compared to those in their twenties and thirties (aOR, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.69-10.96). Educational levels of high school graduation or lower (aOR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.36-4.01), repeated health check-ups (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.06), and low cotinine levels of pay attention to participants with greater discrepancy between SR and CV smoking status, and formulate interventions to improve response rates.

  18. The influence of social environment on the smoking status of women employed in health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikšić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bosnia and Herzegovina has a high prevalence of smoking among women, especially among health care professionals. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the social environment of women employed in health institutions in relation to the cigarettes smoking habits.Methods: The study included 477 women employed in hospitals, outpatient and public health institutions in Sarajevo Canton Bosnia and Herzegovina. We used a modifi ed questionnaire assessing smoking habits of medical staff in European hospitalsResults: The results showed that 50% of women are smokers, with the highest incidence among nurses (58.1% and administrative staff (55.6%. The social environment is characterized by a high incidence of colleagues (60.1% and friends who are smokers (54.0% at the workplace and in the family (p<0.005. One third of women (27.8%, mainly non-smokers, states that the work environment supports employees smoking (p=0.003.Conclusion: Workplace and social environment support smoking as an acceptable cultural habit and is contributing to increasing rates of smoking among women.

  19. Smoking Status and Incidence of Cancer After Myocardial Infarction: A Follow-Up Study of over 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Katrin; Goldbourt, Uri; Gerber, Yariv

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated long-term incidence of cancer after myocardial infarction among current, former, and never smokers, and assessed whether reducing cigarette consumption is associated with decreased cancer risk. Consecutive patients aged ≤65 years discharged from 8 hospitals in central Israel after first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed for cancer and death. Extensive data including smoking habits were obtained at the index hospitalization and 4 time points during follow-up. Survival methods were applied to assess the hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer associated with smoking categories. Included in the study were 1486 cancer-free participants (mean age, 54 years; 81% men), among whom 787 were current smokers at baseline (average daily cigarette consumption = 29). Smokers were younger than nonsmokers and more likely to be male and of lower socioeconomic status. Over a median follow-up of 21.4 years, 273 (18.4%) patients developed cancer. Baseline smoking was associated with a ∼40% excess adjusted risk of cancer; ∼25% after accounting for death as a competing event. Considering changes in smoking during follow-up, the excess risk was confined to persistent smokers (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.50), whereas post- (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 0.80-1.62) and pre-myocardial infarction quitters (HR 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.47) were comparable with never smokers. Among persistent smokers, each reduction of 10 cigarettes relative to pre-myocardial infarction consumption was associated with a ∼10% reduced adjusted risk. Among young survivors of first myocardial infarction followed-up longitudinally, smoking cessation is associated with lower risk of cancer. Reducing consumption among smokers may also be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive effects of refugee presence on host community nutritional status in Turkana County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengo, Rieti G; Oka, Rahul C; Vemuru, Varalakshmi; Golitko, Mark; Gettler, Lee T

    2018-01-01

    Refugee camps are often assumed to negatively impact local host communities through resource competition and conflict. We ask instead whether economic resources and trade networks associated with refugees have benefits for host community health and nutrition. To address this question we assess the impacts of Kakuma Refugee Camp in northwest Kenya, comparing anthropometric indicators of nutritional status between Turkana communities in the region. Participants were recruited at four sites in Turkana County (N = 586): Kakuma Town, adjacent to Kakuma Refugee Camp; Lorugum, an area with sustained economic development; Lokichoggio, formerly host to international NGOs, and now underdeveloped; and Lorengo, an undeveloped, rural community. We evaluated nutritional status using summed skinfold thickness and body mass index (BMI). Structured interviews provided contextual data. Age-controlled multiple regression models reveal two distinct skinfold thickness profiles for both sexes: comparatively elevated values in Kakuma and Lorugum, and significantly lower values in Lorengo and Lokichoggio. BMI did not vary significantly by location. Despite better nutritional status, a large proportion of Kakuma residents still report worries about basic needs, including hunger, health, and economic security. Kakuma Refugee Camp is associated with better host community energetic status indicators, compared to other relevant, regional sites varying in development and resources. Based on global nutritional standards, observed differences likely represent meaningful disparities in overall health. We suggest that access to cereals via refugee trade networks and employment might mediate this relationship. However, perceptions of refugees as illegitimate interlopers maintain a high psychological burden. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human semen parameters in the presence of leukocytospermia, smoking habit, and varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Campagna, MariaStella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Figura, Natale

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationships between resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and semen parameters, sperm apoptosis, and necrosis in infertile patients and in control subjects with unknown reproductive potential with/without smoking habits, leukocytospermia, and varicocele. Prospective study. Sperm laboratory. A total of 110 selected men. Family history, clinical/physical examination, ELISA determination (resistin, IL-6, TNF-α), semen analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide assay. Relationships among resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α and semen parameters in the presence of smoking habits, varicocele, leukocytospermia, and in infertile subjects. Resistin level was higher in semen than in serum. Resistin semen levels showed negative correlations with sperm motility and positive correlations with apoptotic, necrotic sperm and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers and in cases with leukocytospermia, in which an increase in necrotic sperm and a decrease in the number of sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in infertile patients compared with control subjects with unknown reproductive potential. A total of 74.5% of infertile patients showed leukocytospermia. Semen resistin correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and sperm quality; in cases of leukocytospermia and smoking habits, resistin concentrations were increased, suggesting that resistin may play a regulatory role in inflammation of the male reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, Pused a nicotine replacement therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration, while 18% (14/79) used an electronic nicotine delivery system to quit (eg, electronic cigarette). A majority (48/79, 61%) commented on at least one Facebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were

  3. State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Crews, John E; Malarcher, Ann; Maurice, Emmanuel; Richard, Roland A

    2007-10-01

    To our knowledge, no study has determined whether smoking prevalence is higher among people with disabilities than among people without disabilities across all U.S. states. Neither do we know whether people with disabilities and people without disabilities receive the same quality of advice about tobacco-cessation treatment from medical providers. We analyzed data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate differences between people with and people without disabilities in smoking prevalence and the receipt of tobacco-cessation treatment advice from medical providers. We found that smoking prevalence for people with disabilities was approximately 50% higher than for people without disabilities. Smokers with disabilities were more likely than smokers without disabilities to have visited a medical provider at least once in the previous 12 months and to have received medical advice to quit. More than 40% of smokers with disabilities who were advised to quit, however, reported not being told about the types of tobacco-cessation treatment available. Ensuring that people with disabilities are included in state-based smoking cessation programs gives states an opportunity to eliminate health disparities and to improve the health and wellness of this group. Ways to reduce unmet preventive health care needs of people with disabilities include provider adoption of the Public Health Service's clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence and the provision of smoking cessation services that include counseling and effective pharmaceutical treatment.

  4. Differences in food intake and exercise by smoking status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Diane B; Smith, Brian N; Speizer, Ilene S; Bean, Melanie K; Mitchell, Karen S; Uguy, L Samy; Fries, Elizabeth A

    2005-06-01

    Smoking, diet, and lack of exercise are the top preventable causes of death in the United States. Some 23% of high school students currently smoke and many teens do not meet Healthy People 2010 standards for healthy eating or physical activity. This study examined the relationship between smoking and the consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk/dairy products and the frequency of exercise in 10,635 Virginia youth. Survey data were collected from middle school (MS; n = 8022) and high school (HS; n = 2613) adolescents participating in youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs. Data were analyzed using chi-square bivariate tests and multivariate regression models. Smokers were significantly less likely than nonsmokers to exercise > or = 3x week and to consume > or = 1 serving/day of vegetables or milk/dairy products. This was more evident in high school than middle school students and in females compared to males. In both HS and MS, a dose-response relationship was detected with higher level smoking associated with lower frequency of eating specified food and exercise. Smoking is associated with compromised intake of healthy food and exercise. To decrease incident cases of chronic disease later in life, new tailored, innovative interventions are needed that address multiple health behaviors in youth.

  5. Relation of smoking status to a panel of inflammatory markers: the framingham offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Yamini S; Guo, Chao-Yu; Rong, Jian; Larson, Martin G; Walter, Robert E; Keaney, John F; Sutherland, Patrice A; Vasan, Aditi; Lipinska, Izabella; Evans, Jane C; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2008-11-01

    We sought to investigate the hypothesis that smoking is accompanied by systemic inflammation. We examined the relation of smoking to 11 systemic inflammatory markers in Framingham Study participants (n=2944, mean age 60 years, 55% women, 12% ethnic minorities) examined from 1998-2001. The cohort was divided into never (n=1149), former (n=1424), and current smokers with last cigarette >6h (n=134) or < or =6h (n=237) prior to phlebotomy. In multivariable-adjusted models there were significant overall between-smoking group differences (defined as p<0.0045 to account for multiple testing) for every inflammatory marker tested, except for serum CD40 ligand (CD40L), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2). With multivariable-adjustment, pair-wise comparisons with never smokers revealed that former smokers had significantly lower concentrations of plasma CD40L (p<0.0001) and higher concentrations of (CRP) C-reactive protein (p=0.002). As opposed to never smokers, those with acute cigarette smoke exposure (< or =6h) had significantly higher concentrations of all markers (p<0.0001) except serum CD40L, MPO, and TNFR2; plasma CD40L were significantly lower. Compared with never smokers, cigarette smokers have significantly elevated concentrations of most circulating inflammatory markers, consistent with the hypothesis that smoking is associated with a systemic inflammatory state.

  6. Lung cancer risk perception and distress: difference by smoking status, and role of physical activity and race among US population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Mathur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cigarette smoking is the greatest known risk factor for lung cancer, and people with different smoking status may process risk information differently. While psychological distress has been linked with smoking status, little is known about the impact of distress on lung cancer perception or the moderating role of physical activity and race. This study explores the association of lung cancer perception and distress and investigates the effects of physical activity and race on that association.Methods: the study uses a national, biennial survey (the Health Information National Trends Survey that was designed to collect nationally representative data on the American public’s need for, access to, and use of cancer-related information using a cross-sectional, complex sample survey design. Out of 5 586 participants, 1 015 were current smokers, 1 599 were former smokers, 2 877 were never smokers. Of the sample, 1 765 participants answered the lung cancer risk perception question and had no personal history of lung cancer. Statistical analysis contrasts smokers, former smokers, and never smokers to examine the association of lung cancer perception and distress and the moderating role of physical activity and race.Results: distress and lung cancer risk perception were significantly positively associated (p value < 0.001. Respondents who were current smokers and were distressed had very high odds of agreeing that they have a somewhat high chance (odds ratio=900.8, CI: 94.23, 8 611.75; p value < 0.001 or a very high chance (odds ratio=500.44 CI: 56.53, 4 430.02, p value < 0.001 of developing lung cancer in the future as compared to not distressed never smokers. However, race and physical activity status did not significantly affect perception of risk. Perceptions of risk are important precursors of health change.Conclusions: elevated distress level and higher perceived risk, in addition to physical activity status and race, could potentially

  7. Predictors of marijuana relapse in the human laboratory: robust impact of tobacco cigarette smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-02-01

    Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n = 51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Study 2: to isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal, and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n = 15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU), and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Study 1: 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (odds ratio: 19, p marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p 87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse, and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-sectional exploration of smoking status and social interaction in a large population-based Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, May; Weber, Marianne F; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy

    2012-07-01

    We used cross-sectional data to investigate whether current, past and never smokers report different levels of social interaction and whether the level of social interaction varied according to the type of interaction being measured. Self-reported questionnaire data were obtained from 239,043 men and women aged 45 years or older living in Australia between February 2006 and February 2010. The study participation rate was 18%. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the percentage differences in the mean values of four social interaction outcomes according to smoking status after adjusting for age, place of residence, income, education, health insurance status, physical limitation, psychological distress and exposure to passive smoke: number of times 1) spent with friends/family, 2) spoken on the telephone, 3) attended social meetings in the past week, and 4) number of people outside of home that can be depended upon. 7.6% of males and 6.9% of females were current smokers, 43.6% of males and 28.6% of females were ex-smokers and 48.8% of males and 64.5% of females had never smoked. Compared to never smokers, current smokers reported significantly fewer social interactions in the past week and had fewer people outside the home that they could depend on. Men and women current smokers attended 24.0% (95% CI, 20.3, 27.5) and 31.1% (95% CI, 28.1, 34.1) fewer social group meetings on average than never smokers. Smokers exposed to passive smoke reported higher levels of social interaction than those not exposed. Past smokers reported levels of social interaction that were intermediate to those of current and never smokers and the more years they had abstained from smoking, the more social interaction they reported on average. Our data are in line with previous research showing that smokers are not only worse off economically, physically and mentally, but are also less likely to be socially connected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  10. Do dietary and supplementary intakes of antioxidants differ with smoking status?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, K.T.; Ocké, M C; Smit, H A; Seidell, J C

    BACKGROUND: Differences in dietary and supplementary intake of antioxidants were determine between different categories of smokers and never-smokers. METHODS: Data from a large, cross-sectional, population-based study were used. Subjects (n = 4244) were divided into five smoking categories according

  11. Microbial status of smoked fish, scombia scombia sold in Owerri, Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were analyzed microbiologically for viable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi count on Nutrient and Potato dextrose agar respectively, using pour plate method and coliform count in MacConkey broth by multiple tube method (MPN). The mean value ... Key words: Bacteria, Yeast, Mould, Smoked fish, Contamination.

  12. [Interventions for smoking cessation among low socioeconomic status smokers: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Delmer, Olivier; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Blanchoz, Jean-Marie; Arwidson, Pierre

    In most western countries, smoking appears to be highly differentiated according to socio-economic level. Two systematic reviews published in 2014 showed that most of the recommended interventions for smoking cessation, particularly individual interventions, tend to increase social inequalities in health. An analysis of the most recent literature was carried out in order to provide policy makers and stakeholders with a set of evidence on the modalities of interventions to encourage and help disadvantaged smokers quit smoking. This review was based on articles published between January 2013 and April 2016. Only studies conducted in European countries or countries in stage 4 of the tobacco epidemic (USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand) were included. Selected articles were double-screened. Twenty-three studies were identified, including evaluation of media campaigns, face-to-face behavioural support, phone- and web-based support or awareness of passive smoking among children. Some interventions adapted to precarious populations have been shown to be effective. Some characteristics would facilitate access and improve the support of disadvantaged groups, including a local intervention, a proactive approach and co-construction with targeted smokers.

  13. Does smoking status affect the likelihood of consulting a doctor about respiratory symptoms? A pilot survey in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Moira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers attribute respiratory symptoms, even when severe, to everyday causes and not as indicative of ill-health warranting medical attention. The aim of this pilot study was to conduct a structured vignette survey of people attending general practice to determine when they would advise a person with respiratory symptoms to consult a medical practitioner. Particular reference was made to smoking status and lung cancer. Methods Participants were recruited from two general practices in Western Australia. Respondents were invited to complete self-administered questionnaires containing nine vignettes chosen at random from a pool of sixty four vignettes, based on six clinical variables. Twenty eight vignettes described cases with at least 5% risk of cancer. For analysis these were dubbed 'cancer vignettes'. Respondents were asked if they would advise a significant other to consult a doctor with their respiratory symptoms. Logistic regression and non-parametric tests were used to analyse the data. Results Three hundred questionnaires were distributed and one hundred and forty completed responses were collected over six weeks. The majority (70.3% of respondents were female aged forty and older. A history of six weeks' of symptoms, weight loss, cough and breathlessness independently increased the odds of recommending a consultation with a medical practitioner by a factor of 11.8, 2.11, 1.40 and 4.77 respectively. A history of smoking independently increased the odds of the person being thought 'likely' or 'very likely' to have cancer by a factor of 2.46. However only 32% of cancer vignettes with a history of cigarette smoking were recognised as presentations of possible cancer. Conclusion Even though a history of cigarette smoking was more likely to lead to the suggestion that a symptomatic person may have cancer we did not confirm that smokers would be more likely to be advised to consult a doctor, even when presenting with common

  14. Socio-economic status in relation to smoking: The role of (expected and desired) social support and quitter identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Van Laar, Colette; Kawous, Ramin; Beijk, Sarah C A M

    2016-08-01

    Smoking behavior differs substantially between lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Previous research shows that social support for quitting may be more available to higher-SES smokers, and higher-SES smokers may have stronger nonsmoker self-identities (i.e., can see themselves more as nonsmokers). To investigate how SES influences smoking behavior, taking the role of identity processes and social support into account. A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among 387 daily smokers from lower, middle and higher-SES groups in the Netherlands in 2014. Educational level was used as an indicator of SES. Expected and desired social support for quitting smoking, expected exclusion from the social network when quitting, identity factors and intention to quit were measured. Smokers from all SES backgrounds desired to receive positive social support if they would quit smoking. Lower-SES smokers expected to receive more negative and practical support than middle or higher-SES smokers. There were no significant differences between SES groups for almost all identity measures, nor on intention to quit. Above and beyond other important influences such as nicotine-dependence, results showed that smokers regardless of SES who expected to receive more positive support tended to have stronger intentions to quit. Moreover, smokers who could see themselves more as being quitters (quitter self-identity) and perceived themselves less as smokers (smoker self-identity), as well as smokers who felt more positive about nonsmokers (nonsmoker group-identity) had stronger intentions to quit. No significant interactions with SES were found. The results suggest that developing ways to stimulate the social environment to provide adequate support for smokers who intend to quit, and developing ways to strengthen identification with quitting in smokers may help smokers to quit successfully. Findings further suggest that the possible-self as a quitter is more important than

  15. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  16. Never, non-daily, and daily smoking status and progression to daily cigarette smoking as correlates of major depressive episode in a national sample of youth: Results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M

    2018-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depression, and new initiates who progress more quickly to daily smoking may be at enhanced risk. In a nationally representative sample of youth, this study examined the association between daily, non-daily, and never smoking with past-year and lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) and, among daily smokers, whether faster progression to daily smoking was associated with increased MDE risk. Data were from n = 44,921 youth aged 12-17 in the 2013-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Weighted adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status (daily, non-daily, never) with lifetime and past-year MDE, and the association between progression from cigarette trial to daily smoking with MDE outcomes among daily smokers. Daily and non-daily smokers had similar rates of lifetime and past-year MDE; rates of MDE were approximately 50% lower among never smokers. Compared to never smokers, adjusted models showed that non-daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year and lifetime MDE, while daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year but not lifetime MDE. Daily smoking youth who progressed more quickly from cigarette trial to daily use had an increased risk of both lifetime and past-year MDE. Prevention programs should target factors associated with the shift from cigarette experimentation to regular use to curb deleterious consequences of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents

  18. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzymski, Piotr, E-mail: rzymskipiotr@ump.edu.pl [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland); Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Poniedziałek, Barbara [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Opala, Tomasz [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  19. Acute vascular effects of waterpipe smoking: Importance of physical activity and fitness status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Shqair, Dana M; Stoner, Lee

    2015-06-01

    While new forms of tobacco, including waterpipe (WP) smoking, continue to gain popularity, limited literature has examined the vascular health consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine: (i) the acute WP-induced changes in vascular function; (ii) whether acute changes in vascular function are modified by lifestyle behaviors (habitual physical activity, physical fitness). Fifty three (22.7 y, 36% F, 23.4 kg/m(2)) otherwise healthy WP smokers were recruited. Strain-gauge plethysmography was used to measure forearm blood flow, vascular resistance, venous capacitance, and venous outflow at rest and following occlusion. Habitual physical activity was determined using the Arabic version of short-form international physical activity questionnaire, while physical fitness was assessed using the 6 min walk test and handgrip strength. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationships between post-smoking vascular function and lifestyle behaviors, controlling for pre-smoking vascular measures. (i) WP had a small effect on forearm post-occlusion blood flow (d = -0.19), a moderate effect on venous outflow (d = 0.30), and a moderate effect on post-occlusion vascular resistance (d = 0.32). (ii) Total habitual physical activity strongly correlated with resting blood flow (r = 0.50) and moderately with vascular resistance (r = -0.40). Handgrip strength moderately correlated with venous capacitance (r = 0.30) and post-occlusion blood flow (r = 0.30), while 6 min walked distance moderately correlated with resting venous capacitance (r = 0.30). Waterpipe smoking is associated with immediate changes in vascular function, which are exacerbated in individuals with low habitual physical activity and physical fitness levels in young otherwise healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of smoking status on platelet function and clinical outcomes with prasugrel vs. clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes managed without revascularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornel, Jan H; Ohman, E Magnus; Neely, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    managed medically without revascularization. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7062 patients aged ..., or stroke in current smokers was significantly lower with prasugrel (11.7%) vs. clopidogrel (18.6%), but there was no difference in non-smokers (13.8% vs. 13.7%), with significant interaction between treatment and baseline smoking status (P = .0002). Bleeding events occurred more frequently in prasugrel......-treated patients with no significant interaction between treatment and baseline smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Among medically managed ACS patients

  1. Human papillomavirus-16 presence and physical status in lung carcinomas from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morewaya Jacob

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human papillomavirus (HPV genome has been detected in lung cancer, its prevalence is highly variable around the world. Higher frequencies have been reported in far-east Asian countries, when compared with European countries. The present study analysed the HPV-16 presence in 60 lung carcinomas from the Asian countries China, Pakistan and Papua New Guinea. Results HPV-16 was present in 8/59 (13% samples. According to histological type, HPV-16 was detected in 8/18 (44% squamous cell carcinomas (SQCs, which were mainly from Pakistan; 0/38 (0% adenocarcinomas (ACs, which were mainly from China; and in 0/4 (0% small cell carcinomas (SCLCs. The observed histological difference was statistically significant (p Conclusion These results support the notion that HPV-16 infection is highly associated with SQCs in Pakistan. Our results show a frequent HPV-16 integration in SQCs, although the low viral load casts doubt respect a direct etiological role of HPV in lung carcinomas from Asia. Additional HPV-16 characterization is necessary to establish a direct or indirect etiological role of HPV in this malignancy.

  2. Genetic variation in the 15q25 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4) interacts with maternal self-reported smoking status during pregnancy to influence birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Huikari, Ville; Christie, Jennifer T

    2012-01-01

    the association between this variant and birth weight of term, singleton offspring in a well-powered meta-analysis. We stratified 26 241 European origin study participants by smoking status (women who smoked during pregnancy versus women who did not smoke during pregnancy) and, in each stratum, analysed...

  3. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  4. Presence of crevicular fluid Prostaglandin E2 in relation with clinical and radiographic periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elpidio Monzón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is present in gingival crevicular fluid the (GCF and is evidenced in periodontal disease (PD. However, there are no enough reports to correlate the PGE2 concentrations in GCF in periodontal health and disease with clinical and radiographic indicators, age and gender. Hence, the present study is aimed to estimate the levels of PGE2 in GCF of subjects without periodontal disease (SEP and periodontal disease (CEP. Materials and Methods: 99 subjects were selected, 33 without PD (G1 and 66 with PD, 33 with gingivitis (G2 and 33 with periodontitis (G3, which were submitted to a clinical and radiographic diagnosis, registering samples FGC, being stored, centrifuged and refrigerated for preservation. Subsequently the concentration of crevicular PGE2 was measured by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, determining the concentration of each subject. Results: PGE2 was detected in all the samples. The G1 presented a concentration of 28.82 ± 2.88 pg / mL, G2 44.91 ± 4.37 pg / mL and G3 148.67 ± 74.74 pg / mL (0.0001. PGE2 levels were significantly correlated with bleeding on probing, probing depth, attachment loss and bone loss (0.05. PGE2 levels were modified by age, but not gender. Conclusion: It is well known that activated inflammatory cells produce inflammatory mediators that stimulate the production of PGE2. The findings of this study demonstrate an increased concentration of PGE2 in FCG according to the presence of greater severity of PD. PGE2 may be considered as a biomarker in PD progression. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

  5. Longitudinal study of diet quality and change in asthma symptoms in adults, according to smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Dumas, Orianne; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Leynaert, Bénédicte; Pison, Christophe; Le Moual, Nicole; Romieu, Isabelle; Siroux, Valérie; Camargo, Carlos A; Nadif, Rachel; Varraso, Raphaëlle

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet-asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (P for interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.

  6. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  7. Does the association between different dimension of social capital and adolescent smoking vary by socioeconomic status? a pooled cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; De Clercq, Bart; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Hublet, Anne; Molcho, Michal; Kunst, Anton E; Richter, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    To analyze how dimensions of social capital at the individual level are associated with adolescent smoking and whether associations differ by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study 2005/2006 including 6511 15-year-old adolescents from Flemish Belgium, Canada, Romania and England. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Social capital was indicated by friend-related social capital, participation in school and voluntary organizations, trust and reciprocity in family, neighborhood and school. We conducted pooled logistic regression models with interaction terms and tested for cross-national differences. Almost all dimensions of social capital were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking, except for friend-related social capital and school participation. The association of family-related social capital with smoking was significantly stronger for low FAS adolescents, whereas the association of vertical trust and reciprocity in school with smoking was significantly stronger for high FAS adolescents. Social capital may act both as a protective and a risk factor for adolescent smoking. Achieving higher levels of family-related social capital might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking.

  8. Effect of gender, age, diet and smoking status on chronomics of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjana; Sharma, Sumita; Singh, Rajesh K; Mahdi, Abbas A; Singh, Raj K; Lee Gierke, Cathy; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2016-08-01

    Circulating lipid components were studied under near-normal tropical conditions (around Lucknow) in 162 healthy volunteers - mostly medical students, staff members and members of their families (103 males and 59 females; 7 to 75y), subdivided into 4 age groups: A (7-20y; N=42), B (21-40y; N=60), C (41-60y; N=35) and D (61-75y; N=25). Blood samples were collected from each subject every 6h for 24h (4 samples). Plasma was separated and total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids and total lipids were measured spectrophotometrically. Data from each subject were analyzed by cosinor. We examined by multiple-analysis of variance how the MESOR (Midline Estimating Statistic Of Rhythm, a rhythm-adjusted mean) and the circadian amplitude of these variables is affected by gender, age, diet (vegetarian vs. omnivore), and smoking status. In addition to effects of gender and age, diet and smoking were found to affect the MESOR of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians residing in northern India. Age also affected the circadian amplitude of these variables. These results indicate the possibility of using non-pharmacological interventions to improve a patient's metabolic profile before prescribing medication under near normal tropical conditions. They also add information that may help refine cut-off values in the light of factors shown here to affect blood lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Family socioeconomic status, household tobacco smoke, and asthma attack among children below 12 years of age: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carol; Chang, Ly-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the negative impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) or parental cigarette smoking on pediatric asthma. Little is known, however, regarding whether there is a gender difference in the effect of household ETS on pediatric asthma. Using a nationwide survey in Taiwan, we examined the relationship between asthma prevalence in the past year and household ETS among children below 12 years of age (N = 3761). We used multivariate regression models to assess odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of household ETS and asthma attacks by gender. In about 3% of the sample, parents reported that their children had an asthma attack in the past year, confirmed by physicians. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that household ETS predicted asthma attacks for girls (OR = 3.11, 95%CI = 1.24-7.76) but not for boys. Father's education was significantly associated with asthma attack for both girls (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.04-1.47) and boys (OR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.05-1.26). Girls with lower family income were more likely to have had an asthma attack in the last year (OR = .48, 95%CI = .27-.87). The impact of household ETS and family socioeconomic status on asthma attacks differs by gender among children below 12 years. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease stratified by smoking status: a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeken DCW

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dionne CW Braeken,1–3 Gernot GU Rohde,2 Frits ME Franssen,1,2 Johanna HM Driessen,3–5 Tjeerd P van Staa,3,6 Patrick C Souverein,3 Emiel FM Wouters,1,2 Frank de Vries3,4,7 1Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+, Maastricht, 3Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+, Maastricht, 5Department of Epidemiology, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI, Maastricht, the Netherlands; 6Department of Health eResearch, University of Manchester, Manchester, 7MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK Background: Smoking increases the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP and is associated with the development of COPD. Until now, it is unclear whether CAP in COPD is due to smoking-related effects, or due to COPD pathophysiology itself. Objective: To evaluate the association between COPD and CAP by smoking status. Methods: In total, 62,621 COPD and 191,654 control subjects, matched by year of birth, gender and primary care practice, were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2005–2014. Incidence rates (IRs were estimated by dividing the total number of CAP cases by the cumulative person-time at risk. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs for CAP in COPD patients versus controls. HRs of CAP by smoking status were calculated by stratified analyses in COPD patients versus controls and within both subgroups with never smoking as reference. Results: IRs of CAP in COPD patients (32.00/1,000 person-years and controls (6.75/1,000 person-years increased with age and female gender. The risk of CAP in COPD patients was higher than in controls (HR 4.51, 95% CI: 4.27–4.77. Current smoking

  11. Salivary Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting Substances and Malondialdehyde – Their Relationship to Reported Smoking and to Parodontal Status Described by the Papillary bleeding index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Celec

    2005-01-01

    of epithelial cells in saliva (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Salivary TBARS are a simple parameter that partially reflects the parodontal status with a potential usefulness in the clinical stomatology. We show herein that salivary MDA is dependent on age and smoking, but there is no correlation between MDA and PBI. Further studies should uncover the main salivary TBARS compound in patients with altered parodontal status and trace the origin of these salivary lipoperoxidation markers.

  12. Biochemical verification of the self-reported smoking status of screened male smokers of the Dutch-Belgian randomized controlled lung cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalst, Carlijn M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer, so data linked to smoking behaviour are important in lung cancer screening trials. However, self-reporting data concerning smoking behaviour are mainly used. The aim of this study was to biochemically determine the validity and reliability of self-reported smoking status among smokers at high risk for developing lung cancer participating in the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening (NELSON) trial. For this sub study, a random sample of 475 men was selected who were scheduled for the fourth screening round in the NELSON trial. They were asked to complete a short questionnaire to verify the smoking behaviour for the previous seven days and a blood sample was collected to measure the cotinine level. The validity (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV)) and reliability (Kappa) of the self-reported smoking status compared to the cotinine level (as golden standard) were determined. Both a completed questionnaire as well as a cotinine level were available for 199 (41.9%) participants. Based on these data, Se and Sp were respectively 98% (95%-Confidence Interval (CI): 91-99) and 98% (95%-CI: 93-100). PPV and NPV were 98% and 96% and Kappa was 0.96. In conclusion, the validity of the self-reported smoking status turned out to be reliable amongst men at high risk for developing lung cancer who participate in the NELSON lung cancer screening trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of omega-3 supplementation on pregnancy outcomes by smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Spencer G; Abramovici, Adi R; Jauk, Victoria C; Harper, Lorie M; Biggio, Joseph R; Tita, Alan T

    2017-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes such as preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth, and low birth weight. Because smoking causes oxidative stress, some have suggested using antioxidants to counteract the effects of oxidative stress. Smokers have lower serum levels of omega-3 fatty acids, an important antioxidant, and thus, investigating whether omega-3 supplementation in smokers reduces adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes represents an important area of research. To investigate whether the antioxidant effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes differs between smokers and nonsmokers. Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of omega-3 supplementation for preterm delivery prevention in women with a singleton pregnancy and a history of a previous singleton spontaneous preterm delivery. Subjects were randomized to begin omega-3 or placebo before 22 weeks, which was continued until delivery. All women received 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate intramuscularly weekly beginning between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation and continued until 36 weeks of gestation or delivery, whichever occurred first. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm delivery. Secondary outcomes were indicated preterm delivery, any preterm delivery (spontaneous and indicated), pregnancy-associated hypertension (gestational hypertension and preeclampsia), a neonatal composite (retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III or IV, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, respiratory morbidity, or perinatal death), low birth weight (omega-3 supplementation versus placebo in each subgroup. Zelen tests were performed to test for homogeneity of effect in smokers and nonsmokers. Of 851 subjects included in the analysis, 136 (16%) smoked. Baseline characteristics between omega-3 and placebo groups did not differ in smokers or

  14. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  15. Cigarette Smoking, N-Acetyltransferase 2 Acetylation Status, and Bladder Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcus, P.M.; Hayes, R.B.; Vineis, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco use is an established cause of bladder cancer. The ability to detoxify aromatic amines, which are present in tobacco and are potent bladder carcinogens, is compromised in persons with the N-acetyltransferase 2 slow acetylation polymorphism. The relationship of cigarette smoking with bladder...... cancer risk therefore has been hypothesized to be stronger among slow acetylators. The few studies to formally explore such a possibility have produced inconsistent results, however. To assess this potential gene-environment interaction in as many bladder cancer studies as possible and to summarize...... results, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 16 bladder cancer studies conducted in the general population (n = 1999 cases), Most had been conducted in European countries. Because control subjects were unavailable for a number of these studies, we used a case-series design, which can be used...

  16. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  17. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  18. Time perspective as a predictor of smoking status: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Genevieve; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hall, Peter A; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Mons, Ute; Pötschke-Langer, Martina; Yong, Hua-Hie; Thompson, Mary E; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Prior studies have demonstrated that time perspective-the propensity to consider short-versus long-term consequences of one's actions-is a potentially important predictor of health-related behaviors, including smoking. However, most prior studies have been conducted within single high-income countries. The aim of this study was to examine whether time perspective was associated with the likelihood of being a smoker or non-smoker across five countries that vary in smoking behavior and strength of tobacco control policies. The data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in five countries with large probability samples of both smokers (N=10,341) and non-smokers (N=4,955): Scotland, France, Germany, China, and Malaysia. The surveys were conducted between 2005-2008. Survey respondents indicated their smoking status (smoker vs. non-smoker) and time perspective (future oriented vs. not future-oriented) and provided demographic information. Across all five countries, non-smokers were significantly more likely to be future-oriented (66%) than were smokers (57%), χ(2)(1, N = 15,244) = 120.64, p perspective and smoking status held in a multivariate analysis. After controlling for country, age, sex, income, education, and ethnicity (language in France), those who were future-oriented had 36% greater odds of being a non-smoker than a smoker (95% CI: 1.22 to 1.51, pperspective as an important predictor of smoking status across multiple countries and suggest the potential value of incorporating material to enhance future orientation in smoking cessation interventions.

  19. Influence of smoking status at time of surgery for herniated lumbar disk on postoperative pain and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Gautschi, Oliver P

    2014-07-01

    It is well established that smoking has a myriad of negative effects on varies aspects of bodily health. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the smoking status at time of surgery on the postoperative subjective pain course and health related quality of life (HRQoL) until 1 year after surgery for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This prospective cohort study included patients ≥18 and ≤90 years of age with a symptomatic and radiological verified LDH. The current smoking patient collective (smoking 1 or more cigarettes a day) was compared with the nonsmoking collective (previous smokers without cigarette consumption for >2 months and never smokers) in respect of subjective pain sensation (measured with the visual analogue scale (VAS)) and HRQoL using the short-form (SF-12) questionnaire preoperatively, before discharge, as well as after 4 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. The primary outcome measures were the 1-year SF-12 scores (MCS and PCS) categorized into responders and non-responders. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. Thirty-eight patients were current smokers (37.2%), whereas 43 (42.2%) and 21 (20.6%) patients were never-smokers and previous smokers, respectively. Four weeks and one year after surgery, both smokers and nonsmokers reported increase in the HRQoL as compared to preoperative values - the MCS increased more than the PCS. From a univariate and multivariate perspective, smoking status at time of surgery did not predict responder status. The present study results could not confirm the hypothesis that smoking at time of surgery was associated with worse outcome after surgery for LDH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic variation at CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 interacts with smoking status to influence body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freathy, Rachel M; Kazeem, Gbenga R; Morris, Richard W

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body mass index (BMI), and a commonly cited reason for unwillingness to quit smoking is a concern about weight gain. Common variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region (chromosome 15q25) is robustly associated with smoking quantity in smokers, but ......, but its association with BMI is unknown. We hypothesized that genotype would accurately reflect smoking exposure and that, if smoking were causally related to weight, it would be associated with BMI in smokers, but not in never smokers.......Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body mass index (BMI), and a commonly cited reason for unwillingness to quit smoking is a concern about weight gain. Common variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region (chromosome 15q25) is robustly associated with smoking quantity in smokers...

  1. Acute Immune-Inflammatory Responses to a Single Bout of Aerobic Exercise in Smokers; The Effect of Smoking History and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Tegan Emma; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty-four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n = 27) or non-smokers (NS; n = 27) were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS) or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS) based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarization and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40 min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre- and post- (0 min, 1, and 4 h) exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1, which were increased with a longer smoking history (P exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1 h-post compared to YNS. Furthermore, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P smoking history (~15 years). Furthermore, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses. PMID:26779179

  2. A longitudinal study of risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation among college students: Interactions with smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Case, Kathleen R; Marti, C Nathan; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-05-01

    Recent data suggest that lower perceived risks of e-cigarettes are associated with e-cigarette use in young adults; however, the temporality of this relationship is not well-understood. We explore how perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness of e-cigarettes influence e-cigarette initiation, and specifically whether this association varies by cigarette smoking status, in a longitudinal study of tobacco use on college campuses. Data are from a 5-wave 24-college study in Texas. Only students who reported never using e-cigarettes at wave 1 were included (n = 2565). Multilevel discrete-time hazard models, accounting for school clustering, were used. The dependent variable, ever e-cigarette use, was assessed at each wave. Both time-varying (e-cigarette perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness, age, use of cigarettes, use of other tobacco products, and use of other substances) and time-invariant demographic covariates were included. Two-way interactions between each e-cigarette perception variable and current conventional cigarette use were tested to determine if the hypothesized relationship differed among smokers and non-smokers. 21% of all never e-cigarette users at baseline had initiated e-cigarette ever use by wave 5. Significant two-way interactions qualified the relationship between risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation. Specifically, perceptions of a lower degree of harmfulness (OR = 1.13, p = .047) and addictiveness (OR = 1.34, p risk of e-cigarettes contributes to subsequent e-cigarette initiation among non-smokers, but not among current smokers. have implications for prevention campaigns focusing on the potential harm of e-cigarettes for non-smoking college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Jo, Catherine L.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels. PMID:28430161

  4. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B. Seidenberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people’s media use. Methods: A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results: A total of 590 (4.6% respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions: Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels.

  5. A National Study of Social Media, Television, Radio, and Internet Usage of Adults by Sexual Orientation and Smoking Status: Implications for Campaign Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M; Lee, Joseph G L; Buchting, Francisco O; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-04-21

    Background : Smoking rates among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people significantly exceed that of heterosexuals. Media interventions are an important part of tobacco control efforts, but limited information is available on LGB people's media use. Methods : A nationally representative sample of 12,900 U.S. adults completed an online questionnaire assessing media use, smoking status, and demographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess relationships between media use with sexual orientation and smoking status. Results : A total of 590 (4.6%) respondents identified as LGB, of which 29% were smokers. Regardless of sexual orientation and smoking status, the Internet was the most popular media channel used, followed by television and radio. LGB respondents had significantly greater odds of having accounts on social media websites, accessing Facebook daily, and being a frequent Internet user, compared to heterosexual respondents. Similar media use was found between smokers and non-smokers, but smokers had greater odds of being frequent television viewers and frequent Internet users, compared to non-smokers. Conclusions : Compared to heterosexuals, LGB respondents reported greater use of the Internet, especially social media. Media campaigns targeting LGB populations can maximize reach by utilizing social media alongside traditional media channels.

  6. PROFIL KONSUMSI SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN ALAMI, STATUS GIZI, KEBIASAAN MEROKOK DAN SANITASI LINGKUNGAN PADA DAERAH DENGAN TB-PARU TINGGI DI INDONESIA (PROFILE OF NATURAL SOURCE ANTIOXIDANTS CONSUMPTION, NUTRITIONAL STATUS, SMOKING HABIT AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setyawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Indonesia is at third rank as country having a large number of people with pulmonary-tuberculosis disease after India and China. Low nutritional status, unhealthy lifestyle, poor living condition, and low consumption of natural sources of antioxidant (fruits, vegetables and herbs can decrease immunity sistem and increase the risk of pulmonary-tuberculosis (pulmonary-TB infection. The study aimed to discribe the profile of nutritional status, consumption of antioxidant sources, smoking habit, house condition and environmental sanitation in areas with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Analitic observational study with cross sectional design. The sample is Riskesdas 2010 sample, age of sample is 15 years old and above and living in the area with high cases of pulmonary-TB in Indonesia. Variable being studied are the profile of pulmonary-TB status, sample characteristics (age, sex, occupation and education; nutritional status; the consumption of antioxidant sources (fruits, vegetables and herbs; smoking habit (status, first started smoking, dan smoking duration and practices related to prevention of pulmonary-TB disease; house and environmental sanitation conditions. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are found in male, low education, productive age dan low nutritional status samples. The large proportion of pulmonary-TB are also found in smokers that have started smoking in early age (<10 years old and have smoked in long duration (31-40 years. A slight larger proportion of pulmonary-TB is found in samples that consume fruit-vegetable less than 5 servings/day. The higher proportion of behaviour that prevent pulmonary-TB, healthy house and environment is found in non pulmonary-TB samples. To cut down the number of pulmonary-TB suferer, efforts should be focused to the improving nutritional status, house condition and environtment sanitation, reducing the number of early ages smokers and increasing the consumption of 5 servings of

  7. Movies with smoking make less money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Stanton A; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the relationship between presence of smoking in films and total box office receipts. Regression analysis of box office receipts as a function of film rating, production budget, year of release and presence of smoking for 1232 films released in the USA between 2002 and 2010. R-rated films made, on average, 87% (95% CI 83% to 90%) of what PG-13 films of similar smoking status made and smoking films made 87% (95% CI 79% to 96%) of what comparably rated smoke-free films made. Larger budget films made more money. There was no significant effect of release year or G/PG rating compared with PG-13-rated movies. Because PG-13 films without smoking (median $48.6 million) already make 41% more money at the box office than R-rated movies with smoking (median $34.4 million), implementing an R rating for smoking to remove it from youth-rated films will not conflict with the economic self-interest of producer-distributors.

  8. Verbal working memory in schizophrenia from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) study: the moderating role of smoking status and antipsychotic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Green, Michael F; Calkins, Monica E; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2015-04-01

    Working memory impairment has been extensively studied in schizophrenia, but less is known about moderators of the impairment. Using the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia case-control study (COGS-2), we examined smoking status, types of antipsychotic medication, and history of substance as moderators for working memory impairment in schizophrenia. From 5 sites, 1377 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective, depressed type and 1037 healthy controls completed the letter-number span (LNS) task. The LNS uses intermixed letter and digit stimuli that increase from 2 up to 8 stimuli. In the forward condition, participants repeated the letters and numbers in the order they were presented. In the reorder condition, participants repeated the digits in ascending order followed by letters in alphabetical order. Schizophrenia patients performed more poorly than controls, with a larger difference on reorder than forward conditions. Deficits were associated with symptoms, functional capacity, and functional outcome. Patients who smoked showed larger impairment than nonsmoking patients, primarily due to deficits on the reorder condition. The impairing association of smoking was more pronounced among patients taking first-generation than those taking second-generation antipsychotic medications. Correlations between working memory and community functioning were stronger for nonsmokers. History of substance use did not moderate working memory impairment. Results confirm the working memory impairment in schizophrenia, and indicate smoking status as an important moderator for these deficits. The greater impairment in smokers may reflect added burden of smoking on general health or that patients with greater deficits are more likely to smoke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  10. Perceptions of parental smoking and sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans among parents of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Ping-Ling

    2014-08-01

    Although public smoking restrictions have been implemented, children are still exposed to household smoking. Parental smoking is the main source of children's exposure to secondhand smoke. This study was conducted to examine the factors associated with parents' adoption of home smoking bans. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data from 768 parents of school-aged children in Taiwan. The home smoking restriction status, parents' perceptions of smoking in the presence of children and its influences, and parents' sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to determine the best-fit model. More than 80% of the parents agreed with home smoking bans, whereas only approximately 26% of the parents actually restricted smoking at home completely. The crude odds ratios showed that parents who perceived the influence of parental smoking on children to be negative were more likely to adopt home smoking bans. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed factors associated with the adoption of home smoking bans, including a higher education level and older age of parents, a family composed of nonparent adults, and opposition to parental smoking in the presence of children. Children's health is a major concern for parents considering home smoking bans. Helping parents clarify misunderstandings regarding parental smoking, emphasizing the adverse effects of children's exposure to parental smoking, suggesting healthy substitutes for smoking, and providing effective strategies for maintaining a smoke-free home can motivate families to adopt home smoking bans. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Lung function and blood markers of nutritional status in non-COPD aging men with smoking history: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Shiozawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyoshi Shiozawa1, Kanae Hayashimoto2, Etsuji Suzuki5, Hiroshi Kikuchi3, Shingo Takata3, Kozo Ashida3, Masutaka Watanabe4, Yasuhiro Hosaki6, Fumihiro Mitsunobu1,31Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 2Nutrition Support Service and Divisions of 3Internal Medicine and 4Rehabilitation, Okayama University Hospital Misasa Medical Center, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan; 6Division of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima Teishin Hospital, Hiroshima, JapanPurpose: Cigarette smoking and advanced age are well known as risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and nutritional abnormalities are important in patients with COPD. However, little is known about the nutritional status in non-COPD aging men with smoking history. We therefore investigated whether reduced lung function is associated with lower blood markers of nutritional status in those men.Subjects and methods: This association was examined in a cross-sectional study of 65 Japanese male current or former smokers aged 50 to 80 years: 48 without COPD (non-COPD group, divided into tertiles according to forced expiratory volume in one second as percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC, and 17 with COPD (COPD group.Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, lower FEV1/FVC was significantly associated with lower red blood cell count (RBCc, hemoglobin, and total protein (TP; not with total energy intake. The difference in adjusted RBCc and TP among the non-COPD group tertiles was greater than that between the bottom tertile in the non-COPD group and the COPD group.Conclusion: In non-COPD aging men with smoking history, trends toward reduced nutritional status and anemia may independently emerge in blood components along with decreased lung function

  12. Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation (StopAdvisor) in people with low and high socioeconomic status: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Geraghty, Adam W A; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation could help millions of people stop smoking at very low unit costs; however, long-term biochemically verified evidence is scarce and such interventions might be less effective for smokers with low socioeconomic status than for those with high status because of lower online literacy to engage with websites. We aimed to assess a new interactive internet-based intervention (StopAdvisor) for smoking cessation that was designed with particular attention directed to people with low socioeconomic status. We did this online randomised controlled trial between Dec 6, 2011, and Oct 11, 2013, in the UK. Participants aged 18 years and older who smoked every day were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive treatment with StopAdvisor or an information-only website. Randomisation was automated with an unseen random number function embedded in the website to establish which treatment was revealed after the online baseline assessment. Recruitment continued until the required sample size had been achieved from both high and low socioeconomic status subpopulations. Participants, and researchers who obtained data and did laboratory analyses, were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was 6 month sustained, biochemically verified abstinence. The main secondary outcome was 6 month, 7 day biochemically verified point prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Homogeneity of intervention effect across the socioeconomic subsamples was first assessed to establish whether overall or separate subsample analyses were appropriate. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN99820519. We randomly assigned 4613 participants to the StopAdvisor group (n=2321) or the control group (n=2292); 2142 participants were of low socioeconomic status and 2471 participants were of high status. The overall rate of smoking cessation was similar between participants in the StopAdvisor and control

  13. The effects of social structure and social capital on changes in smoking status from 8th to 9th grade: results of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yuan; Wu, Chi-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2014-05-01

    Social structure and social capital are important variables for public health strategies seeking to prevent smoking among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between social structure, social capital and changes in smoking status from the 8th to 9th grade in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) project. The study analyzed a final sample of 1937 students (50.7% female). Each layer of social structure was associated with a particular form of social capital. Students whose parents were married and living together had higher family social capital. After controlling for background variables, the social structure variable of friends who smoke was significantly associated with changes in smoking status. Students reporting more school attachment were less likely to start smoking. Students with higher parental supervision was associated with less chance of being a consistent smoker, whereas participation of social organization outside of school was associated with continued smoking. Attending school club was associated with higher probability of smoking cessation. Smoking prevention and intervention strategies aimed at junior high school students should be tailored to the particular form of social capital important for each type of smoking status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-inflammatory properties of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the absence and presence of cigarette smoke using a novel epithelium-gut microbe coculture system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Martels, J. Z. H.; Sadaghian Sadabad, Mehdi; Van der Meer, R.; Overbeeke, A. N. J.; Blokzijl, T.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Faber, K. N.

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterised bya recurrent inflammation of the gut epithelium. Although the pathogenesis is still largely unknown, different factors contribute to the disease, including genetic and environmental factors. Cigarette smoking is the most-studied

  15. Smoking in Australian University Students and Its Association with Socio-Demographic Factors, Stress, Health Status, Coping Strategies, and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…

  16. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  17. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Franco, Christine A; Hoff, Rani A; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Analyses utilized survey data from 1591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  19. Influence of smoking status on treatment outcomes after post-operative radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Sonia K.A.; Masson-Cote, Laurence; Fortin, Andre; Dagnault, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of post-operative radiotherapy in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. Modifiable factors, like smoking, may help guide therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of smoking on control in patients undergoing post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) for NSCLC. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2007, 152 patients who underwent surgery for NSCLC were analyzed (median follow-up 26 months). Non-smokers were defined as patients who never smoked or who had stopped smoking at the time of initial consultation. Sixty seven percent were non-smokers; 5% never smoked, 40% of the non-smokers had ceased smoking for a year or less, while 55% had stopped for more than a year. Results: On univariate analysis, smokers had worse 5-year local control than non-smokers (70% versus 90%, p = 0.001) and locoregional control (52% versus 77%, p = 0.002). The 5 -year survival rate was 21% for smokers and 31% for non-smokers (p = 0.2). On multivariate analysis, smokers maintained a detrimental effect on locoregional control (HR 3.6, p = 0.0006). Conclusions: Smokers at initial consultation have poorer local and locoregional control after PORT than non-smokers. In patients being considered for PORT for NSCLC, quitting smoking before treatment confers additional treatment advantage.

  20. Effect of socio-economic status, family smoking and mental health through social network on the substance use potential in adolescents: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, H; Jorjoran Shushtari, Z; Mahboubi, S; Rafiey, H; Salimi, Y

    2018-04-01

    Understanding pathways that influence substance use potential (SUP) can help with effective substance use prevention interventions among adolescents. The aim of the present study is to contribute to a better understanding of the SUP of adolescents by examining the mediating role of social network quality in the SUP of Iranian adolescents. A cross-sectional study. Structural equation modeling was conducted to assess the hypothesized model that social network quality would mediate the association of family socio-economic status, a mental health disorder, and family smoking with addiction potential. The model shows a good fit to the data. Social network quality mediated the effect of family smoking on the SUP for boys. A mental health disorder had a positive significant direct effect on addiction potential for both girls and boys. Social network quality mediates the effect of family smoking on boys' addiction potential in the context of Iran. Educational programs based on local societal ways and cultural norms are recommended to change tobacco smoking behavior among family members. In addition, to prevent subsequent substance use among adolescents, more effort is needed to improve their mental health. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  2. Associations between the perceived presence of vending machines and food and beverage logos in schools and adolescents' diet and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Storey, Kate E; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C; Forbes, Laura E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; McCargar, Linda J

    2011-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity among youth has elicited calls for schools to become more active in promoting healthy weight. The present study examined associations between various aspects of school food environments (specifically the availability of snack- and beverage-vending machines and the presence of snack and beverage logos) and students' weight status, as well as potential influences of indices of diet and food behaviours. A cross-sectional, self-administered web-based survey. A series of multinomial logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were constructed to examine associations between school environment variables (i.e. the reported presence of beverage- and snack-vending machines and logos) and self-reported weight- and diet-related behaviours. Secondary schools in Alberta, Canada. A total of 4936 students from grades 7 to 10. The presence of beverage-vending machines in schools was associated with the weight status of students. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with students' frequency of consuming vended goods. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with the frequency of salty snack consumption. The reported presence of snack- and beverage-vending machines and logos in schools is related to some indices of weight status, diet and meal behaviours but not to others. The present study supported the general hypothesis that the presence of vending machines in schools may affect students' weight through increased consumption of vended goods, but notes that the frequency of 'junk' food consumption does not seem to be related to the presence of vending machines, perhaps reflecting the ubiquity of these foods in the daily lives of students.

  3. Smoking status and its relationship with exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and quality of life in physically independent, elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, R; Gonçalves, C G; Hayashi, D; Costa, V de S P; Teixeira, D de C; de Freitas, E R F S; Felcar, J M; Pitta, F; Molari, M; Probst, V S

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking status and exercise capacity, physical activity in daily life and health-related quality of life in physically independent, elderly (≥60 years) individuals. Cross-sectional, observational study. Community-dwelling, elderly individuals. One hundred and fifty-four elderly individuals were categorised into four groups according to their smoking status: never smokers (n=57), passive smokers (n=30), ex-smokers (n=45) and current smokers (n=22). Exercise capacity [6-minute walk test (6MWT)], physical activity in daily life (step counting) and health-related quality of life [36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire] were assessed. Current and ex-smokers had lower mean exercise capacity compared with never smokers: 90 [standard deviation (SD) 10] % predicted, 91 (SD 12) % predicted and 100 (SD 13) % predicted distance on 6MWT, respectively [mean differences -9.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -17.8 to -1.8 and -9.1%, 95% CI -15.4 to -2.7, respectively; Pexercise capacity than never smokers. Although the level of physical activity did not differ between the groups, an association was found with smoking. Tobacco exposure was associated with worse scores for the mental health dimension of SF-36 in physically independent, elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic impact of HPV-associated p16-expression and smoking status on outcomes following radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: The MARCH-HPV project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Lacas, Benjamin; Pignon, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    -Analysis of Radiotherapy in Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with OPC, known tumor p16-status and smoking history were identified from the MARCH update, resulting in a dataset of 815 patients from four randomized trials (RTOG9003, DAHANCA6&7, RTOG0129, ARTSCAN). Analysis was performed......; in the p16-positive subgroup, never smokers had significantly better PFS than former/current smokers (HR = 0.49 [0.33-0.75], 24.2% survival benefit at 10 years). CONCLUSIONS: No predictive impact of p16-status on response to AFRT could be detected but the strong prognostic impact of p16-status...

  5. Association of the Shared Epitope, Smoking and the Interaction Between the Two With the Presence of Autoantibodies (Anti-CCP and FR) in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Hospital in Seville, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Veas Silva, José Luis; González Rodríguez, Concepción; Hernández Cruz, Blanca

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association of shared epitope, smoking and their interaction on the presence of autoantibodies (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide [CCP] antibodies and rheumatoid factor) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in our geographical area. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in a cohort of 106 patients diagnosed with RA. Odds ratios (OR) for antibody development were calculated for shared epitope, tobacco exposure and smoking dose. Statistical analysis was performed with univariate and multivariate statistics using ordinal logistic regression. Odds ratios were calculated with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and a value of P20 packs/year) (OR=8.93; 95% CI: 1.95-40.82) were associated with the presence of anti-CCP antibodies. For rheumatoid factor, the association was only significant for tobacco exposure (OR=3.89; 95% CI: 1.06-14.28) and smoking dose (OR=8.33; 95% CI: 1.05-66.22). By ordinal logistic regression analysis, an association with high titers of anti-CCP (>200U/mL) was identified with South American mestizos, patients with homozygous shared epitope, positive FR and heavy smokers. Being a South American mestizo, having a shared epitope, rheumatoid factor positivity and a smoking dose>20 packs/year are independent risk factors for the development of rheumatoid arthritis with a high titer of anti-CCP (>200U/mL). In shared epitope-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients, the intensity of smoking is more strongly associated than tobacco exposure with an increased risk of positive anti-CCP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  7. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  8. Roken in aanwezigheid van zuigelingen: een enquête onder consultatiebureau ouders [Smoking in presence of infants; an enquiry among parents of infants attending an infant welfare clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Gena, S.A.D.; Simon, J.G.; Kossen-Boot, H.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Oudenrijn, C. van den

    1994-01-01

    Objective. To determine the exposure to cigarette smoke of infants aged 0-14 months. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. The area of Westfriesland, the Netherlands. Method. All parents of infants 8 days, 3, 5, 9, and 14 months old who visited the infant welfare centre in 1992 were asked to fill in a

  9. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  10. Associations between cigarette smoking status and colon cancer prognosis among participants in North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Newcomb, Polly A; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R; Limburg, Paul J

    2013-06-01

    By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events. Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR. Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer.

  11. Racial/ethnic disparity in the associations of smoking status with uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Zhu, Tinghui; Manojlovich, Milisa; Cohen, Hillel W; Tsilimingras, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of smoking with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) and its subtypes (isolated uncontrolled systolic BP (SBP), uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP, and isolated uncontrolled diastolic BP (DBP)) have not been investigated among diagnosed hypertensive subjects. A sample of 7,586 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black. Smoking was categorized as never smoking, ex-smoking, and current smoking. Uncontrolled BP was determined as SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm Hg. Isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP≥140 and DBPsmokers, current smokers were 29% less likely to have uncontrolled BP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90), although the likelihood for uncontrolled BP is the same for smokers and never smokers in Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Current smokers were 26% less likely than never smokers to have isolated uncontrolled SBP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95). However, current smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP in non-Hispanic blacks, and current smokers in this group were 70% more likely to have uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP than never smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.10-2.65). The associations between current smoking and uncontrolled BP differed over race/ethnicity. Health practitioners may need to be especially vigilant with non-Hispanic black smokers with diagnosed hypertension.

  12. The effect of presence of infected neighbouring farms for the Campylobacter infection status in Danish broiler farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Sharmin; Sandberg, Marianne; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Neighbourhood risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broilers were evaluated. Campylobacter infection status of a flock was identified by PCR analysis of cloacal swab samples collected as a part of national surveillance program. Included into the study were, in total, 10,876 broiler f...

  13. A prescription for health: a primary care based intervention to maintain the non-smoking status of young people

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, W.; Lambert, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10-15 years as non-smokers.
DESIGN—Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires.
SETTING—Oxfordshire, UK.
SUBJECTS—2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers.
INTERVENTION—Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—C...

  14. Racial/ethnic disparity in the associations of smoking status with uncontrolled hypertension subtypes among hypertensive subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Liu

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of smoking with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP and its subtypes (isolated uncontrolled systolic BP (SBP, uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP, and isolated uncontrolled diastolic BP (DBP have not been investigated among diagnosed hypertensive subjects.A sample of 7,586 hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Race/ethnicity was classified into Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black. Smoking was categorized as never smoking, ex-smoking, and current smoking. Uncontrolled BP was determined as SBP≥140 or DBP≥90 mm Hg. Isolated uncontrolled SBP was defined as SBP≥140 and DBP<90 mm Hg, uncontrolled SDBP as SBP≥140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg, and isolated uncontrolled DBP as SBP<140 and DBP≥90 mm Hg. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs of uncontrolled BP and its subtypes were calculated using weighted logistic regression models.The interaction effect of race and smoking was significant after adjustment for the full potential confounding covariates (Adjusted p = 0.0412. Compared to never smokers, current smokers were 29% less likely to have uncontrolled BP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56-0.90, although the likelihood for uncontrolled BP is the same for smokers and never smokers in Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. Current smokers were 26% less likely than never smokers to have isolated uncontrolled SBP in non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95. However, current smoking is associated with an increased likelihood of uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP in non-Hispanic blacks, and current smokers in this group were 70% more likely to have uncontrolled systolic-diastolic BP than never smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.10-2.65.The associations between current smoking and uncontrolled BP differed over race/ethnicity. Health practitioners may need to be especially

  15. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  16. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Mehta, C Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R; Golub, Elizabeth T; Fischl, Margaret A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-02-20

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9-27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0-19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant.

  17. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (Phigh-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain clinically relevant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J.; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ"2, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain

  19. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsbaugh, Mark J., E-mail: mjamsb01@louisville.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Yusuf, Mehran [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Cash, Elizabeth [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Silverman, Craig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Perez, Cesar [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Bert, Robert [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Redman, Rebecca [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Dunlap, Neal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ{sup 2}, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain

  20. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research.

  1. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  2. Phosphoinositide Kinase-3 Status Associated With Presence or Absence of Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Whigham, Amy; Brown, Brandee; Roach, Michael; Slebos, Robbert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate phosphoinositide kinase-3 (PI3K) activation in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) status in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Gene expression microarray data were analyzed to determine differentially expressed genes between HPV(+) and HPV(-) HNSCC. PIK3CA gene expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in seven HPV(+) and seven HPV(-) primary HNSCCs. PIK3CA mutation status in three HPV(+) and nine HPV(-) cell lines was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of hot spot exons (1, 9, 20) followed by direct sequencing. Results: PIK3CA was overexpressed in HPV(+)-associated HNSCC compared with the expression in HPV(-) HNSCC. Activation of PIK3CA by mutation was found in 1 of the 12 tested HNSCC cell lines. Conclusion: Activation of PI3K by mutation of PIK3CA is rare in HNSCC cell lines and was not found in three HPV(+) cell lines. One mechanism by which HPV-associated HNSCC might activate PI3K is increased expression of PIK3CA

  3. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter N; Forey, Barbara A

    2013-01-01

    National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20 th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and lung cancer type in the

  4. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. Methods We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). Conclusions The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and

  5. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque of children and their parents: is it related to their periodontal status and oral hygiene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsami, A; Petropoulou, P; Kafritsa, Y; Mentis, Y A; Roma-Giannikou, E

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the possible presence of H. pylori in subgingival dental plaque of children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as of their parents' and to detect any association between the presence of H. pylori and oral hygiene together with the periodontal status of children and their parents. The study comprised of 35 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, aged 4 to 14 years and 45 family members (mothers and/or fathers). Gastric biopsies were collected from all children for CLO-test, histology and culture. Serology was used to assess the H. pylori infection status of their parents. Before endoscopy, subgingival dental plaque from children and their parents were collected from 4 healthy and 4 diseased sites, and the clinical indices (gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, loss of clinical attachment) after plaque collection were recorded. The Chi-square test was performed to investigate possible differences between children and their parents and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of parental infection status with that of children. 15 out of 35 children (42.86%) were found H. pylori-positive. In 6 out of the 15 infected children (40%) H. pylori was also identified in their subgingival plaque samples, as well as in one among the 20 non infected children. The presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was significantly associated with its presence in the gastric antrum (p=0.0274). H. pylori was identified in the dental plaque of 7 mothers corresponding to children with positive PCR in their dental plaque and of 4 fathers (one corresponding with his child found H. pylori positive in dental plaque). Children who had H. pylori identified in their dental plaque belonged to families with members also having H. pylori in dental plaque. No significant relationship between periodontal clinical parameters and detection of H. pylori in dental plaque in both children and their parents was found. However

  6. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders Tobacco Use by Geographic ... Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report ...

  7. Association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alexandre Yazbek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus exposure appears to be an environmental trigger for rheumatoid arthritis that interacts with other risk factors. Relationships among anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status have been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different populations. OBJECTIVE: To perform an association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In a case-control study, 140 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 143 healthy volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity were recruited. Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and shared epitope alleles were identified by genotyping. Smoking information was collected from all subjects. A comparative analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status was performed in the patient group. Logistic regression analysis models were used to analyze the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies were not associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, shared epitope alleles, or smoking status. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity was significantly higher in smoking patients with shared epitope alleles (OR = 3.82. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection, only anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were found to be independently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 247.9. CONCLUSION: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies did not increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and were not associated with the rheumatoid arthritis risk factors studied. Smoking

  8. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  9. Mapping presence and predicting phenological status of invasive buffelgrass in southern Arizona using MODIS, climate and citizen science observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Walker, Jessica; Skirvin, Susan M.; Patrick-Birdwell, Caroline; Weltzin, Jake F.; Raichle, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing spread and abundance of an invasive perennial grass, buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare), represents a critical threat to the native vegetation communities of the Sonoran desert in southern Arizona, USA, where buffelgrass eradication is a high priority for resource managers. Herbicidal treatment of buffelgrass is most effective when the vegetation is actively growing, but the remoteness of infestations and the erratic timing and length of the species’ growth periods confound effective treatment. The goal of our research is to promote buffelgrass management by using remote sensing data to detect where the invasive plants are located and when they are photosynthetically active. We integrated citizen scientist observations of buffelgrass phenology in the Tucson, Arizona area with PRISM precipitation data, eight-day composites of 250-m Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery, and aerially-mapped polygons of buffelgrass presence to understand dynamics and relationships between precipitation and the timing and amount of buffelgrass greenness from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that buffelgrass responds quickly to antecedent rainfall: in pixels containing buffelgrass, higher correlations (R2 > 0.5) typically occur after two cumulative eight-day periods of rain, whereas in pixels dominated by native vegetation, four prior 8-day periods are required to reach that threshold. Using the new suite of phenometrics introduced here—Climate Landscape Response metrics—we accurately predicted the location of 49% to 55% of buffelgrass patches in Saguaro National Park. These metrics and the suggested guidelines for their use can be employed by resource managers to treat buffelgrass during optimal time periods.

  10. Serum vitamin D status is associated with the presence but not the severity of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélien; Milea, Dan; Gohier, Philippe; Jallet, Ghislaine; Leruez, Stéphanie; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Annweiler, Cédric

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D is involved in visual health and function. Our objective was to determine whether age-related vitamin D insufficiency was associated with the presence and the severity of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a case-control study of older adults. Case-control study. One hundred fifty cases diagnosed with moderate-to-severe POAG (mean, 75.1 ± 8.5 years; 42.0% female) and 164 healthy controls (mean, 73.0 ± 7.9 years; 59.8% female) were included. POAG diagnosis was based on classical diagnostic criteria of optic nerve cupping and/or RNFL thinning, measured with optical coherence tomography. Severe POAG was defined as Humphrey visual field mean deviation (MD) worse than -12 dB. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as serum 25OHD ≤ 75 nmol/L. Age, gender, mean arterial pressure, vitamin D supplementation, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure were used as potential confounders. POAG cases had lower mean serum 25OHD concentration than controls (42.9 ± 25.7 nmol/L versus 49.4 ± 29.5 nmol/L, P=0.039) and a greater prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (90.7% versus 82.3%, P=0.032). Increased mean serum 25OHD concentrations were associated with lower POAG frequency, even after adjustment for potential confounders (OR=0.89 per 10 nmol/L of 25OHD, P=0.045). Similarly, vitamin D insufficiency was associated with POAG (OR=2.09, P=0.034). Among POAG cases, no 25OHD difference was observed between moderate and severe POAG cases (respectively, 39.2 ± 23.3 nmol/L versus 45.1 ± 26.7 nmol/L, P=0.188); and no between-group difference regarding the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (88.9% versus 94.0%, P=0.313). Decreased serum 25OHD concentration was associated with POAG. There was no 25OHD difference between moderate and severe POAG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. No influence of smoking status on the performance of urine markers for the detection of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, Susanne; Hennenlotter, J; Rausch, S; Docktor, K; Neumann, E; da Costa, I A; Bedke, J; Stenzl, A; Todenhöfer, T

    2018-04-19

    The performance of urinary markers for detecting bladder cancer (BC) is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of smoking habits on the performance of four commonly used urine markers. Urine samples of 723 patients with suspected BC were analysed using urine cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytology (uCyt+ test), and quantitative nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) immunoassay. The smoking habits of all patients were recorded and a cystoscopy performed within 2 weeks after urinary marker testing. Rates of false negative and false positive results were compared between non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers by contingency analyses. We included 723 patients in this study, 431 (59.6%) of which were non-smokers, 215 former smokers (29.7%), and 77 (10.7%) current smokers. 148 patients (20.5%) had a tumour at the time of urinary marker testing. Respective rates of false positive test results among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 16.3, 19.1, and 11.5% (p = 0.81) for urine cytology; 36.8, 42.0, and 32.7% for the uCyt+ test (p = 0.88); 18.0, 19.1, and 13.5% for FISH (p = 0.66); and 69.5, 71.6, and 71.2% for NMP22 (p = 0.67). Respective rates of false negatives among non-smokers, former smokers, and current smokers were: 31.4, 15.1, and 28.0% for cytology (p = 0.34); 21.4, 22.6, and 16.0% for uCyt+ test (p = 0.67); 24.3, 13.2, and 28.0% for FISH (p = 0.88); and 10.0, 18.9, and 8.0% for NMP22 (p = 0.80). Our results strongly suggest that smoking habits do not affect performance characteristics of urinary markers in the diagnostics of BC.

  12. Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Renée; Willis, Jinny; Gearry, Richard; Skidmore, Paula; Fleming, Elizabeth; Frampton, Chris; Carr, Anitra

    2017-09-09

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower plasma vitamin C concentrations compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The aim of this study was to investigate plasma vitamin C concentrations across the glycaemic spectrum and to explore correlations with indices of metabolic health. This is a cross-sectional observational pilot study in adults across the glycaemic spectrum from NGT to T2DM. Demographic and anthropometric data along with information on physical activity were collected and participants were asked to complete a four-day weighed food diary. Venous blood samples were collected and glycaemic indices, plasma vitamin C concentrations, hormone tests, lipid profiles, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were analysed. A total of 89 participants completed the study, including individuals with NGT ( n = 35), prediabetes ( n = 25), and T2DM managed by diet alone or on a regimen of Metformin only ( n = 29). Plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly lower in individuals with T2DM compared to those with NGT (41.2 µmol/L versus 57.4 µmol/L, p prediabetes and T2DM groups. The results showed fasting glucose ( p = 0.001), BMI ( p = 0.001), smoking history ( p = 0.003), and dietary vitamin C intake ( p = 0.032) to be significant independent predictors of plasma vitamin C concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that adults with a history of smoking, prediabetes or T2DM, and/or obesity, have greater vitamin C requirements. Future research is required to investigate whether eating more vitamin C rich foods and/or taking vitamin C supplements may reduce the risk of progression to, and/or complications associated with, T2DM.

  13. Nurses' smoking habits and their professional smoking cessation practices. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, Maria J; Bakhshi, Savita; Mujika, Agurtzane; Purssell, Edward; While, Alison E

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish language publications from 01 Jan, 1996 to 25 Mar, 2015 were systematically searched. Studies were included if they reported nurses' smoking cessation practices in relation to their personal smoking habits. Proportions of nurses' smoking status and smoking cessation practices were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. Levels of reportedsmoking cessation interventions were generally low across the studies. The meta-analyses suggested that nurses' personal smoking status was not associated significantly with nurses always asking patients about their smoking, but nurses who smoked were 13% less likely to advise their patients to quit and 25% less likely to arrange smoking cessation follow-up. More intense interventions (assessing motivation and assisting) were not significantly associated with the smoking status of the nurse. The smoking status of nurses appears to have a negative impact in the delivery of smoking cessation practices. The overall level of nurses' engagement with the delivery of smoking cessation interventions requires attention if nurses are to be effective agents of smoking cessation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  16. Effect of smoking status and nicotine dependence on pain intensity and outcome of treatment in Indian patients with temporomandibular disorders: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Katyayan, Manish Khan

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the association of smoking with various forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain is vast, but that with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is scarce. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effect of smoking status (SS) and nicotine dependence (ND) on TMD pain intensity and treatment outcome in an Indian population with TMD. Nine hundred and sixty-two patients with TMD were selected for this longitudinal cohort study. Lifetime SS was evaluated and patients were classified as current smokers (YS), former smokers (FS), or nonsmokers (NS). The Fagerstrom test was used to evaluate the ND of YS. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analog scale scores. Six months posttreatment, the pain intensity was again recorded. The effect of treatment was evaluated using a global transition outcome measure and categorized as treatment success or failure. A minimum 30% reduction in pain was used as a criterion for categorizing patients as those who had gotten "better." Data obtained from the study were compared using Chi-square tests, paired samples t -tests, and one-way ANOVA tests. The criterion for statistical significance for all analyses was set at P = 0.05. Among groups of SS, YS showed the maximum pain intensity at baseline and posttreatment. The outcome of treatment was most successful in NS and least in FS. The number of patients who had gotten "better" after treatment was significantly highest in NS. There was no significant difference between groups of ND with respect to pain intensity, treatment outcome, or "better" patients. Among Indian patients with TMD, smokers reported significantly greater pain intensity and poorer response to treatment than NS. Pain intensity or treatment outcome was independent of ND.

  17. Vegetation fire smoke, indigenous status and cardio-respiratory hospital admissions in Darwin, Australia, 1996–2005: a time-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanigan Ivan C

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution in Darwin, Northern Australia, is dominated by smoke from seasonal fires in the surrounding savanna that burn during the dry season from April to November. Our aim was to study the association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (PM10 and daily emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory diseases for each fire season from 1996 to 2005. We also investigated whether the relationship differed in indigenous Australians; a disadvantaged population sub-group. Methods Daily PM10 exposure levels were estimated for the population of the city from visibility data using a previously validated model. We used over-dispersed Poisson generalized linear models with parametric smoothing functions for time and meteorology to examine the association between admissions and PM10 up to three days prior. An interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was included to examine differences in the impact on indigenous people. Results We found both positive and negative associations and our estimates had wide confidence intervals. There were generally positive associations between respiratory disease and PM10 but not with cardiovascular disease. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in same-day estimated ambient PM10 was associated with a 4.81% (95%CI: -1.04%, 11.01% increase in total respiratory admissions. When the interaction between indigenous status and PM10 was assessed a statistically different association was found between PM10 and admissions three days later for respiratory infections of indigenous people (15.02%; 95%CI: 3.73%, 27.54% than for non-indigenous people (0.67%; 95%CI: -7.55%, 9.61%. There were generally negative estimates for cardiovascular conditions. For non-indigenous admissions the estimated association with total cardiovascular admissions for same day ambient PM10 and admissions was -3.43% (95%CI: -9.00%, 2.49% and the estimate for indigenous admissions was -3.78% (95%CI: -13.4%, 6

  18. Smoking and attitudes toward smoking policy at a University in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L; Carrillo, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To assess smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking harm, and attitudes toward campus smoking policy at an Egyptian university, an online survey of students, staff, and faculty was conducted (N = 992). The smoking prevalence of 38% among men was in line with Egypt's national average, but the smoking prevalence among women of 20% was much higher than the national average. Smoking status influenced beliefs about smoking harm and attitudes toward smoking policy, with nonsmokers having stronger beliefs about the harm of smoking and showing stronger support for smoking regulations than smokers. Smokers were more knowledgeable about smoking policy than were nonsmokers and differed slightly in their preferences for smoking policy enforcement strategies. These findings contribute to our understanding of how to tailor college smoking policy and programs to an Egyptian context.

  19. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  20. Prospective prediction of children's smoking transitions: role of parents' and older siblings' smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Leroux, Brian G; Andersen, M Robyn; Rajan, K Bharat; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-01-01

    To use a novel social epidemic probability model to investigate longitudinally the extent to which parents' and older siblings' smoking predict children's smoking transitions. Parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade (baseline). Three smoking transitions were assessed over the period of child/adolescent smoking acquisition (up to 12th grade): (1) transition from never smoking to trying smoking, (2) transition from trying to monthly smoking and (3) transition from monthly to daily smoking. Forty Washington State school districts participating in the long term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP). Participants were the 5520 families for whom data on both parents' and older siblings' baseline smoking status, as well as on children's smoking transitions, were available. The probability that a smoking parent influenced their child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 32% (95% CI: 27%, 36%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 15% (95% CI: 10%, 19%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 28% (95% CI: 21%, 34%). The probability that an older sibling influenced a child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 29% (95% CI: 17%, 39%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 0% (95% CI: 0%, 8%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 20% (95% CI: 4%, 33%). In contrast to previous research, the results provide new evidence suggesting that family smoking influences both initiation and escalation of children's smoking. Results also quantify, in terms of probabilities, the importance of parents' and older siblings' smoking on children's three major smoking transitions. Parents' smoking, as well as older siblings' smoking, are important behaviors to target in preventing adolescents from making smoking transitions.

  1. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petrušić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the detrimental effect of smoking on the function of the salivary glands. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 patients who were divided into two groups: a test group which included smokers and control group represented by non-smokers. Each group included 30 patients. General information was collected from all the respondents via a questionnaire as well as the data on the duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Saliva was collected by spitting method in a graduated tube and the amount of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was measured and recorded in ml per minute. Stimulated saliva was collected immediately after rinsing the mouth with a 2% aqueous solution of citric acid which is carried salivary stimulation. The presence of pigmentation on the teeth and coated tongue were recorded during clinical examination. The degree of oral hygiene was determined by plaque index. All the obtained data were statistically analyzed with significance level p <0.05. Results: The results showed no significant differences in the amount of saliva between smokers and non-smokers, however, the amount of saliva decreases significantly with the duration of smoking and increasing age of smokers. Also proven was the difference in the quality of saliva: smokers have thick saliva and nonsmokers predominantly serous. In addition, smokers have poorer oral hygiene status than non-smokers, and demonstrated a positive correlation between the level of oral hygiene and length of smoking tobacco. Conclusion: This study has proven that smoking adversely affects salivation: long-term smoking reduces the secretion of saliva and changes its quality.

  2. Body mass index and depressive symptoms in primary care settings: examining the moderating roles of smoking status, alcohol consumption and vigorous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A

    2014-02-01

    Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P exercisers reported fewer (P  0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P < 0.05). BMI is positively related to depressive symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  5. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Yutaka, E-mail: yaoki@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Yee, Jennifer [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 3311 Toledo Rd, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, Epidemiology Elective Program, MS E-92, 1600 Clifton Rd, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 (United States); Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Family Medicine, 4000 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington D.C 20057 (United States); Mortensen, Mary E. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, MS F-20, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  6. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. Objective: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Methods: Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Results: Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. Conclusions: The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. - Highlights: • Among never and former smoking adults, Asians have the highest blood cadmium. • White adults tend to have the highest smoking intensity, but not blood cadmium. • Women overall have higher levels of blood cadmium than men regardless of smoking. • Non-smoking sources of exposure likely contribute to Asians’ higher blood cadmium.

  7. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  8. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  9. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of US adults1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Rybak, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status have been measured in a nationally representative sample of the US population in NHANES 2003–2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle variables (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (≥20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ≤0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability as compared to the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7% (B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (≥6 out of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI; and for some biomarkers with PIR (5/8), education (1/8), alcohol consumption (4/8), and physical activity (5/8). We noted large estimated percent changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from −24% to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from −12% to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from −28% to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status. PMID:23576641

  10. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Rybak, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status were measured in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in NHANES 2003-2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) variables with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (aged ≥ 20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (vitamin B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ≤ 0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability compared with the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7 (vitamin B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (≥ 6 of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI and for some biomarkers with PIR (5 of 8), education (1 of 8), alcohol consumption (4 of 8), and physical activity (5 of 8). We noted large estimated percentage changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from -24 to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from -12 to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from -28 to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status.

  11. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sport participation with e-cigarette use and smoking status in a large sample of Canadian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicic, Sandra; Piérard, Emma; DeCicca, Philip; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-01

    Youth e-cigarette use is common worldwide, but the profile of e-cigarette users compared with tobacco users is unclear. This study examines how sport participation and activity levels among youth differ between e-cigarette users and smokers. Using Canadian data from 38,977 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in Year 3 (2014-15) of the COMPASS study, logistic regression models were used to examine the likelihood of sport participation and activity level based on e-cigarette use and smoking status. Pearson's chi-square tests were used to examine subgroup differences by gender. E-cigarette users are more likely to participate in intramural, competitive, and team sports compared to non-users. Current and former smokers are less likely to participate in those sports than non-smokers. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely than non-users to meet the physical activity guidelines. Current smokers are more likely than non-smokers to undertake physical activity at least 60 minutes daily but less likely than non-smokers to tone at least 3 times per week. Youth e-cigarette users are less likely than non-users to be sedentary less than 2 hours daily. Gender differences among males and females show that male e-cigarettes users drive the general relationship. Results suggest that e-cigarette users are more likely to engage in physical activity compared to non e-cigarette users. Youth e-cigarette users are more likely to be physically active while the opposite is true for smokers. Although e-cigarettes may be less harmful to health compared to cigarette smoking, the increased uptake among youth of differing profiles should be considered in prevention efforts. These results highlight the importance of addressing e-cigarette use in youth who undertake health promoting behaviours. Prevention efforts should not focus only on youth who may undertake riskier health habits; e-cigarette prevention programs should go beyond the domain of tobacco control. © The Author 2017. Published

  13. Smoking beliefs and behavior among youth in Malaysia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carla M; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Awang, Rahmat; Driezen, Pete; Thompson, Mary

    2009-01-01

    To characterize smoking beliefs among Thai and Malaysian youth and to examine associations with gender, antismoking media exposure, and smoking status. Nationally representative samples of youth completed self-administered questionnaires. A substantial proportion of youth reported positive beliefs about smoking. Those reporting positive beliefs were more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Youth who noticed antismoking media were less likely to report positive beliefs about smoking. As in Western countries, beliefs about smoking held by youth in Southeast Asia are associated with smoking status. Antismoking media may be an important means of targeting beliefs about smoking among youth.

  14. Stratification by Smoking Status Reveals an Association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genotype with Body Mass Index in Never Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.E.; Morris, R.W.; Fluharty, M.E.; Bjorngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.O.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Campbell, A.; Marioni, R.; Kumari, M.; Hällfors, J.; Männistö, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cavadino, A.; Postmus, I.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Skaaby, T.; Ahluwalia, T.S.; Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Dale, C.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Lahti, J.; Palotie, A.; Räikkönen, K.; Kisialiou, A.; McConnachie, A.; Padmanabhan, S.; Wong, A.; Dalgard, C.; Paternoster, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Tyrrell, J.; Horwood, L.J.; Fergusson, D.; Kennedy, M.A.; Frayling, T.M.; Nohr, E.A.; Christiansen, L.; Ohm Kyvik, K.; Kuh, D; Watt, G.; Eriksson, J.; Whincup, P.H.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Davey Smith, G.; Lawlor, D.; Linneberg, A.; Ford, I.; Jukema, J.W.; Power, C.; Hyppönen, E.; Järvelin, M.R.; Preisig, M.; Borodulin, K.; Kaprio, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Smith, B.H.; Hayward, C.; Romundstad, P.R.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Munafo, M.R.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a

  15. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, A.E.; Morris, R.W.; Fluharty, M.E.; Björngaard, J.H.; Asvold, B.A.; Gabrielsen, M.E.; Campbell, A.; Marioni, R.E.; Kumari, M.; Hallfors, J.; Mannisto, S.; Marques-Vidal, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cavadino, A.; Postmus, I.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Skaaby, T.; Ahluwalia, T.V.S.; Treur, J.L.; Willemsen, G.; Dale, C.E.; Wannamethee, S.G.; Lahti, J.; Palotie, A.; Raikkonen, K.; Kisialiou, A.; McConnachie, A.; Padmanabhan, S.; Wong, A.; Dalgard, C.; Paternoster, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Tyrrell, J.; Horwood, J.; Fergusson, D.M.; Kennedy, M.A.; Frayling, T.; Nohr, E.A.; Christiansen, L.; Kyvik, K.O.; Kuh, D.; Watt, G.; Eriksson, J.; Whincup, P.H.; Vink, J.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Smith, G.D.; Lawlor, D.A.; Linneberg, A.; Ford, I.; Jukema, J.W.; Power, C.; Hypponen, E.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Preisig, M.; Borodulin, K.; Kaprio, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Smith, B.H.; Hayward, C.; Romundstad, P.R.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Munafò, M.R.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a

  16. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  18. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  19. Smoking Habits of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Intermittent Claudication in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Joshua; Jabo, Brice; Patel, Sheela; Kiang, Sharon; Bianchi, Christian; Chiriano, Jason; Teruya, Theodore; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M

    2017-10-01

    Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines for the medical treatment of intermittent claudication give a GRADE 1A recommendation for smoking cessation. Active smoking is therefore expected to be low in patients suffering from intermittent claudication selected for vascular surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking in patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication at the national level and to determine the relationship between smoking status and intervention. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registries for infra-inguinal bypass, supra-inguinal bypass, and peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) were queried to identify patients who underwent invasive treatment for intermittent claudication. Patient factors, procedure type (bypass versus PVI), and level of disease (supra-inguinal versus infra-inguinal) were evaluated for associations with smoking status (active smoking or nonsmoking) by univariate and covariate analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 101,055 procedures were entered in the 3 registries, with 40,269 (40%) performed for intermittent claudication. Complete data for analysis were present in 37,632 cases. At the time of intervention, 44% of patients were active smokers, with wide variation by regional quality group (16-53%). In covariate analysis, active smoking at treatment was associated with age smoking status. During follow-up, 36% of patients had quit smoking. Predictors of smoking cessation included age ≥70 years (RR 1.45), ABI ≥0.9 (RR 1.12), and bypass procedures (RR 1.22). At the time of treatment, 44% of patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication in the VQI were active smokers and there was a wide regional variation. Prevalence of active smoking was greater in the presence of younger age, fewer comorbidities, lower ABI, and supra-inguinal disease. Type of procedure performed, and in turn level of invasiveness required, did not appear to be influenced by smoking

  20. Smoking behavior in Vietnam: demographic and socioeconomic determinants

    OpenAIRE

    cuong, nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause for diseases and death. Information on factors affecting the smoking status is useful for policies on smoking reduction, especially in developing countries. This paper examines to what extent individuals’ characteristics can affect the smoking status using a household survey in Vietnam. It is found that gender and age are the most crucial determinants of smoking. Middle-aged men is the main users of tobacco. Other important factors associated with the decision on s...

  1. Is the smoking decision an 'informed choice'? Effect of smoking risk factors on smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, H; Glynn, K; Fleming, R

    1987-06-26

    The argument that people freely choose to smoke assumes that individuals at the point of initiation of smoking (often in adolescence) hold accurate beliefs about smoking. Smoking beliefs and the presence of known smoking risk factors were assessed in interviews with a sample of 895 urban young people. The respondents greatly overestimated the prevalence of adult and peer smoking, negative attitudes of their peers were greatly underestimated, a large proportion believed that they would be less likely than other people to contract a smoking-related illness if they became smokers, and there was a general lack of understanding of the adverse consequences experienced upon smoking cessation. These misperceptions were more common among youngsters who were smokers, who intended to smoke, or who had friends or family members who smoked. Because misinformation among young people is widespread and those at greatest risk for smoking are the most misinformed, the tobacco industry's argument that the decision to smoke reflects an "informed choice" is without merit.

  2. Changes in smoking status among a longitudinal cohort of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Helia; Armstrong, Heather L; Cui, Zishan; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Zhu, Julia; Anand, Praney; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Oudman, Greg; Tonella, Christina; Moore, David M

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) and most of the mortality gap between HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals is attributable to smoking. We recruited sexually active HIV-positive and HIV-negative GBMSM age ≥16 years using respondent-driven sampling. Study visits occurred every six months for up to four years and included a computer-assisted self-interview and clinical assessment. We conducted bivariate analyses to compare factors associated with "never", "former", "daily", or "non-daily" smoking at baseline and longitudinal mixed effects models to examine factors associated with cessation and (re)initiation. 774 participants completed a baseline visit and 525 enrolled in the cohort and completed at least one follow-up visit. At baseline, the median age was 34 years and 31.5% were daily smokers. In follow-up (median=2.5years), 116 daily or non-daily smokers (41%) quit at least once and of these, 101 (87%) remained former smokers at their last visit. Smoking cessation was positively associated with incomes ≥$60,000 and self-reported excellent health. Alcohol use, ecstasy use, and having a partner who smokes were associated with decreased odds of cessation. Substance use (cannabis, GHB, and crystal methamphetamine) and having a partner who smokes were positively associated with increasing to/resuming daily smoking. HIV-positive GBMSM were more likely to smoke but not more likely to quit. Targeted, culturally relevant smoking cessation resources are needed, especially for HIV-positive GBMSM. Engaging couples in cessation interventions may be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Among Nonsmokers in New York City in the Context of Recent Tobacco Control Policies: Current Status, Changes Over the Past Decade, and National Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Chernov, Claudia; Farley, Shannon M; Greene, Carolyn M; Aldous, Kenneth M; Freeman, Amy; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is hazardous and can cause cancer, coronary heart disease, and birth defects. New York City (NYC) and other jurisdictions have established smoke-free air laws in the past 10-15 years. NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES) 2013-2014 was a population-based survey of NYC residents, aged 20 years and older, in which biospecimens were collected and cotinine levels were measured. Secondhand smoke exposure was assessed by demographics and risk factors and compared with that from NYC HANES 2004 and national HANES. More than a third (37.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 33.3%-41.2%) of nonsmoking adult New Yorkers were exposed to secondhand smoke, defined as a cotinine level of 0.05-10ng/mL. This was significantly lower than in 2004 NYC HANES, when 56.7% (95% CI = 53.6%-59.7%) of nonsmokers were exposed to secondhand smoke, but was greater than the proportion of adults exposed nationwide, as measured by national HANES (24.4%, 95% CI = 22.0%-26.9% in 2011-2012). Men, non-Hispanic blacks, adults aged 20-39, those with less education, and those living in high-poverty neighborhoods were more likely to be exposed. There has been a large decrease in secondhand smoke exposure in NYC, although disparities persist. The decrease may be the result of successful policies to limit exposure to secondhand smoke in public places and of smokers smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Yet NYC residents still experience more secondhand smoke exposure than US residents overall. Possible explanations include multiunit housing, greater population density, and pedestrian exposure. Measuring exposure to secondhand smoke can be difficult, and few studies have monitored changes over time. This study uses serum cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, from a local population-based examination survey, the NYC HANES 2013-2014, to examine exposure to secondhand smoke in an urban area that has implemented stringent antismoking laws. Comparison with NYC HANES conducted 10

  4. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  5. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  6. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  7. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data.Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers.The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  8. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking

  9. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  10. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  11. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  12. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  13. School, family and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, Aina; Leiva, Alfonso; Gorreto, Lucia; Estela, Andreu; Tejera, Elena; Torrent, Maties

    2013-01-01

    The socio-cultural environment is an important factor involved with the onset of smoking during adolescence. Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during this stage. In this context we aimed to analyze the association of school and family factors with adolescent smoking by a cross-sectional study of 16 secondary schools randomly selected from the Balearic Islands involved 3673 students and 530 teachers. The prevalence of regular smoking (at least one cigarette per week) was 4.8% among first year students, 11.6% among second year students, 14.1% among third year students, 20.9% among fourth year students and 22% among teachers. Among first and second year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, belonging to a single parent family, poor relationship with parents, poor academic performance, lack of interest in studies and teachers' perception of smoking in the presence of pupils. Among third and fourth year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and poor relationship with parents, adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, poor academic performance, lack of control over student misbehavior and the school attended. The school policies and practices affect student related health behavior regarding smoking, independent of individual and family factors.

  14. Influence of Knowledge and Attitudes on Smoking Habits Among Young Military Conscripts in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoh-Shiang Lin

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

  15. Stratification for smoking in case-cohort studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; López, Ana García; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2009-01-01

    and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort design. We used an empirical and a statistical simulation approach. The stratification strategies were: no smoking stratification, stratification for smoking status and stratification......The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification...... for smoking duration. The study base was a prospective follow-up study with 57,053 participants. In the simulation approach the glutathione S-transferase T1 null polymorphism, as a model of any polymorphism, was added to simulated data in two different ways, assuming either absence or presence of association...

  16. Hardcore smoking in three South-East asian countries: results from the global adult tobacco survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Jugal; Jena, Pratap Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Chandan; Swain, Monali; Das, Sagarika; Banerjee, Indrani

    2013-01-01

    Hardcore smoking is represented by a subset of daily smokers with high nicotine dependence, inability to quit and unwillingness to quit. Estimating the related burden could help us in identifying a high risk population prone to tobacco induced diseases and improve cessation planning for them. This study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of hardcore smoking in three South-East Asian countries and discussed its implication for smoking cessation intervention in this region. Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) data of India, Bangladesh and Thailand were analyzed to quantify the hardcore smoking prevalence in the region. On the basis of review, an operational definition of hardcore smoking was adopted that includes (1) current daily smoker, (2) no quit attempt in the past 12 months of survey or last quit attempt of less than 24 hours duration, (3) no intention to quit in next 12 months or not interested in quitting, (4) time to first smoke within 30 minutes of waking up, and (5) knowledge of smoking hazards. Logistic regression analysis was carried out using hardcore smoking status as response variable and gender, type of residence, occupation, education, wealth index and age-group as possible predictors. There were 31.3 million hardcore smokers in the three Asian countries. The adult prevalence of hardcore smoking in these countries ranges between 3.1% in India to 6% in Thailand. These hardcore smokers constitute 18.3-29.7% of daily smokers. The logistic regression model indicated that age, gender, occupation and wealth index are the major predictors of hardcore smoking with varied influence across countries. Presence of a higher number of hardcore smoking populations in Asia is a major public health challenge for tobacco control and cancer prevention. There is need of intensive cessation interventions with due consideration of contextual predictors.

  17. Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa

    2015-09-19

    Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal

  18. Transition and Change: The Prospective Effects of Post-Traumatic Stress on Smoking Trajectories in the First Year of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Vermont, Leah N.; Colder, Craig R.; Ouimette, Paige; White, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    College matriculation begins a period of transition that is marked by new freedoms and responsibilities by and increases in a variety of risky behaviors, including smoking. Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well-established risk factors for smoking outcomes, and thus may be a point of intervention for college smoking. Yet, no studies have examined associations among trauma, PTSD, and smoking in college students. The present study provides such an examination. Matriculating student smokers (N=346) completed surveys in September (T1) and at five subsequent time points (T2-T6) over their first year of college. With latent growth analysis, we modeled smoking trajectories conditioned on PTSD symptom status (i.e., No PTSD Symptoms vs. Partial PTSD vs. Full PTSD). Results showed that, although smoking tended to decline during the first semester for all groups, significant risk for escalation in smoking during the second semester was conferred specifically by the presence of PTSD at matriculation. Interventions that offer support and resources to students entering college with PTSD may help to prevent smoking behaviors from escalating, and may ultimately prevent the adoption of daily smoking in later adulthood. PMID:22888814

  19. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  20. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Taylor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10, but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10(-5. An interaction test confirmed that these estimates differed from each other (P = 4.95 × 10(-13. This difference in effects suggests the variant influences BMI both via pathways unrelated to smoking, and via the weight-reducing effects of smoking. It would therefore be essentially undetectable in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes may therefore reveal novel genetic associations.

  1. Public support for smoke-free policies in Jordan, a high tobacco burden country with weak implementation of policies: Status, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Nour A; Ayub, Hiba S; Bader, Rasha K; Shtaiwi, Aisha S; Shihab, Rawan A; Habashneh, Malek A; Hawari, Feras I

    2016-12-01

    Several Eastern Mediterranean (EM) countries, including Jordan, suffer from high smoking prevalence but weak implementation of smoking bans (SB). Public support (PS) influences successful implementation of SB, but little is known about PS for SB in EM countries with weak SB implementation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey measuring knowledge and perceptions of a large purposive sample of the Jordanian public regarding tobacco harms and anti-tobacco laws. Among 1169 respondents, 46% of whom used tobacco, PS for SB varied from 98% to 39% based on venue, being highest for health facilities and lowest for coffee shops. In venues with relatively lower PS (restaurants, coffee shops), lower educational groups, older age groups, nonsmokers, and those who had more knowledge regarding tobacco and secondhand smoke harms were significantly more likely to support SB than the highest educational group, the youngest age group, smokers, and those who had less knowledge (respectively). Our results suggest that aggressive promotion of SB is needed in countries like Jordan (where smoking is increasing), tailored to venue and specific sociodemographic characteristics of the public accessing these venues, particularly restaurants and coffee shops. Multifaceted health messages that enhance public knowledge can be of benefit in improving PS for SB.

  2. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  3. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  4. Undergraduate nursing students' attitudes towards smoking health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen; Rowe, Kathy

    2005-09-01

    Despite the fact that nurses have a key role in health promotion, many continue to smoke at much the same rate as the general population. This paper investigates the influence of smoking status, gender, age, stage of education, and smoking duration on undergraduate nursing students' attitudes towards smoking health promotion. The study took place in one university's School of Nursing in Victoria, Australia. Respondents completed the Smoking and Health Promotion instrument. Researchers obtained ethics approval prior to commencing the study. Smoking status was the main factor that affected respondents' attitudes towards smoking health promotion, with age and education stage having a minor effect, and gender and smoking duration not significant. Nurses have an important role in modeling non-smoking behaviors for patients. There needs to be consistency between personal and professional beliefs for nurses to properly engage in smoking health promotion. The findings have implications for undergraduate nursing education curricula, nursing practice and research, and these are discussed.

  5. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  6. Smoking and airway hyperresponsiveness especially in the presence of blood eosinophilia increase the risk to develop respiratory symptoms - A 25-year follow-up study in the general adult population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, DF; Schouten, JP; Vonk, JM; Rijcken, B; Timens, W; Kraan, J; Weiss, ST; Postma, DS

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) constitutes a risk for development of respiratory symptoms. We assessed whether blood eosinophilia (greater than or equal to 275 eosinophils/mu l), skin test positivity (sum score greater than or equal to 3) and cigarette smoking (never, ex-smoker, 1-14 cig/d, 15-24

  7. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  8. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  9. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  10. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  11. Contrasting trends of smoking cessation status: insights from the stages of change theory using data from the global adult tobacco survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarous Mbulo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Quitting tobacco use can reduce smokers' risks for disease and premature death. We used the trans-theoretical behavior change model to examine temporal differences in readiness to quit smoking among adults in five countries. Methods We analyzed two independent samples from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, a standardized national adult household survey of persons aged ≥15 years, for five countries: Mexico (2009, 2015, Philippines (2010, 2016, Thailand (2009, 2011, Turkey (2008, 2012, and Vietnam (2010, 2016. Response rates ranged 82.5%-96.3% and sample sizes ranged 8,996-20,606. Current smokers were defined as adults who smoked tobacco on a daily or non-daily basis. Using responses to questions assessing intention to quit cigarette smoking, we categorized current smokers into the following stages of change: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation. Relative change was compared using z-tests ( p < 0.05. Results No significant change in smoking prevalence between wave 1 and 2 occurred for Mexico (15.9% to 16.4%, Thailand (23.7% to 24.0%, or Vietnam (23.8% to 22.5%. In contrast, smoking prevalence declined for Philippines (28.2% to 22.7% and Turkey (31.2% to 27.1%. There was an increase in the proportion of smokers in the pre-contemplation stage in Thailand (76.1% to 85.4% and Vietnam (70.8% to 82.3%, while a decline occurred in Turkey (31.2% to 27.1%; no significant change occurred in Mexico or Philippines. The proportion of smokers in the contemplation stage declined in Thailand (17.6% to 12.0% and Vietnam (21.6% to 14.1%, but increased in Turkey (21.2% to 26.9%; no significant change occurred in Mexico or Philippines. The proportion in the preparation stage declined in Thailand (6.3% to 2.6% and Vietnam (7.6% to 3.6%; no significant changes occurred in, Mexico, Philippines, or Turkey. Conclusions Using the stages of change model, smokers' readiness to quit varies by country. Tailored interventions towards specific stages of

  12. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  13. Impact of National Smoke-Free Legislation on Educational Disparities in Smoke-Free Homes: Findings from the SIDRIAT Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Carreras, Giulia; Cortini, Barbara; Verdi, Simona; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Sestini, Piersante; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2015-07-24

    Families with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to adopt household smoking bans (HSB). The aim of this study was to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in HSB prevalence in Italy decreased 7-9 years after the introduction of the Italian ban on smoking in public places. A longitudinal, 12-year, two-wave study was conducted on a sample of 3091 youths aged 6-14 years in 2002; 1763 (57%) were re-interviewed in 2012-2014. A Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to assess the association between socioeconomic disparities and HSB prevalence. The adoption of HSBs significantly increased from 60% in 2002 to 75% in 2012-2014, with the increase recorded in youths with ≥1 smoking parent only (from 22% at baseline to 46% at follow-up). The presence of HSBs at baseline was more likely in families with ≥1 graduate parent compared to those with no graduate parents (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57), either in families with ≥1 smoking parent (PR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.17-1.58) or in families with non-smoking parents (PR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.01-2.56). Conversely, at follow-up socioeconomic disparities dropped since families with no graduate parents were 1.5-fold more likely to introduce a HSB between the two waves. The Italian ban on smoking in public places may have increased the adoption of smoke-free homes in families with smoking and non-graduate parents, causing the drop of the socioeconomic gap in smoke-free homes.

  14. [The role of spirometry in encouraging smoking cessation in general practice. A pilot study using "lung age"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, A; Noël, F; Lorenzo, M; Van Den Broucke, J

    2017-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether spirometry, performed in general practitioners' offices would change non-motivated smokers' attitudes toward smoking cessation. We performed an interventional, prospective, before-after single-center study, approved by a research ethics committee. We included 74 smokers older than 18years old, who reported no intention to quit smoking, whatever they were visiting general practitioners for. We performed spirometry and gave them their results, FEV 1 /FVC and lung age together with a comment on it. Nine months later, we called them for another assessment. Fifty-six percent were women with an average-age of 46.5, who smoked 26.3 pack-years. Eighty-two percent of them had normal FEV 1 /FVC but lung age was pathological among 38% of them. Nine months later, 61.1% reported an increased motivation to quit smoking. They smoked 10.9 cigarettes per day versus 13,3 at baseline (P=0.0254). Increase in motivation was not statistically related to age, gender, previous smoking cessations, daily smoking, nicotine dependence or an abnormal FEV 1 /VC ratio (P>0.75) but was significantly related to the presence of an abnormal lung age status (Pspirometry in general practice, combined with the determination of the lung age, may increase motivation towards smoking cessation in smokers who lack motivation. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  16. Momentary smoking context as a mediator of the relationship between SES and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnel, Tina; Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Thrul, Johannes; Schüz, Benjamin

    2018-08-01

    There is a well-established socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior: those with lower socioeconomic status smoke more. However, much less is known about the mechanisms explaining how SES is linked to smoking. This study takes a social-ecological perspective by examining whether socioeconomic status affects smoking behavior by differential exposure to places where smoking is allowed. Exposure to smoking restrictions was assessed in real-time using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods. A sample of 194 daily smokers, who were not attempting to quit, recorded their smoking and information about situational and contextual factors for three weeks using an electronic diary. We tested whether a smoker's momentary context mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (educational attainment) and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Momentary context was operationalized as the proportion of random assessments answered in locations where smoking was allowed versus where smoking was not allowed. Data were analysed using multilevel regression (measurements nested within participants) with a lower level mediation model (2-1-1 mediation). Although no significant direct effect of SES on CPD were observed, there was a significant indirect effect of SES on CPD via the momentary context. Compared to participants with higher education, lower educated participants were more likely to encounter places where smoking was allowed, and this in turn, was associated with a higher number of CPD. These findings suggest that SES is associated with smoking at least partially via differential exposure to smoking-friendly environments, with smokers from lower SES backgrounds accessing more places where smoking is allowed. Implications for current smoke-free legislation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The joint effects of risk status, gender, early literacy and cognitive skills on the presence of dyslexia among a group of high-risk Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W L; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W F; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-02-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by paediatricians. The age-5 performances on various literacy and cognitive tasks, gender and group status (familial risk or language delayed) were used to predict developmental dyslexia 2 years later using logistic regression analysis. Results showed that greater risk of dyslexia was related to slower rapid automatized naming, lower scores on morphological awareness, Chinese character recognition and English letter naming, and gender (boys had more risk). Three logistic equations were generated for estimating individual risk of dyslexia. The strongest models were those that included all print-related variables (including speeded number naming, character recognition and letter identification) and gender, with about 70% accuracy or above. Early identification of those Chinese children at risk for dyslexia can facilitate better dyslexia risk management. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Changing the Smoking Trajectory: Evaluating the Impact of School-Based Tobacco Interventions on Changes to Susceptibility to Future Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Cole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available School-based programs and policies can reduce student smoking rates. However, their impact on never-smoking students has not been investigated despite the clear transition between non-susceptible, susceptible, and ever tried smoking statuses. The objective of this paper was to examine the longitudinal student-level impact of six changes in school-based tobacco control programs and policies on student transitions in susceptibility to smoking over one year. Two multinomial logistic regression models identified the relative risk of a change in self-reported susceptibility to smoking or in trying a cigarette among never-smoking students in each of the six intervention schools compared to the relative risk among never-smoking students in control schools. Model 1 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline non-susceptible never smoking students, while Model 2 identified the relative risk of a change in smoking susceptibility status among baseline susceptible never smoking students. Students at some intervention schools were at increased risk of becoming susceptible to or trying a cigarette at one year follow-up. Intervention studies should examine changes to susceptibility to future smoking when evaluating impact to ensure that school-based tobacco control programs and policies do not negatively change the risk status of never-smoking students.

  19. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  20. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time...

  1. Stratification by smoking status reveals an association of CHRNA5-A3-B4 genotype with body mass index in never smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Amy E; Morris, Richard W; Fluharty, Meg E

    2014-01-01

    in a larger sample we found that this SNP is associated with 0.74% lower body mass index (BMI) per minor allele in current smokers (95% CI -0.97 to -0.51, P = 2.00 × 10(-10)), but also unexpectedly found that it was associated with 0.35% higher BMI in never smokers (95% CI +0.18 to +0.52, P = 6.38 × 10...... in an unstratified genome-wide association study of BMI, given the opposite association with BMI in never and current smokers. This demonstrates that novel associations may be obscured by hidden population sub-structure. Stratification on well-characterized environmental factors known to impact on health outcomes......We previously used a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster associated with heaviness of smoking within smokers to confirm the causal effect of smoking in reducing body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomisation analysis. While seeking to extend these findings...

  2. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  3. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  4. Actual and imagined first smoking experiences and resisted smoking opportunities of Asian American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Sim, Maria G; O'Connell, Kathleen; Lavin, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    To explore the metamotivational states experienced during first smoking experiences of Asian American adolescents. This survey research investigated the differences among the smokers, resisters, and smoking naives of a convenience sample of 328 Asian Americans, aged 16-19 in New York City (NYC). The study used a demographic questionnaire, Temptation Episode Surveys (First Smoking Occasion, First Resisted Smoking Opportunity, and Opinions on First Smoking Occasion), the Telic/Paratelic State Instrument, and the Rebellious State Scale. Statistical analyses revealed that Asian American adolescents smoked the first time when in paratelic, arousal-seeking states, and when the physical and social environments are permissive to smoking, initiation opportunities such as presence of peers and friends smoking and in places where adults are not present. The first smoking experiences of Asian American adolescents parallel that of smoking cessation when individuals lapse in a highly tempting situation and when the environment is permissive to smoking. This study is the first to use reversal theory pairs as a framework for smoking initiation. Smoking prevention and intervention programs should consider the importance of the physical, social environment, and the psychological states of adolescents when they smoke the first time. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gendall

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies.Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05. The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18 with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  6. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  7. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  8. Agriculture and smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H T

    1940-01-01

    The effects of smoke fumes on the growth of crops and on the reaction of soils in Yorkshire during the last 15 years are reported. Attention is focused on the scorching effect on vegetation caused by acid rain, and the indirect effect of these acids on plants by reducing the lime status of the soil. In cities and towns the worst offenders are domestic chimneys which contribute 150 tons of sulfur to the atmosphere every week. In less densely populated industrial districts, the bulk of the fumes are contributed by industrial chimneys and by the smouldering pit heaps of collieries. The symptoms of smoke damage on wheat are the scorching of the tip of the leaf, followed by a yellowing of the remainder of the leaf. Adequate liming greatly increases the resistance of crops to attacks by fumes. The effect of acid fumes on the soil is also discussed.

  9. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  10. Support for smoke-free cars when children are present: a secondary analysis of 164,819 U.S. adults in 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Olufajo, Olubode; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive smoke-free legislations prohibiting smoking in indoor areas of workplaces, bars, and restaurants have been adopted in most of the USA; however, limited efforts have focused on regulating secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the family car. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants and national/state-specific population support for smoke-free cars, in the presence of any occupant in general, but particularly when children are present. National data of US adults aged ≥18 years (n = 164,819) were obtained from the 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Among all US adults, a significantly greater proportion supported smoke-free cars when it was specified that the occupant was a child compared to when not specified (93.4 vs. 73.7 %, p race/ethnicity, gender, current tobacco use, marital status, and the existence of household smoke-free regulations all mediated population support for smoke-free cars. While differences within the US population were noted, this study however showed overwhelming support for smoke-free car policies, particularly when children are present. Policies which prohibit smoking in indoor or confined areas such as cars may benefit public health by protecting nonsmoking children and adults from involuntary SHS exposure.

  11. Viewing movie smoking undermines antismoking parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that viewing depictions of smoking in movies makes adolescents less responsive to parenting factors that prevent smoking. Cross-sectional survey of 4807 students (grades 5-8) through which we ascertained exposure to smoking in movies, parent smoking, and adolescents' perception of parental responsiveness (support), and parental demandingness (behavioral control). Adolescents attending randomly selected middle schools in the Northeastern U.S. ever tried smoking a cigarette. Exposure to movie smoking was ascertained by counting occurrences of tobacco use in 601 recent popular motion pictures; surveying students to identify films they had seen from a random subset of 50 films; and summing tobacco use occurrences for the films each adolescent reported seeing. We also measured adolescents' perceptions of parent smoking, parental responsiveness and demandingness. The overall prevalence of adolescent smoking was 17.4 percent. The prevalence of smoking increased with exposure to movie smoking (low vs. high exposure 8.8 vs. 25.8%, p Parenting factors associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking were parent non smoking status (11.0% vs. 27.7% for parents who smoke, p parental responsiveness (12.4% vs. 23.1% for low parental responsiveness, p Parenting factors were not strongly associated with exposure to movie smoking. For adolescents with low exposure to movie smoking the adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of smoking were 0.31 (0.23, 0.42) if parents did not smoke, 0.57 (0.42, 0.78) if parents exerted high demandingness, and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) if parents were highly responsive. Parents had significantly less influence for adolescents with high exposure to movie smoking, for whom the adjusted odds of smoking were only 0.50 if parents did not smoke (p = 0.014 for the interaction effect), 0.97 if parents exerted high demandingness (p = 0.007 for the interaction effect) and 0.73 if parents were highly responsive (p = 0.045 for the interaction

  12. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  13. Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of Smoking Behavior: Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Cuong Viet Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause for diseases and death. Information on factors affecting the smoking status is useful for policies on smoking reduction, especially in developing countries. This paper examines to what extent individuals' characteristics are correlated with the smoking status using a household survey in Vietnam. It is found that gender and age are the most crucial determinants of smoking. Middle-aged men is the main users of tobacco. Other important factors associated with the decis...

  14. Factors associated with smoke-free homes in NSW: results from the 1998 NSW Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merom, D; Rissel, C

    2001-08-01

    To examine the sociodemographic characteristics associated with smoke-free homes (SFHs) in NSW and specify high-risk groups with a low prevalence of household smoking restrictions. Data were drawn from the 1998 NSW Health Survey, a computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 17,494 randomly selected respondents aged > or = 16 years across NSW (response rate = 70%). Logistic regression analyses, stratified by smoking status, were used. Overall, 72% of adults reported having a SFH; 87% of never-smokers, 81% of ex- and 35% of current smokers. The highest percentages of SFHs were reported in households with young children (78%) and with older children (72%) or with adults only (72%). For smokers, SFHs were independently associated with the presence of young children (OR=3.8, 95% CI 3.1-4.7) compared with those who lived alone, but the odds of living in a SFH were only slightly increased for smokers living with older children (aged 6-15) and for those living with adults only (OR=1.9, OR=1.8 respectively). Speaking a language other than English at home, having more than 10 years' education, and being homes have restrictions on smoking inside, but more than half the households with children and at least one smoker adult are not smoke free. Interventions to shape parents' smoking behaviour around older children are warranted. Strategies need to address never-smokers in communities with high prevalence of smoking and adults with lower levels of education. A continued commitment to workplace smoking bans is important as they may affect household smoking restrictions.

  15. [Smoke-free environment--nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Czarnecka, Karolina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the nurse attitudes towards smoke-free regulations in public places. The study population consisted of 299 nurses. Among the study population questionnaire was conducted including socio-demographic characteristic, smoking and ETS profile, knowledge about health effects of smoking and abilities for conduction of antismoking counseling. Detail information was collected about nurse opinion on smoke-free public places such as offices, other workplaces, health and educational buildings, restaurants and bars. About 18% of study participants declared current tobacco smoking and 25% were former smokers. Almost all participating in the study women (85%-98%) are in favor of smoking ban in offices, health and educational buildings. 75% supported smoking ban in workplaces but 15% of them were somewhat opposed. Most of the nurses were in favor of smoke-free restaurants (64%) but they were less likely to support smoke-free bars, pubs and clubs (45%). Unfortunately 63% of interview women do not accept smoking ban in private cars. The percentage of women who support total ban of smoking in the presence of pregnant women was 93% and in the presence of children 79%. It is important to conduct educational and informational activities to increase public awareness on health consequences of active and passive smoking and the ways of elimination of such exposures.

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Lars; Michaelis, Dirk; Kemmerer, Michael; Jüttner, Björn; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Waterpipe smoking may increasingly account for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, a serious health hazard with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed at identifying waterpipe smoking as a cause for carbon monoxide poisoning in a large critical care database of a specialty care referral center. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a history of exposure to waterpipe smoking and carbon monoxide blood gas levels >10% or presence of clinical symptoms compatible with CO poisoning admitted between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients' initial symptoms and carbon monoxide blood levels were retrieved from records and neurologic status was assessed before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Sixty-one subjects with carbon monoxide poisoning were included [41 males, 20 females; mean age 23 (SD ± 6) years; range 13-45] with an initial mean carboxyhemoglobin of 26.93% (SD ± 9.72). Most common symptoms included syncope, dizziness, headache, and nausea; 75% had temporary syncope. Symptoms were not closely associated with blood COHb levels. CO poisoning after waterpipe smoking may present in young adults with a wide variability of symptoms from none to unconsciousness. Therefore diagnosis should be suspected even in the absence of symptoms.

  17. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  18. Parental smoking during pregnancy shortens offspring's legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żądzińska, E; Kozieł, S; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Rosset, I; Sitek, A; Lorkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    One of the most severe detrimental environmental factors acting during pregnancy is foetal smoke exposure. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of maternal, paternal and parental smoking during pregnancy on relative leg length in 7- to 10-year-old children. The research conducted in the years 2001-2002 included 978 term-born children, 348 boys and 630 girls, at the age of 7-10 years. Information concerning the birth weight of a child was obtained from the health records of the women. Information about the mother's and the father's smoking habits during pregnancy and about the mothers' education level was obtained from a questionnaire. The influence of parental smoking on relative leg length, controlled for age, sex, birth weight and the mother's education, as a proxy measure of socioeconomic status, and controlled for an interaction between sex and birth weight, was assessed by an analysis of covariance, where relative leg length was the dependent variable, smoking and sex were the independent variables, and birth weight as well as the mother's education were the covariates. Three separate analyses were run for the three models of smoking habits during pregnancy: the mother's smoking, the father's smoking and both parents' smoking. Only both parents' smoking showed a significant effect on relative leg length of offspring. It is probable that foetal hypoxia caused by carbon monoxide contained in smoke decelerated the growth of the long bones of foetuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Universal smoking installation of rotary type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminov V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the research carried out by the authors the most technological installations for producing meat and fish products are oriented only on one type of raw material (meat or fish, as well as the kind of smoking (cold or hot. Limitations are related to the maximum temperature of the drying agent that affects the product; presence of the system for maintaining the relative humidity of the air mixture; presence of the smoke cooling system coming from the smoke generator and a number of other factors. Enterprises expanding the range of products are forced to purchase new equipment. With a limited production area especially for small businesses this is not convenient. In the paper, a universal smoking installation of the rotor type (USIRT is considered for the production of both meat and fish products using cold or hot smoking. The installation is oriented to a wide range of products. The presence of the smoke cooling system will allow the production of cold smoking products, the presence of the dehumidification and humidification system for the smoke-air mixture will ensure the maintenance of the required technological regime for producing fish and meat products. Based on the example of cold smoking studies have shown that the duration of the process should be reduced while maintaining the quality of the product. For this purpose, ultrasonic (US vibrations have been applied to the smoke-air mixture in USIRT. The studies have been carried out to identify the best type of ultrasound radiators capable of transmitting vibrations of the installation metal surface and from it to pass into the smoke-air mixture in order to intensify the process of cold smoking. The necessary power of ultrasonic generators has been determined. Comparative results of technological processes with the application of ultrasound in the production of fish products have been presented.

  20. Predictors of children's secondhand smoke exposure at home: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Orton

    Full Text Available Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS has been causally linked to a number of childhood morbidities and mortalities. Over 50% of UK children whose parents are smokers are regularly exposed to SHS at home. No previous review has identified the factors associated with children's SHS exposure in the home.To identify by systematic review, the factors which are associated with children's SHS exposure in the home, determined by parent or child reports and/or biochemically validated measures including cotinine, carbon monoxide or home air particulate matter.Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Web of Knowledge to July 2014, and hand searches of reference lists from publications included in the review were conducted.Forty one studies were included in the review. Parental smoking, low socioeconomic status and being less educated were all frequently and consistently found to be independently associated with children's SHS exposure in the home. Children whose parents held more negative attitudes towards SHS were less likely to be exposed. Associations were strongest for parental cigarette smoking status; compared to children of non-smokers, those whose mothers or both parents smoked were between two and 13 times more likely to be exposed to SHS.Multiple factors are associated with child SHS exposure in the home; the best way to reduce child SHS exposure in the home is for smoking parents to quit. If parents are unable or unwilling to stop smoking, they should instigate smoke-free homes. Interventions targeted towards the socially disadvantaged parents aiming to change attitudes to smoking in the presence of children and providing practical support to help parents smoke outside the home may be beneficial.

  1. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; pmovies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  2. Transmission of Smoking across Three Generations in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Salma E. T.; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Ollila, Hanna; Helminen, Mika; Alves, Joana; Lindfors, Pirjo; Rimpelä, Arja H.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of parents’ smoking on children’s smoking is well known, but few studies have examined the association between grandparents’ and grandchildren’s smoking. We studied the association between paternal and maternal grandparents’ smoking and their grandchildren’s tobacco use and assessed whether parents’ smoking is a mediator in this process. Data were obtained from a national survey of 12–18-year-old Finns in 2013 (N = 3535, response rate 38%). Logistic regression and mediation analyses were used. Both boys and girls had higher odds for smoking experimentation, daily smoking and other tobacco or tobacco-like product use if their mother, father or any of the four grandparents were current or former smokers. When parents’ and grandparents’ smoking status were included in the same model, grandparents’ smoking generally lost statistical significance. In the mediation analysis, 73% of the total effect of grandparents’ smoking on grandchildren’s daily smoking was mediated through parents’ smoking, 64% on smoking experimentation and 63% on other tobacco or tobacco-like product use. The indirect effect of a mother’s smoking was higher than that of a father’s. To conclude, paternal and maternal grandparents’ smoking increases grandchildren’s tobacco use. The influence is mainly, but not completely, mediated through parents’ smoking. PMID:26712771

  3. Expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins in transformed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: relationship to smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandi, S; Yu, J; Reinert, Line

    2006-01-01

    leukemia (CLL/SLL), that have transformed to diffuse-large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We correlated the presence or absence of DNA-mismatch repair enzymes by immunostaining as well as the p53 status to smoking history. Of all patients (n = 30), 37% showed negative immunostaining of MLH1, 16% showed negative...... for either MLH1 or MSH2 was 2.2 times higher in smokers than non-smokers (relative risk = 2.2041, 95% confidence interval: 0.89714, 5.41491). No direct correlation was found between smoking and the mutations in the p53 gene. These results suggest that cigarette smoking may play a role in the development...

  4. What Do Mothers Think about Concurrent Breastfeeding and Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Debra L.; Davies, Erin D.; Barnhart, Wesley C.; Lucero, Cynthia A.; Moss, Deborah R.

    2008-01-01

    Background According to newer AAP policies, smoking is not contraindicated with breastfeeding, yet smokers initiate and maintain breastfeeding less than non-smokers. Objectives 1) Describe maternal knowledge and 2) attitudes regarding concurrent breastfeeding and smoking or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and 3) evaluate the association between maternal smoking and infant feeding practices. Methods Mothers bringing children breastfeeding and smoking/NRT. Results Among 204 survey completers, 63% were African American, 52% had never breastfed and 54% had never smoked. Knowledge: Regardless of smoking status, 19% were aware of the recommendation to smoke after breastfeeding; most did not know that nicotine gum (42%) or patch (40%) transfers less or about the same amount of nicotine into breast milk than smoking a pack per day. Attitudes: Most mothers (80%) believe that women should not smoke any cigarettes if breastfeeding; current smokers (25%) were more likely than former (10%) or never smokers (11%) to find it acceptable to smoke one or more cigarettes per day (p=.03). Only 2% found it acceptable to use NRT while breastfeeding. Practice: Among ever breastfeeders, 10% stopped breastfeeding because of smoking. Over half of recent or current smokers reported that smoking impacted their infant feeding decision. Conclusions Mothers in this sample believe that women who smoke or take NRT should not breastfeed. Smoking status impacted women’s infant feeding practices. Correction of misinformation could increase breastfeeding rates. PMID:18501868

  5. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

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    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  6. Environmental smoking and smoking onset in adolescence: the role of dopamine-related genes. Findings from two longitudinal studies.

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    Marieke Hiemstra

    Full Text Available Although environmental smoking (i.e., paternal and maternal smoking, sibling smoking, and peer smoking is one of the most important factors for explaining adolescent smoking behavior, not all adolescents are similarly affected. The extent to which individuals are vulnerable to smoking in their environment might depend on genetic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the interplay between environmental smoking and genes encoding components of the dopaminergic system (i.e., dopamine receptor D2, D4, and dopamine transporter DAT1 in adolescent smoking onset. Data from two longitudinal studies were used. Study 1 consisted of 991 non-smoking early adolescents (mean age = 12.52, SD = .57 whereas study 2 consisted of 365 non-smoking middle to late adolescents (mean age = 14.16, SD = 1.07 who were followed for 16 and 48 months, respectively. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using Mplus. In study 1, we found positive associations between parents' and friends' smoking at the first measurement and smoking status 16 months later. In study 2 we found a positive association between friends' smoking and smoking onset 48 months later. Neither study demonstrated any interaction effects of the DRD2, DRD4, or DAT1 genotypes. In conclusion, the effects of environmental smoking on smoking onset are similar for adolescent carriers and non-carriers of these specific genes related to the dopaminergic system.

  7. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Measures of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Multiple Vascular Beds in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Suzuki, Sentaro; Miyagawa, Naoko; Sato, Atsushi; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Abbott, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is an overwhelming, but preventable, risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although smoking prevalence remains high in developed and developing countries in East Asia. Methods and Results In a population?based sample of 1019 Japanese men aged 40 to 79?years, without CVD, we examined cross?sectional associations of smoking status, cumulative pack?years, daily consumption, and time since cessation, with subclinical atherosclerosis at 4 anatomically distinct vascular ...

  8. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  9. Factors associated with secondhand smoke incursion into the homes of non-smoking residents in a multi-unit housing complex: a cross-sectional study in Seoul, Korea

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    Jeonghoon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a multi-unit housing (MUH complex, secondhand smoke (SHS can pass from one living space to another. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SHS incursion, and to establish the relationship between SHS incursion and socio-demographic and built environmental factors in MUH in Korea. Methods A population-based sample of 2600 residents (aged ≥19 years living in MUH from across the city of Seoul, Korea, was obtained through a web-based selection panel. The residents completed a questionnaire detailing socio-demographic factors, smoking status, frequency of SHS incursion, and built environmental factors. The presence of a personal smoke-free home rule was determined by residents declaring that no one smoked inside the home. Results Of the 2600 participants, non-smoking residents who lived in homes with a personal smoke-free rule were selected for further analysis (n = 1784. In the previous 12 months, 74.7% of residents had experienced SHS incursion ≥1 times. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that residents who spent more time at home, lived with children, supported the implementation of smoke-free regulations in MUH, lived in small homes, lived in homes with natural ventilation provided by opening a front door or the windows and front door, and lived in homes with more frequent natural ventilation were more likely to report SHS incursion into their homes. Conclusions The majority of the non-smoking residents experienced SHS incursion, even with a personal smoke-free rule in their homes. A smoke-free policy in MUH is needed to protect residents from SHS exposure when they are at home.

  10. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (psmokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (paffected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  11. Active smoking may negatively affect response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p 3 (HR: 2.95, p smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC.

  12. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

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    Charles Kamen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Lack of association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and smoking among Polish population: a case-control study

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    Jassem Ewa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the genetic determinants of tobacco smoking might help in developing more effective cessation therapies, tailored to smokers' genotype. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR has been linked to vulnerability to smoking and ability to quit. We aimed to determine whether 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with smoking behavior in Caucasians from Northern Poland and to investigate other risk factors for tobacco smoking. Methods 5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined in 149 ever smokers (66 females; mean age 53.0 years and 158 gender and ethnicity matched never smoking controls (79 females; mean age 45.0 years to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with ever smoking status. Analysis of smokers was performed to evaluate the role of 5-HTTLPR in the age of starting regular smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily, pack-years, FTND score, duration of smoking, and the mean length of the longest abstinence on quitting. Genotype was classified according to the presence or absence of the short (S allele vs. the long (L allele of 5-HTTLPR (i.e., S/S + S/L vs. L/L. Logistic regression analysis was also used to evaluate correlation between ever smoking and several selected variables. Results We found no significant differences in the rates of S allele carriers in ever smokers and never smokers, and no relationship was observed between any quantitative measures of smoking and the polymorphism. Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant association between the older age (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.33–6.99 and alcohol dependence (OR = 10.23; 95% CI: 2.09–50.18 and smoking. Conclusion 5-HTTLPR seems to be not a major factor determining cigarette smoking in Poles. Probably, the risk of smoking results from a large number of genes, each contributing a small part of the overall risk, while numerous non-genetic factors might strongly influence these

  14. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  15. Joint effects of smoking and silicosis on diseases to the lungs.

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    Lap Ah Tse

    Full Text Available Smokers are subject to being more susceptible to the long-term effects of silica dust, whilst it remains unclear whether the joint effect of smoking and silicosis differs amongst diseases to the lungs; this study aims to address this knowledge gap. This was a historical cohort study comprised of 3202 silicotics in Hong Kong during 1981-2005 who were followed up till 31/12/2006. We estimated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR in the smoking and never smoking silicotics using the mortality rates of male general population indiscriminately by smoking status, but these SMRs were regarded as biased. We adjusted these biased SMRs using "smoking adjustment factors (SAF". We assessed the multiplicative interaction between smoking and silicosis using 'relative silicosis effect (RSE' that was the ratio of SAF-corrected SMR of smoking silicotics to the never smokers. A RSE differs significantly from one implies the presence of multiplicative interaction. A significant excess SMR was observed for respiratory diseases (lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases [COPD], silicosis and other diseases to the lungs (pulmonary heart disease, tuberculosis. All the 'biased-SMRs' in smokers were higher than those in never smokers, but the SAF-corrected SMRs became higher in never smokers. The RSE was 0.95 (95%CI: 0.37-3.55, 0.94 (95%CI: 0.42-2.60, and 0.81 (95%CI: 0.60-1.19 for lung cancer, COPD, and silicosis; whilst it was 1.21 (95%CI: 0.32-10.26 for tuberculosis and 1.02 (95%CI: 0.16-42.90 for pulmonary heart disease. This study firstly demonstrated the joint effect of smoking and silicosis may differ amongst diseases to the lungs, but power is limited.

  16. Japanese spousal smoking study revisited: how a tobacco industry funded paper reached erroneous conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a participant's account of the development of a paper commissioned by the tobacco industry examining the reliability of self reported smoking status; to redress the distorted report of this Japanese spousal smoking study which evaluated the reliability and validity of self reported smoking status, and estimated confounding by diet and lifestyle factors.

  17. Levels of second hand smoke in pubs and bars by deprivation and food-serving status: a cross-sectional study from North West England

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    Hart Judy

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK government proposed introducing partial smokefree legislation for England with exemptions for pubs and bars that do not prepare and serve food. We set out to test the hypothesis that pubs from more deprived areas and non food-serving pubs have higher levels of particulate air pollution. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in four mainly urban areas of the North West of England. We recruited a stratified random sample of 64 pubs divided into four groups based on whether their local population was affluent or deprived (using a UK area based deprivation measure, and whether or not they served food. The timing of air quality monitoring stratified to ensure similar distribution of monitoring by day of the week and time of evening between groups. We used a portable air quality monitor to collect fine particle (PM2.5 levels over a minimum of 30 minutes in areas where smoking was allowed,, and calculated mean time-time weighted average PM2.5 levels. Results Mean PM2.5 was 285.5 μg/m3 (95% CI 212.7 to 358.3. Mean levels in the four groups were: affluent food-serving pubs (n = 16 188.1 μg/m3 (95%CI 128.1 to 248.1; affluent non food-serving (n = 16 186.8 μg/m3 (95%CI 118.9 to 254.3; deprived food-serving (n = 17 399.4 μg/m3 (95%CI 177.7 to 621.2; and deprived non food-serving (n = 15 365.7 μg/m3 (195.6 to 535.7. Levels were higher in pubs in deprived communities: mean 383.6 μg/m3 (95% CI 249.2 to 518.0 vs 187.4 μg/m3 (144.8 to 229.9; geometric mean 245.2 μg/m3 vs 151.2 μg/m3 (p = 0.03. There was little difference in particulate levels between food and non food-serving pubs. Conclusion This study adds to the evidence that the UK government’s proposals for partial smokefree legislation in England would offer the least protection to the most heavily exposed group - bar workers and customers in non food-serving pubs in deprived areas. The results suggest these proposals would work against the UK government

  18. Influence of Cigarette Smoking on Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in the Han Chinese Population

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    Jian Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesCigarette smoking has been shown in European populations to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA susceptibility. This study aims to examine the association of smoking with RA in the Han Chinese population.Methods718 Han Chinese RA patients and 404 healthy controls were studied. The associations of cigarette smoking (current, former or ever vs. never smokers, and pack-years of exposure with RA, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA positive RA, IgM rheumatoid factor (RF positive RA, and baseline radiographic erosions (modified van der Heijde–Sharp scores were assessed. The interaction between smoking and the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE in RA was also examined.ResultsIn this study, 11 (1.53% cases and 6 (1.49% controls were former smokers (p = 0.95, while 95 (13.23% cases and 48 (11.88% controls were current smokers (p = 0.52. Trends toward associations between smoking status (ever vs. never with RA-overall (p = 0.15, OR = 1.44, ACPA-positive RA (p = 0.24, OR = 1.37, RF-positive RA (p = 0.14, OR = 1.46, or the presence of radiographic erosions (p = 0.66, OR = 1.28 were observed although individually here were not statistically significant. There was no evidence of statistical interaction between smoking status (ever vs. never and SE for all RA, ACPA-positive RA, ACPA-negative RA, RF-positive RA, RF-negative RA (p = 0.37, 0.50, 0.24, 0.26, and 0.81 respectively, and the 95% CI for the attributable proportion for all interactions included 0.ConclusionThis is the first study to examine the association of cigarette smoking with RA in the Han Chinese population. This study shows a trend toward an interaction between smoking and SE carriage influencing the risk of RA, though findings were not statistically significant. It is possible that in the presence of universal exposure to heavy air pollution the effect of smoking on RA risk may be obscured.

  19. A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, David; Rickert, William S; Levasseur, Genevieve; Larose, Yolande; Maertens, Rebecca; White, Paul; Desjardins, Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    The chemical composition of tobacco smoke has been extensively examined, and the presence of known and suspected carcinogens in such smoke has contributed to the link between tobacco smoking and adverse health effects. The consumption of marijuana through smoking remains a reality and, among youth, seems to be increasing. There have been only limited examinations of marijuana smoke, including for cannabinoid content and for tar generation. There have not been extensive studies of the chemistry of marijuana smoke, especially in direct comparison to tobacco smoke. In this study, a systematic comparison of the smoke composition of both mainstream and sidestream smoke from marijuana and tobacco cigarettes prepared in the same way and consumed under two sets of smoking conditions, was undertaken. This study examined the suite of chemicals routinely analyzed in tobacco smoke. As expected, the results showed qualitative similarities with some quantitative differences. In this study, ammonia was found in mainstream marijuana smoke at levels up to 20-fold greater than that found in tobacco. Hydrogen cyanide, NO, NO x , and some aromatic amines were found in marijuana smoke at concentrations 3-5 times those found in tobacco smoke. Mainstream marijuana smoke contained selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at concentrations lower than those found in mainstream tobacco smoke, while the reverse was the case for sidestream smoke, with PAHs present at higher concentrations in marijuana smoke. The confirmation of the presence, in both mainstream and sidestream smoke of marijuana cigarettes, of known carcinogens and other chemicals implicated in respiratory diseases is important information for public health and communication of the risk related to exposure to such materials.

  20. Features for detecting smoke in laparoscopic videos

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    Jalal Nour Aldeen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Video-based smoke detection in laparoscopic surgery has different potential applications, such as the automatic addressing of surgical events associated with the electrocauterization task and the development of automatic smoke removal. In the literature, video-based smoke detection has been studied widely for fire surveillance systems. Nevertheless, the proposed methods are insufficient for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos because they often depend on assumptions which rarely hold in laparoscopic surgery such as static camera. In this paper, ten visual features based on motion, texture and colour of smoke are proposed and evaluated for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos. These features are RGB channels, energy-based feature, texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, HSV colour space feature, features based on the detection of moving regions using optical flow and the smoke colour in HSV colour space. These features were tested on four laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. Experimental observations show that each feature can provide valuable information in performing the smoke detection task. However, each feature has weaknesses to detect the presence of smoke in some cases. By combining all proposed features smoke with high and even low density can be identified robustly and the classification accuracy increases significantly.

  1. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  2. Effects of perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes on childrens' views of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Ilknur; Bektas, Murat; Selekoğlu, Yasemin; Kudubes, Aslı Akdeniz; Altan, Sema Sal; Ayar, Dijle

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of determining how students' perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes affect childrens' views of smoking. The sample of this descriptive-cross sectional study comprised 574 subjects between the ages of 11-15. The data were collected using the Children's Cardiovascular Health Promotion Attitude Scale and the Children's Decisional Balance Measure for Assessing and Predicting Smoking Status. Correlation and logistic regression were used for analysis. It was determined that a statistically significant relationship exists between the attitudes of children towards smoking and their ideas about the relationship of smoking with cancer, which is negative and low (r=-0.223). There was also a statistically significant relationship between their attitudes towards cardiovascular health and their attitudes towards smoking, again at a low level (r=0.257). It was determined that children with ideas about smoking and cancer were 9.4 times less likely to have positive/negative attitudes towards smoking, while positive attitudes towards cardiovascular health made negative attitudes towards smoking 3.9 times less likely. It was determined that the attitudes of students towards cardiovascular health and their perceptions of smoking and cancer reduced the positive perceptions towards smoking.

  3. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

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    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  4. Relação entre estado nutricional da gestante, fumo durante a gravidez, crescimento fetal e no primeiro ano de vida Relationship between maternal nutritional status, smoking during pregnancy and growth of fetus and of child during first year of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Augusto Franco de Siqueira

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre estado nutricional e hábito de fumar maternos, peso do recém-nascido ao nascer e crescimento no primeiro ano de vida num grupo de 1.066 gestantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico. Os filhos de mulheres fumantes apresentaram pesos significativamente menores que os filhos de não-fumantes, quer fossem suas mães, normais ou obesas. Também foi possível verificar que filhos de mulheres desnutridas pesaram significativamente menos que filhos de mulheres normais e estes que os de obesas. O prejuízo no peso dos filhos de mulheres fumantes manteve-se apenas até os 3 meses de idade, ao passo que até os 9 meses os filhos de mulheres desnutridas pesaram significativamente menos que as demais crianças, mostrando que, mesmo em gestantes de baixa renda, o efeito do fumo sobre o crescimento se restringe ao ambiente intra-uterino. Já o efeito da desnutrição materna é mais duradouro nessa população. Verificou-se que houve uma associação negativa entre estado nutricional e hábito de fumar maternos, sugerindo que, ao menos em parte, o efeito do tabagismo materno sobre o concepto pode ser intermediado pelo estado nutricional.The relationship between maternal nutritional state, maternal cigarette smoking habits, weight of infants at birth and their growth in the first year of life, in a group of 1,066 pregnant women (and their children of low socio-economic status was studied. Babies born to smoking mothers weighed significantly less than those born to non-smoking mothers, whether these were normal or even obese women. It was also observed that children born to undernourished mothers weighed significantly less than those born to normal or obese women. Children born to smoking mothers weighed less than the others up to the 3rd month of life only; children born to undernourished women weighed significantly less than the others up to the 9th month of life. Thus, even among pregnant women of low socio-economic status, the

  5. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  6. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  7. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  8. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  9. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  10. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-11-25

    To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Age-standardised prevalence of smoking and prevalence of agreement with seven statements concerning attitudes towards smoking was determined. To analyse association of physicians' attitudes towards smoking with study year and smoking status, logistic regression analysis was used. Adjusted ORs of agreement with the seven statements were determined. Corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. The age-standardised prevalence of current smoking among men was 26.8% in 2002 and 15.3% in 2014, among women 10.4% and 5.8%, respectively. Compared with the year 2002, in 2014, prevalence of agreement with statements declaring harmfulness of smoking was higher and prevalence of agreement with statements approving smoking was lower. Adjusted ORs showed that compared with 2002, physicians' attitudes towards smoking were less favourable in 2014, and physicians' attitudes towards smoking were associated with their smoking status. Compared with 2002, the age-standardised smoking prevalence among male and female physicians was lower, and attitudes towards smoking were less approving in 2014. The smoking physicians had more approving attitudes towards smoking than their non-smoking colleagues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Murray; Scragg, Robert; Wellman, Robert J; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2007-12-01

    As smoking is very common in R-rated films, we sought to determine if viewing R-rated films is associated with adolescent smoking. Three annual cross-sectional surveys conducted of 88,505 Year 10 students of largely European, Maori, Asian or Pacific Islander ethnicity in secondary schools in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004. Outcomes of interest were: intention to smoke among never smokers; past experimentation with smoking among current non-smokers; current smoking status; and current frequency of smoking. Dose-response relationships were observed between the frequency of viewing R-rated films and all outcome measures controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, peer smoking, parental smoking, socioeconomic status, pocket money and household smoking rules. Compared to never viewing R-rated films, viewing at least weekly nearly tripled the relative risk (2.81; 95% confidence interval 2.57, 3.09) of never smokers being susceptible to smoking, and more than doubled the risk of both past experimentation (2.28; 95% CI 2.12, 2.45) and smoking>/=monthly (2.31; 95% CI 2.10, 2.54). Each of these risks was seen across all ethnic groups. Our results extend the association that has been demonstrated between viewing R-rated films and current smoking in American youth by demonstrating the same association in youth of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds in New Zealand.

  12. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers' smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers' smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.

  13. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  14. Registration and management of smoking behaviour in patients with coronary heart disease. The EUROASPIRE survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.F.M. van Berkel (Dorien); D. de Baquer; J.W. Deckers (Jaap); D. Wood; H. Boersma (Eric)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To establish to what extent smoking status and its management is recorded in coronary patients' medical records, and to investigate their motivation to change smoking behaviour. METHODS: In EUROASPIRE, a survey on secondary prevention in 21 hospitals

  15. Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-reported use of evidence-based medicine and smoking cessation 6 - 9 months after acute coronary syndrome: A single-centre perspective. ... questionnaire detailing current medication use, reasons for non-adherence and smoking status.

  16. Effect of an antismoking advertisement on cinema patrons' perception of smoking and intention to smoke: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-07-01

    To assess the effect of an antismoking advertisement under real-world conditions. Design Quasi-experimental study. Multiplex cinema in Kiel, Germany; 4073 patrons were surveyed after having viewed a movie. Some 4005 patrons were > or = 10 years old (28.7% between 10 and 17 years). A total of 654 subjects (16.3%) were smokers. In the intervention condition (weeks 1 and 3), a 30-second antismoking advertisement-accentuating long-term health consequences of smoking and promoting cessation-was shown prior to all movies; in the control condition (weeks 2 and 4) no such spot was shown. (i) Awareness of smoking in the movie, (ii) approval of smoking in the movie, (iii) attitude towards smoking, (iv) intention to smoke in the future and (v) desire to smoke among smokers. Findings Patrons who were exposed to the antismoking advertisement were more likely to be female, but did not differ with respect to smoking status. After controlling for gender differences, patrons exposed to the antismoking advertisement had (i) higher awareness of smoking in the movies, (ii) lower levels of approval of smoking in the movies, and (iii) a more negative attitude towards smoking in general compared with those not exposed. Among smokers, smoking in the movies increased urge to smoke, but there was no interaction between smoking in the movies and experimental condition. Study results suggest that placing an antismoking advertisement before movies can affect attitudes towards smoking, bolstering evidence in support of such policies.

  17. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sahadat; Hossain, Shakhaoat; Ahmed, Fahad; Islam, Rabiul; Sikder, Tajuddin; Rahman, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be the key preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality at the global level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and factors associated with the initiation of smoking among university students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 264 students of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. A standard, self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on socio-demographic variables, tobacco smoking status, family and peer tobacco smoking history, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco smoking, as well as knowledge about the negative health consequences of tobacco smoking was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models, chi square, and Fisher exact tests. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 60.2%, where males smoked at higher rates than females (68.81% and 19.56%, respectively). The influence of friends was the most significant reason for initiating tobacco smoking (OR: 0.862; CI: 0.810-0.917). Perception regarding tobacco smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco use. Logistic regression models identified that smoking-related attitudes, potential health problems, and family members dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer were significantly associated with tobacco smoking. The current tobacco smoking prevalence among university students in Bangladesh is over 60%. We suggest adopting WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially for university students.

  18. DENTAL PATIENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING AND ATTITUDES ABOUT THE ROLE OF DENTISTS IN SMOKING CESSATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Nurul Asyikin; Saub, Roslan; Nor, Mariani Md; Yusoff, Noriah

    2017-03-01

    Dentists can offer their patients who smoke tobacco assistance with smoking cessation. We conducted this study to assess dental patient knowledge about the effects of smoking and perceptions and attitudes regarding the role of dentists in smoking cessation counselling. We conducted this study to inform tobacco cessation programs that could potentially include dentists. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among 375 patients. The mean age of subjects was 33.4 years; females comprised 51.5%. Participants were divided into 3 groups: those who never smoked (n = 263, 70.7%), smokers (n = 92, 24.7%), and ex-smokers (n = 17, 4.5%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.046) who never smoked (92.9%) knew smoking can cause bad breath than smokers (86.9%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.002) who never smoked (74.8%) knew smoking can cause periodontal disease than smokers (57.6%). Significantly more participants (p smoked (84.5%) knew smoking can cause oral cancer than smokers (66.7%). Significantly more participants (p smoked (86.7%) knew smoking can cause lung cancer than smokers (69.7%). Significantly more participants who never smoked (85.5%) felt dentists should be interested in the smoking status of their patients (p = 0.004) than smokers (72.6%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.08) who never smoked (69.6%) stated dentists should give smoking cessation advice than smokers/ex-smokers (59.0%). Smoker/ ex-smokers had less knowledge about the effects of smoking on oral and general health than non-smokers. Both smokers/ex-smokers and non-smokers felt dentists should provide smoking cessation advice.

  19. Comparison of anamnestic history, alcohol intake and smoking, nutritional status, and liver dysfunction between thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyosawa, K.; Imai, H.; Sodeyama, T.; Franca, S.T.; Yousuf, M.; Furuta, S.; Fujisawa, K.; Kido, C.

    1989-01-01

    In order to clarify the differences in past history, nutritional condition and, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and liver dysfunction between the thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not, 103 persons who had no primary liver cancer in January 1980 were studied. All subjects were military men who had undergone angiography with thorotrast between 1943 and 1946. Twenty persons developed hepatocellular carcinoma and 16 developed intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma by April 1987, whereas 67 are still alive without any cancer. There was no difference in age or period after thorotrast infusion between those two groups of patients in January 1980. A difference in history of hepatitis and/or jaundice and presence of hepatic dysfunction was found between the subjects who developed primary liver cancers and those who did not. These findings suggest that an anamnestic history of hepatitis and liver dysfunction are risks for development of thorotrast-induced liver cancer. On the basis of the above findings, early detection of liver dysfunction offers a possibility of early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

  20. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To measure reduction in exposure to smoke in two population-based studies of self-reported smoking reduction not using nicotine replacement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of biomarkers and smoking. SETTING: Data from two time-points in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), 1981....../83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  1. Smoking among Aboriginal adults in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Punitha; Poder, Natasha; Welsh, Kerry; Bellear, LaVerne; Heathcote, Jeremy; Wright, Darryl; Millen, Elizabeth; Spinks, Mark; Williams, Mandy; Wen, Li Ming

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Tobacco consumption contributes to health disparities among Aboriginal Australians who experience a greater burden of smoking-related death and diseases. This paper reports findings from a baseline survey on factors associated with smoking, cessation behaviours and attitudes towards smoke-free homes among the Aboriginal population in inner and south-western Sydney. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in inner and south-western Sydney from October 2010 to July 2011. The survey applied both interviewer-administered and self-administered data collection methods. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the factors associated with smoking. Results Six hundred and sixty-three participants completed the survey. The majority were female (67.5%), below the age of 50 (66.6%) and more than half were employed (54.7%). Almost half were current smokers (48.4%) with the majority intending to quit in the next 6 months (79.0%) and living in a smoke-free home (70.4%). Those aged 30-39 years (AOR 3.28; 95% CI: 2.06-5.23) and the unemployed (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) had higher odds for current smoking. Participants who had a more positive attitude towards smoke-free homes were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-.85). Conclusions A high proportion of participants were current smokers among whom intention to quit was high. Age, work status and attitudes towards smoke-free home were factors associated with smoking. So what? The findings address the scarcity of local evidence crucial for promoting cessation among Aboriginal tobacco smokers. Targeted promotions for socio-demographic subgroups and of attitudes towards smoke-free homes could be meaningful strategies for future smoking-cessation initiatives.

  2. Smoking habits and health-related quality of life in a rural Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the association between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a rural Japanese population. A cross-sectional study of data from 823 subjects in Iwaki area of Hirosaki City, Japan. SF-36 scores between non-smokers and smokers were compared. To test the sensitivity of SF-36 scores in detecting health deterioration, effects of having diseases and having deviations from normal thresholds in health check-up were analyzed by adding them into covariates in ANCOVA. There was no significant difference in SF-36 scores between non-smokers and smokers. Presence of diseases significantly decreased the physical components of SF-36 scores while the results of health check-up had no significant influence on SF-36 scores. The results suggested the possibility that in Japan, where smoking prevalence is still relatively high, smokers may be less sensitive to sub-clinical deterioration in their own health status than smokers in Western countries that already have experienced the major decline in their smoking rate. The importance of having the smoker become more sensitive to the sub-clinical adverse effects of cigarette smoking should be stressed for the success of smoking control programs.

  3. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behavior and responses to a smoking ban

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how ‘smoker’ and ‘non-smoker’ self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Design: Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Main outcome measures: Intention to quit, quit attempts and ‘rejecting...

  4. Exposure to secondhand smoke and voluntary adoption of smoke-free home and car rules among non-smoking South African adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olufajo, Olubode; Agaku, Israel T

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a well-established health hazard. To determine the effectiveness of existing smoke-free policies and adoption of smoke-free rules in South Africa, we assessed exposure to SHS from several sources among non-smoking adults during 2010. Methods: Data were analyzed for 3,094 adults aged ≥16 years who participated in the 2010 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were used to assess presence of smoke-f...

  5. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking......The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  6. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman

    2012-07-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Formative research on creating smoke-free homes in rural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a young adolescent and included households with a mix of smokers and non-smokers and smoking ban status. Families reported they would consider a total b...

  8. [Tobacco smoking amongst students in the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Jasińska, Ajicja; Wojtal, Mariola; Sochocka, Lucyna; Seń, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of health promotion and diseases profilaxis is a struggle with smoking, which is a well known factor in many disorders, i.e. malignant carcinomas, noncarcinomatous diseases of respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was the analysis of the smoking level amongst the students of 6th year of the Medical Faculty of Wroclaw Medical University. Amongst 131 polled women--116 were non-smoking persons (88.5%), 15 smoking (11.5%). Amongst 55 polled men--43 these are non-smoking persons (78%), 12 smoking (22%). Out of smoking women, the most women (6) is smoking from 11 to 15 cigarettes per day, out of smoking men, the most (5 men)--6-10 cigarettes per day. Smoking women began smoking during the secondary school the most often. 8 of men began the smoking in the secondary school. The majority of examined didn't try to limit smoking. Respondents would expect the biggest support from close persons during giving up smoking Only 59% of women and 64% of men disagree definitely to smoking in their presence. In the consequence of above results surprising seems still high percentage of smokers amongst examined, scantiness of taking attempts of giving up smoking and indifference of non-smoking medical students towards smoking in their presence.

  9. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  10. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  11. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  12. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  13. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and

  14. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mollborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship

  15. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.

  16. Exercise Facilitates Smoking Cessation Indirectly via Intention to Quit Smoking: Prospective Cohort Study Among a National Sample of Young Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated the specific association between exercise and smoking cessation via smoking-mediated intentions to quit smoking among a national sample of young daily smokers in the United States. Prospective cohort study over a 2-year period, with daily smokers assessed across all 50 states in the United States. Data from the 2003 to 2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used. A total of 1175 young adult smokers aged between 18 and 24 years. Baseline exercise and intent to quit smoking were assessed via validated survey measures. Smoking status at the 2-year follow-up period was assessed via survey assessment. After adjustments, meeting exercise guidelines at baseline was associated with an increased baseline intent to quit smoking among this national sample of daily smokers (OR = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-2.07; P = .01). After adjustments, those with a baseline intent to quit smoking had a 71% increased odds ratio (OR) of being a nonsmoker at the 2-year follow-up (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.20-2.44; P = .003). Baseline exercise was not associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60-1.28; P = .50). In this nationally representative sample of young daily smokers, there was a positive association between exercise participation and intention to quit smoking. Baseline intent to quit smoking was independently associated with nonsmoking status at a 2-year follow-up. Thus, this indirect link between exercise and smoking status may be partially explained by the influence of exercise engagement on smoking-specific intentions.

  17. Smoking in movies and smoking initiation in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Nderi, Maryanne; Britton, John

    2016-10-01

    Preventing young people from initiating smoking is a vital public health objective. There is strong evidence that exposure to smoking imagery in movies is associated with an increased risk of smoking uptake. However, the estimate of the magnitude of effect is not clear, as previous reviews have synthesized estimates of cross-sectional and longitudinal associations. Therefore, we have performed a systematic review to quantify cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between exposure to smoking in movies and initiating smoking in adolescents. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, IBSS) and grey literature were searched from inception to May 2015 for comparative epidemiological studies (cross-sectional and cohort studies) that reported the relation between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking initiation in adolescence (10-19 years). Reference lists of studies and previous reviews were also screened. Two authors screened papers and extracted data independently. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria. Random-effects meta-analysis of nine cross-sectional studies demonstrated higher exposure (typically highest versus lowest quantile) to smoking in movies was associated significantly with a doubling in risk of ever trying smoking [relative risk (RR) = 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.66-2.25]. In eight longitudinal studies (all deemed high quality), higher exposure to smoking in movies was associated significantly with a 46% increased risk of initiating smoking (RR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.23-1.73). These pooled estimates were significantly different from each other (P = 0.02). Moderate levels of heterogeneity were seen in the meta-analyses. The cross-sectional association between young people reporting having seen smoking imagery in films and smoking status is greater than the prospective association. Both associations are substantial, but it is not clear whether or

  18. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  19. [The image of smoking women in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledziewski, E G

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to try to understand why the social image of the smoking woman remains positive and cannot be assimilated to that of the smoking man. We wanted to describe the typical status and function of smoking women in today's social imaginary in France. We identified and interpreted selected images in which female smoking is presented as an ideological corpus. The cultural meaning of female and male smoking, as well as their pathological effects, are different and should not be apprehended symmetrically. The leading feministic culture deeply resists alarming discourses about the dangers of tobacco, considering them to have little importance. Female smoking is still encouraged and exalted for its emancipating power: tobacco liberates woman from an impracticable womanhood. There is a need for a political approach to female smoking, viewing it as a modern form of mutilation meant to compensate for the extension of women's rights. In order to fight against this imagery efficiently, it must be put into a critical perspective, eliminating taboos about certain feministic misunderstandings and dead-ends. A woman must be offered something more than smoking cessation: an improvement in her own being, a way to reappropriate her gendered identity.

  20. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  1. Assessing the role of impulsivity in smoking & non-smoking disordered gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Célina A; Kim, Hyoun S; Romanow, Nicole K; Hodgins, David C; McGrath, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    Co-morbidity with other addictive behaviors is common in disordered gambling (DG). In particular, tobacco dependence has been found to be among the most prevalent disorders co-morbid with DG. While the extant literature has firmly established the co-occurrence of DG and smoking, there is a paucity of research examining factors that differentiate DGs who smoke from those who do not. To address this empirical gap, the current study tested whether dimensions of trait impulsivity as measured by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking), discriminated between non-DGs and DGs based on their present smoking status: non-smoker, occasional smoker, and daily smoker. To this end, 564 community gamblers were recruited through a crowdsourcing platform (Amazon's Mechanical Turk) and completed an online survey, assessing problem gambling severity, tobacco use, and trait impulsivity. MANOVA analyses revealed significant main effects for both gambling severity and smoking status groups. Importantly, a significant gambling by smoking interaction was also found. Pairwise comparisons revealed that DGs who were daily smokers scored higher on negative urgency than those who smoked occasionally or not all. Furthermore, among non-DGs, smoking status failed to discriminate between mean scores on negative urgency. No other significant interaction effects were found for the remaining UPPS-P impulsivity facets. Results suggest that individual components of trait impulsivity, and more specifically negative urgency, successfully differentiate DGs who do not smoke, or just smoke occasionally, from DGs who smoke daily. These findings suggest that the degree of trait impulsivity may potentially distinguish between DGs and DGs who are dually addicted to other substances such as tobacco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  3. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  4. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  5. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  6. Exercise facilitates smoking cessation indirectly via improvements in smoking-specific self-efficacy: Prospective cohort study among a national sample of young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Wolfe, Christy D; Walker, Jerome F

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise is associated with 2-year follow-up smoking status through its influence on smoking-specific self-efficacy. Longitudinal data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used, including 1,228 participants (16-24 years). A questionnaire was used to examine baseline exercise levels, baseline smoking-specific self-efficacy, follow-up smoking status, and the covariates. Baseline exercise was associated with baseline self-efficacy (β=0.04, psmoking status (β=0.23, pexercise on 2-year smoking status (β=0.001, p=0.95); however, the adjusted indirect effect of baseline self-efficacy on the relationship between exercise and 2-year smoking status was significant (β=0.008, bootstrapped lower and upper CI: 0.002-0.02; psmoking-specific self-efficacy mediates 84% of the total effect of exercise on smoking status. Among daily smokers, exercise may help to facilitate smoking cessation via exercise-induced increases in smoking-specific self-efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking reduced in urban restaurants: the effect of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Xiurong; Li, Yuqin; Gan, Quan; Liu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation, occurrence of smoking in restaurants was compared before and after the law took effect. A cohort study design was used in a randomly selected sample of 176 restaurants in two districts of Beijing. Undercover visits were paid by investigators to the same restaurants at lunch or dinner time 5 months before the law took effect and 1-month after. The occurrence of smoking and presence of no-smoking signs were observed. Much less smoking was observed (14.8%) in restaurants compared to that before the law took effect (40.3%). The drop in smoking occurrence was more evident in open dining areas (from 32.4% to 5.1%) compared to the men's restrooms of the restaurants (23.8% to 18.8%). No intervention from restaurant staff was observed whenever smoking occurred. Posting of no-smoking signage increased considerably after the law came into effect (from 52.6% to 82.4%), but very few no-smoking signs included the symptom hotline number (38.5%) or the amount of penalty (5.6%). The Beijing Smoking Control Regulation achieved one of its intended goals of reducing smoking occurrences in restaurants, but further effort of strengthening implementation is still needed and should focus on boosting compliance with no-smoking sign requirements, reducing smoking in restrooms of the restaurants and mobilising the restaurant staff to intervene in case of violations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students' attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Wiborg, G; Hanewinkel, R

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure students' attitudes towards a total smoking ban in schools and towards impositions in cases of violation. Cross-sectional survey of 1 738 students of 12 public schools in Schleswig-Holstein (grades 7-13, age 11-20 years). Data were collected by means of written questionnaires administered during class time. The following variables were assessed: attitude towards smoking ban, attitude towards impositions, age, sex, citizenship, perceived school climate, current smoking, lifetime smoking; for smokers, and additionally, the "Heaviness of Smoking Index". 76.5% of all students agreed with a total smoking ban, 66.4% agreed with the punishment of violations. Higher acceptance rates were found among girls, young students (11-15 years of age), for never-smokers, and for students who feel comfortable at school. Acceptance of the smoking ban is closely related to current smoking status: 93% of the non-smoking students, but only 14% of the daily smoking students agreed with the regulations. Refusal of the ban increased with increasing physical dependence. The intensification of the smoking ban in public schools meets approval by the majority of students. Smoking students should be more strongly involved in the implementation process, e.g., by supplemental cessation programmes.

  10. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  11. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  12. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is an important health hazard. This study was designed to assess the sociodemographic risk factors related to women's exposure to secondhand smoke. Materials and Methods A case-control analysis of data collected as part of a prospective cohort study was conducted. Participants were 340 female Tehran residents exposed to cigarette smoke. Women consented to participate in this study and completed a questionnaire containing socio-demographic characteristics, household characteristics and smoking status at home through a face-to-face interview. Factors related to women's exposure to secondhand smoke were assessed using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results The final multivariate logistic regression model showed that lower levels of education (p = 0.002) and social class (p = 0.03) increase the risk of exposure to secondhand smoke in women. Conclusion These results support the effect of women's educational level and social class on their exposure to secondhand smoke. PMID:25191461

  13. AHRR (cg05575921) hypomethylation marks smoking behaviour, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Timpson, Nicholas; Relton, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    was associated with former and current smoking status, high daily and cumulative smoking, short time since smoking cessation (all p values 7×10-31), and the smoking-related CHRN3A genotype (-0.48% per T-allele, p=0.002). The multifactorially adjusted HRs for the lowest versus highest methylation quintiles were...... in the lowest and highest methylation quintiles were 3.7% and 0.0% (p=2×10-7), whereas predicted PLCOM2012 6-year risks were similar (4.3% and 4.4%, p=0.77). CONCLUSION: AHRR (cg05575921) hypomethylation, a marker of smoking behaviour, provides potentially clinical relevant predictions of future smoking-related...... morbidity and mortality. METHODS: From the Copenhagen City Heart Study representing the Danish general population, we studied 9234 individuals. Using bisulphite treated leucocyte DNA, AHRR (cg05575921) methylation was measured. Rs1051730 (CHRN3A) genotype was used to evaluate smoking heaviness. Participants...

  14. Income, occupation and education: Are they related to smoking behaviors in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The association between socioeconomic status (SES and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population.Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence.Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors.Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor interventions based on

  15. Income, occupation and education: Are they related to smoking behaviors in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Sotero, Michelle; Li, Casey A; Hou, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-01

    The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education) and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population. Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence. Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors. Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor interventions based on characteristics of the

  16. Income, occupation and education: Are they related to smoking behaviors in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J.; Sotero, Michelle; Li, Casey A.

    2018-01-01

    Background The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking behaviors may differ across countries. This study aimed to estimate the association between socioeconomic status (income, occupation and education) and multiple measures of smoking behaviors among the Chinese elderly population. Methods Using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, we examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking behaviors through multivariate regression analysis. Sample selection models were applied to correct for sample selection bias. Smoking behaviors were measured by four indicators: smoking status, cigarette consumption, health risks related to smoking, and smoking dependence. Analyses were stratified by gender and urban-rural residence. Results Among Chinese people aged 45 years or older, smokers accounted for 40% of the population in 2013, smoking 19 cigarettes per day. It was also found that 79% of smokers were at an increased health risk. Overall, although the influence of income on smoking behaviors was small and even insignificant, occupation and education levels were significantly associated with smoking behaviors. Managers or professionals were more likely to smoke, however there was no significant relationship with smoking dependence. Individuals with higher educational attainment were less likely to be associated with smoking behaviors. In addition, gender and urban-rural differences existed in the relationship between SES and smoking behaviors. Conclusions Smoking disparities among diverse levels of socioeconomic status existed but varied greatly by SES indicators and population characteristics. Tobacco control policies in China should be increasingly focused on populations with low socioeconomic status in order to break the link between socioeconomic disadvantage and smoking behaviors. Further actions should mitigate inequalities in education, improve the social culture of cigarette use, and tailor

  17. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. Methods In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03–1.68; Wald χ2 = 4.78 (df = 1 p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51–3.10; Wald χ2 = 17.80 (df = 1 p 2 = 54.71 (df = 1 p 2 = 26.45 (df = 1 p Conclusion Children of smokers were more likely to smoke and reported more favorable attitudes toward smoking compared to children of non-smokers. One interpretation of our findings is that parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results

  18. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Shete, Sanjay; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2008-07-14

    In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.68; Wald chi2 = 4.78 (df = 1) p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51-3.10; Wald chi2 = 17.80 (df = 1) p parent currently smokes (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.96-3.19; Wald chi2 = 54.71 (df = 1) p parents did not smoke (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.40-2.12; Wald chi2 = 26.45 (df = 1) p parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results demonstrate a continued need for primary prevention smoking interventions to be sensitive to the family context. They also

  19. Smoke simulating test apparatus for smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector of the ionization type is described comprising: a measuring chamber having an interior substantially freely accessible to airborne products of combustion, first and second spaced-apart electrodes within the measuring chamber, a source of alpha radiation for ionizing air between the first and second electrodes such that current flows between the electrodes when an appropriate voltage is applied across the electrodes, alarm means coupled to the measuring chamber for producing an alarm signal when the electrical resistance of the measuring chamber increases to a value consistent with the presence within the measuring chamber of a predetermined level of airborne products of combustion, and intercepting means for intercepting alpha particles from the source of alpha radiation, the intercepting means being movable between a normal position providing a first electrical resistance between the first and second electrodes and a test position providing a second, higher electrical resistance between the electrodes, the second higher resistance being substantially equal to the said alarm value. (author)

  20. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  1. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  2. Pulse carboxyhemoglobin-oximetry and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova-Djokić, L; Milosević, S; Skrbić, R; Salabat, R; Voronov, G; Igić, R

    2011-01-01

    We used a pulse carbon monoxide (CO)-oximeter to measure the levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in smokers and non-smokers. Our goal was to determine if this device could not only define smoking status, but also to increase accuracy of self-reported data at various surveys on smoking. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Twenty-two of them were current daily smokers; 12 participants were non-smokers who lived alone or with a nonsmoker, and who worked in non-smoking environment. Nicotine dependency level was determined by the modified Fagerstrom questionnaire. Blood COHb levels were measured with a pulse CO-oximeter (Masimo, Radical 7). The COHb levels in both moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers increased significantly after they smoked a single cigarette. This increase persisted for more than 6 h in the moderate/heavy smokers, while in the light smokers COHb levels returned to the baseline level after one hour. The pulse rate of all smokers increased significantly 20 min after smoking. We conclude that the CO-oximeter can detect smoking by moderate/heavy smokers and light smokers if they smoked 6 h or 20 min earlier, respectively. We concluded that it could be used as a validation test for smoking at the time of admission to the surgical facility and to increase smoking abstinence during preoperative and postoperative periods. This noninvasive, simple and inexpensive test may also be used at various surveys to increase accuracy of self-reports on smoking.

  3. Smoking in context – a multilevel approach to smoking among females in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahkonen Ossi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is associated with disadvantage. As people with lower social status reside in less privileged areas, the extent of contextual influences for smoking remains unclear. The aims were to examine the spatial patterning of daily smoking within the city of Helsinki, to analyse whether contextual variation can be observed and which spatial factors associate with current daily smoking in the employed female population. Methods Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire were collected for municipal employees of Helsinki (aged 40–60 years. The response rate was 69%. As almost 4/5 of the employees are females, the analyses were restricted to women (n = 5028. Measures included smoking status, individual level socio-demographic characteristics (age, occupational social class, education, family type and statistical data describing areas in terms of social structure (unemployment rate, proportion of manual workers and social cohesion (proportions of single parents and single households. Logistic multilevel analysis was used to analyse data. Results After adjusting for the individual-level composition, smoking was significantly more prevalent according to all social structural and social cohesion indicators apart from the proportion of manual workers. For example, high unemployment in the area of domicile increased the risk of smoking by almost a half. The largest observed area difference in smoking – 8 percentage points – was found according to the proportion of single households. Conclusion The large variation in smoking rates between areas appears mainly to result from variation in the characteristics of residents within areas. Yet, living in an area with a high level of unemployment appears to be an additional risk for smoking that cannot be fully accounted for by individual level characteristics even in a cohort of female municipal employees.

  4. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  5. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  6. Smoking during pregnancy and infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Charlotte; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Obel, Carsten

    2001-01-01

    during this period. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, marital status, alcohol intake, birth weight, gestational age, breastfeeding, caffeine intake postpartum, and paternal smoking did not change the effect measures. Conclusion. The results indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy may increase......Objective. To evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and infantile colic (IC). Methods. A follow-up study of singleton infants delivered by Danish mothers at the Aarhus University Hospital from May 1991 to February 1992 and still living in the municipality of Aarhus...... questionnaire and based on Wessel's criteria, except that we used only the crying criterion. Results. IC was seen in 10.8% of all infants. We observed a twofold increased risk of IC among infants whose mothers smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day during their pregnancy(relative risk: 2.1; 95% confidence...

  7. Smoking in schizophrenia -- all is not biological.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2002-07-01

    High rate of tobacco smoking reported in schizophrenia has been related to the effect of nicotine on the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Nicotine is said to alleviate psychotic symptoms in some patients. The relationship between smoking and psychiatric status may not be simply a biological one as several sociocultural and economic factors could influence smoking behaviour. In this study in India on 286 urban male outpatients with schizophrenia, only 38% were found to be current smokers. This was significantly more than in other psychiatric patients studied (major affective disorders and non-psychotic disorders) but not medically ill controls and not higher than the rates for the general male population in India. Smokeless use of tobacco was infrequent in the study population. More than half of the patients did not experience any positive effects due to smoking. Lack of economic independence and restrictions imposed by the family appeared to be crucial factors that controlled the prevalence of smoking among schizophrenia patients. As smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, there is a serious need to review the neurobiological issue of smoking in schizophrenia considering the influence culture and social practices could have upon the behaviour.

  8. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  9. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  10. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  11. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigar Smoking and Cancer On This Page How are cigars ... to quit? How can I get help quitting smoking? How are cigars different from cigarettes? Cigarettes usually ...

  12. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  13. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke ... Things that make COPD symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel ...

  14. Social disparities in parental smoking and young children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home: a time-trend analysis of repeated cross-sectional data from the German KiGGS study between 2003-2006 and 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-06-08

    Children who are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of a wide range of health problems and illnesses. Smoke-free legislation aims to improve indoor air quality and in this way protect the health of people who do not smoke. This paper examines trends in SHS exposure at home among children in Germany since the introduction of smoking bans in public places. Special focus is placed on the importance of the family of origin's socioeconomic status (SES) and on parental smoking behaviour. The analyses are based on two waves of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS)-one of which was conducted immediately before the introduction of central smoke-free legislation in the 2003-2006 period, the other approximately 6 years later from 2009 to 2012. A comparison is made between the answers given by the parents of children aged between 0 to 6 (KiGGS baseline study, n = 6680; KiGGS Wave 1, n = 4455). Domestic SHS exposure is covered in the parent interviews by asking whether anyone is allowed to smoke at home in the presence of their child. Parental smoking behaviour is determined separately for mothers and fathers. SES is determined on the basis of the parents' education, occupational status and income. The percentage of 0- to 6-year-old children exposed to SHS in the parental home fell from 23.9 to 6.6 % in the period from 2003-2006 to 2009-2012. At the same time, the percentage of children with at least one parent who smokes decreased from 49.8 to 41.8 %. While relative social inequalities in parental smoking behaviour have tended to increase over time, inequalities in domestic SHS exposure have persisted. Children whose parents smoke and children from low-SES families are still most likely to be exposed to tobacco smoke. In both study periods and after statistical adjustment for parental smoking behaviour, children with a low SES had a 6.6-fold higher risk for SHS exposure in the parental home

  15. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  16. Are We Marketing the Right Message: Can Kids "Just Say 'No'" to Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assesses the compliance-resisting strategies children use when rejecting pressure to smoke. Finds that strategies vary with conditions such as relationship, number of people present, amount of pressure, and risk for future smoking. Suggests that researchers consider situational variations and risk status for future smoking when developing…

  17. Smoking in European adolescents: Relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, M.; Sargent, J.D.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Florek, E.; Hanewinkel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in

  18. Factors Affecting the Decision to Quit Smoking of the Participants of a Hospital-Based Smoking Cessation Program in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Georgiadou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect people who are in the process of quitting smoking. Methods: A randomly selected sample of 110 participants in a smoking cessation program (SCP of a hospital in Thessaloniki Greece. Instruments of data collection were: i the Demographic Data Lifestyle Questionnaire and ii the Fragerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. ANOVA tests between the Demographic Data Lifestyle Questionnaire and the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire relating to the smokers’ determination to quit smoking applied. Results: Work satisfaction was related to whether the participants had difficulty to smoke in places that prohibited smoking and to how many cigarettes they smoked per day. If a non-smoker partner was urging the participant to quit smoking, it affected the hours of the day when the respondents smoked more cigarettes. Pressure from a non-smoking spouse was a deterrent from smoking many cigarettes during morning hours. Those participants who consumed alcohol smoked cigarettes containing higher levels of nicotine. Conclusion: Smoking cessation is a difficult process which is influenced by many factors such as educational level, work satisfaction and the presence of a partner.

  19. Garri Processing And Fish Smoking Enterprises: Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the status of garri processing and fish smoking projects as viable and sustainable projects in the Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni local government area of Rivers State. This is because the projects provided employment to the unemployed and the unemployable thereby sustaining them and improving the lot of the ...

  20. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  1. Validating Smoking Data From the Veteran’s Affairs Health Factors Dataset, an Electronic Data Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Cynthia A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Shahrir, Shahida; Butt, Adeel A.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Kim, Joon Woo; Pisani, Margaret A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason J.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Crothers, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed smoking data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) electronic medical record (EMR) Health Factors dataset. Methods: To assess the validity of the EMR Health Factors smoking data, we first created an algorithm to convert text entries into a 3-category smoking variable (never, former, and current). We compared this EMR smoking variable to 2 different sources of patient self-reported smoking survey data: (a) 6,816 HIV-infected and -uninfected participants in the 8-site Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS-8) and (b) a subset of 13,689 participants from the national VACS Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC), who also completed the 1999 Large Health Study (LHS) survey. Sensitivity, specificity, and kappa statistics were used to evaluate agreement of EMR Health Factors smoking data with self-report smoking data. Results: For the EMR Health Factors and VACS-8 comparison of current, former, and never smoking categories, the kappa statistic was .66. For EMR Health Factors and VACS-VC/LHS comparison of smoking, the kappa statistic was .61. Conclusions: Based on kappa statistics, agreement between the EMR Health Factors and survey sources is substantial. Identification of current smokers nationally within the VHA can be used in future studies to track smoking status over time, to evaluate smoking interventions, and to adjust for smoking status in research. Our methodology may provide insights for other organizations seeking to use EMR data for accurate determination of smoking status. PMID:21911825

  2. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short.

  3. Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Fortmann, Addie L; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy M; Romero, Romina A; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-05-01

    Some car rental companies in California and other states in the USA have established non-smoking policies for their vehicles. This study examined the effectiveness of these policies in maintaining smoke-free rental cars. A stratified random sample of 250 cars (non-smoker, smoker and unknown designation) was examined in San Diego County, California, USA. Dust, surfaces and the air of each vehicle cabin were sampled and analysed for residual tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke (THS)), and each car was inspected for visual and olfactory signs of tobacco use. Customer service representatives were informally interviewed about smoking policies. A majority of putative non-smoker cars had nicotine in dust, on surfaces, in air and other signs of tobacco use. Independent of a car's smoking status, older and higher mileage cars had higher levels of THS pollution in dust and on surfaces (pcars, non-smoker cars had lower levels of nicotine on surfaces (pcars was associated with lower levels of THS pollutants in dust and air (pcars compared with smoker cars. However, policies failed in providing smoke-free rental cars; THS levels were not as low as those found in private cars of non-smokers with in-car smoking bans. Major obstacles include inconsistent communication with customers and the lack of routine monitoring and enforcement strategies. Strengthening policies and their implementation would allow car rental companies to reduce costs, better serve their customers and make a constructive contribution to tobacco control efforts.

  4. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Br