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Sample records for smoking habits alcohol

  1. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour.

  2. The relationships between eating habits, smoking and alcohol consumption, and body mass index among baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Hunter, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    The study was to examine the eating habits of baby boomers and to investigate the relationship of these and other lifestyle habits on their reported body mass indices (BMI). A questionnaire was administered by mail to a random sample of people aged 40 years and above, drawn from the Electoral Rolls in Victoria, Australia. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about the respondents' eating habits, smoking status and alcohol use, as well as self reported heights and weights and demographic characteristics. Eight hundred and forty-four people (out of 1470) returned usable questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found between the eating habits of men and women. Generally, more women snacked on high energy dense foods (e.g., confectionery). More men took larger mouthfuls than women. The eating habits of women appeared to be more formal than men's. Four constructs named: unconstrained eating, traditional eating style, gulping, and chocolate and junk food were derived from the eating behaviour literature. Structural equation modelling showed that eating behaviour was associated with BMI along with current smoking, ex-smoking status, alcohol consumption, and demographics. Eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours appear to be associated with BMI though in different pathways for men and women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption, Smoking Status and Food Habits in Greek Adolescents. Vascular Implications for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Hassapidou, Maria N; Katsiki, Niki; Fachantidis, Panagiotis; Fachantidou, Anna I; Daskalou, Efstratia; Deligiannis, Asterios P

    2017-01-01

    Addictive behaviours in adolescents such as alcohol consumption and smoking are rapidly increasing worldwide. No previous study has examined smoking status and alcohol consumption in adolescents of Northern Greece in relation to their food habits. Therefore, we assessed the smoking status and alcohol consumption, as well the food habits, of this population. Adolescents (495 boys and 508 girls) aged 15±1 years old and 15±2 years old respectively, completed questionnaires regarding smoking, alcohol and food habits. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were reported by 9.2% and 48.1% of them, respectively. Of those that drank alcohol, 13.9% were also smokers. Older adolescents were more likely to consume foods high in fat and sugar, low in vitamins and minerals as well as foods, considered by them to be less healthy and prepared in a less healthy way. Moreover, smoker adolescents were less likely to choose foods considered to be healthy and prepared in a healthy way, whereas they were more likely to choose foods high in fat content. Both smoking and alcohol consumption may affect cardiovascular risk and the vasculature. Poor lifestyle (and risk of vascular events) can start at an early age. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  5. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  6. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  7. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  8. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  9. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  10. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  11. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  12. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  13. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  14. Nurses' health-related behaviours: protocol for a quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    To enumerate nurses' health-related behaviour by critically appraising studies on tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Nurses represent the largest occupational group in healthcare systems internationally and have an established and expanding public health role. Nurses own health-related behaviour is known to impact nurses' ability and confidence to engage in health promotion, and how patients receive and respond to advice and guidance nurses' give. However, there has been no comprehensive and comparable assessment of evidence on nurses' health-related behaviours. Quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and February 2015 and indexed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Psychological Information. Eligibility criteria will be applied to titles and abstracts by two reviewers independently. Full text will be reviewed and the same criteria and process applied. Two reviewers will independently assess study quality guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute handbook for the systematic review of prevalence and incidence data. Discrepancies in eligibility or quality assessment will be resolved through discussion and, where required, a third reviewer. Data synthesis will be conducted and findings reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Enumerating prevalence of nurses' health-related behaviours is crucial to direct future research, inform public health policy, particularly around health promotion and to better support the nursing workforce through the development of behaviour change interventions. PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016751. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMOKING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SELECTED DISTRICTS IN ZIMBABWE. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... Objective To examine the relationship between smoking habits and indicators of socioeconomic status, the urban/rural dimension and gender among secondary ...

  16. Smoking Habits among Greek University Students after the Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria; Nanou, Anastasia; Vasilopoulos, Christos; Kourakos, Michael; Skliros, Efstathios; Toska, Aikaterini; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2017-05-01

    Background: University students worldwide seem to have increased rates of smoking, alcohol abuse, binge drinking episodes and harmful consumption trends, raising a serious public health issue. The aim of the present study was to investigate university students’ smoking habits and exposure to secondary smoke amid a financial crisis. Methods: The present descriptive, correlational analysis was conducted at the University of Peloponnese. Results: The average age of the sample (n=203) was 24.9 years (±7.6 years) with 36.0% of the participants (n=73) being postgraduate students. Some 51.2% (n=104) of the participants said they didn’t smoke and 46.3% (n=94, p=0.003) reported no secondary smoke exposure during the past week at home. The majority of the remainder initiated smoking at age 16-17 (48.5%, n=48), and 64.6% (n=42) said the financial crisis did not lead them to change their smoking habits. Conclusions: The majority of students support smoking ban laws in enclosed public spaces, but also their replies highlighted poor implementation on behalf of the state and the authorities. The financial crisis did not appear to have affected student smoking habits. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and dietary profiles of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity among students as a specific sub-group, is an area of concern. Lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, drinking of alcoholic beverages and poor dietary habits are inextricably linked to overweight and obesity. Little is known about trends in smoking, drinking, dietary habits and physical activity ...

  19. Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health and oral mucosa. The subjects with tobacco and alcohol use, were subjected to thorough clinical examination of the oral cavity for the evaluation of the ...

  20. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  1. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  2. Smoking habits in secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, C; Saleiro, S; Marinho, A; Fernandes, G; Gomes, I

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version). A total of 1,770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years), mainly female, (58%), answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6%) were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7%) considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1%) were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2%) had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8%) considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents' and friends' behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking.

  3. Translational Research on Habit and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Theresa H; Shnitko, Tatiana A; Robinson, Donita L; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Habitual actions enable efficient daily living, but they can also contribute to pathological behaviors that resistant change, such as alcoholism. Habitual behaviors are learned actions that appear goal-directed but are in fact no longer under the control of the action's outcome. Instead, these actions are triggered by stimuli, which may be exogenous or interoceptive, discrete or contextual. A major hallmark characteristic of alcoholism is continued alcohol use despite serious negative consequences. In essence, although the outcome of alcohol seeking and drinking is dramatically devalued, these actions persist, often triggered by environmental cues associated with alcohol use. Thus, alcoholism meets the definition of an initially goal-directed behavior that converts to a habit-based process. Habit and alcohol have been well investigated in rodent models, with comparatively less research in non-human primates and people. This review focuses on translational research on habit and alcohol with an emphasis on cross-species methodology and neural circuitry.

  4. Impact of alcohol habits and smoking on the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariansen, Inger; Reims, Henrik M; Gjesdal, Knut

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased by uncontrolled hypertension, and antihypertensive treatment reduces new-onset AF. However, it is unclear whether alcohol intake and smoking influence the risk of new-onset AF during antihypertensive treatment....

  5. [High risk groups in health behavior defined by clustering of smoking, alcohol, and exercise habits: National Heath and Nutrition Examination Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kiwon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Chang Yup

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the clustering of selected lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise) and identified the population characteristics associated with increasing lifestyle risks. Data on lifestyle risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and history of chronic diseases were obtained from 7,694 individuals >/=20 years of age who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Clustering of lifestyle risks involved the observed prevalence of multiple risks and those expected from marginal exposure prevalence of the three selected risk factors. Prevalence odds ratio was adopted as a measurement of clustering. Multiple correspondence analysis, Kendall tau correlation, Man-Whitney analysis, and ordinal logistic regression analysis were conducted to identify variables increasing lifestyle risks. In both men and women, increased lifestyle risks were associated with clustering of: (1) cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and (2) smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical exercise. Patterns of clustering for physical exercise were different from those for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. The increased unhealthy clustering was found among men 20-64 years of age with mild or moderate stress, and among women 35-49 years of age who were never-married, with mild stress, and increased body mass index (>30 kg/m(2)). Addressing a lack of physical exercise considering individual characteristics including gender, age, employment activity, and stress levels should be a focus of health promotion efforts.

  6. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  7. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  8. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  9. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  10. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  11. Smoking habit and benign breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewulska-Bokiniec, A.

    1995-01-01

    The possible association between cigarette smoking and the risk of benign breast disease (BBD) was assessed in a case-control study conducted in Gdansk, Poland, between 1990 and 1994. The study compared 160 women with newly diagnosed BBD admitted to the Gdansk Cancer Outpatients Clinic and 160 controls, women from outpatients clinics at the Medical University of Gdansk. There was no convincing evidence of an association, either positive or negative, between various indicators of smoking habit (smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking) and the risk of BBD. Slightly lower relative risk (RRs) of BBD in ex-smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day (RR = 0.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.4-2.2), and with duration of smoking >= (RR = 0.1-3.4), were also observed in current smokers (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.5), and (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-3.4), but these findings were not statistically significant. (author)

  12. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  13. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  14. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose–response relationship with smoking habits in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects’ medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender. Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose–response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose–response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake. The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males. PMID:28002323

  15. Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students aged 11 - 21 (median 15.1 years, mainly female, (58%, answered. Most students (n=952, 54.6% were unaware of signs or warnings against smoking in their schools. The great majority (n=1639, 92.7% considered themselves well informed on the harmful effects of smoking, but only 6.7% could list three or more tobacco-associated health consequences, however. Parents and friends were seen as privileged sources of information. Among these students, 194 (11.1% were smokers and the average started to smoke at the age of 15. The majority of these (n=111, 57.2% had parents who smoked and 96.4% had friends who smoked, versus 83.1% of non-smokers, a statistically significant difference (p<0.001. Pocket money was the means of acquiring cigarettes in 34.8%. Most (60.8% considered themselves able to stop smoking at any time, while 11.4% of the smokers smoked more than one pack a day and 9.8% smoked the first cigarette within 5 minutes of waking, however. Conclusions: The percentage of smokers in this group of teenagers was considerable and indicators of nicotine dependence were found. Knowledge of the risks of smoking was poor and information on smoking given by schools had an apparently low and variable impact. Parents’ and friends’ behaviour may have a weighty impact on the decision to start smoking. Resumo: Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de

  16. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of osteoporotic fracture with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, F; Birong, D; Changquan, H; Hongmei, W; Yanling, Z; Wen, Z; Li, L

    2011-05-01

    To observe the association of osteoporotic fracture with habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise among very old people. A cross-sectional study conducted in Dujiangyan Sichuan China. 703 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians (67.76% women, mean age 93.48 years) resident in Dujiangyan. Medical history of osteoporosis and the statement of fracture and habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise were collected. In women, subjects with current or former habit of alcohol consumption had significantly higher prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit; but subjects with former habit of exercise had significantly lower prevalence osteoporotic fracture than those without this habit. However, in men, there was no significant difference in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without osteoporotic fracture. After adjust for age, gender, sleep habits educational levels, religion habits and temperament, we found that former habit of alcohol consumption had a significant odds ratio (OR=2.473 95% CI (1.074, 5.526)) for osteoporotic fracture. In summary, among nonagenarians and centenarians, among habits (current and former) of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption and exercise, there seems to be significant association of osteoporotic fracture only with current or former habits of alcohol consumption, former habit of exercise. The habit of alcohol consumption might be associated with a greater risk of osteoporotic fracture, but the former habit of exercise might be associated with a lower risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  18. Are alcohol intake and smoking associated with mycosis fungoides?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, M.M.M.; Olsen, J.; Kærlev, L.

    2001-01-01

    . There was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of MF with increased smoking habits, albeit the observed trend was not statistically significant. A combined exposure to high tobacco and alcohol use yielded a significantly increased risk factor for MF (P=0.0073). Alcohol intake was associated with MF.......The incidence of mycosis fungoides (MF) is low, and the aetiology of the disease is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether wine consumption protects against the disease and whether smoking constitutes a risk factor. This paper is part of the European Rare Cancers Study that tries...

  19. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Andrea S. Melani

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  20. Smoking Habit in Severe Obese after bariatric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Mauro; Carratù, Pierluigi; Faraone, Stanislao; Cerbone, Maria Rosaria; Cristiano, Stefano; Zedda, Anna; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric procedures provide an effective means of short term weight loss and sustained weight control for the morbidly obese. The effect of bariatric procedures on smoking habit in obese subjects is not well known. Therefore, we examined the short term effect of bariatric surgery on smoking habit of severe obese patients up to 12 months from the intervention. Smoking habit was assessed in a cohort of 78 morbid smoking obese patients followed at our clinic for bariatric procedures. They underwent non surgical intra-gastric balloon (IB) or surgical procedures such as lap-band laparoscopic surgery (LAGB) or sleeve gastrectomy/gastric by-pass (SPG). Subjects were administered a written questionnaire about their smoking habit before and 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedures. No differences were found among the three groups at 6 and 12 months after the procedures (IB 21 %, LAGB 6 %, SPG 5 %; and IB 14 %, LAGB 3 %, SPG 5 %). Only after 3 months, the rate of quitting of the IB group was higher than LAGB and SPG groups (36 %, 6 % and 5 %, respectively; p = 0.02). Bariatric procedures have no effects on smoking habit of moderate-to-heavy smoker severe obese patients. The use of other traditional smoking cessation methods in patients undergone to bariatric procedures should be implemented.

  1. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  2. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  3. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits are still increasing in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Accordini, Simone; Nguyen, Giang; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Ferrari, Marcello; Antonicelli, Leonardo; Attena, Francesco; Bellisario, Valeria; Bono, Roberto; Briziarelli, Lamberto; Casali, Lucio; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Fois, Alessandro; Panico, MariaGrazia; Piccioni, Pavilio; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; Nicolini, Gabriele; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-08-27

    Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking habits have stabilized in many Western countries. This study aimed at evaluating whether socioeconomic disparities in smoking habits are still enlarging in Italy and at comparing the impact of education and occupation. In the frame of the GEIRD study (Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases) 10,494 subjects, randomly selected from the general population aged 20-44 years in seven Italian centres, answered a screening questionnaire between 2007 and 2010 (response percentage = 57.2%). In four centres a repeated cross-sectional survey was performed: smoking prevalence recorded in GEIRD was compared with prevalence recorded between 1998 and 2000 in the Italian Study of Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). Current smoking was twice as prevalent in people with a primary/secondary school certificate (40-43%) compared with people with an academic degree (20%), and among unemployed and workmen (39%) compared with managers and clerks (20-22%). In multivariable analysis smoking habits were more affected by education level than by occupation. From the first to the second survey the prevalence of ever smokers markedly decreased among housewives, managers, businessmen and free-lancers, while ever smoking became even more common among unemployed (time-occupation interaction: p = 0.047). At variance, the increasing trend in smoking cessation was not modified by occupation. Smoking prevalence has declined in Italy during the last decade among the higher socioeconomic classes, but not among the lower. This enlarging socioeconomic inequality mainly reflects a different trend in smoking initiation.

  4. DNA damage response in monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Carotti, Daniela; Andreoli, Cristina; Siniscalchi, Ester; Leopardi, Paola; Caiola, Stefania; Biffoni, Mauro; Zijno, Andrea; Medda, Emanuela; Nisticò, Lorenza; Rossi, Sabrina; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies in twins indicate that non-shared environment, beyond genetic factors, contributes substantially to individual variation in mutagen sensitivity; however, the role of specific causative factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, diet) was not elucidated. In this investigation, a population of 22 couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits was selected with the aim of evaluating the influence of tobacco smoke on individual response to DNA damage. The study design virtually eliminated the contribution of genetic heterogeneity to the intra-pair variation in DNA damage response, and thus any difference in the end-points investigated could directly be attributed to the non-shared environment experienced by co-twins, which included as main factor cigarette smoke exposure. Peripheral lymphocytes of study subjects were challenged ex vivo with γ-rays, and the induction, processing, fixation of DNA damage evaluated through multiple approaches. Folate status of study subjects was considered significant covariate since it is affected by smoking habits and can influence radiosensitivity. Similar responses were elicited by γ-rays in co-twins for all the end-points analysed, despite their discordant smoking habits. Folate status did not modify DNA damage response, even though a combined effect of smoking habits, low-plasma folic acid level, and ionising radiation was observed on apoptosis. A possible modulation of DNA damage response by duration and intensity of tobacco smoke exposure was suggested by Comet assay and micronucleus data, but the effect was quantitatively limited. Overall, the results obtained indicate that differences in smoking habits do not contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability in the response to radiation-induced DNA damage observed in healthy human populations.

  5. Changes in smoking habits and risk of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Lange, P; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    , epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994. The study population involved the 10,200 subjects who provided information on self-reported asthma and smoking habits from the first two examinations (baseline and 5-yr follow-up), and the 6,814 subjects...... who also attended the third and last examination (10-yr follow-up). The point-prevalence of smoking cessation as well as the asthma incidence between examinations was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between changes in smoking habits......A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal...

  6. Augmentation index (AI) in a dose-response relationship with smoking habits in males: The Tanushimaru study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Tomoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Kumagai, Eita; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Kono, Shoko; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between augmentation index (AI) and smoking habits in community-dwelling Japanese.This cross-sectional study enrolled 1926 subjects (769 males and 1157 females) aged 40 to 95 years who underwent a health check-up in a Japanese cohort of the Seven Countries Study, in Tanushimaru, a typical farming town in Kyushu Island in 2009. The subjects' medical history, alcohol intake, smoking habit, and current medications for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes were ascertained by questionnaire. Radial arterial pressure wave analysis was used to obtain AI. We analyzed the data stratified by gender.Age-adjusted means of AI in males showed a clear dose-response relationship in 4 categories of smoking habits (P = 0.010). There was no significant relationship between AI and smoking habits in females (P = 0.127). The significant dose-response relationship (P = 0.036) in males between AI and 4 categories of smoking habits still remained even after adjustment for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, hypertensive medication, and alcohol intake.The present study demonstrated that AI values were significantly associated with smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner in Japanese males.

  7. Smoking habits and attitudes among secondary school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Yaacob, I; bin Harun, M H

    1994-03-01

    A questionnaire survey to study the smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among secondary school teachers in Kelantan, Malaysia was conducted between July and September 1992. Questionnaires were sent to 5,112 teachers through their respective headmasters. Sixty-three percent (3,208 teachers; 61% males, 39% females) responded satisfactorily. Overall, 625 teachers (20%) were current smokers, 141 (4%) were occasional smokers, 317 (10%) were ex-smokers and 2,123 (67%) had never smoked. Only six (0.8%) of the 766 regular and occasional smokers were females. The rates of smoking among parents and siblings of smokers were higher than parents and siblings of non-smokers. Seventy-four percent of the smoking teachers admitted to smoking in the school premises. The teachers' attitudes about the health effects of smoking were statistically different between smokers and non-smokers. However, both smoking and non-smoking teachers had similar views regarding methods to control the smoking habit which included banning cigarette sales, putting a halt to the tobacco industry and banning cigarette advertisements.

  8. [Medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfel, József; Oberling, János; Tóth, Ildikó; Prugberger, László; Nagy, Lajos

    2011-03-20

    Medical years are very important in shaping the attitudes of future doctors. It is proven that doctors who smoke do not advise their patient to stop smoking. We have to know the students' smoking habits and attitudes about smoking cessation to make them interested in the fight against tobacco. To investigate medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation. We applied the Hungarian translation of the Global Health Professionals Student Survey. Medical students from the first and fifth year filled in the survey anonymously during the seminars. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In both years 245 students filled in the questionnaire. In the first year 30.8%, in the fifth year 38.9% of the students were defined as smokers. During the academic study the number of daily smokers and the number of smoked cigarettes increases. Students require training about smoking cessation, however they would entrust it to a specialist. Based on our data we need a teaching block in the curricula about smoking and smoking cessation.

  9. Exercise and smoking habits among Swedish postmenopausal women.

    OpenAIRE

    Frisk, J; Brynhildsen, J; Ivarsson, T; Persson, P; Hammar, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess exercise habits and their relation to smoking habits and social and medical factors in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a questionnaire to all 1324 55-56 year old women in Linköping, Sweden. RESULTS: Response rate was 85%. About a third of the women took part in some kind of quite strenuous exercise for at least one hour a week. After a quarter worked out once a week; fewer did swimming and jogging. One in four women smoked. Women who used hormo...

  10. The Smoking Habits of Children and Staff at Brays Grove Comprehensive School, Harlow, Essex

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Study of smoking habits conducted in a secondary school suggested that most students start smoking as a result of social pressure. Many smokers were aware of health hazards of smoking yet chose to smoke. (PS)

  11. Influence of knowledge and attitudes on smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Wu, Der-Min; Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Shi, Zheng-Ping; Chu, Nain-Feng

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the knowledge and attitudes of cigarette smoking that are associated with smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of young conscripts in southern and eastern Taiwan between August 1 and December 31, 2001. We selected 3,249 young military conscripts who had served more than 1 month in the military, based on specific criteria. We used a standard structured questionnaire to collect information about the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, knowledge, attitude, and cigarette smoking practices. Our findings showed that among smoking young military conscripts, knowledge about smoking was lower and attitudes toward smoking were more negative when compared with the non-smokers. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking varied with sociodemographic characteristics (age, education level, residential area) and lifestyle (cigarette smoking, betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking), all p smoking had a lower risk of smoking (odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.91). But this characteristic diminished after being adjusted for potential confounders. In addition, subjects with a higher attitude score about smoking had relatively lower risk for cigarette smoking when compared to those with a lower attitude score, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-0.94). Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tubič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination for smoking and an increase in the wish for final putting an end to smoke.

  13. Smoking Habits among Teachers in Primary Schools in Norway 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Anne Karen

    1982-01-01

    A representative sample (N=1988) of members of the two main teachers' organizations in Norway were mailed questionnaires in the spring of 1977 regarding their past and present smoking habits, and 92 percent responded. The percentage of daily smokers among the teachers was approximately half of that found in the general population. (BRR)

  14. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Understanding factors that impact overweight or obesity is an essential step towards formulating programs to prevent or control obesity in young adults. Thus, we aim to assess the prevalence of physical activity and smoking habits in relation to weight status among a sample of university students. Methods: A ...

  15. Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Enav, T; Rozentraub, T; Shohat, T

    2011-03-01

    Stress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

  16. RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND SMOKING HABITS OF SENIOR INDUSTRIAL STAFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Susan H.; Wood, C. H.; Schilling, R. S. F.

    1965-01-01

    The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the smoking habits of 224 industrial `executives' aged 30 to 69 years in Social Classes I and II were ascertained by means of the Medical Research Council's questionnaire on respiratory symptoms; 31% had persistent cough, 25% had persistent phlegm, and 21% were short of breath on hurrying or going up a hill; 9% had had one or more chest illnesses in the past three years lasting for about a week, and 4% had `chronic bronchitis'—defined as persistent phlegm and one or more chest illnesses in the past three years; 67% were smokers, 21% smoking more than 25 cigarettes (or equivalent tobacco) per day; another 20% had stopped smoking. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness was closely related to smoking habit. Data for those aged 40 to 59 years are compared with that obtained from London Transport Board workers and a sample of the population studied by the College of General Practitioners. The latter was further analysed and suggests that the prevalence of cough and phlegm is more closely related to the amount smoked than to social class. The prevalence of chest illness is probably more closely related to social class and less to the amount smoked. It is suggested that, although smoking may initiate irritative respiratory symptoms, the precursors of bronchitis, additional factors are important in causing progression to disabling or fatal chronic bronchitis. PMID:14278803

  17. Nurses' smoking habits and their professional smoking cessation practices. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaso, Maria J; Bakhshi, Savita; Mujika, Agurtzane; Purssell, Edward; While, Alison E

    2017-02-01

    A better understanding of whether nurses' own smoking behaviours influence their engagement with smoking cessation interventions is needed. To establish whether the smoking status of nurses is associated with their professional smoking cessation practices. Twelve electronic databases covering English and Spanish language publications from 01 Jan, 1996 to 25 Mar, 2015 were systematically searched. Studies were included if they reported nurses' smoking cessation practices in relation to their personal smoking habits. Proportions of nurses' smoking status and smoking cessation practices were pooled across studies using random effects meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. Levels of reportedsmoking cessation interventions were generally low across the studies. The meta-analyses suggested that nurses' personal smoking status was not associated significantly with nurses always asking patients about their smoking, but nurses who smoked were 13% less likely to advise their patients to quit and 25% less likely to arrange smoking cessation follow-up. More intense interventions (assessing motivation and assisting) were not significantly associated with the smoking status of the nurse. The smoking status of nurses appears to have a negative impact in the delivery of smoking cessation practices. The overall level of nurses' engagement with the delivery of smoking cessation interventions requires attention if nurses are to be effective agents of smoking cessation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Teruo; Yoshida, Hideyo; Takahashi, Hidekatsu; Kawai, Makoto

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal impact of smoking cessation and relapse on the exercise habits of apparently healthy Japanese men, 750 subjects presenting for a checkup at a metropolitan health center were surveyed annually for 7 years. Exercise was dichotomously classified as none or any. Subjects were grouped in two categories: 98 smokers who ceased smoking during the second year of the study, matched with 196 continuing smokers and 196 men who had never smoked; and 52 relapsed smokers (including 2 new smokers) who did not smoke at baseline or at Year 1 but smoked from Year 2 to final follow-up, matched with 104 continuing smokers and 104 never-smokers. Based on self-reported responses to questionnaires, exercise was consistently less prevalent among smokers who did not quit than among never-smokers throughout the study. Habitual exercise in subjects who had quit smoking increased during the follow-up (any exercise: 42.9% at baseline increased to 51% at final follow-up, p for longitudinal trend = .115). Habitual exercise in matched never-smokers did not change during the study and decreased significantly among persistent smokers (p = .025). Habitual exercise in relapsed smokers decreased during the follow-up (any exercise: 50.0% at baseline declined to 32.7% at final follow-up, p = .007), but habitual exercise in matched persistent smokers and never-smokers did not change. We conclude that smoking and sedentary lifestyle coexist continuously, that smoking cessation is associated with increased habitual exercise among healthy men, and that relapse is associated with reduced habitual exercise, suggesting that cigarette smoking weakens exercise habits.

  19. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  20. [Water-pipe tobacco smoking among school children in Israel: frequencies, habits, and attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Shabtai; Ganz, Irit; Eldor, Naomi; Garenkin, Mila

    2003-11-01

    Tobacco smoking via a water-pipe (Nargile) is a new phenomena among school children in Israel in recent years. Water-pipe tobacco has the potential for nicotine addiction, for other smoking-related damages and for drug abuse. Our primary goal was to characterize the frequencies of water-pipe smoking among school children in Israel, its distribution according to age, gender, habits and attitudes. The secondary goal was to compare its use to cigarette smoking among these school children. A self-reported questionnaire was distributed among 388 school children (ages 12-18 years old) in grades A, and C, of middle schools and grade B of high schools in a central region of Israel. The questionnaires were answered unanimously and the process was conducted in classes by the school teacher and by nursing school students. Among all school children in this study, 41% smoke a water-pipe at various frequencies. Of all the children, 22% smoke at least every weekend. Water-pipe smoking was 3 times more frequent than cigarette smoking and was almost equally distributed among both genders, but girls were heavier smokers than boys, of either water pipe or cigarette smoking. Six percent of water-pipe smokers add psychoactive drugs or alcohol to the tobacco. The main reasons for water-pipe smoking were the pleasure achieved and the intimacy that it adds to the youngsters' meetings. Ninety percent of all the school children believe that water-pipe smoking is not healthy, but at least 50% believes it is less harmful than cigarettes. According to school children that smoke water-pipes at least every weekend, 40% of their parents are current or ex-smokers of water-pipes, in contrast with 10% of parents to non-smoking children and about a quarter of the children who smoke also do so together with their parents. Tobacco smoking via water-pipes is a very common phenomena among middle and high school children in Israel. Girls are heavier smokers and adding drugs or alcohol to water

  1. Effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on pulmonary tuberculosis among Batak ethnic population in Medan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, B. Y. M.; Siregar, Y.; Amin, M.; Sarumpaet, S.

    2018-03-01

    Simultaneous consumption of tuak, a traditional alcoholic beverage, and smoking is prevalent among Batak ethnic group in Indonesia. This research was to find out the association between smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) in Batak ethnic group in Medan, Indonesia. A matched case-control study was conducted on 100 PTB patients and 100 healthy individuals group. Smoking and alcohol consumption was self-reported. Data were analyzed with Epi Info program. Smoking and alcohol consumption habit is a significant difference in case and control group (p<0.01). After conditional logistic regression analysis with non-smoking and non-alcohol consuming as a comparative, the Odds Ratio (OR) for the smoking-only group was 4.08 (95% CI: 1.28-13.05). For the alcohol-only consuming group was 1.83 (95% CI: 0.11-28.95) and for the smoking and alcohol consuming group was 13.7 (95% CI: 4.02-46.94). There is an association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the risk of PTB in Batak ethnic group in Medan, Indonesia.

  2. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tubič; M. Skorbič

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination fo...

  3. Smoking Habits among Italian Adolescents: What Has Changed in the Last Decade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Charrier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002–2010 show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  4. Smoking habits among italian adolescents: what has changed in the last decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Galeone, Daniela; Spizzichino, Lorenzo; Borraccino, Alberto; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, alcohol abuse, overweight and obesity are risk factors for numerous diseases in Italy as elsewhere. However, children and adolescents are not usually included in official national surveys although it is at this stage of life when unhealthy habits are often established. Italian participation in HBSC and GYTS surveys allows our country to implement standardized surveillance systems providing reliable information on tobacco-related behaviors of this population. Data from three HBSC surveys (2002-2010) show that following the drop in the first half of the decade, prevalence of tobacco use stabilized in the second half. The decline was significant for younger age groups, while prevalence of regular tobacco use remained stable among 15-year-olds. Many adolescents reported being exposed to secondhand smoke, to have at least one parent who smokes, and having seen teachers and students smoking at school. Although the sale of tobacco products to minors is prohibited, the vast majority had no trouble in buying cigarettes. Data from GYTS and HBSC surveys provide a wealth of information about attitudes and behaviors of Italian adolescents with respect to smoking. Despite some progress, sizeable gaps remain in meeting standard recommendations for discouraging smoking initiation and motivating adolescent smokers to quit the habit.

  5. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  6. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  7. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  8. Association of cognitive impairment with smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Quan; Dong, Bi-Rong; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wu, Hong-Mei; Liu, Qing-Xiu

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, we observed the association of cognitive impairment with current/former habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, and exercise among very old people using a Chinese cohort aged 90 to 108 years. A cross-sectional study. The sample included 681 unrelated Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians (67.25% women). In men, compared with subjects without cognitive impairment, those with cognitive impairment had significantly higher prevalence of habits of smoking (P=0.048 and 0.004, for former/current, respectively) and alcohol consumption (P=0.003 and 0.049, for former/current, respectively) but had significantly lower prevalence of habits of tea consumption (P=0.041 and 0.044, for former/current, respectively) and current exercise (P=0.020). Subjects with habits of smoking had significantly lower cognitive function scores than those without these habits (mean difference=1.78 and 1.69, P=0.029 and 0.035, for former/current, respectively), but subjects with habit of current exercise had significantly higher cognitive function scores than those without this habit (mean difference=1.53, P=0.038). However, in women, there were no significant differences in prevalence of these habits between subjects with and without cognitive impairment and also no significant differences in cognitive function scores between subjects with and without these habits. Only current smoking habits in men had a significant odds ratio for cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 2.125; 95% confidence interval, 1.186-3.998). Among nonagenarians/centenarians, in men, there are associations of cognitive impairment with habits of former/current smoking and current exercise, as well as indefinite associations with habits of alcohol and tea consumption. Smoking may have a significant negative impact on cognitive function, but current exercise significantly improve cognitive function. However, in women, there are no associations of cognitive impairment with all the habits.

  9. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge,

  10. Smoking, Physical Activity, and Eating Habits Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Yi, Yunjeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity and eating habits of adolescent smokers with those of adolescent non-smokers in South Korea. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the 2012 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample included 72,229 adolescents aged 12 to 18. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking status and physical activity and between smoking status and eating habits, while controlling for other factors. Boys and girls were analyzed separately for all analyses. The proportion of self-reporting smokers was 11%. Surprisingly, girl smokers exercised significantly more frequently than non-smokers. Adolescent smokers were significantly less likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy products, and they ate significantly more fast-food than non-smokers. Health care professionals who plan smoking cessation programs should pay attention to South Korean adolescents' specific characteristics and cultural values in terms of health behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. A prospective study of the association between smoking and later alcohol drinking in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majken K.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Andersen, Anne T.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To address the possible prospective association between smoking habits and risk of later heavy drinking in the adult population. DESIGN: Pooled population-based long-term cohort studies with repeated assessments of smoking and alcohol habits. SETTING: Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS......: A total of 14,130 non- to moderate drinkers at baseline, who attended re-examination. MEASUREMENTS: Among the non- to moderate drinkers we addressed the relation between smoking habits at first examination and the risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker at follow-up. FINDINGS: Level of tobacco...... consumption at first examination predicted an increased risk of becoming a heavy and excessive drinker in a dose-dependent manner. Men who smoked more than 25 g of tobacco per day had adjusted odds ratios of 2.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-3.11) and 3.95 (95% CI: 1.93-8.95) for becoming heavy...

  12. Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Andrea; Di Dato, Carla; de Angelis, Cristina; Menafra, Davide; Pozza, Carlotta; Pivonello, Rosario; Isidori, Andrea; Gianfrilli, Daniele

    2018-01-15

    In recent decades, the decline in human fertility has become increasingly more worrying: while therapeutic interventions might help, they are vexing for the couple and often burdened with high failure rates and costs. Prevention is the most successful approach to fertility disorders in males and females alike. We performed a literature review on three of the most common unhealthy habits - tobacco, alcohol and drug addiction - and their reported effects on male fertility. Tobacco smoking is remarkably common in most first-world countries; despite a progressive decline in the US, recent reports suggest a prevalence of more than 30% in subjects of reproductive age - a disturbing perspective, given the well-known ill-effects on reproductive and sexual function as well as general health. Alcohol consumption is often considered socially acceptable, but its negative effects on gonadal function have been consistently reported in the last 30 years. Several studies have reported a variety of negative effects on male fertility following drug abuse - a worrying phenomenon, as illicit drug consumption is on the rise, most notably in younger subjects. While evidence in these regards is still far from solid, mostly as a result of several confounding factors, it is safe to assume that cessation of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational drug addiction might represent the best course of action for any couple trying to achieve pregnancy.

  13. OCCUPATION AND MORTALITY RELATED TO ALCOHOL DRUGS AND SEXUAL HABITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T

    2011-01-01

    AIms To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Methods Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. Results The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes), and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters, and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), “other alcohol-related diseases” (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267), and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for HIV/AIDS were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95%CI 369-1890, in men; 804, 95%CI 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95%CI 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Conclusions Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers. PMID:20407041

  14. Occupation and mortality related to alcohol, drugs and sexual habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, D; Harris, E C; Brown, T; Rice, S; Palmer, K T

    2010-08-01

    To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes) and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), 'other alcohol-related diseases' (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267) and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95% CI: 369-1890, in men; 804, 95% CI: 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95% CI: 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers.

  15. Evaluation of smoking habits among Turkish family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Davut; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aydin, Leyla Yilmaz; Ozturk, Serkan; Set, Turan; Eroz, Recep; Celer, Ahmet; Kara, Ismail Hamdi

    2014-02-01

    Smoking is still a major public health problem in Turkey. It was aimed to investigate smoking prevalence and habits among Turkish family physicians. Cross-sectional study among physicians working in primary care settings was established. A self-administered study survey was applied. The surveys of 1233 family physicians were analyzed. The study included 704 (57.1%) male and 529 (42.9%) female physicians. Mean age (SD) was 38.94 (7.01) years. The proportions of the current, the former and never smokers among family physicians were 34.1%, 14.7% and 51.3%, respectively. Mean age (SD) of smoking initiation was 21.73 (5.04) years. Mean duration (SD) of smoking use was 14.61 (7.29) years. Proportion of current smoker in male physicians was quite higher than in female counterparts (36.9% vs. 30.4%; p smoking initiation in female was 21.42 (4.59) years, but in male was 22.33 (4.98) years (p = 0.36). In female physicians, mean age (SD) for quitting cigarette smoking was found higher than in male (35.85 (6.35) years vs. 33.09 (6.45) years; p = 0.004). No significant difference between nicotine dependence (mean score (SD) of 3.76 (2.48) vs. 3.65 (2.82); p > 0.05) and mean (SD) unit of cigarette a day (18.34(6.03) vs. 17.17 ± 6.79; p > 0.05) between genders was observed. The number of male physicians who started smoking before faculty was higher than female counterparts (15.5% vs. 8.6%; p = 0.023). In conclusion, the smoking prevalence among Turkish family physicians is considerably high.

  16. Effects of alcoholism severity and smoking on executive neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Adams, Kenneth M; Nigg, Joel T; Puttler, Leon I; Jester, Jennifer M; Zucker, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse of substances other than alcohol. Cigarette smoking occurs at higher rates in alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance, yet the effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism are often ignored. We examined whether chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking have effects on executive function. Alcoholism and smoking were examined in a community-recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (n = 240) using standard neuropsychological and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism was measured as the average level of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 years). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Both alcoholism and smoking were correlated negatively with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was correlated negatively with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was correlated negatively with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism were significant predictors of executive function composite. However, when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer significant. Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism was not independent of IQ, suggesting a generalized effect, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more specific processing speed deficit associated with chronic smoking.

  17. A Survey of the Smoking Habits and Attitudes of High School Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    An extensive review of literature on trends in the consumption of tobacco; concern regarding tobacco and health; the relationships between smoking and lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and coronary heart disease; effect of smoking on human tissues; chemistry of tobacco smoke; and the smoking habits of students precedes discussion of an…

  18. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Miodrag; Musović, Dijana; Petrović, Branislav; Milosević, Zoran; Milosavljević, Ivica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Sokolović, Dusan

    2013-05-01

    According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the "ever" and "never" smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and

  19. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  20. Detrimental Effects of Higher Body Mass Index and Smoking Habits on Menstrual Cycles in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, An Na; Park, Ju Hwan; Kim, Jihyun; Kim, Seok Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Cha, Byung Heun; Sull, Jae Woong; Jun, Jin Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of menstrual cycle by individual lifestyles and unfavorable habits may cause menstrual irregularity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularity in Korean women using data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. This cross-sectional study included 3779 nondiabetic Korean women aged 19-49 years who did not take any oral contraceptives or sex hormonal compounds. We examined the association of menstrual irregularity with age, body mass index (BMI), drinking experience, and smoking habits. Age, Asian BMI, marriage status, age at menarche, and smoking habits were significantly associated with menstrual cycle irregularity (p smoking habits in middle-aged women aged 30-39 years (p smoking habits in nondiabetic Korean women. Weight loss and smoking cessation should be recommended to promote women's reproductive health.

  1. Combined effect of incorporated 90Sr, alcohol, and tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Combined effect of incorporated 90 Sr, ethanol, tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals is studied. It is shown that chronic intake of strontium 90, ethanol and tobacco smokes suppresses the reproduction of animals. But difficulty of obtained data extrapolation to a human being is not a sufficient ground for revising existing hygienic standards for persons being in contact with ionizing radiation and habitual to alcohol and smoking. Nevertheless, they permit to set a problem on negative effect of such habits

  2. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of smoking habit on surgical outcomes in non-B non-C patients with curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Keita; Koga, Hiroki; Aishima, Shinichi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Yamaji, Koutaro; Ide, Takao; Ueda, Junji; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-02-28

    To analyzed the correlation between smoking status and surgical outcomes in patients with non-B non-C hepatocellular carcinoma (NBNC-HCC), and we investigated the patients' clinicopathological characteristics according to smoking status. We retrospectively analyzed the consecutive cases of 83 NBNC-HCC patients who underwent curative surgical treatment for the primary lesion at Saga University Hospital between 1984 and December 2012. We collected information about possibly carcinogenic factors such as alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking habit from medical records. Smoking habits were subcategorized as never, ex- and current smoker at the time of surgery. The diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was based on both clinical information and pathological confirmation. Alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, obesity and NASH had no significant effect on the surgical outcomes. Current smoking status was strongly correlated with both overall survival ( P = 0.0058) and disease-specific survival ( P = 0.0105) by multivariate analyses. Subset analyses revealed that the current smokers were significantly younger at the time of surgery ( P = 0.0002) and more likely to abuse alcohol ( P = 0.0188) and to have multiple tumors ( P = 0.023). Current smoking habit at the time of surgical treatment is a risk factor for poor long-term survival in NBNC-HCC patients. Current smokers tend to have multiple HCCs at a younger age than other patients.

  4. Sigmund Freud: smoking habit, oral cancer and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, W L

    2004-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis had a well-known love of the cigar. The natural progression of this vice was the development of oral cancer for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal. An account is given in this article of Sigmund Freud's illness and care following the diagnosis of his oral cancer. The role of euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is also discussed. A review of relevant literature on Sigmund Freud's illness, risk factors for oral cancer and euthanasia was undertaken. Sigmund Freud was a heavy smoker with a 20-cigar/day habit. In 1923, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the palate was made, for which he underwent a lengthy ordeal which span a total of 16 years. During this period, he bluntly refused to quit smoking. Freud consulted many specialists (otolaryngologists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, prosthodontists and general surgeons), during the course of his ordeal with oral cancer. He underwent 34 surgical procedures before his eventual death in 1939 through euthanasia. Continued indulgence in smoking and procrastination on the part of Freud, as well as mediocrity, negligence and incompetence on the part of the first surgeon that operated on Freud, could partly be responsible for his lengthy ordeal.

  5. Stability and change in alcohol habits of different socio-demographic subgroups--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydén, Lovisa; Wennberg, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-05-29

    Stability in alcohol habits varies over time and in subgroups, but there are few longitudinal studies assessing stability in alcohol habits by socio-demographic subgroups and potential predictors of stability and change. The aim was to study stability and change in alcohol habits by sex, age, and socio-economic position (SEP). Data derived from two longitudinal population based studies in Sweden; the PART study comprising 19 457 individuals aged 20-64 years in 1998-2000, and the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) with 50 067 individuals aged 18-84 years in 2002. Both cohorts were followed-up twice; PART 2000-2003 and 2010, and SPHC 2007 and 2010. Alcohol habits were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and with normal weekly alcohol consumption (NWAC). Stability in alcohol habits was measured with intraclass correlation. Odds ratios were estimated in multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict stability in alcohol habits. For the two drinking measures there were no consistent patterns of stability in alcohol habits by sex or educational level. The stability was higher for older age groups and self-employed women. To be a man aged 30-39 at baseline predicted both increase and decrease in alcohol habits. The findings illustrate higher stability in alcohol habits with increasing age and among self-employed women with risky alcohol habits. To be a man and the age 30-39 predicted change in alcohol habits. No conclusive pattern of socio-economic position as predictor of change in alcohol habits was found and other studies of potential predictors seem warranted.

  6. Correlations Between Physical Activity, Smoking Habit And Attitude In Elderly With Incidence of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki Familia Dimyati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis was one of degenerative disease that is common in the elderly. There was a several of risk factors of osteoporosis. Two of them were physical activity and smoking habits. Attitude was one part of a person’s behavior that may affect the prevention of disease. This study aimed to analyze the affect of physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude of the elderly to incidence of osteoporosis. This study is an observational study with case control design. The number of samples in this study was 66 elderly who visited Osteoporosis Clinic Husada Utama Hospital in Surabaya. Respondent selection taken with systematic random sampling. The independent variables of this study were physical activity, smoking habit, and attitude, while the dependent variable was incidence of osteoporosis. Based on correlation analysis with logistic regression test showed there was a significant correlation (p<0,05 between physical activity, smoking habits, and attitude. Odds Ratio (OR in this study for physical activity was 14,764 ,smoking habit was 9,646 and attitude was 5,623. The conclusion of this study, there was physical activity as a dominant affect after controlled smoking habits and attitude to incidence of osteoporosis. The suggestion is to do physical activity three times a week, consume healthy food and beverage, take an enough sleep,reduce stress factors and stop smoking also.   Keywords: Physical activity, smoking habits, elderly

  7. Smoking habits, exposure to passive smoking and attitudes to a non-smoking policy among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Gambi, A; Bergamaschi, A; Gentilini, F; De Luca, G; Monti, C; Stampi, S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was carried out into the smoking habits and exposure to passive smoking among health staff in the hospitals of Faenza, Forli and Rimini (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy), 2453 subjects answered anonymously a 41 question questionnaire. 53% of the subjects were professionals nurses, 16% doctors, 15% maintenance staff, 10% ancillary staff, 1% non-medical graduates, 2% were administrators and 3% were assigned to the category ¿other'. Of the subjects answering the questionnaire 39% were smokers, 19% ex-smokers and 42% non smokers. The highest number of smokers was found among women (41%) compared to men (37%) and among ancillary staff (48%) compared to nurses (41%) and doctors (31%). The males were mostly heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/d) and smoked strong cigarettes (> or = 12 mg/cig condensate content). The females were mostly light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/d) and smoked light cigarettes (1-6 mg/cig condensate content). A high percentage of subjects (87%) smoked at work especially in areas reserved for staff. 43% and 26% of shift workers and non-shift workers tended not to modify their habit when on morning or afternoon shifts. During night shifts the majority of them increased their tobacco consumption. Around 87% of hospital employees stated they were exposed to passive smoking inside the hospital especially in cooking areas, at information desks and corridors. Nurses, ancillaries and maintenance staff were those most exposed and for a greater number of hours per day compared to doctors. Almost all subjects were aware of the harm caused by passive smoking. 56% of smokers, 65% of ex-smokers and 72% of non smokers said they were willing to participate in future campaigns to limit smoking in their hospitals.

  8. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter

    2017-01-01

    age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). METHODS: We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age......BACKGROUND: Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible......-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. RESULTS: The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae...

  9. Alcohol, smoking and benign hepato-biliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Novovic, Srdan

    2017-01-01

    through effects on bile cholesterol metabolism, the enterohepatic circulation, and gallbladder function. The impact of smoking on gallstone formation seems minor. Both alcohol intake and smoking do not alter the clinical course of gallstone disease carriers. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment...... for symptomatic gallstone disease. Studies about the impact of alcohol and smoking on the post-cholecystectomy state are few and future studies should be performed. Pancreatitis is associated with both excessive alcohol intake and smoking in observational studies. Interpretation of associations with pancreatitis...... is hampered by an incomplete understanding of underlying mechanisms and by the co-existence of excessive alcohol intake and smoking. Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence is recommended in the treatment of pancreatitis, but higher-level evidence is needed....

  10. Clustering of chronic disease risk factors with tobacco smoking habits among adults in the work place in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Hmad; Jihene, Maatoug; Imed, Harrabi; Rim, Ghammem; Mylene, Belkacem; Mounir, Saadi; Souad, Amimi; Khaoula, Knani; Mustafa, Al'Absi; Harry, Lando; Najib, Mrizak; Hassen, Ghannem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the major non-communicable risk factors (unhealthy diet, sedentarily, alcohol consumption) of smokers and nonsmokers in workplaces. A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk factors conducted in 2009 in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. The surveyed subjects were employees in six factories spread across three delegations in the region. Overall, 1770 of 2250 employees participated in the assessment. In this study, the clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors with smoking habits was made only for male employees including in this study 1099 among 2250. Data were collected at worksites by a questionnaire, via interview or self-report. The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants. The percentage of male smokers was 54.0%(n=594). Their average age of daily smoking initiation was 19.22 (±4.24 years). The percentage of male smokers consuming 5 fruits and vegetables per day was significantly lower than nonsmokers (57.2% vs 63.5%, p=0.04). The proportion of male smokers consuming alcohol was about three times that of nonsmokers (16.5% vs 5.8%, p=0.001). The proportion of male employees who agree with anti-smoking laws in work places was higher for nonsmokers than for smokers. A strong association existed between smoking and risky lifestyles factors in the work place. Such findings are potentially useful in directing intervention efforts regarding smoking cessation in occupational settings.

  11. Changes in smoking habit among patients with a history of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda-Roda, Rafael; Bagán, José V; Jiménez-Soriano, Yolanda; Margaix-Muñoz, Maria; Sarrión-Pérez, Gracia

    2010-09-01

    To determine the changes in smoking habit among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosed and treated in the Service of Stomatology (Valencia University General Hospital. Valencia, Spain). The study involved 123 patients with a history of OSCC interviewed by telephone on their smoking habits at the time of the diagnosis and modifications in habits subsequently. The mean age at diagnosis was 60 years and 9 months (standard deviation, SD +/- 12 years and 2 months). Males predominated (61.8%) over females (38.2%). The mean time from the diagnosis of OSCC to the survey was 4 years and 6 months (SD +/- 3 years and 6 months). Almost one-half of the patients (45.5%) were active smokers at the time of the diagnosis, with a mean duration of the habit of 34.9 years (SD +/- 12 years and 7 months). In turn, 19.5% of the patients were ex-smokers at diagnosis, with an average of 13 years and 9 months (SD +/- 9 years and 4 months) from smoking cessation to the development of cancer. A total of 57.1% of the smokers abandoned the habit at diagnosis, 8.9% continued to smoke to the same extent as before, and 33.9% reduced smoking. A full 44.4 % of our patients diagnosed with OSCC continued to smoke despite warnings of the risks, and although the majority claimed to have reduced their smoking habit, interventional strategies would be indicated to help ensure complete smoking cessation.

  12. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Health status of hostel dwellers: Part VI. Tobacco smoking, alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...

  14. Smoking Conditions and the Relationships Between Smoking Habits and Such Factors as Exercise Habits and Morning Diet among Male Students Aged 16 to 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, HASHIZUME; Yukinori, KUSAKA; Masayuki, IKI; Kazuo, KAWAHARA; Faculty of Education, Toyama University; Department of Environmental Health, Fukui Medical School; Department of Public Health, Kinki University School of Medicine; Community Health, Health Promotion and Nutrition Division, Health Service Bureau, Ministry of Health and Welfare

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen-to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that : the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  15. Smoking conditions and the relationships between smoking habits and such factors as exercise habits and morning diet among male students aged 16 to 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, Kazuo; Kusaka, Yukinori; Iki, Masayuki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the smoking behavior of 307 sixteen- to twenty-year-old students, and examines the relationships between their smoking and such factors as weight, exercise or morning diets. Four-year follow-up data on their physical characteristics, exercise and morning diet, and a five-year retrospective questionnaire on smoking habits were analyzed. Our longitudinal analysis revealed that: the prevalence of smoking increased from 17.6% to 54.1%, while the semi-annual incidence of smok...

  16. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...

  17. How accurate are self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cope GF

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Smoking or chewing tobacco is a global public health problem that is becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. These same countries often also have high rates of tuberculosis disease and infection. As smoking can adversely affect tuberculosis severity, response to treatment and relapse, it is therefore important that clinicians have an accurate picture of patients’ smoking habits. Self‐reported smoking habits may be unreliable and objective measurements of tobacco exposure more accurate. Objective To determine the reliability of self‐reported smoking habits in patients with tuberculosis by measurement of urinary cotinine levels, an objective measure of tobacco exposure. Methods Self‐reported tobacco use was recorded in 100 patients receiving treatment for active or latent tuberculosis using an interviewer administered ‘questionnaire. Urinary cotinine levels were measured by the SmokeScreen test 24hours after the end of treatment. Findings Of 81 reported non‐smokers, 10 had a positive test for cotinine, six of whom gave a result indicative of heavy (11‐15 cigarettes/day or very heavy (>16/day smoking. Of the 17 self‐confessed smokers and two chewers of tobacco, nine gave a result consistent with very heavy smoking although none had reported this degree of tobacco use. Conclusions Important discrepancies exist between subjective and objective smoking habits. Reliance on patient history may adversely affect response to tuberculosis treatment, and some patients will be denied appropriate intervention for smoking cessation.

  18. The relationships between phenylthiocarbamide taste perception and smoking, work out habits and susceptibility to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Durna Daştan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC is known as phenylthiourea and it is an organic compound that has the phenyl ring. Ability to perceive the tastes of PTC chemical is related to the dominance of taste genes. There are a large number of population studies regarding the PTC taste perception and different personal characteristics or disease conditions. The purpose of this study is to reveal and compare the relation between the PTC taste perception and work-out habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and tendency to the depression of people. A total of 2500 adults were volunteered to be included in this study. PTC taste perception was measured by tasting with PTC solution (10 mg/L filtered in a paper. It showed that tasters were significantly more frequent (81.8% than nontasters (18.2% in all population. And in some parameters analyzed in this study, there are significant differences. The taste genetics show up with environmental factors and create the sense of taste, which develops the feeding behaviors. The taste perception resulting from food and beverages diversifies by genetic and environmental effects and the nervous system interprets this perception. This study is enlightening in terms of presenting that the taste perception of people affects their lifestyles and lead them to start and either continue or discontinue some habits.

  19. [Association between GSK3β polymorphisms and the smoking habits in young Japanese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahori, Kenta; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Narita, Shin; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Ishigooka, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show high comorbidity with smoking dependence. Several previous studies reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is widely expressed in the brain including the dopamine projection areas such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, may play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and dopamine- and serotonin-mediated behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GSK3β gene (rs3755557, rs334558, rs6438552) with the smoking habits and age at smoking initiation in a sample of 384 young adult Japanese, which included 172 smokers and 212 non-smokers. As a result, rs334558 was significantly associated with smoking habits in genotype frequency and allelic frequency (P smoking habits.

  20. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  1. Associations between bar patron alcohol intoxication and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan J; Bastian, Nicholas; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2013-11-01

    To examine the event-specific relationship between alcohol intoxication and nighttime tobacco smoking among college bar patrons. In this secondary analysis of existing data, we examined event-specific associations between self-report measures of tobacco smoking and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings obtained from 424 patrons exiting on-premise drinking establishments. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, acute alcohol intoxication was positively associated with same-night incidents of smoking tobacco, adjusting for the effects of established smoking practices and other potential confounders. This investigation is the first known study using data collected in an on-premise drinking setting to link alcohol intoxication to specific incidents of tobacco smoking.

  2. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  4. Comparison of Smoking Habits of Blacks and Whites in a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Subjects were interviewed to determine smoking habits of 9,252 current cigarette smokers (11 percent black) and 7,555 former smokers (6 percent black). More blacks than whites smoked. Blacks were three times more likely to be light smokers than heavy smokers. Effective prevention may require better understanding of cultural factors affecting…

  5. A Survey of Greek Elementary School Students' Smoking Habits and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Karagouni-Areou, Fotini; Triga, Anastasia; Piperakis, Alexander S.; Argyracouli, Efthimia; Thanou, Aggeliki; Papadimitriou, Basiliki; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Zafiropoulou, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of Greek elementary school students, their attitudes towards smoking, and their perceptions of the health consequences of tobacco use. Data were obtained from 1,092 elementary school students who completed a 24-item questionnaire designed for this study. Results indicated more older…

  6. Variação de peso, grau de escolaridade, saneamento básico, etilismo, tabagismo e hábito alimentar pregresso em pacientes com cancêr de estômago Weight, educational achievement, basic sanitation, alcoholism, smoking and eating habit in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Pereira Magalhães

    2008-06-01

    , carboidratos complexos, açúcar refinado e salgados fritos, comparado ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os doentes com câncer gástrico, quando comparados ao grupo controle, apresentaram: perda de peso, queda da qualidade de vida verificada pelo baixo acesso a saneamento básico, eletricidade e escolaridade, residiram predominantemente em área rural, alta incidência de alcoolismo e alta ingestão de alimentos ricos em gorduras, alimentos industrializados e álcool.BACKGROUND: About 35% of the cancer patients are involved in factors coming from the diet and others like alcohol, smoking, sunlight, chemical agents and infections caused by virus. The stomach cancer is the second cause of cancer in the world with 9.9 % of all diagnosis and about 12.1 % of death cases. AIMS: Evaluate the body weight, educational achievement, basic sanitation, smoking, alcoholism and eating habit among patients with gastric cancer and a control group. METHODS: Seventy patients with gastric cancer were paired with 70 subjects without cancer. Data on the weight and height, educational attainment, basic sanitation, smoking, alcoholism and eating habits of the patients were collected from the clinical records and from interviews. RESULTS: Forty two patients were men, the mean age were 60 years old. The actual weight and body mass index of the patients were smaller when compared to the controls. Within the group of patients with gastric cancer, 21 never attended school, and for those who attended, 55% did not finish the elementary school. Among the patient group, 32.9% of them lived in housing with basic sanitation and 37.1% with electricity, against 68.6% of the controls, and 58.6% of the patients lived in rural area, against only 7.1% of the controls. Among the test group, 65.7% of the patients were smokers, whereas in the control group, 44.3% were smokers. In addition, there was also difference in the duration of smoking habit. Alcoholism was also more frequent in the cancer group (44% vs 19%. Food

  7. Smoking habits in Italian pregnant women: any changes after the ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Lorena; Serafini, Paola; Giordano, Livia; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2010-04-01

    A reduction in the prevalence of smoking and tobacco consumption was noted after the enactment in 2005 of new smoking regulations in Italy. To determine the impact of the smoking ban on pregnant women, we compared the results of two retrospective studies on two samples of 300 women, who recently delivered, conducted before and after the regulations went into effect. The comparison showed a marked drop in passive exposure to smoke in the workplace but not in the family environment; however, passive exposure and smoking were associated before and during pregnancy. Nearly all women agreed that the ban on smoking in public was reasonable and stated it had influenced their smoking habit or exposure. Despite this lip service, both studies highlighted that smoking in pregnancy remains a problem for many women, as about 10 per cent did not quit and over 50 per cent relapsed after delivery.

  8. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Michiko; Kitamura, Itsuko; Okura, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers) and their visceral fat area (VFA) (smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects' TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  9. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    magnesium level than the passive smokers/social drinkers group and controls. The results of this study ... non-alcohol/non-cigarette smoke exposed combined oral contraceptive ..... contraceptives: historical perspective. Johns. Hopkins Med.

  10. An Evaluation of a Therapist-Administered Bibliotherapy and Spouse Smoking Habits on Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Barbara L.

    1979-01-01

    Attempted to evaluate a readily available comprehensive bibliothearpy smoking cessation program and the impact of smoking and nonsmoking behavior of a spouse on the individual to stop smoking. Results suggest that motivation is an important variable in smoking cessation. (Author)

  11. Smoking habits in the randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial with low-dose CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present the final results of the effect of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT on the smoking habits of participants in a 5-year screening trial. METHODS: The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST) was a 5-year screening trial that enrolled 4104 subjects; 2052 were randomised...... to annual low-dose CT (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were current and ex-smokers (≥4 weeks abstinence from smoking) with a tobacco consumption of ≥20 pack years. Smoking habits were determined annually. Missing values for smoking status at the final screening...... round were handled using two different models. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in annual smoking status between the CT group and control group. Overall the ex-smoker rates (CT + control group) significantly increased from 24% (baseline) to 37% at year 5 of screening (p

  12. Self-reported smoking habits and serum cotinine levels in women with placental abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Minna; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Bloigu, Aini; Nuutila, Mika; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Hiilesmaa, Vilho; Paavonen, Jorma

    2010-12-01

    smoking is an important risk factor for placental abruption with strong dose-dependency. Pregnant smokers often underreport tobacco use which can be objectively assessed by measuring serum cotinine levels. We examined the accuracy between self-reported smoking habits and early pregnancy serum cotinine levels in women with or without placental abruption. retrospective case-control study. university Hospital. a total of 175 women with placental abruption and 370 control women. serum samples collected during the first trimester were analyzed for serum cotinine levels. Cotinine concentration over 15 ng/ml was considered as the cutoff indicating active smoking. Smoking habits of the women and their partners were recorded at the same visit. placental abruption. of the cases of women with placental abruption, 27.4% reported smoking compared with 14.3% of the controls (p smoked daily correlated well with the cotinine levels (r = 0.68, p smoking habits correlate well with serum cotinine levels in Finland. Therefore, self-reported smoking can be considered as a risk marker for placental abruption.

  13. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  14. Smoking habit as a risk factor in tuberculosis: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhyana Sahiratmadja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is fifth in the tuberculosis (TB prevalence globally and this country is one of the largest tobacco producers. Smoking has been reported to be an important risk factor for TB and a reduction in smoking could be expected to have a significant impact on TB incidence and prevalence. However, studies from various countries yielded conflicting results. Our study aims to explore the association between smoking and TB in Indonesia as TB-endemic country. In two major cities of Indonesia, Jakarta and Bandung, a case-control study had been conducted. TB was diagnosed based on WHO criteria including clinical presentation, and chest X-ray (CXR examination, and confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Nielsen stained sputum smears or by culture of M. tuberculosis. Newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB patients (n=802 and their spouses (n=253 or sex-matched neighborhood controls (n=534 were interviewed about their smoking habits. An extensive questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits of both patients and controls. Smoking categories were grouped into ever (for current/past smokers and never. Our study result showed that smoking appears not to be strongly associated with TB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.76-1.31. The reasons for the effect heterogeneity remain to be elucidated as smoking is a lethal habit and should be well controlled. The need to incorporate tobacco cessation programs into TB treatment is strongly recommended to improve TB control.

  15. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  16. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2% presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3% smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1% smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011 and with smoking history (p = 0.047. We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

  17. Smoking habits of pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Targu Mures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.

  18. Smoking habit profile and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Vázquez, Ma Isabel; Míguez, Ma del Carmen; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Piñeiro, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the results are not consistent. The aim of this study is to explore the association between smoking and HRQOL. Cross-sectional study of 714 Spanish adults (44.7% never smokers and 55.3% smokers) without diagnosis of physical or mental disorder. Each participant provided information about different sociodemographic variables and data on HRQOL. Smokers also reported smoking-related information about smoking-related variables. Nicotine dependence was not associated with the physical dimension of HRQOL, but in the mental component, nicotine dependent smokers showed worse HRQOL than never smokers (p = 0.004) and than non-nicotine dependent smokers (p = 0.014). There were no differences between no-nicotine dependent smokers and never smokers. Smoking status (non smokers vs. smokers), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stage of change, quit attempts in the past year or age of smoking onset were not related to HRQOL. In subjects without physical or mental diseases, only nicotine dependent smokers showed a significant impairment in the mental component of HRQOL. Therefore, it is important to consider nicotine dependence in the relationship between smoking and HRQOL.

  19. Smoking Habit and Self Reported Periodontal Treatment Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study ai 's to determine by questionnaire the prevalence of smoking and its associated sociodemographic factors in adult dentate populations in Southwestern Nigeria and to examine self reported periodontal treatment experience between smokers and nonsmokers. A descriptive study of prevalence of smoking and ...

  20. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  1. Communication of alcohol and smoking lifestyle advice to the gastroenterological patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Khasawneh, Mais; Allen, Patrick B; Addley, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Effective communication between healthcare staff and patients is central to development of the patient-professional relationship. Many barriers influence this communication, often resulting in patients' lack of understanding and retention of information, particularly affecting advice regarding lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and smoking. Alcohol and smoking misuse are potentially modifiable risk factors known to adversely affect a variety of gastroenterological conditions and improvements in communication with patients regarding this is an important management component. This review discusses the clinical impact of these factors and how healthcare professionals can improve communication. We discuss how enhancing verbal communication skills through medical training leads to greater outcomes in patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment and advice. In addition, with the rapid digitalisation of society, platforms such as social media and smartphone applications may be considered as adjuncts to traditional forms of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  3. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  4. Aggression among male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoke cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Erim, Rahsan

    2009-12-01

    The authors aimed to explore the relation between nicotine dependence and the severity of aggression among Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients who smoked cigarettes, as well as the effect of aggression in these groups. Participants were 126 male alcohol-dependent inpatients who were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance Use Disorder Module (A. Corapcioglu, O. Aydemir, & M. Yildiz, 1999; M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, & J. B. W. Williams, 1997), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (K. O. Fagerstrom, 1978), and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS; S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, & D. Williams, 1986). The authors found differences between male alcohol-dependent inpatients with nicotine dependence (n = 94) and those with nondependence (n = 32) in OAS subtypes. The authors' findings showed that smoking cigarettes-an addiction frequently observed with alcoholism-was positively correlated with aggressive behaviors. The authors suggest that smoking cigarettes may cause aggression or aggression may cause smoking. Observing and evaluating how aggression and smoking cigarettes are associated with alcohol dependence may help relapse prevention and improve effectiveness of treatment interventions in alcoholism.

  5. [Drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking/ smoking as a risk factor of stroke among Japanese general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Okamura, Tomonori; Nakayama, Hirohumi; Morinaga, Miho; Toyota, Akihiro; Suzuki, Kazuo; Hata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2010-10-01

    We examined the knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors of stroke according to drinking/smoking habits among randomly selected Japanese general population. The Japan Stroke Association and co-researchers have performed a large-scale educational intervention to improve knowledge concerning stroke from 2006 to 2008. Prior to above-mentioned intervention, we conducted mail-surveillance on knowledge about stroke in 11,306 randomly selected residents aged 40 to 74. We assessed the relationship between drinking/smoking habits and knowledge regarding heavy drinking and smoking as risk factors by using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, area, employment, living situation, history of stroke and other stroke related diseases, history of liver disease, family history of stroke and drinking (non-drinker / ex-drinker / occasional drinker / habitual drinker) / smoking habits (non-smoker / ex-smoker / current smoker). Total 5,540 subjects (49.0%) participated in this study. Ex-smokers and current smokers had better knowledge regarding smoking as a risk factor of stroke than non-smokers (odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals: 1.89, 1.55-2.31, 1.76, 1.45-2.12, respectively). There was no difference between habitual drinkers and non-drinkers in their knowledge, whereas current smokers had greater knowledge regarding smoking than nonsmokers. Accordingly, it is suggested that it will be necessary for habitual drinkers to be enlightened regarding heavy drinking as a risk factor of stroke and for current smokers to be provided with information regarding not only these risks but also the specific strategies for invoking behavioral changes.

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERNET ADDICTION AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS INFLUENCED BY THE SMOKING STATUS IN MALE ONLINE VIDEO GAMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Müller

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.

  7. Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Talalwah, Narmeen; Woodward, Sue

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is defined as an abnormal reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus, which provokes symptoms and impairs the quality of life. GORD has a high prevalence and incurs costs to the healthcare system. This is the first paper in a series of three exploring the conservative, medical and surgical treatment of GORD. This first paper presents a review of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux symptoms and the impact of smoking and alcohol reduction on symptoms of GORD. A search for English language studies on adults was conducted using three databases, MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eleven relevant studies were included in the review. The effect of alcohol on the stimulation of reflux has been debated over the years in different studies. Some studies state that alcohol consumption induces reflux and moderate amounts exacerbate nocturnal gastro-oesophageal heartburn reflux. However, other studies have found no association between alcohol consumption and reflux. Most reflux occurs during smoking because nicotine causes the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax, which increases the risk of reflux. Similarly, the number of cigarettes smoked is associated with the risk of reflux. Nurses need to be aware of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux to provide evidence-based advice to empower patients to change their lifestyle, which results in increased therapeutic compliance and a better clinical status. There is no evidence that reducing alcohol consumption decreases symptoms and only limited evidence on the effectiveness of smoking cessation. Further research into the effectiveness of these lifestyle modifications is therefore required.

  8. Smoking habits of physicians in Enugu, Nigeria | Okeke | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Physicians are highly respected in their communities. They play a crucial role in issues related to health and people turn to them for advice and consultation. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking among physicians in Enugu, Nigeria, a group of health professionals who ...

  9. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Smoking Habits and Body Weight Over the Adult Lifespan in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Heo, Moonseong; Allison, Matthew; Johnson, Karen C; Ho, Gloria Y F; Tindle, Hilary A; Asao, Keiko; LaMonte, Michael J; Giovino, Gary A; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between smoking habits and weight gain are complex. However, few studies have examined the association of smoking habits with weight gain over the life course. Major smoking parameters and weight gain over time were examined in a large cohort of postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years at enrollment between 1993 and 1998 (N=161,808) and followed through 2014 (analyses conducted in 2016). Cross-sectional analyses were used to assess the association of smoking and body weight at baseline. Retrospective data were used to correlate smoking status with body weight over a 45-year period prior to enrollment. In addition, the association of smoking with weight gain over 6 years of follow-up was examined. At baseline, women who had quit smoking prior to enrollment weighed 4.7 kg more than current smokers and 2.6 kg more than never smokers. Former, never, and current smokers all gained weight over the 45-year period from age 18 years to time of enrollment (average age, 63 years): 16.8, 16.4, and 14.6 kg, respectively. In prospective analyses, women who were current smokers at baseline but who quit smoking during follow-up gained more than 5 kg by Year 6 compared with current smokers at baseline who continued to smoke. Among long-term quitters, greater intensity of smoking and more recent quitting were associated with greater weight gain. These results suggest that excess weight gain associated with smoking cessation occurs soon after quitting and is modest relative to weight gain in never smokers over the adult lifespan. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Students' unchanging smoking habits in urban and rural areas in the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Gulfer; Guner, Sukru Nail; Akca, Unal; Kilic, Mehtap; Sancak, Recep; Ozturk, Fadil

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is the main preventable public health problem particularly for youth worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of smoking habits among students at secondary and high schools, and to compare the findings with those of a study conducted 15 years ago in the same area. In this cross-sectional study 6212 students (51.2% female; 48.8% male) were selected randomly from rural and urban areas in Samsun. All students completed a face-to-face questionnaire. The overall prevalence of smoking was 13.0% (male students, 18.1%; female students, 8.2%). The mean starting age of smoking was 14.1 ± 1.5 years. Prevalence of smoking was 15.7% in urban areas and 8.1% in rural areas. The most important factors for starting smoking were social group and families. Compared with a study conducted 15 years previously in the same area for male students, smoking prevalence was increased in rural, but decreased in urban areas. Smoking prevalence in students in Samsun was similar to that in a study conducted 15 years previously. It is important to use anti-smoking campaigns directly targeted at teenager and they should be fully informed of the harmful effects of smoking. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Novel epigenetic changes unveiled by monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allione, Alessandra; Marcon, Francesca; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Crebelli, Riccardo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoking affects the epigenome and could increase the risk of developing diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Changes in DNA methylation associated with smoking may help to identify molecular pathways that contribute to disease etiology. Previous studies are not completely concordant in the identification of differentially methylated regions in the DNA of smokers. We performed an epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in a group of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for smoking habits to determine the effect of smoking on DNA methylation. As MZ twins are considered genetically identical, this model allowed us to identify smoking-related DNA methylation changes independent from genetic components. We investigated the whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 20 MZ twin pairs discordant for smoking habits by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified 22 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smoker and non-smoker MZ twins by intra-pair analysis. We confirmed eight loci already described by other groups, located in AHRR, F2RL3, MYOG1 genes, at 2q37.1 and 6p21.33 regions, and also identified several new loci. Moreover, pathway analysis showed an enrichment of genes involved in GTPase regulatory activity. Our study confirmed the evidence of smoking-related DNA methylation changes, emphasizing that well-designed MZ twin models can aid the discovery of novel DNA methylation signals, even in a limited sample population.

  13. Smoking, alcohol use, socioeconomic background and oral health among young Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Tarja; Päkkilä, Jari; Karjalainen, Kaisa; Kämppi, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use in association with dental caries experience and signs of periodontal disease in a Finnish male group born in the early 1990s. The impacts of health behaviour and socioeconomic factors were included in the analyses. Oral health of 8539 conscripts was screened in a cross-sectional study (DT, DMFT and CPI). They also answered a questionnaire covering their habits of smoking and alcohol use as well as other behaviours and background factors. The bleeding on probing index (BOP) was available on 6529 conscripts. Cross-tabulation together with a chi-squared test and generalized linear mixed models were used in the analyses. A mosaic figure was used to illustrate associations of smoking frequency, use of dental services and toothache. Majority (80.9%) in the study group consumed alcohol at least once a month, and 39.4% were daily smokers. Smoking was statistically significantly associated with high caries experience and high bleeding values of gums. Consumption of alcohol was not associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. The high BOP value had the strongest association with infrequent tooth brushing and smoking. The participant's own education level was the main protective factor of oral health. The smokers used dental services more frequently compared to the non-smokers mostly for acute care. Young men's health behaviour, especially of those with low education, does not promote oral health, which may indicate need for extensive healthcare services in the future. Health promotion should not be neglected. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Smoking habit and psychometric scores: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waal-Manning, H J; de Hamel, F A

    1978-09-13

    During the Milton health survey subjects completed a psychometric inventory consisting of the 48 questions of the Middlesex Hospital questionnaire (MHQ) and 26 from the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire (HDHQ) designed to examine nine psychological dimensions. The 1209 subjects were classified into smoking categories and the scores for each psychometric trait were calculated. Women scored higher than men and heavy smokers scored higher than "never smokers". The psychometric traits and the scores of the four smoking categories after correcting for age and Quetelet's index showed statistically significant differences by analysis of variance in respect of somatic anxiety and depression for both men and women; and free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, hysteria, acting out hostility, self criticism and guilt in women. For somatic anxiety the increase in score almost exactly paralleled the increasing quantity of tobacco consumed.

  15. Changes in parental weight and smoking habits and offspring adiposity: data from the HUNT-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasting, Magnus Hølmo; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Vik, Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Adverse parental life-style habits are associated with offspring adiposity, but it is unclear how changes in these habits affect offspring adiposity. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess how parental change in body weight, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were associated with adiposity in their children. The study population consisted of 3 681 adolescents and their parents from the Nord-Trøndelag-Health-Study (HUNT). The parents participated in the two first waves of HUNT (HUNT-1:1984-86, HUNT-2:1995-97), where information on anthropometry, smoking habits and physical activity were obtained. The adolescents participated in the Youth-Part of HUNT-2. We used logistic regression to calculate odds-ratios (ORs) for adolescent offspring overweight according to parental change in body-weight, smoking habits and physical activity, adjusting for these factors in both parents, as well as for socioeconomic status and adolescent age and sex. Children of parents who changed weight from normal weight to overweight from HUNT-1 to HUNT-2 had higher OR for overweight in adolescence than children of parents who remained normal weight (mothers: 1.9 [95% CI: 1.4,2.5], fathers: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.5,3.0]). Children of mothers who reduced their weight from overweight to normal weight had no higher OR for overweight in adolescence than mothers who remained normal weight (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2, 4.7). Children of mothers who quit smoking (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) had lower OR for overweight in adolescence than children of mothers who persisted in smoking. Healthy changes in parental life-style during childhood are associated with lower occurrence of offspring overweight in adolescence.

  16. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changing the smoking habit: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Umbrian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianori, D; Gili, A; Masanotti, G

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals. It consists of 53 multiple-choice questions. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The sample included 475 healthcare professionals. Current smokers constituted 34.53% of the sample and no significant difference (p = 0.257) emerged in prevalence over time (33.74% in 2006; 36.02% in 2011 and 33.77% in 2015). The risk of being a smoker increased by not considering the smoking habit as the main cause of preventable deaths (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47- 3.45). The strongest risk factor, which was significant in both models (p Smoking" law (OR = 18.90; 95% CI: 2.43-147.71; adjusted OR = 22.10; 95% CI: 1.85-264.78). The hospital staff has higher prevalence of smoking than the general population. The No Smoking law alone has been shown to be inadequate. Effective results can be achieved only by a common strategy and shared intervention programmes that are based on a workplace health promotion strategy. That for the moment has demonstrated to give interesting outcomes in modifying deep-rooted behaviour patterns.

  18. Non-Motor Correlates of Smoking Habits in de Novo Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Mollenhauer, Brit; Erro, Roberto; Picillo, Marina; Palladino, Raffaele; Barone, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects are less likely to ever smoke and are more prone to quit smoking, as compared to controls. Therefore, smoking habits can be considered part of the non-motor phenotype, preceding the onset of motor PD by several years. To explore non-motor symptom (NMS) correlates of smoking habits in de novo PD. This cross-sectional study included 281 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve PD subjects, recruited in Naples (Italy) and in Kassel (Germany). All subjects completed the NMS Questionnaire (NMSQ), and were investigated for smoking status (never, current and former smokers) and intensity (pack-years). 140 PD subjects never smoked, 20 currently smoked, and 121 had quit smoking before PD diagnosis. NMSQ total score did not associate with smoking status, but with smoking intensity (p = 0.028; coefficient = 0.088). A multinomial logistic regression stepwise model presenting never smoking as reference, selected as NMSQ correlates of current smoking: sex difficulties (p = 0.002; OR = 5.254), daytime sleepiness (p = 0.046; OR = 0.085), insomnia (p = 0.025; OR = 0.135), and vivid dreams (p = 0.040; OR = 3.110); and of former smoking: swallowing (p = 0.013; OR = 0.311), nausea (p = 0.027; OR = 7.157), unexplained pains (p = 0.002; OR = 3.409), forgetfulness (p = 0.005; OR = 2.592), sex interest (p = 0.007; OR = 0.221), sex difficulties (p = 0.038; OR = 4.215), and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.05; OR = 0.372). An ordinal logistic regression stepwise model selected as NMSQ correlates of smoking intensity: nocturnal restlessness (p = 0.027; coefficient = 0.974), and leg swelling (p = 0.004; coefficient = 1.305). Certain NMSs are associated with different smoking status and intensity, suggesting a variety of adaptive mechanisms to cigarette smoking.

  19. [Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Aline Farias; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2006-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of smoking dependence and to characterize social demographic data, habits and attitudes of young smokers. Answered the questionnairel02 students from Salvador, State of Bahia, of which 11 were smokers. Their mean age and the age in which they first smoked were 18.2 and 13.4 years respectively. Most of them were male, in the first year of senior high school, of brown skin color and had close relatives who smoke. The majority of those young smokers had been advised about the risks of smoking at home and in school, but few had knowledge about the benefits of quitting. Almost half of them had been smoking for more than three years and had started to smoke out of curiosity. More than half of them smoked one cigarette per day, with low levels of nicotine, bought the cigarettes in shops, and wanted and tried to quit smoking, but never succeeded. The degree of dependence was low for most of them. This study offers hints for nurses to act against smoking with young adults.

  20. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Nóris; Chatkin, José; Chapman, Kenneth R; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-03-22

    Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of nicotine dependence. Using a cross-sectional study, we included 50 current smokers (group I) and 50 lifetime non-smokers (group II), aged 18-75 years. We screened them at the Toronto Western Hospital and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, Canada). The subjects completed a questionnaire with demographic data, lifestyle habits and details of food intake. The PUFAs measured in the RBC membranes were alphalinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to perform an adjusted comparison between smokers and non-smokers we used the ANCOVA model. After adjusting for confounding factors, non-smokers showed higher consumption of PUFAs, especially salmon: 800 g (0-7.740) than smokers 430 g (0-2.150) P smoking. Smokers had lower levels of DHA and EPA, a not previously reported finding. Considering that PUFAs probably interfere in smoking habit, the increase in omega-3 consumption may become a perspective in prevention or treatment of smoking. However, this inference must be evaluated through specific studies.

  3. Lifestyle intervention in general practice for physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet in elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Davorka; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Puljak, Livia; Lalić, Dragica Ivezić; Kranjčević, Ksenija; Vučak, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of programmed and intensified intervention on lifestyle changes, including physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and diet, in patients aged ≥ 65 with the usual care of general practitioners (GP). In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 738 patients aged ≥ 65 were randomly assigned to receive intensified intervention (N = 371) or usual care (N = 367) of a GP for lifestyle changes, with 18-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and diet. The study was conducted in 59 general practices in Croatia between May 2008 and May 2010. The patients' mean age was 72.3 ± 5.2 years. Significant diet correction was achieved after 18-month follow-up in the intervention group, comparing to controls. More patients followed strictly Mediterranean diet and consumed healthy foods more frequently. There was no significant difference between the groups in physical activity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption or diet after the intervention. In conclusion, an 18-month intensified GP's intervention had limited effect on lifestyle habits. GP intervention managed to change dietary habits in elderly population, which is encouraging since elderly population is very resistant regarding lifestyle habit changes. Clinical trial registration number. ISRCTN31857696. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of drinking and smoking habits on cerebrovascular disease risk among male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yoko; Shimokata, Keiko; Osugi, Shigeki; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2016-10-07

    We aimed to analyze the impact of drinking and smoking behavior on the risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases among male employees aged 20-46 years. Twenty years of follow-up data of male employees enrolled in the DENSO Health Insurance Program were used for analyses. Of 29,048 male employees aged 20-46 years who were enrolled in the insurance program in 1994, 25,084 (86.4%) employees underwent annual health check-ups until 2003 without missing an appointment. Of these 25,084 employees, the data of 11,784 (40.6%) employees who self-reported drinking and smoking habits were used for analyses. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing cerebrovascular disease in 2004-2013 were calculated in four risk groups categorized as per drinking and smoking behavior in the young group who were in their 20s and the middle-aged group who were in their 30s-40s in 1994. Based on their drinking behavior, participants were categorized into two groups: "not drinking or drinking sometimes" and "drinking every day." Based on their smoking behavior, participants were also categorized into two groups: "not smoking for 10 years" and "smoking for 10 years." A Cox's proportional hazard model revealed that after controlling for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and age, the hazard ratios for "smoking and drinking every day" were 3.82 (95% CI: 1.40-10.41) in the young group and 2.31 (95% CI: 1.27-4.17) in the middle-aged group. Male employees who had been drinking and smoking for 10 years had a higher risk of developing cerebrovascular diseases. To prevent cerebrovascular diseases among male employees, it may be effective to offer behavior change interventions for both drinking and smoking habits, regardless of the age group.

  5. Smoking habits and leukocyte telomere length dynamics among older adults: Results from the ESTHER cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Butterbach, Katja; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schick, Matthias; Stammer, Hermann; Boukamp, Petra; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age and short LTL has been associated with increased mortality and increased risk for some age-related outcomes. This study aims to analyse the associations of smoking habits with LTL and rate of LTL change per year in older adults. LTL was measured by quantitative PCR at baseline in 3600 older adults, who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study in Germany. For longitudinal analyses, measurements were repeated in blood samples obtained at 8-year follow-up from 1000 participants. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a sub-sample to obtain absolute LTL in base pairs. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate associations of smoking habits with baseline LTL and changes in LTL over time. LTL was inversely associated with age (r=-0.090, pSmoking was inversely associated with LTL. On average, current smokers had 73 base pairs (BP) shorter LTL compared to never smokers. Smoking intensity and pack-years of smoking were also inversely associated with LTL, and a positive association was observed with years since smoking cessation. Slower LTL attrition rates were observed in ever smokers over 8years of follow-up. Our cross-sectional analysis supports suggestions that smoking might contribute to shortening of LTL but this relationship could not be shown longitudinally. The overall rather small effect sizes observed for smoking-related variables suggest that LTL reflects smoking-related health hazards only to a very limited extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  7. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  8. Antioxidant status and smoking habits: relationship with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agrawal, B K; Varma, M; Jadhav, A A

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the association between smoking, dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma indices of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences in male smokers (cigarette and bidi smokers). The study sample consisted of 100 healthy men, including 50 non-smokers and 50 smokers, who were subclassified into 25 cigarette smokers and 25 bidi smokers, aged 18-55 years. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma ascorbic acid were measured as antioxidants and erythrocyte malondialdehyde as an oxidative stress index, by colorimetric methods. Smokers ate less fruits and vegetables than non-smokers, leading to them having a lower antioxidant level. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was significantly lower in cigarette smokers (0.193 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.05) and bidi smokers (0.169 U/mgP, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (0.231 U/mgP). Plasma ascorbic acid was also significantly lower in cigarette smokers (1.45 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (1.38 mg/100 ml, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (1.73 mg/100 ml). There was a significant increase in erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration levels in cigarette smokers (171.47 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.05) as well as in bidi smokers (231.04 micromol/gHb, p-value is less than 0.001) as compared to non-smokers (127.30 micromol/gHb). These results provide enough evidence of increased oxidative stress and a compromised antioxidant defence system in smokers, and they are more profound in bidi smokers than in those smoking cigarettes. This study also revealed that the diet and nutrient intake of smokers are different from that of non-smokers.

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tsou, Yung-An; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with smoking habits and oral cancer in Taiwan. Two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed in association with oral cancer risk, and their joint effects with individual smoking habits on oral cancer risk are discussed. In total, 620 oral cancer patients and 620 non-cancer controls in central Taiwan were recruited and genotyped. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between the oral cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was significantly more frequently found in controls than in oral cancer patients. Joint effects of smoking and MTHFR C677T genotype significantly affected oral cancer susceptibility. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred lower odds ratios of 0.66 and 0.54 (95% confidence interval=0.49-0.82 and 0.39-0.86), respectively. Those patients with MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes also had a lower risk of oral cancer metastasis. MTHFR C677T genotype may have joint effects with smoking on oral carcinogenesis, and may be a useful biomarker for prediction and prognosis of oral cancer.

  10. Relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitations, and metabolic abnormalities in school workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Wakae; Goto, Yasushi; Yoshihara, Hisanao; Kawakami, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru; Sakamoto, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is caused mainly by habitual smoking and is common among elderly individuals. It involves not only airflow limitation but also metabolic disorders, leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We evaluated relationships among smoking habits, airflow limitation, and metabolic abnormalities. Between 2001 and 2008, 15,324 school workers (9700 males, 5624 females; age: ≥ 30 years) underwent medical checkups, including blood tests and spirometry. They also responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits and medical history. Airflow limitation was more prevalent in current smokers than in ex-smokers and never-smokers in men and women. The frequency of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in current smokers in all age groups, and those of low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus were higher in current smokers in age groups ≥ 40 s in men, but not in women. There were significant differences in the frequencies of metabolic abnormalities between subjects with airflow limitations and those without in women, but not in men. Smoking index was an independent factor associated with increased frequencies of hypertriglyceridemia (OR 1.015; 95% CI: 1.012-1.018; psmoking cessation was an independent factor associated with a decreased frequency of hypertriglyceridemia (0.984; 0.975-0.994; p = 0.007). Habitual smoking causes high incidences of airflow limitation and metabolic abnormalities. Women, but not men, with airflow limitation had higher frequencies of metabolic abnormalities.

  11. Longitudinal study of parental smoking habits and development of asthma in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Hara, Megumi; Harada, Shohei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Ohida, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental smoking habits and the development of asthma in early childhood by using representative samples. The survey subjects included all of the 53,575 babies born in Japan during the periods January 10-17 and July 10-17, 2001. The families of the subjects were asked to complete questionnaires that were delivered by post at 6 months, 1 year 6 months, 2 years 6 months, 3 years 6 months, and 4 years 6 months postpartum. The first survey contained questions regarding the smoking habits of the parents. The second to fifth surveys asked if the child had needed medical attention for the treatment of asthma. Data from 36,888 subjects (collection rate: 68.9%) were analyzed. The 4-year cumulative incidence of asthma was 12.0%. Maternal indoor smoking significantly increased the risk of asthma development in children, 4-year risk 14.4% vs. 11.7%, risk ratio=1.24, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.38. No statistically significant association was found between paternal smoking and asthma development in children. In order to prevent the development of asthma in early childhood, it is necessary to formulate measures to stop or discourage maternal smoking. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN MUNICIPALITY OF KLADOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Mihajlović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the most spread modern, social disease worlwide. It is considered that efficient programs of cigarette smoking prevention implemented among adolescents would considerably lower the morbidity and mortality in adults reported for diseases caused by smoking.The aim of the research was to investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among school children and youth in the municipality of Kladovo, as well as the nature of their smoking habit.The research, in the form of cross-sectional study, was conducted among the pupils of higher grades of elementary schools and all grades of high schools from the territory of the Municipality of Kladovo, during May and June, 2008. Five hundred and twenty-seven examinees aged 10-19 years (49.71% were boys and 50.28% girls were polled. Data collection was done by a modified form of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.15.9% of examinees declared to be smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence increases with aging: it is lowest at the age of 12 (2.4% and highest in the examinees aged 17 years or over (30.5%. There is high statistically significant association between age and prevalence of cigarette smoking. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among boys is 16.5%, and 15.3% among girls, without statistically significant difference among sexes. The prevalence of cigarette smoking is ten times higher (30.8% among adolescents whose best friends (45% are smokers. This prevalence is 4.5 times higher among adolescents whose boyfriends/ girlfriends (16.3% are smokers. The rate of cigarette smoking prevalence is proportional to the number of parents-smokers: in a group of children whose both parents are smokers, there is the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking (26.2%. The majority of pupils consider that cigarette smoking can seriously damage health (96.8%. The distribution of smoking habit is statistically significantly higher in the group of pupils who are not aware that cigarette smoking is harmful (35

  13. Evidence that implementation intentions can overcome the effects of smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the aim was to (a) test for the first time whether implementation intentions formed outside the laboratory can overcome the effects of habits, and (b) see whether the operation of implementation intentions could be improved by asking people to form certain "when-then" plans as opposed to uncertain "if-then" plans. The study employed a 2 × 2 fully factorial design with baseline and follow-up measures of smoking status and habits. Smokers (N = 168; circa 33 years of age; 79 women, 89 men) were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 intervention groups to form either if-then plans or when-then plans using supporting tools, or to 1 of 2 control conditions in which they were exposed to identical supporting tools but were not asked to form if-then plans or when-then plans. Certainty did not affect the operation of implementation intentions, but smokers who formed implementation intentions were significantly more likely to quit, χ2(1, N = 168) = 8.86, p smoking habits (95% CI [0.02, 0.14]). Similar effects were observed when cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, and craving served as the dependent variables. The findings demonstrate that people who have formed implementation intentions can overcome habits, such as smoking, outside the laboratory. The supporting tools described in the present research could be deployed at low cost with high public health reach to support behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  15. Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Costa, Rui M

    2017-11-20

    What is a habit? One problem with the concept of habit has been that virtually everyone has their own ideas of what is meant by such a term. Whilst not eschewing folk psychology, it is useful to re-examine dictionary definitions of 'habit'. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines habit as "a settled or regular tendency or practice, especially one that is hard to give up" and also "an automatic reaction to a specific situation". The latter, reassuringly, is not too far from what has come to be known as stimulus-response theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 514 participants (4.8%. Three hundred forty-four participants received biopsy, and 230 patients were proven to have oral cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression found that those who smoked, consumed alcohol, and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to develop cancer (odds ratio: 46.87, 95% confidence interval: 31.84–69.00. Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cancer and should receive oral screening regularly so potential oral cancer can be detected as early as possible.

  17. Effect of physical activity after a cardiac event on smoking habits and/or Quetelet index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbrechts, I P A M; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Deckers, J W; Kazemier, M; Erdman, R A M

    2003-02-01

    To further elucidate earlier findings, the present study investigated whether physical activity could serve as a positive stimulus to modify other changeable cardiac risk factors. Participants were 140 patients who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme focused on physical activity. Their present level of physical activity, smoking habits and Quetelet index were investigated as well as that before the cardiac event, in retrospect. Current feelings of anxiety and depression were also assessed. Participants were divided into two categories according to their present level of physical activity after finishing the rehabilitation programme, compared with that before the cardiac event. It appeared that the more physically active category contained more smokers. Although many of them had quitted smoking, significantly more persisted in their smoking habits compared with the patients who did not increase their physical activity. Significantly less depression was found in the more active patients. Although it could not be confirmed that physical activity stimulated a positive change in smoking and Quetelet index, the more active patients appeared to be less depressed.

  18. Correlation between smoking habit and surgical outcomes on viral-associated hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Keita; Komukai, Sho; Koga, Hiroki; Yamaji, Koutaro; Ide, Takao; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Aishima, Shinichi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2018-01-07

    To investigate the association between smoking habits and surgical outcomes in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (B-HCC) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC (C-HCC) and clarify the clinicopathological features associated with smoking status in B-HCC and C-HCC patients. We retrospectively examined the cases of the 341 consecutive patients with viral-associated HCC (C-HCC, n = 273; B-HCC, n = 68) who underwent curative surgery for their primary lesion. We categorized smoking status at the time of surgery into never, ex- and current smoker. We analyzed the B-HCC and C-HCC groups' clinicopathological features and surgical outcomes, i.e ., disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. We also performed subset analyses in both patient groups comparing the current smokers to the other patients. The multivariate analysis in the C-HCC group revealed that current-smoker status was significantly correlated with both OS ( P = 0.0039) and DSS ( P = 0.0416). In the B-HCC patients, no significant correlation was observed between current-smoker status and DFS, OS, or DSS in the univariate or multivariate analyses. The subset analyses comparing the current smokers to the other patients in both the C-HCC and B-HCC groups revealed that the current smokers developed HCC at significantly younger ages than the other patients irrespective of viral infection status. A smoking habit is significantly correlated with the overall and disease-specific survivals of patients with C-HCC. In contrast, the B-HCC patients showed a weak association between smoking status and surgical outcomes.

  19. The seventh nationwide epidemiological survey for chronic pancreatitis in Japan: clinical significance of smoking habit in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Morihisa; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Kume, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Shin; Kanno, Atsushi; Kimura, Kenji; Tsuji, Ichiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to clarify the epidemiological features of patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Japan. In the first survey, both the prevalence and the incidence of CP in 2011 were estimated. In the second survey, the clinicoepidemiological features of the patients were clarified by mailed questionnaires. Patients were diagnosed by the Japanese diagnostic criteria for chronic pancreatitis 2009. The estimated annual prevalence and incidence of CP in 2011 were 52.4/100,000 and 14.0/100,000, respectively. The sex ratio (male/female) of patients was 4.6, with a mean age of 62.3 years. Alcoholic (67.5%) was the most common and idiopathic (20.0%) was the second most common cause of CP. Comorbidity with diabetes mellitus (DM) and pancreatic calcifications (PC) occurred more frequent in ever smokers independently of their drinking status. Among patients without drinking habit, the incidences of DM and PC were significantly higher in ever smokers than in never smokers. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed smoking was an independent factor of DM and PC in CP patients: DM, Odds ratio (OR) 1.644, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.202 to 2.247 (P = 0.002): PC, OR 2.010, 95% CI 1.458 to 2.773 (P smoking was not identified as an independent factor for the appearance of abdominal pain by this analysis. The prevalence of Japanese patients with CP has been increasing. Smoking was identified as an independent factor related to DM and PC in Japanese CP patients. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Smoking Habits and its Effects to Health Among the Middle Aged and Elderly in Okinawa

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kazuhiko; Nagahama, Naoki; Matsuzaki, Toshihisa; Makiyama, Fumihiko; Ueno, Mitsuo; 平良, 一彦

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship of smoking habits to health status of elderly in a long life span area.Ohgimi Village in Okinawa prefecture was selected as the study area because of long life expectancy. Interview were performed for 765 inhabitants aged 68 years and over.The result obtained are as follows :1) Current smokers were observed in 48.2% of males under 75 years and 33.6% of 75 years and over.2) Although current signs of respiratory tract disease were ...

  1. Optimal solutions for a bio mathematical model for the evolution of smoking habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Waseem; Khan, Umar; Ahmed, Naveed; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    In this study, we apply Variation of Parameter Method (VPM) coupled with an auxiliary parameter to obtain the approximate solutions for the epidemic model for the evolution of smoking habit in a constant population. Convergence of the developed algorithm, namely VPM with an auxiliary parameter is studied. Furthermore, a simple way is considered for obtaining an optimal value of auxiliary parameter via minimizing the total residual error over the domain of problem. Comparison of the obtained results with standard VPM shows that an auxiliary parameter is very feasible and reliable in controlling the convergence of approximate solutions.

  2. The changing trends in tobacco smoking for young Arab women; narghile, an old habit with a liberal attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Hammad Osama A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narghile smoking by young females is becoming more acceptable than cigarettes in the conservative societies of Arab countries. Lack of social constraints on narghile smoking has resulted in an increased prevalence of narghile smoking among young Arab females and an earlier age of onset of this habit when compared to cigarette smoking. Documented health hazards of narghile smoking including pulmonary, cardiovascular and neoplastic ailments are consequently expected to affect this vulnerable sector of the population together with their offspring. In this commentary, we shed some light on the changing trend of tobacco use among young Arabic women as shown by an increasing number of studies investigating habits of tobacco use in young people.

  3. Smoking habits and attitudes toward tobacco bans among United Kingdom hospital staff and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K E; Shin, D; Davies, G

    2011-08-01

    A group of United Kingdom (UK) hospitals. To estimate the current smoking habits of health care professionals (HCPs) in a country with active tobacco control measures, and to record their attitudes to national and hospital tobacco bans. A cross-sectional survey of 500 HCPs. HCPs reported a lower rate of current smoking (7%) than the general population (24%). Doctors (2.6%) and medical students (3.8%) were less likely to be current smokers than both nurses (8.7%) and allied health professionals (10.9%, P smoking in health care premises. A higher proportion of UK doctors (69%) than nurses (52%) favoured a complete ban (odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.14-3.56). Self-reported smoking patterns in UK health professionals are lower than previously and compared to other industrialised and developing countries. Support for bans is very high, but differences remain in behaviour and especially attitudes to local bans according to professional status, although this gap is also narrowing.

  4. Association between smoking habits and severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masaya; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Miyase, Yuiko; Suematsu, Yasunori; Norimatsu, Kenji; Nakamura, Ayumi; Adachi, Sen; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-07-01

    Smoking promotes arteriosclerosis and is one of the most important coronary risk factors. However, few studies have investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of coronary stenosis as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). We enrolled 416 patients [165/251 = smoker (past and current)/non-smoker)]. They had all undergone CTA and either were clinically suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD) or had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. We divided the patients into smoking and non-smoking groups, and evaluated the presence of CAD, the number of significantly stenosed coronary vessels (VD), and the Gensini score as assessed by CTA in the two groups. The incidence of CAD, VD, the Gensini score, and coronary calcification score in the smoking group were all significantly greater than those in the non-smoking group (CAD, p = 0.009; VD, p = 0.003; Gensini score, p = 0.007; coronary calcification score, p = 0.01). Pack-year was significantly associated with VD and the Gensini score, and was strongly associated with multi-vessel disease (2- and 3-VD) (p < 0.05), whereas the duration of cessation in past smokers was not associated with VD or the Gensini score. Pack-year, but not the duration of cessation, may be the most important factor that was associated with the severity of coronary stenosis in terms of VD and the Gensini score.

  5. Age of smoking initiation, tobacco habits and risk perception among primary, middle and high school students in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: The aim of this study was to find out at what age children start smoking, as well as their tobacco habits and risk perceptions according to the different school-age groups.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2007; it involved around 1700 students of the Catania province, in Southern Italy. The students filled in a structured tobacco questionnaire. They did it anonymously in the classrooms. Main outcome measures were initiation of smoking, smoking habits, number of cigarettes smoked per day and risk perception.

    Results: From the first year of the primary school to the last year of the high school the proportion of daily smokers increased from 0.0% to 11.8% for girls and from 0.8% to 12.7% for boys. For both genders the initiation of smoking habits occurred mainly at age 10 to 13. Finally, girls had a better risk perception.

    Conclusions: Studying young people’s tobacco habits over time gives an understanding of when preventive measures have to be implemented. In order to influence smoking attitudes, these preventive interventions must be put in place before children start experimenting tobacco.

  6. Harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient of sickness absence in Swedish women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Charlotte M Mardby

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits in sick-listed women and men, and whether the social gradient in sickness absence could be explained by the socioeconomic distribution of harmful alcohol habits.Methods: this cross-sectional questionnaire study included newly sick-listed individuals (n=2 798, 19-64 years, 66% women from Sweden. The outcome variable, self-reported harmful alcohol habits, was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Registered socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupational class were explanatory variables with age as confounder and selfreported health, symptoms, mental wellbeing, and self-efficacy as mediators. Chi2-tests and logistic regression models were applied.Results: 9% of sick-listed women and 22% of men had harmful alcohol habits. Women with a low annual income (≤149 000 SEK had higher odds ratios (OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.43-4.27 of harmful alcohol habits than those with ≥300 000 SEK/year. The significance of low income remained when mediators were introduced into the logistic regression model (OR=2.03, 95% CI=1.13-3.65. In the model including age, income was no longer significant. Men with low income were more likely to have harmful alcohol habits than men with high income (OR=2.59; 95% CI=1.45-4.62. When mediators were included low income remained significant (OR=2.88; 95% CI=1.56-5.31. Income was no longer significant when age was introduced. Education and occupational status were not significant.Conclusions: harmful alcohol habits were common among sick-listed women and men. The socioeconomic differences in harmful alcohol habits did not explain the social gradient in sickness absence.

  7. [Oral hygiene habits among tobacco-smoking and non-smoking students of the Medical University of Lublin--chosen aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Among several etiologic factors for dental caries and periodontal diseases we can find dental plaque that forms on the teeth surfaces and prosthetic appliances. Elimination of dental plaque by proper oral hygiene procedures is crucial in caries and periodontal disease prevention. The aim of the study was evaluation of tobacco smoking prevalence among dental students of the Medical University of Lublin and the comparative analysis of oral hygiene habits among smoking and nonsmoking students. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 112 students of the Medical University of Lublin during the second, third, fourth and fifth year of their studies. The students were 20-28 years of age. The questions concerned cigarettes smoking habit and the ways of maintaining oral hygiene. Respondents were divided into smoking and non-smoking group. Statistical analysis was carried out. Obtained results were sent to statistical analysis. Cigarette smoking was reported by 16.67% of surveyed students. No significant differences between smoking and non-smoking students were stated in frequency of brushing, changing the toothbrush, density of toothbrush filaments, using manual and power toothbrush, using whitening toothpastes and frequency of using dental floss and toothpicks. Statistically significant difference was noted in gum chewing habit--smoking students chewed the gum more frequently (83.33%) than non-smoking students (40%). Significant differences occurred also in frequency of professional removal of dental deposits. Calculus removal performed twice a year was reported by 50% of smoking students, comparing with 17.8% of nonsmoking students. 37.78% of nonsmoking students declared professional teeth cleaning performed more often than twice a year comparing with 11.11% of respondents from the smokers group (p < 0.05).

  8. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Hsia, Shih-Min; Shih, Yin-Hwa; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2017-06-06

    Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  9. Association of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Betel Quid Chewing with Epigenetic Aberrations in Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors such as diet, alcohol use, stress, and environmental chemicals are known to elicit epigenetic changes, leading to increased rates of cancers and other diseases. The incidence of head and neck cancer, one of the most common cancers in Taiwanese males, is increasing: oral cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are ranked fourth and tenth respectively, among the top ten cancers in this group, and a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwanese males. Previous studies have identified smoking, alcohol use, and betel quid chewing as the three major causes of head and neck cancers; these three social habits are commonly observed in Taiwanese males, resulting in an increasing morbidity rate of head and neck cancers in this population. In this literature review, we discuss the association between specific components of betel quid, alcohol, and tobacco, and the occurrence of head and neck cancers, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and urethral cancer. We focus on regulatory mechanisms at the epigenetic level and their oncogenic effects. The review further discusses the application of FDA-approved epigenetic drugs as therapeutic strategies against cancer.

  10. The Self-Report Habit Index: Assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, e-cigarette, and cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; DeMartini, Kelly S; Foster, Dawn; Patock-Peckham, Julie; Garrison, Kathleen A; Corlett, Philip R; Krystal, John H; Krishan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2018-05-01

    Substance use is partially driven by habitual processes that occur automatically in response to environmental cues and may be central to users' identities. This study was designed to validate the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) for assessing habitual marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use. We examined the SRHI's psychometrics in separate samples of adult marijuana (Ns = 189;170), alcohol (Ns = 100;133), cigarette (Ns = 58;371), and e-cigarette (N = 239) users. A 6-item, single-factor solution evidenced good fit across substances (CFI marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes = 0.996/0.997/0.996/0.994, RMSEA = 0.046/0.047/0.067/0.068, SRMR = 0.017/0.017/0.010/0.015) and internal consistency (α = 0.88/0.94/0.95/0.91). The SRHI was scalar invariant for sex and race. However, independent-samples t-tests indicated only that women endorsed stronger habitual e-cigarette use and that men endorsed stronger habitual marijuana use. The SRHI also was scalar invariant by product type in dual-users (cigarettes/e-cigarettes[N = 371]; alcohol/cigarettes [n = 58]), although differences in habit strength only were observed for cigarettes versus e-cigarettes, with dual-users reporting stronger habitual cigarette use. Finally, the SRHI predicted frequency of marijuana, alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use (n p 2 [marijuana/alcohol/cigarettes/e-cigarettes] = 0.37/0.48/0.31/0.17) and quantity of alcohol and cigarette use (n p 2  = 0.43/0.33). The SRHI is a psychometrically sound measure of adults' habitual substance use. The SRHI detected mean differences by sex and substance type and predicted the frequency of using each substance. Future research should determine if the SRHI is appropriate for use with other substances or age groups (e.g., adolescents), how it relates to task-based, behavioral measures of habit strength, and the degree to which habit predicts the development or maintenance of addiction. Copyright © 2018

  11. The Associations Between Smoking Habits and Serum Triglyceride or Hemoglobin A1c Levels Differ According to Visceral Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Koda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether smokers and former smokers have worse lipid profiles or glucose levels than non-smokers remains unclear. Methods: The subjects were 1152 Japanese males aged 42 to 81 years. The subjects were divided according to their smoking habits (nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers and their visceral fat area (VFA (<100 cm2 and ≥100 cm2. Results: The serum triglyceride (TG levels of 835 males were assessed. In the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, a significantly greater proportion of current smokers (47.3% exhibited TG levels of ≥150 mg/dL compared with former smokers (36.4% and non-smokers (18.8%. The difference in TG level distribution between former smokers and non-smokers was also significant. However, among the subjects with VFA of <100 cm2, the TG levels of the three smoking habit groups did not differ. The serum hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels of 877 males were also assessed. In the VFA <100 cm2 group, significantly higher proportions of current smokers (17.9% and former smokers (14.9% demonstrated HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers (6.3%. In contrast, in the VFA ≥100 cm2 group, significantly fewer former smokers displayed HbA1c levels of ≥5.6% compared with non-smokers and current smokers. Furthermore, the interaction between smoking habits and VFA was associated with the subjects’ TG and HbA1c concentrations, and the associations of TG and HbA1c concentrations and smoking habits varied according to VFA. Conclusions: Both smoking habits and VFA exhibited associations with TG and HbA1c concentrations. The associations between smoking habits and these parameters differed according to VFA.

  12. Gene promoter methylation and DNA repair capacity in monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottini, Laura; Rizzolo, Piera; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Silvestri, Valentina; Crebelli, Riccardo; Marcon, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The influence of DNA repair capacity, plasma nutrients and tobacco smoke exposure on DNA methylation was investigated in blood cells of twenty-one couples of monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits. All study subjects had previously been characterized for mutagen sensitivity with challenge assays with ionizing radiation in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Plasma levels of folic acid, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were also available from a previous investigation. In this work DNA methylation in the promoter region of a panel of ten genes involved in cell cycle control, differentiation, apoptosis and DNA repair (p16, FHIT, RAR, CDH1, DAPK1, hTERT, RASSF1A, MGMT, BRCA1 and PALB2) was assessed in the same batches of cells isolated for previous studies, using the methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting technique. Fairly similar profiles of gene promoter methylation were observed within co-twins compared to unrelated subjects (p= 1.23 × 10(-7)), with no significant difference related to smoking habits (p = 0.23). In a regression analysis the methylation index of study subjects, used as synthetic descriptor of overall promoter methylation, displayed a significant inverse correlation with radiation-induced micronuclei (p = 0.021) and plasma folic acid level (p = 0.007) both in smokers and in non-smokers. The observed association between repair of radiation-induced DNA damage and promoter methylation suggests the involvement of the DNA repair machinery in DNA modification. Data also highlight the possible modulating effect of folate deficiency on DNA methylation and the strong influence of familiarity on the individual epigenetic profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical expenditures of men with hypertension and/or a smoking habit: a 10-year follow-up study of National Health Insurance in Shiga, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Koshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kanda, Hideyuki; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2010-08-01

    Hypertension and smoking are major causes of disability and death, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, where there is a high prevalence of a combination of these two risk factors. We attempted to measure the medical expenditures of a Japanese male population with hypertension and/or a smoking habit over a 10-year period of follow-up. A cohort study was conducted that investigated the medical expenditures due to a smoking habit and/or hypertension during the decade of the 1990s using existing data on physical status and medical expenditures. The participants included 1708 community-dwelling Japanese men, aged 40-69 years, who were classified into the following four categories: 'neither smoking habit nor hypertension', 'smoking habit alone', 'hypertension alone' or 'both smoking habit and hypertension.' Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of > or =140 mm Hg, a diastolic blood pressure of > or =90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medications. In the study cohort, 24.9% had both a smoking habit and hypertension. During the 10-year follow-up period, participants with a smoking habit alone (18,444 Japanese yen per month), those with hypertension alone (21,252 yen per month) and those with both a smoking habit and hypertension (31,037 yen per month) had increased personal medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit and hypertension (17,418 yen per month). Similar differences were observed even after adjustment for other confounding factors (Psmoking habit and hypertension incurred higher medical expenditures compared with those without a smoking habit, hypertension or their combination.

  14. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Age and smoking habit influence on the spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies of the micronucleus in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human population that have been exposed at work or in the environment to genotoxic agents, particularly to ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for evaluating radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. A research to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the MN spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies was carried out in order to define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 health donors aged between 4 and 60 years. Based on the smoking habits, they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ-rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed, and a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was also obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence significantly MN variability, but there was a greater dispersion in the results obtained from female donors, when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to the data from non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been......Background: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. Methods/design: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who...

  18. Behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for overreliance on habit learning in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoerds, Z; de Wit, S; van den Brink, W; Robbins, T W; Beekman, A T F; Penninx, B W J H; Veltman, D J

    2013-12-17

    Substance dependence is characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite negative consequences. Animal research suggests an underlying imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action control with chronic drug use. However, this imbalance, and its associated neurophysiological mechanisms, has not yet been experimentally investigated in human drug abusers. The aim of the present study therefore was to assess the balance between goal-directed and habit-based learning and its neural correlates in abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. A total of 31 AD patients and 19 age, gender and education matched healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during completion of an instrumental learning task designed to study the balance between goal-directed and habit learning. Task performance and task-related blood oxygen level-dependent activations in the brain were compared between AD patients and healthy matched controls. Findings were additionally associated with duration and severity of alcohol dependence. The results of this study provide evidence for an overreliance on stimulus-response habit learning in AD compared with HC, which was accompanied by decreased engagement of brain areas implicated in goal-directed action (ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior putamen) and increased recruitment of brain areas implicated in habit learning (posterior putamen) in AD patients. In conclusion, this is the first human study to provide experimental evidence for a disturbed balance between goal-directed and habitual control by use of an instrumental learning task, and to directly implicate cortical dysfunction to overreliance on inflexible habits in AD patients.

  19. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. Methods: we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase...

  20. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  1. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  2. Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on admissions and duration of hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Rasmussen, Søren; Grønbaek, Morten

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol...... consumption, smoking and patterns of hospitalization, defined as admission and duration of hospitalization. METHODS: The study was based on 12 698 men and women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We related smoking and alcohol to hospital admission from any cause, smoking...

  3. Smoking habits of radiotherapy patients: did the diagnosis of cancer make an impact and is there an opportunity to intervene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charlie Chia-Tsong; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Chawla, Aakriti; Mitina, Natalia; Christie, David

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the impact of a cancer diagnosis on smoking habits in patients receiving radiotherapy and assess the opportunity to intervene. One hundred consecutive patients were interviewed. They included patients newly diagnosed with cancer of any type and receiving radiotherapy. Detailed information was collected including smoking habits before and after the diagnosis, the timing of and reasons for any changes. We also asked about patients' view of the role of the radiation oncologist in smoking cessation and the opportunities for intervention. Analysis of results involved simple descriptive statistics. Although there were only 14 current smokers, only two had decided to quit. Five smokers decreased smoking, six did not change and one increased smoking. One non-smoker (1/34) took up smoking. Nearly all changes occurred within the first 30 days of diagnosis. Most (79%, 11/14) smokers believed that the treating radiation oncologist should discuss smoking cessation with their patients and that the ideal timing is at either the first consultation or when decisions about treatment have been finalised. The diagnosis of cancer can motivate patients to reduce smoking, but few quit altogether and a smaller number increase or even take up smoking. These changes occur early after receiving a diagnosis of cancer. Patients with a smoking history believed that the treating radiation oncologist should discuss smoking cessation with their patients and that the ideal timing is at the first consultation. The periodic nature of treatments and consultations at radiation oncology centres suggest there is the potential for an effective smoking cessation programme. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Josephson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI, is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT.

  5. Beliefs about Alcohol Use and Smoking among Sorority and Fraternity Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Maness, Sarah; Huber, Kathleen; Eggleston, Landon; Naberhaus, Bryce; Nichols, Brooklyn; Burt, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Fraternity and sorority members have one of the highest smoking rates among college students, yet little is known about the social influences on smoking within this subculture. The objective of this study was to examine sorority and fraternity member beliefs about smoking and alcohol use. Methods: In-depth individual interviews were…

  6. Smoking habits of patients with newly diagnosed stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, J.; Bonner, J.A.; McGinnis, W.L.; Stella, P.; Marks, R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to assess the smoking habits and changes in the cigarette smoking habits of patients prior to, at the time of and after the diagnosis of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of unresectable stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer who had agreed to enter a phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial comparing twice daily thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) given with chemotherapy to once daily TRT given with chemotherapy were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their past and present cigarette smoking habits. This questionnaire included information regarding the number of years of smoking, number of packs of cigarettes smoked per day and the time frame of smoking history. Subsequently, patients were given questionnaires to assess changes in smoking history at the halfway point of treatment, and during follow-up visits. Results: Of the 140 patients who were entered on the above noted trial, 132 filled out baseline questionnaires and were the subject of this study. Of these 132 patients, 126 (95%) had either smoked cigarettes in the past or smoked at the time of study entry. The median pack years of smoking. (years of smoking x packs per day) was 43 with a range of 3-169 pack years. Of the 126 patients with a smoking history, 124 provided information regarding the status of their smoking at the time of entry on the study: 89 (72%) claimed to have quit smoking and, 35 (28%) reported that they continued to smoke an average of one pack per day. Of the 89 patients who had quit smoking, roughly one third had quit within the month before study entry and 45% had quit during the 8 month period prior to entry on the study. Of the 35 patients who continued to smoke at the time of entry on the study, 21 indicated that they stopped smoking during the period following randomization. Hence 10% of the original 140 patients entered on study continued to smoke an average of one

  7. Smoking habits, awareness of risks, and attitude towards tobacco control policies among medical students in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dania, Michelle G; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Bandele, Emmanuel O

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking among medical students, and to determine their level of knowledge regarding risk associated with cigarette smoking and their attitude and behavior towards tobacco control strategies and policies. A stratified random sampling approach was used to select participants. A modified version of the the Global Health Professional Students Survey questionnaire was self-administered. Descriptive statistics were applied and comparisons were done using chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the significant determinants of smoking. A P smoking and current smoking was 9.6 and 1.2%, respectively. Age > 21, having a smoking father, and use of alcohol were significantly associated with ever smoking. Knowledge of smoking as a risk for emphysema was 72.8%, coronary artery disease 82.8%, stroke 68.8%, and low birth weight 76.4%. There were 103 (41.2%) students aware of antidepressant usage in smoking cessation. One hundred and ninety-five (78%) offered smoking cessation advice if a smoker had no smoking-related disease and did not seek their opinion about smoking, 68.8% affirmed to having adequate knowledge on smoking cessation, and 56.8% had received formal training on smoking cessation techniques. The ban on cigarette smoking in enclosed public places was supported by 92.4%. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking among medical students in Lagos is relatively low. Gaps exist in the level of knowledge of the students regarding risks of cigarette smoking, tobacco cessation strategies, and in their attitude and behavior towards offering tobacco cessation advice. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.

  8. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  9. Perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol dependent patients in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Marilyn K; Martin, Rosemarie A; Rohsenow, Damaris J; MacKinnon, Selene Varney; Traficante, Regina; Monti, Peter M

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about the perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol abusers. In addition to the usual barriers perceived by smokers, alcohol dependent smokers may have a few barriers unique to their addictive lifestyle. The Barriers to Quitting Smoking in Substance Abuse Treatment (BQS-SAT) was administered to 96 alcohol dependent smokers in residential substance abuse treatment. The BQS-SAT is designed to assess perceived barriers to quitting smoking among alcohol abusers using eleven true-false items. One open-ended item was included to gather information about potential additional barriers. The majority of respondents reported withdrawal-related barriers such as expecting to feel irritable, anxious, restless, and about half expected intolerable urges to smoke if they were to quit smoking, as most smokers do. However, concerns about effects on sobriety and needing cigarettes to cope with feeling down were also endorsed by almost half of the patients. Total number of perceived barriers was significantly related to smoking history, expected effects from smoking, and smoking temptation but was not associated with severity of alcohol use or dependence on admission. Providing corrective feedback about these barriers could be useful when addressing smoking with patients who have alcohol abuse or dependence.

  10. Attitudes, perceptions, habits of smoker non-smoker general practitioners and why they fail to motivate patients to quit smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, A.; Naqvi, S.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate attitudes, perceptions and habits of General Practitioners (GPs) who smoke and those who do not smoke cigarettes, with particular attention to smoking cessation. Two physician groups were targeted: GPs who smoke and those who do not smoke. They were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A unique country-specific questionnaire was developed to conduct a 20-minute telephonic interview. Survey was started from December 2006 and completed in May 2007. Simple statistical calculations were used to interpret the data. GPs view smoking as the most harmful behaviour among the risk factors. 94% agreed that smoking should be classified as a medical condition and if it were so would encourage more smokers to quit smoking and they have suggested the need of prescription therapies for their patients to quit smoking. Significant discontent exists between physicians and smokers. The main cause of this discontent is physician perceived inability to provide successful solutions to quit smoking due to low awareness level and lack of training. This issue, when properly addressed, can be useful as an additional tool to aid patients in quitting. (author)

  11. Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Gary; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2017-04-15

    Exercise is associated with reduced risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality; however, the benefits in smokers and ex-smokers are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exercise, smoking habit and mortality. Self-reported exercise and smoking, and all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality were assessed in 106,341 adults in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. There were 9149 deaths from all causes, 2839 from CVD and 2634 from cancer during 999,948 person-years of follow-up. Greater amounts of exercise were associated with decreases and greater amounts of smoking were associated with increases in the risks of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. There was no statistically significant evidence of biological interaction; rather, the relative risks of all-cause mortality were additive. In the subgroup of 26,768 ex-smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI 0.60, 0.80), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.71 (0.55, 092) and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.52, 0.84) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. In the subgroup of 28,440 smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.57, 0.83), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.45, 0.96) and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.51, 0.94) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. Given that an outright ban is unlikely, this study is important because it suggests exercise reduces the risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by around 30% in smokers and ex-smokers. © 2017 UICC.

  12. The drinking habits of users of an alcohol screening web site in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Kolšek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy drinking is responsible for major health and social problems. Slovenia has few epidemiological studies about drinking, none of them have used the AUDIT questionnaire. Pilot studies have indicated that a Webbased screening is likely to be acceptable to young heavy drinkers. Methods: Cross sectional study. Visitors of a free website, older then 10 years, were offered screening with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Their demographic data and information about their drinking habits were collected. All users who completed the questionnaire received a specially prepared feed-back message with an evaluation of their drinking. Data from the database for the first four months were collected for analysis on February 1, 2009. Results: In four months 3329 users filled in the questionnaire, 69.2 % completed it and 1790 participans completed it for themselves. Their mean age was 28.9 years, 62.7 % were between 19 and 34 years. 41 % were single, 49.4 % had finnished the secondary school. 0.1 % of men did not drink alcohol at all, 57.7 % drank hazardous or harmful amounts of alcohol. 50.6 % of women did not have risky drinking habits. Mean baseline AUDIT scores were 8.8 ± 1.3, 9.79 ± 2.1 for men and 7.68 ± 4.7 for women. Conclusions: The alcohol screening website was widely used, especially by young people. The percentage of hazardous male drinkers accessing the site was high. The website seems to be an accessible and useful tool for young people and it could contribute to health promotion and constitute an easier alternative to screening for hazardous and harmful drinking.

  13. Alcohol and smoking behavior in chronic pain patients: the role of opioids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten; Peuckmann, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The primary aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate associations between chronic non-cancer pain with or without opioid treatment and the alcohol and smoking behavior. The secondary aims were to investigate self-reported quality of life, sleeping problems, oral health and the use...... chronic/long-lasting pain lasting 6 months or more?' The question concerning alcohol intake assessed the frequency of alcohol intake and binge drinking. Smoking behavior assessed the daily number of cigarettes. Individuals reporting chronic pain were stratified into two groups (opioid users and non...... individuals. We found, that individuals suffering from chronic pain were less likely to drink alcohol. In opioid users alcohol consumption was further reduced. Cigarette smoking was significantly increased in individuals suffering from chronic pain and in opioid users smoking was further increased. Poor oral...

  14. Population attributable fraction of Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma due to smoking and alcohol in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Samson; Churchill, Cristina; Owori, Rogers; Nasasira, Benson; Tumuhimbise, Christine; Abonga, Charles Lagoro; Mutiibwa, David; Christiani, David C.; Corey, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high rates and regional variation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in East Africa, the contributions of smoking and alcohol to the ESCC burden in the general population are unknown. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting for upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Sociodemographic data including smoking and alcohol intake were collected prior to endoscopy. Cases were those with histological diagnosis of ESCC and controls were participants with normal endoscopic examination and gastritis/duodentitis or normal histology. We used odds ratios associated with ESCC risk to determine the population attributable fractions for smoking, alcohol use, and a combination of smoking and alcohol use among adults aged 30 years or greater who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Our study consisted of 67 cases and 142 controls. Median age was 51 years (IQR 40–64); and participants were predominantly male (59 %). Dysphagia and/or odynophagia as indications for endoscopy were significantly more in cases compared to controls (72 % vs 6 %, p < 0.0001). Male gender and increasing age were statistically associated with ESCC. In the unadjusted models, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to male gender was 55 %, female gender - 49 %, smoking 20 %, alcohol 9 % and a combination of alcohol & smoking 15 %. After adjusting for gender and age, the population attributable fraction of ESCC due to smoking, alcohol intake and a combination of alcohol & smoking were 16, 10, and 13 % respectively. In this population, 13 % of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases would be avoided if smoking and alcohol use were discontinued. These results suggest that other important risk factors for ESCC in southwestern Uganda remain unknown

  15. Smoking, consumption of alcohol and sedentary life style in population grouping and their relationships with lipemic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Martins Ignez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The study, part of the project "Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, lipemic disorders, hypertension, obesity and diabetis mellitus in a population of the metropolitan area of the southeastern region of Brazil", had the following objectives: a the characterization and distribution among typical human socio-economic groupings, of the prevalence of some particular habits which constitute aspects of life-style-the use of tobacco, the use of alcohol and sedentary activity; b the establishment of the interrelation between the above-mentioned habits and some lipemic disorders. The prevalence of the habits cited behaved in the following manner: the use of tobacco predominated among men, distributed uniformly throughout the social strata; among the women the average percentage of smokers was 18,9%, a significant difference occurring among the highest socio-economic class, where the average was of 40.2%. The sedentary style of life presented high prevalence, among both men and women with exception of the women of the highest socio-economic level and of the skilled working class. The use of alcohol, as one would expect, is a habit basically practised by the men, without any statistically significant differences between classes. For the purpose of establishing associations between these risk fictors and lipemic conditions four situations were chosen, of the following characteristics: 1- total cholesterol > or = 220 mg/dl and triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl; 2- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl; 3- HDL cholesterol or = 150 mg/dl, and the following independent variables: age, use of tobacco and the interactions between obesity and smoking, age and sedentary lifestyle, sex and obesity (R2=22%; the standardized B coefficient showed that the variables with the greatest weight in the forecasting of the variation in the levels of cholesterol were smoking and the interaction between obesity and smoking. The hypercholesterolemia accompanied by triglycerides levels

  16. Associations between oral hygiene habits, diet, tobacco and alcohol and risk of oral cancer: A case-control study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Bray, Freddie; Kumar, Narinder; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the association between the incidence of oral cancer in India and oral hygiene habits, diet, chewing and smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol. We also assessed the effects of oral hygiene habits with oral cancer risk among chewers versus never chewers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pune, India, based on face-to-face interviews, anthropometry, and intra-oral examinations conducted for 187 oral cancer cases and 240 controls. Poor oral hygiene score was associated with a significant risk of oral cancer (adjusted OR=6.98; 95%CI 3.72-13.05). When stratified by tobacco-chewing habit, the poor oral hygiene score was a significant risk factor only among ever tobacco chewers (adjusted OR=14.74; 95%CI 6.49-33.46) compared with never chewers (adjusted OR=0.71; 95%CI 0.14-3.63). Dental check-ups only at the time of pain by ever-chewers with poor oral hygiene was associated with an elevated risk (adjusted OR=4.22; 95%CI 2.44-7.29), while consumption of green, yellow, and cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits was protective. A linear dose-response association was observed between oral cancer and chewing tobacco in terms of age at initiation, duration, and frequency of chewing per day (P25 years (adjusted OR=2.31; 95%CI 1.14-4.71) elevated the risk of oral cancer. Good oral hygiene habits - as characterized by healthy gums, brushing more than once daily, use of toothpaste, annual dental check-ups, and a minimal number of missing teeth - can reduce the risk of oral cancer significantly. In addition to refraining from chewing/smoking tobacco, a diet adequate in fruits and vegetables may protect against the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Alcohol and driving: attitudes and habits of students after an intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, Jose Antonio; Romero-Martín, Macarena; Romero-Brioso, Concepción; Paredes-Jiménez, Antonio de Padua

    2016-01-01

    Knowing and contrasting attitudes and habits toward alcohol when it comes to driving among nursing students and to analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention with testimonies in order to modify them. Analytical and quasiexperimental design with pre-test and post-test. The study population consists of students of nursing degree of the Red Cross from Sevilla. The intervention is based on attending an educational activity from people directly and personally experienced on car accidents, narrating their own lived facts. A specific questionnaire was used to measure attitudes and trends of behaviors towards alcohol drinking and driving. The mean of the responses related to the false beliefs of students in first course is 2.73 (standard deviation [SD]=0.14) versus 2.29 (SD=0.27) in fourth. For questions regarding the intentions of risky behavior, first course have a mean of 2.01 (SD=0.51) versus 1.76 (SD=1.76) in fourth. These differences were not found to be significant. No differences were found before and after the intervention on the two global dimensions studied. The disaggregated results per item show that the intervention significantly reduced the belief that alcohol does not affect safety (p=.001) and intention not to drink to accompany friends with your car (p=.026), among others. The analyzed intervention has a positive but limited influence. It is recommended to repeat it several times to improve a healthy lifestyle and also to improve the health habits of the general population in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of CT screening on smoking habits at 1-year follow-up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, H; Tønnesen, P; Holst Pedersen, J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of low-dose CT screening for lung cancer on smoking habits has not been reported in large randomised controlled trials. METHODS: This study evaluated the effect on smoking habits of screening with low-dose CT at 1-year follow up in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial...... pack years. Smoking habits were determined at baseline and at annual screening. Smoking status was verified using exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Lung function tests, nicotine dependency and motivation to quit smoking were assessed. Quit rates and relapse rates were determined at 1-year follow...... (DLCST), a 5-year randomised controlled trial comprising 4104 subjects; 2052 subjects received annual low-dose CT scan (CT group) and 2052 received no intervention (control group). Participants were healthy current and former smokers (>4 weeks since smoking cessation) with a tobacco consumption of >20...

  19. Influence of Knowledge and Attitudes on Smoking Habits Among Young Military Conscripts in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoh-Shiang Lin

    2010-08-01

    Conclusion: Knowledge and attitudes about smoking are significantly associated with the status of cigarette smoking. These findings can help public health professionals develop effective policies and smoking prevention and cessation programs among young military conscripts in Taiwan.

  20. Factors, influencing on forming for the children of middle and senior school ages of attitude toward harmful habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutula V.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of questioning of students of general schools are rotined. 589 students took part in experiment. It is marked that swinging majority of students (91,5% realize negative influence on their health of harmful habits (smoking and use of alcohol. It is set that for years study the amount of students which smoke and taste alcohol. Present information testifies to not formed for the schoolchildren of the proper position in relation to smoking and use of alcohol is presented. It is marked that students indifferently behave to widespread among grown man habits to smoke and use an alcohol.

  1. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Neale, M.C.; Furberg, H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods: Summary-level

  2. The contribution of DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease genotype and smoking habit to Taiwan lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Liang-Yi; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Tu, Chih-Yen; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Chen, Hung-Jen; Wang, Shu-Ming; Bau, da-Tian

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism the gene for DNA-apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APEX1) with personal smoking habit and lung cancer risk in Taiwan, the polymorphic variants of APEX1, Asp(148)Glu (rs1130409), were analyzed in association with lung cancer risk, and their joint effect with personal smoking habits on lung cancer susceptibility was discussed. In this hospital-based case-control study, 358 patients with lung cancer and 716 cancer-free controls, frequency-matched by age and sex, were recruited and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the percentages of TT, TG and GG APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes were not significantly different at 43.0%, 41.1% and 15.9% in the lung cancer patient group and 39.9%, 46.1% and 14.0% in non-cancer control group, respectively. We further analyzed the genetic-lifestyle effects on lung cancer risk and found the contribution of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu genotypes to lung cancer susceptibility was neither enhanced in the cigarette smokers nor in the non-smokers (p=0.3550 and 0.8019, respectively). Our results provide evidence that the non-synonymous polymorphism of APEX1 Asp(148)Glu may not be directly associated with lung cancer risk, nor enhance the effects of smoking habit on lung cancer development.

  3. Respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is impaired by smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Shinobu; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Sumitomo, Kazuhiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information about the respiratory function of ever-smokers without lung disorders. We sought to assess the effects of smoking habits on respiratory function in subjects without lung disorders. Subjects were recruited from among patients without any evidence of respiratory disorders who visited rural primary care clinics. Each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire that included questions smoking history. Their forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured. We analyzed 802 subjects (364 men and 438 women). The means of the lambda-mu-sigma method derived z-score of FEV1 (zFEV1) both in current-smokers and ex-smokers were lower than that in never-smokers. The mean zFEV1 in the ever-smokers with more than 30 pack-years of smoking history were lower than that in the ever-smokers with less smoking history. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant negative correlations between pack-years and zFEV1 both in the ex-smokers and current-smokers. There was no significant correlation between the duration of smoking cessation and zFEV1 in the ex-smokers. Our data suggests that respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is decreased based on smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner. Even after a long period of smoking cessation, the decreased respiratory function seems to be maintained in ex-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care - Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molarius, Anu; Hellstrand, Mats; Engström, Sevek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16-84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%). Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  5. Clustering of lifestyle factors in Spanish university students: the relationship between smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Carlos; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tauler-Riera, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Martinez-Andreu, Sonia; Aguilo-Pons, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of and association between main lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking) in students from the Balearic Islands University. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A questionnaire including questions on lifestyle, dietary habits and physical activity habits was administered to the students. Four different diet quality scores were calculated (Diet Diversity Score, Mediterranean Diet Score, Dietary Guidelines Score and Global Dietary Guidelines Score). A sample of students from the Balearic Islands University. Nine hundred and eighty-seven students (45·5 % males; mean age 21·5 (sd 3·3) years). The dietary pattern of the student population was characterized by a low consumption of cereals and tubers, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, legumes and nuts, and a high consumption of processed meat, sweets, snacks, soft drinks and pastries. Linear, positive and statistically significant correlations were found between the number of meals consumed daily and all of the diet quality scores determined. Determinants of diet quality, both in the univariate and multivariate analyses, were physical activity practice, sex, age and number of meals consumed daily. Risk factors such as smoking, diet and physical inactivity had a tendency of clustering among Spanish university students. Overall diet quality was low, due to important departures from dietary recommendations and loss of the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutritional education campaigns that include promotion of physical activity practice are needed to improve the overall health status of this population.

  6. Contribution of lifetime smoking habit in France and Northern Ireland to country and socioeconomic differentials in mortality and cardiovascular incidence: the PRIME Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W G; Patterson, C C; Arveiler, D; Amouyel, P; Ferrières, J; Woodside, J V; Haas, B; Montaye, M; Ruidavets, J B; Kee, F; Evans, A; Bingham, A; Ducimetière, P

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the contribution of lifetime smoking habit to the socioeconomic gradient in all-cause and smoking-related mortality and in cardiovascular incidence in two countries. 10,600 men aged 50-59 years were examined in 1991-4 in centres in Northern Ireland and France and followed annually for 10 years. Deaths and cardiovascular events were documented. Current smoking habit, lifetime smoking (pack-years) and other health behaviours were evaluated at baseline. As socio-occupational coding schemes differ between the countries seven proxy socioeconomic indicators were used. Lifetime smoking habit showed marked associations with most socioeconomic indicators in both countries, but lifetime smoking was more than 10 pack-years greater overall in Northern Ireland and smoking patterns differed. Total mortality was 49% higher in Northern Ireland than in France, and smoking-related mortality and cardiovascular incidence were 93% and 92% higher, respectively. Both lifetime smoking and fibrinogen contributed independently to these differentials, but together explained only 42% of the difference in total mortality between countries, adjusted for both biological and lifestyle confounders. Socioeconomic gradients were steeper for total and smoking-related mortality than for cardiovascular incidence. Residual contributions of lifetime smoking habit ranged from 6% to 34% for the seven proxy indicators of socioeconomic position for total and smoking-related mortality. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular incidence were minimal following adjustment for confounders. In Northern Ireland and France lifetime smoking appeared to explain a significant part of the gradients in total and smoking-related mortality between socioeconomic groups, but the contribution of smoking was generally small for cardiovascular incidence.

  7. Single Motherhood, Alcohol Dependence, and Smoking During Pregnancy: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lian, Min; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Miller, Ruth Huang; Lynskey, Michael T; Knopik, Valerie S; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2017-09-01

    Few studies linking single motherhood and maternal smoking during pregnancy consider correlated risk from problem substance use beyond history of smoking and concurrent use of alcohol. In the present study, we used propensity score methods to examine whether the risk of smoking during pregnancy associated with single motherhood is the result of potential confounders, including alcohol dependence. Data were drawn from mothers participating in a birth cohort study of their female like-sex twin offspring (n = 257 African ancestry; n = 1,711 European or other ancestry). We conducted standard logistic regression models predicting smoking during pregnancy from single motherhood at twins' birth, followed by propensity score analyses comparing single-mother and two-parent families stratified by predicted probability of single motherhood. In standard models, single motherhood predicted increased risk of smoking during pregnancy in European ancestry but not African ancestry families. In propensity score analyses, rates of smoking during pregnancy were elevated in single-mother relative to two-parent European ancestry families across much of the spectrum a priori risk of single motherhood. Among African ancestry families, within-strata comparisons of smoking during pregnancy by single-mother status were nonsignificant. These findings highlight single motherhood as a unique risk factor for smoking during pregnancy in European ancestry mothers, over and above alcohol dependence. Additional research is needed to identify risks, beyond single motherhood, associated with smoking during pregnancy in African ancestry mothers.

  8. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts top-down control over basal ganglia action selection to produce habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Baltz, Emily T; Gremel, Christina M

    2018-01-15

    Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.

  9. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  10. Alcohol intake and cigarette smoking: Impact of two major lifestyle factors on male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Dushyant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors, like alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been reported to affect male fertility. Aims: To find out the specific impact of alcohol and smoking on semen quality of male partners of couples seeking treatment for primary infertility. Materials and Methods: From the semen samples analyzed in our andrology laboratory, results of 100 alcoholics and 100 cigarette smoker males were studied following WHO guidelines and compared with 100 strict nonalcoholic and nonsmoker males for presence of asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed by F- test using Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Only 12% alcoholics and six per cent smokers showed normozoospermia compared to 37 % nonalcoholic nonsmoker males. Teratozoospermia, followed by oligozoospermia dominated alcoholics. Overall impact of asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia, but not of oligozoospermia, was observed in smokers. Light smokers predominantly showed asthenozoospermia. Heavy alcoholics and smokers showed asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia as well as oligozoospermia. Conclusions: Asthenozoospermia, the most common semen variable in our study, can be an early indicator of reduction in quality of semen. Alcohol abuse apparently targets sperm morphology and sperm production. Smoke-induced toxins primarily hamper sperm motility and seminal fluid quality. Progressive deterioration in semen quality is related to increasing quantity of alcohol intake and cigarettes smoked.

  11. Alcohol reduction in the first trimester is unrelated to smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Schmidt

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Women reported reducing their alcohol consumption during pregnancy, including those screening positive for pre-pregnancy problem drinking. First trimester alcohol reduction cannot be accounted for by smoking, patient or pregnancy characteristics; public health initiatives, psychological factors and hormonal mechanisms may be implicated.

  12. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  13. Reinforcement of smoking and drinking: tobacco marketing strategies linked with alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M

    2011-10-01

    We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.

  14. Evaluation for the habitability of the main control room and the performance of the smoke control system at NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, M. H.; Hong, S. R.; Sung, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the indoor air conditioning, the habitability of the main control room for the operators at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) has to be ensured with a strict design requirements to protect the workers from the radiation exposure, hazardous chemicals, and the smoke with toxic combustion products. With this context, the internal pressure of the control room envelope shall be sustained at slightly higher pressure than the atmospheric pressure. At this paper, the internal pressure of the control room envelope was analyzed by use of the evaluation program, CONTANW that was developed by the NIST. On the basis of design values, the performance status of the smoke control system was also checked by the program, CFAST that was released by the NIST to confirm the dynamic smoke behaviors

  15. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a

  16. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    .92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....

  17. Cigarette smoking habit does not reduce the benefit from first line trastuzumab-based treatment in advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Adamo, Vincenzo; Addeo, Raffaele; Fusco, Vittorio; Russo, Antonio; Montemurro, Filippo; Roato, Ilaria; Redana, Stefania; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Berruti, Alfredo; Leoni, Valentina; Galluzzo, Sara; Antimi, Mauro; Ferraro, Giuseppa; Rossi, Maura; Del Prete, Salvatore; Valerio, Maria Rosaria; Marra, Monica; Caraglia, Michele; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Many ErbB2-positive cancers may show intrinsic resistance, and the frequent development of acquired resistance to ErbB-targeted agents represents a substantial clinical problem. The constitutive NF-κB activation in some HER-2/neu positive breast cancer may represent a potential cause of resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Preclinical data revealed that 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the tobacco-specific nitrosamine is able to enhance NF-κB DNA binding activity and theoretically to increase the resistance to trastuzumab. Two hundred and forty-eight women with pathologically confirmed, uni- or bidimensionally measurable, HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treated with trastuzumab-based therapy as first line combination for metastatic disease were considered eligible. For all included patients data on smoking habit were detectable from medical records. We retrospectively analysed the smoking habits of 248 MBC patients and correlated these habits with activity and efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy. No statistically significant difference in terms of response rate (RR), time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was identified between smokers (former plus active smokers) and never smokers. Moreover, no statistically significant difference in terms of RR, TTP and OS was identified either comparing active smokers and former smokers. Moreover, we did not observed any significant statistical difference in terms of TTP and OS between smokers ≥10 cigarettes/day and smoking habit and both activity and efficacy of trastuzumab-based first line therapy in metastatic HER2/neu positive breast cancer patients.

  18. Does educational level influence the effects of smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and obesity on mortality? A prospective population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina; Højbjerre, Lise; Riegels, Mette

    2004-01-01

    in mortality risk. However, these risk factors seem to influence mortality equally at different educational levels. Therefore, social inequalities in mortality do not seem to be explained only by differences in effect of lifestyle risk factors, but are also related to the social rank or unexamined factors...... into three educational levels measured as basic schooling, and the effect of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index, respectively, on mortality was assessed. RESULTS: Those with the lowest level of education were most frequently heavy smokers, heavy drinkers, physically...... strata. Further, subjects who were either very lean or obese had increased risks of death compared with those of normal weight at all educational levels in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in distribution of the main known risk factors may be part of the explanation for the differences...

  19. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhao, Y; Huang, L X; Xu, H X; Liu, X Y; Yang, J J; Zhang, P J; Zhang, Y H

    2018-04-01

    To determine the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile in male adults in northwest rural China. Cross-sectional study. In total, 4614 subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, performed between 2008 and 2012. The present study examined males aged ≥18 years from northwest rural China (n = 707). Data on current smoking and drinking status were collected. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and combined influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on lipid profile. Age, ethnic group, educational background, smoking (or alcohol consumption), waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were adjusted as confounders. Total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, triglycerides (TG)/HDL-C ratio, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C ratio and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, whereas HDL-C was lower in smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, lipid accumulation product and VAI were significantly higher in drinkers than non-drinkers. After adjustment for confounders, significant relationships were observed between smoking status and any dyslipidemia, low HDL-C and high VAI (odds ratios [ORs]: 2.53 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.25-5.15], 6.13 [95% CI: 2.84-13.25] and 4.39 [95% CI: 2.02-9.54], respectively). The OR for any dyslipidaemia was 1.94 (95% CI: 1.09-3.48) for subjects who smoke and drank alcohol compared with subjects who did not smoke or drink alcohol. Abnormalities in lipid profile are correlated with smoking and alcohol consumption, which calls for intervention strategies to prevent dyslipidaemia and control risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serotonergic dysfunction in addiction: effects of alcohol, cigarette smoking and heroin on platelet 5-HT content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L G; Dufeu, P; Heinz, A; Kuhn, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-10-10

    The impact of ethanol, cigarette smoking and heroin on serotonin function was evaluated, first in alcoholics during chronic ethanol intoxication and in opiate addicts after long-term heroin consumption, and secondly in both patient groups after detoxification treatment (i.e. a short-term abstinence of 8 days). Our results showed that the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in platelets was: (1) increased in the subgroup of anti-social alcoholics; (2) transiently and differently altered in alcoholics compared to opiate addicts; and (3) lowered in drinking alcoholics and normal in alcoholics who were drinking as well as smoking (that may occur via MAO-B inhibition by smoke). The findings indicate that alterations of the peripheral and possibly the central serotonin system may occur as predisposing factors for alcoholism in individuals with anti-social traits; they may also have some impact on the progression of alcoholism due to its lowered function during chronic ethanol intoxication that is substantially modified by smoking.

  1. Associations between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men and women: Independence of habitual alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Daimon, Takashi

    Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent cardiovascular risk factor, and HDL cholesterol level is influenced by lifestyles including alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between hypo-HDL cholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk factors and to determine whether or not these relationships depend on the above-mentioned lifestyles. The subjects were 3456 men and 2510 women (35-60 years of age) showing low HDL cholesterol levels (smoking and regular exercise (men, n=333; women, n=1410) and their age-matched control subjects were also analysed. Both in men and in women of overall subjects and subjects without histories of alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise, odds ratios of subjects with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia vs. subjects with normo-HDL cholesterolemia for high body mass index, high waist-to-height ratio, high triglycerides, high lipid accumulation product and multiple risk factors (three or more out of obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) were significantly higher than the reference level of 1.00. These associations in overall subjects were found when the above habits were adjusted. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemic men and women have adverse cardiovascular profiles, such as obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and multiple risk factors, independently of age, alcohol drinking, smoking and regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inadequate recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis in medical in-patients: failure to recognize risks including drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairstow, B M; Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Deutscher, C

    1993-11-01

    The records of 62 men and 43 women, 14-88 years old, admitted to general medical wards in a public teaching hospital during 1991 were examined for discharge medications and for the recording of alcohol-drinking, tobacco-smoking and discharge diagnosis. Drinking and smoking status was unrecorded in 22.9% and 21.9% of patients respectively. Twenty-four patients had 31 potential drug interactions which were related to the number of drugs prescribed and to drinking alcohol; 10.5% of the patients had interactions involving alcohol and 2.9% tobacco. Six patients received relatively or absolutely contraindicated drugs, including one asthmatic given two beta-blockers. The drugs prescribed indicated that some patients had conditions such as gastro-oesophageal disorders, diabetes and obstructive airways disease which had not been recorded. Inadequate recording of diagnoses, alcohol and smoking status creates risks to patients and may cause opportunities for preventive care to be missed. This study provides the basis for the development of undergraduate and postgraduate education programmes to address these issues and so decrease risks to patients which arise from inadequate recording practices. Incomplete diagnoses also adversely affect hospital funding where this depends on case-mix diagnostic groups. Quality assurance programmes and other strategies are being implemented to improve medical recording and prescribing habits.

  3. Eating habits, smoking and toothbrushing in relation to dental caries: a 3-year study in Swedish female teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno-Ambrosius, K; Swanholm, G; Twetman, S

    2005-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe eating, toothbrushing and smoking habits in a cohort of Swedish female adolescents, and to relate the findings to dental caries increment. The research took the form of a longitudinal study. The study sample consisted of a cohort of 162 girls under regular dental care, aged 12 years at baseline, who were followed for 3 years, from the sixth to the ninth grade. Eating, oral cleaning and smoking habits were self-reported three times per year through a questionnaire, and caries data at baseline and after 3 years were collected from dental records. The results showed significantly (P 95% of subjects reported that they brushed their teeth at least once a day, approximately 20% did not do it every evening, and this figure remained stable over the study period. However, snacks, soft drinks and sweets, and toothbrushing habits had no significant influence on caries development. Dietary advice for caries prevention in adolescent girls should focus on the importance of retaining regular main meals, and especially, not skipping breakfast.

  4. Smoking Water Pipe Habits of University Students and Related Sociodemographic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ozcebe

    2014-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The water pipe smoking is growing into a behaviour like smoking cigarette among young people. The rate of water pipe smoking is especially more common among young people whose socioecomonic situations are better than others [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 19-28

  5. Effects of IL6 C-634G polymorphism on tooth loss and their interaction with smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, S; Naito, M; Wakai, K; Sasakabe, T; Hattori, Y; Okada, R; Kawai, S; Hishida, A; Morita, E; Nakagawa, H; Tamura, T; Hamajima, N

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between an IL6 (Interleukin-6) polymorphism (C-634G or rs1800796) and tooth loss, and an interaction between the polymorphism and smoking habits for the loss. Our subjects were 4917 check-up examinees ages 35-69. They reported tooth loss and lifestyle in a questionnaire. We regressed the number of teeth on the IL6 genotype, gender, age, smoking, drinking, diabetes, hypertension, physical activity, energy intake, education, and brushing. We further estimated multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for having smoking and tooth loss was stronger among those with GG than among those with CC. In a multiple regression analysis, a significant interaction was found between GG genotype and current smoking in the prediction of tooth loss (P = 0.018). The IL6 C-634G polymorphism was significantly associated with tooth loss. Our results suggest greater effects of smoking on tooth loss in GG genotype individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The association of alcohol and smoking with CKD in a Japanese nationwide cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayako; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Hasuike, Yukiko; Kuragano, Takahiro; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria. Modifiable lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol contribute to CKD. Recent cohort studies have shown that moderate alcohol consumption attenuates the decline of the GFR and smoking has been previously shown to be associated with CKD. However, the association of smoking and alcohol consumption on CKD is not entirely clear. To examine whether there is evidence to assume that smoking is an effective modifier of the association between CKD and alcohol consumption, we conducted a cross-sectional study of a population of people who presented for a health checkup under a program that targets the insured population aged ≧40 years using data from the Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan between April 2008 and March 2009. Of the 506 807 participants aged ⩾40 years, 292 013 (57.6%) were included in the present analysis. Outcomes were kidney dysfunction, as an eGFR of smoking might have modified the potential benefits of alcohol to prevent CKD.

  7. Relationship between polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair genes and oral cancer risk in Taiwan: evidence for modification of smoking habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Da-Tian; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Cheng-Chun; Tseng, Hsien-Chang; Lo, Yen-Li; Tsai, Yuhsin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2007-12-31

    Inherited polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may be associated with differences in the repair capacity and contribute to individual's susceptibility to smoking-related cancers. Both XPA and XPD encode proteins that are part of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. In a hospital-based case-control study, we have investigated the influence of XPA A-23G and XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms on oral cancer risk in a Taiwanese population. In total, 154 patients with oral cancer, and 105 age-matched controls recruited from the Chinese Medical Hospital in Central Taiwan were genotyped. No significant association was found between the heterozygous variant allele (AG), the homozygous variant allele (AA) at XPA A-23G, the heterozygous variant allele (AC), the homozygous variant allele (CC) at XPD Lys751Gln, and oral cancer risk. There was no significant joint effect of XPA A-23G and XPD Lys751Gln on oral cancer risk either. Since XPA and XPD are both NER genes, which are very important in removing tobacco-induced DNA adducts, further stratified analyses of both genotype and smoking habit were performed. We found a synergistic effect of variant genotypes of both XPA and XPD, and smoking status on oral cancer risk. Our results suggest that the genetic polymorphisms are modified by environmental carcinogen exposure status, and combined analyses of both genotype and personal habit record are a better access to know the development of oral cancer and useful for primary prevention and early intervention.

  8. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in an epidemiology study of patients with chronic pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Gregory A.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Slivka, Adam; Hawes, Robert H; Anderson, Michelle A.; Burton, Frank R.; Brand, Randall E; Banks, Peter A.; Lewis, Michele D; DiSario, James A.; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Amann, Stephen T.; Baillie, John; Money, Mary E.; O'Connell, Michael; Whitcomb, David C.; Sherman, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Alcohol has been implicated in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in 60%–90% patients, although percentages in the United States are not known. We investigated the frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary U.S. referral centers. Methods We studied data from patients with CP (n=539) and controls (n=695) enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2 from 2000 to 2006 at 20 U.S. referral centers. CP was defined by definitive evidence in imaging or histologic analyses. Subjects and physicians each completed a detailed study questionnaire. Using physician-assigned diagnoses, patients were assigned to the following etiology groups: alcohol (with/without other diagnoses), non-alcohol (any etiology of CP from other than alcohol), or idiopathic (no etiology identified). Results The distribution of patients among etiology groups were: alcohol (44.5%), non-alcohol (26.9%), and idiopathic (28.6%). Physicians identified alcohol as the etiology more frequently in men (59.4% in men vs 28.1% in women), but non-alcohol (18% in men vs 36.7% in women) and idiopathic etiologies (22.6% in men vs 35.2% in women) more often in women (P<0.01 for all comparisons). Non-alcohol etiologies were equally divided among obstructive, genetic, and other causes. Compared with controls, patients with idiopathic CP were more likely to have ever smoked (58.6% vs 49.7%, P<0.05) or have a history of chronic renal disease or failure (5.2% vs 1.2%, P<0.01). In multivariate analyses, smoking (ever, current, and amount) was independently associated with idiopathic CP. Conclusions The frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary U.S. referral centers is lower than expected. Idiopathic CP and non-alcohol etiologies represent a large subgroup, particularly among women. Smoking is an independent risk factor for idiopathic CP. PMID:21029787

  9. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  10. Effect of smoking habit on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes: results from the human micronucleus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Neri, M.; Lando, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The effect of tobacco smoking on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in human lymphocytes has been the object of many population studies. In most reports, the results were unexpectedly negative, and in many instances smokers had lower frequencies of MN than non-smokers. A pooled re-analysis of 24 databases from the HUMN international collaborative project has been performed with the aim of understanding the impact of smoking habits on MN frequency. The complete database included 5710 subjects, with 3501 non-smokers, 1409 current smokers, and 800 former smokers, among subjects in occupational and environmental surveys. The overall result of the re-analysis confirmed the small decrease of MN frequencies in current smokers (frequency ratio (FR =0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI =0.93-1.01) and in former smokers (FR =0.96, 95% CI =0.91-1.01), when compared to non-smokers. MN frequency was not influenced by the number of cigarettes smoked per day among subjects occupationally exposed to genotoxic agents, whereas a typical U-shaped curve is observed for non-exposed smokers, showing a significant increase of MN frequency in individuals smoking 30 cigarettes or more per day (FR =1.59, 95% CI =1.35-1.88). This analysis confirmed that smokers do not experience an overall increase in MN frequency, although when the interaction with occupational exposure is taken into account, heavy smokers were the only group showing a significant increase in genotoxic damage as measured by the micronucleus assay in lymphocytes. From these results some general recommendations for the design of bio monitoring studies involving smokers can be formulated. Quantitative data about smoking habit should always be collected because, in the absence of such data, the simple comparison of smokers versus non-smokers could be misleading. The sub-group of heavy smokers (≥30 cigarettes per day) should be specifically evaluated whenever it is large enough to satisfy statistical requirements. The

  11. Correlates of ever-smoking habit among adolescents in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, A M; Saeed, A A; Abdulrahman, B M; Al-Kaabba, A F; Raat, H

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire study of the correlates of ever-smoking among adolescents was made in Tabuk government schools in Saudi Arabia. Of 1505 students aged 12-19 years, 657 (43.7%) were ever-smokers (i.e. ever tried cigarette smoking, even 1 or 2 puffs); 65.0% of males and 23.1% of females. In logistic regression analysis significant predictors for ever-smoking were: male sex, belief that smoking helps people feel comfortable in social situations, owning something with a cigarette logo, having pocket money > or = 20 riyals/day, poor school performance and having friends or parents who smoked.

  12. Associations between night work and BMI, alcohol, smoking, caffeine and exercise--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchvold, Hogne Vikanes; Pallesen, Ståle; Øyane, Nicolas M F; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2015-11-12

    Shift work is associated with negative health effects. Increased prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers/night workers compared with day workers have been shown resulting in increased risk of cardiovascular events among shift workers and night workers. Previous studies have taken a dichotomous approach to the comparison between day and night workers. The present study uses a continuous approach and provides such a new perspective to the negative effects of night work load as a possible risk factor for undesirable health effects. This cross sectional study (The SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health (SUSSH)) uses data collected from December 2008 to March 2009. The study population consists of Norwegian nurses. The study collected information about demographic and lifestyle factors: Body Mass Index (BMI), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption and exercise habits. The lifestyle parameters were evaluated using multiple hierarchical regression and binary logistic regression. Number of night shifts worked last year (NNL) was used as operationalization of night work load. Adjustment for possible confounders were made. Obesity was defined as BMI > 30. Alcohol Consumption was evaluated using the short form of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. We had data from 2059 nurses. NNL was significantly and positively associated with BMI, both when evaluated against BMI as a continuous parameter (Beta = .055, p < .05), and against obesity (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI = 1.00-1.01). The AUDIT-C score was significantly and positively associated with hours worked per week (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05). We found a positive significant association between night work load and BMI. This suggests that workers with a heavy night work load might need special attention and frequent health checks due to higher risk of undesirable health effects.

  13. Smoking, alcohol, and dietary choices: evidence from the Portuguese National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. Methods The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese National Health Survey who were older than 19 years (20,302 women and 17,923 men. Participants were selected from households in the five regions of Portugal (NUTS II classification, using a multi-stage random probability design. Trained interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in each household and obtained information on social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle and health, smoking, and intakes of selected food and beverages. Age-adjusted and education-adjusted binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were fitted separately for males and females, to estimate the magnitude of the association between smoking and the consumption of various food and beverage groups. Results When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the odds ratio (OR favouring soup consumption was 0.60 (95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.54–0.68 in males and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33–0.65 in females. Similar ORs were observed for vegetables (males: OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.49–0.64; females: OR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.32–0.69 and fruit (males: OR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.31–0.41; females: OR = 0.29, 95%CI: 0.19–0.44. Overall, these food items were consumed at significantly lower levels as cigarette consumption increased. Heavy male smokers, compared to non-smokers, presented lower odds favouring milk consumption (OR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.67–0.89. When heavy smokers were compared with non-smokers, the ORs favouring wine drinking, among heavy drinkers, were 1.47 (95%CI: 1.27–1.70 in men and 3.97 (95%CI: 2.07–7.61 in women. Similar ORs were observed for beer (males: OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 2.87–3.78; females: OR = 23

  14. Smoking and alcohol intervention before surgery: evidence for best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Nielsen, P R; Lauritzen, J B

    2009-01-01

    Smoking and hazardous drinking are common and important risk factors for an increased rate of complications after surgery. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms include organic dysfunctions that can recover with abstinence. Abstinence starting 3-8 weeks before surgery will significantly...... smoking and hazardous drinking, and interventions appropriate for the surgical setting applied....

  15. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  16. Smoking habits are an independent prognostic factor in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Nilufer; Hayar, Murat; Altmisdortoglu, Ozgur; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Deligonul, Adem; Ordu, Cetin; Evrensel, Turkkan

    2017-09-01

    The role of tobacco in the pathogenesis of lung cancer (LC) has been clearly established. Based on the epidemiological evidence that smoking may influence LC progression, we investigated the idea that smoking behavior could be associated with overall survival (OS) in this group of patients. A total of 351 patients with LC (311 men and 40 women) were reviewed. Smoking status was assessed as tobacco users or non-users. To calculate pack-years of smoking, the average of number of cigarettes smoked per day was divided by 20 to give packs per day, and then multiplied by the total number of years of smoking. OS was the main outcome measure. The mean follow-up was 3.3 ± 1.2 years. Kaplan-Meier plots of OS by use of tobacco revealed significant differences by smoking status (log-rank = 5.44, P smoking was also evident when we subdivided the former and current smokers into ≤7 (mean value) pack-years and >7 pack-years groups (log-rank = 4.27, P smoking retained its independent prognostic significance for OS (hazard ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.17, P = 0.02). Our data indicate that cigarette smoking is significantly associated with a poor prognosis among patients diagnosed with LC in a dose-dependent manner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamic of functional indicators’ changes of students having harmful habits (on example of smoking under influence of organized motion functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pidpomoga A.Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of organized motion functioning on functional indicators and somatic health of 1st-2nd year students, who have harmful habits. Material: In experiment 286 students participated. Pedagogic experiment was conducted in form of optional classes (3 times a week during 9 academic months. Results: we determined percentage of smoking students and their motivation to certain kinds of sports. Considering students’ motivation appropriate trainings were organized. Results of functional state indicators and somatic health level of smoking students, practicing and not practicing organized motion functioning have been presented. Conclusions: it was found that students are attracted by specific kinds of motor functioning. Among offered kinds of sports outdoor games, athletic gymnastic were preferred. The least attractive kinds were: bicycle sport, non- traditional kinds, gymnastic, chess.

  18. Dynamic of functional indicators’ changes of students having harmful habits (on example of smoking under influence of organized motion functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Pidpomoga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of organized motion functioning on functional indicators and somatic health of 1 st-2 nd year students, who have harmful habits. Material: In experiment 286 students participated. Pedagogic experiment was conducted in form of optional classes (3 times a week during 9 academic months. Results: we determined percentage of smoking students and their motivation to certain kinds of sports. Considering students’ motivation appropriate trainings were organized. Results of functional state indicators and somatic health level of smoking students, practicing and not practicing organized motion functioning have been presented. Conclusions: it was found that students are attracted by specific kinds of motor functioning. Among offered kinds of sports outdoor games, athletic gymnastic were preferred. The least attractive kinds were: bicycle sport, non- traditional kinds, gymnastic, chess.

  19. [Effects of smoking and alcohol consumptionon reproductive and metabolic indicators in young men in western siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Popova, A V; Erkovich, A A; Voroshilova, N A; Osadchuk, A V

    2017-09-01

    Smoking and alcohol consumption remain widespread throughout the world, including Russia. Recently, due to the increase in male infertility and subfertility, special attention has been paid to the effects of smoking and alcohol on the reproductive health of young men. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of smoking and moderate alcohol consumption on spermatogenesis, reproductive hormone levels and metabolic status in young men living in Western Siberia (Novosibirsk). One hundred thirty-three volunteers (mean age 21.1+/-0.3 years) were tested for the sperm concentration, the proportion of mobile and morphologically normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate, blood serum levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose and uric acid. and conclusions The studied lifestyle factors were found to have no effects on spermatogenesis. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day and a moderate frequency of alcohol consumption (up to 1 time per week) was associated with higher blood serum testosterone levels and engaging in more frequent sexual contacts compared to non-smoking and non-drinking men. Drinking alcohol more than once a week and smoking more than 8 cigarettes per day was associated, along with the increase in testosterone levels and the frequency of sexual contacts, with lower levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and higher serum triglyceride levels. Thus, in young men, frequent drinking and smoking can alter the hormonal and metabolic balance, which, as the duration of the exposure and the strength of the factors increase, will increase the risk of reproductive disorders.

  20. The relationship between omega-3 and smoking habit: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaglia, N?ris; Chatkin, Jos?; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Ferreira, Ivone; Wagner, Mario; Selby, Peter; Allard, Johane; Zamel, Noe

    2016-01-01

    Background Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to several diseases, including smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between omega-3 intake and tobacco smoking, taking into account the qualitative differences in dietary intake between smokers and non-smokers, the amount of the ingested PUFA and their red blood (RBC) contents. We also looked for an association between omega-3 RBC content and smoking, and also between omega3 intake and the level of ni...

  1. Prospective Study of Alcohol Drinking, Smoking, and Pancreatitis: The Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pandol, Stephen J; Porcel, Jacqueline; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Pike, Malcolm C; Monroe, Kristine R

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a prospective analysis of 145,886 participants in the multiethnic cohort to examine the relationship of alcohol drinking and smoking with pancreatitis. Pancreatitis cases were categorized as gallstone-related acute pancreatitis (GSAP) (N = 1,065), non-GSAP (N = 1,222), and recurrent acute (RAP)/chronic pancreatitis (CP) (N = 523). We used the baseline questionnaire to identify alcohol intake and smoking history. Associations were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox models. Cigarette smoking was associated with non-GSAP and RAP/CP. Moderate alcohol intake was inversely associated with all types of pancreatitis in women (HRs, 0.66 to 0.81 for risk of non-GS pancreatitis associated with current smoking was highest among men who consumed more than 4 drinks per day (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.28-3.30), whereas among never smokers, moderate drinking was associated with a reduced risk (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.96). In women, drinking less than 2 drinks per day was associated with a reduced risk of GSAP among never smokers (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.80). Smoking is a risk factor for non-GS pancreatitis. Moderate alcohol intake is protective against all types of pancreatitis in women and against RAP/CP in men.

  2. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanphanom, Sychareun; Phengsavanh, Alongkon; Hansana, Visanou; Menorath, Sing; Tomson, Tanja

    2009-06-08

    This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3%) but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  3. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menorath Sing

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04 and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3% but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Conclusion Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  4. Accuracy of cotinine serum test to detect the smoking habit and its association with periodontal disease in a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, A; Martínez, P-J; Giraldo, A; Gualtero, D-F; Ardila, C-M; Contreras, A; Duarte, S; Lafaurie, G-I

    2017-07-01

    The validity of the surveys on self-reported smoking status is often questioned because smokers underestimate cigarette use and deny the habit. It has been suggested that self-report should be accompanied by cotinine test. This report evaluates the usefulness of serum cotinine test to assess the association between smoking and periodontal status in a study with a large sample population to be used in studies with other serum markers in epidemiologic and periodontal medicine researches. 578 patients who were part of a multicenter study on blood biomarkers were evaluated about smoking and its relation to periodontal disease. Severity of periodontal disease was determinate using clinical attachment loss (CAL). Smoking was assessed by a questionnaire and a blood sample drawn for serum cotinine determination. The optimal cut-off point for serum cotinine was 10 ng/ml. Serum cotinine showed greater association with severity of CAL than self-report for mild-moderate CAL [OR 2.03 (CI95% 1.16-3.53) vs. OR 1.08 (CI95% 0.62-1.87) ] advanced periodontitis [OR 2.36 (CI95% 1.30- 4.31) vs. OR 2.06 (CI95% 0.97-4.38) ] and extension of CAL > 3 mm [ OR 1.78 (CI95% 1.16-1.71) vs. 1.37 (CI95% 0.89-2.11)]. When the two tests were evaluated together were not shown to be better than serum cotinine test. Self-reported smoking and serum cotinine test ≥ 10ng/ml are accurate ,complementary and more reliable methods to assess the patient's smoking status and could be used in studies evaluating serum samples in large population and multicenter studies. The serum cotinine level is more reliable to make associations with the patient's periodontal status than self-report questionnaire and could be used in multicenter and periodontal medicine studies.

  5. Family income trajectory during childhood is associated with adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O

    2014-10-01

    Although childhood socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked with adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in cross-sectional research, less is known about the influence of changes in socioeconomic status during childhood. Upward socioeconomic mobility may attenuate the negative influence of earlier socioeconomic disadvantage on health, while downward mobility may counter the health benefits of earlier socioeconomic advantage. This study evaluated the influence of common trajectories of family income during childhood on smoking and alcohol use during adolescence. Data utilized were part of the 15-year longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. A 5-class trajectory model (two stable, one downward, and two upward income trajectories) was developed previously with this sample (N=1356). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether children of the more disadvantaged income trajectories were more likely to engage in tobacco and alcohol use at age 15 relative to those of the most advantaged trajectory. Family income trajectory was significantly associated with ever-smoking (p=.02) and past-year alcohol use at age 15years (p=.008). Children from the less advantaged trajectories were more likely to have ever-smoked than children of the most advantaged trajectory (all p'schildhood socioeconomic disadvantage influences adolescent smoking, while downward socioeconomic mobility influences adolescent alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Smoking and Khat Chewing Habits between Medical and Non-Medical Female Students at UST, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubas, Mohammed Abdullah; Wadi, Majed

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a worldwide problem that kills millions of people. Women smoke much lower than males but the numbers of smoker women are growing up. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of smoking and khat chewing in medical and non-medical female students at University of Science and Technology (UST), Sana'a, Yemen. We used self-administrated questionnaire to collect cross-sectional data from a randomly selected sample of medical and non-medical female students of UST in 2012-2013. Overall, 480 students completed and returned the questionnaire, of them medical students represented 50% of them. The prevalence of smoking was significantly low among female medical students (P=0.045), however, not significantly difference was found between medical and non-medical female students in khat chewing habits (P=0.083). Non-smoker medical female students who tried smoking (45.6%) were significantly lower than non-medical students (54.4%), and curiosity was the main reason for trying smoking. Water pipe was the most common type of smoking among smoker students (78.6%). Out of 26 female students who smoke and chew khat, 18 students reported that they smoke more while they chew khat. Our study highlights the need for increased health education, awareness, and knowledge of the risks of smoking and particularly khat chewing to reduce these habits among female university students especially in non-medical female students.

  7. Shisha Smoking Habit among Dental School Students in the United Arab Emirates: Enabling Factors and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natheer H. Al-Rawi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of the present study was to assess shisha smoking among dental school students in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE. In addition, the role of suggested barriers and enabling factors in shisha smoking was also evaluated. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, between February and May 2016. The questions were adapted from previously published water pipe smoking studies. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between shisha smoking and sociodemographic characteristics. Relevant questions were further categorized as enabling factors and barriers for shisha smoking. Results. Three enabling questionnaire items related to social environment were significantly associated with an increased risk of being a current smoker. The most powerful is peer pressure (“friends smoke shisha”, which increased the odds ratio of shisha smoking 11.3 times, followed by smoker sibling with increase in odd ratio by 4.52 times, then the belief of social acceptance with increase in odd ratio by 4.31 times. Conclusion. Shisha smoking is a serious problem among university students. Any intervention program in the university curricula should consider teaching students that shisha is no less risky than cigarettes and is addictive.

  8. Smoking Habits of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Intermittent Claudication in the Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Joshua; Jabo, Brice; Patel, Sheela; Kiang, Sharon; Bianchi, Christian; Chiriano, Jason; Teruya, Theodore; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M

    2017-10-01

    Society for Vascular Surgery practice guidelines for the medical treatment of intermittent claudication give a GRADE 1A recommendation for smoking cessation. Active smoking is therefore expected to be low in patients suffering from intermittent claudication selected for vascular surgical intervention. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking in patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication at the national level and to determine the relationship between smoking status and intervention. The Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) registries for infra-inguinal bypass, supra-inguinal bypass, and peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) were queried to identify patients who underwent invasive treatment for intermittent claudication. Patient factors, procedure type (bypass versus PVI), and level of disease (supra-inguinal versus infra-inguinal) were evaluated for associations with smoking status (active smoking or nonsmoking) by univariate and covariate analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 101,055 procedures were entered in the 3 registries, with 40,269 (40%) performed for intermittent claudication. Complete data for analysis were present in 37,632 cases. At the time of intervention, 44% of patients were active smokers, with wide variation by regional quality group (16-53%). In covariate analysis, active smoking at treatment was associated with age smoking status. During follow-up, 36% of patients had quit smoking. Predictors of smoking cessation included age ≥70 years (RR 1.45), ABI ≥0.9 (RR 1.12), and bypass procedures (RR 1.22). At the time of treatment, 44% of patients undergoing intervention for intermittent claudication in the VQI were active smokers and there was a wide regional variation. Prevalence of active smoking was greater in the presence of younger age, fewer comorbidities, lower ABI, and supra-inguinal disease. Type of procedure performed, and in turn level of invasiveness required, did not appear to be influenced by smoking

  9. Social differences in who receives questions and advice about smoking habits when visiting primary care – Results from a population based study in Sweden in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Molarius

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether there are social disparities in who receives questions and advice on smoking habits when visiting primary care and whether these disparities can be explained by differences in smoking habits. The study is based on 30,188 individuals aged 16–84 years who responded to a population survey questionnaire in 2012 in four counties in mid-Sweden (response rate 51%. Multivariate logistic regression models were used in statistical analyses. A total of 32% of those who visited a health care centre during the last three months reported that they were asked about their smoking habits during their latest visit, 6% received advice. In general, daily smokers received more often questions, and especially advice, than non-smokers. Persons with low education received more advice than persons with high education due to higher smoking prevalence. However, persons on disability pension and the unemployed were less frequently asked about their smoking habits than employees even though they smoke more. Women received less often questions and advice than men. Persons born outside the Nordic countries received advice twice as often as native Swedes regardless of whether they were daily smokers or not. In Sweden, those who are asked and, in particular, receive advice about changing their smoking habits while visiting primary care are mainly those who need it most. But the findings also imply that measures to reduce smoking should be intensified for women and are perhaps too intense for persons born outside the Nordic countries.

  10. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T; Møller, Bente K; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20-60 years with a BMI of 18.5-35.0 kg/m(2). Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (pdifferences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (pdiffered according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not influenced by BMI and diet/weight concern. These factors should be considered when planning studies and analysing data concerning appetite sensations.

  11. Identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits in a paediatric unit--are screening and brief intervention appropriate methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lene B L; Gerke, Oke; Rubak, Sune; Høst, Arne; Wagner, Lis

    2011-06-01

    There is no systematic identification of parents with excessive alcohol use who have a child admitted to hospital. Children in families with excessive alcohol issues form a high risk group as substantial alcohol consumption has a damaging influence on a child emotionally, cognitively, socially and physically. Alcohol consumption is a sensitive issue, and health staff needs knowledge, qualifications and adequate training in communicating with parents about this taboo. • To identify specific patterns in subgroups of parents by comparing results from screening and demographic variables • To identify systematic patterns in staff members by demographic variables to decide whether these factors influence the screening results. During 1 year, screening and brief intervention (SBI) was accomplished, including health staff conducting dialogues with parents of a hospitalized child using motivational interviewing (MI) and screening for risky alcohol behaviour by Cut down, Annoyance from others, feel Guilty, Early-morning Craving (CAGE)-C. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, and relationships were tested with a statistical significance level of 0.05, using SPSS (version 16.0). Motivational dialogues with 779 parents were conducted by 43 staff members, and 11% of the parents were screened positive for risky alcohol behaviour. Drinking alcohol 4 days a week or more and drinking alcohol outside mealtimes were main risk factors. Parents' gender was the strongest predictor of screening positive and OR was 6.8 for men (CI 4.03-11.74) compared to women, pparents' age (CI 1.02-1.42) indicates the risk of screening positive increases with age, p=0.027. Brief intervention using CAGE-C and MI has proven successful in mapping parents' alcohol consumption patterns and in identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits. Health staff is able to manage health promotion and prevention when having the right competences and when being supervised. © 2010 The Authors

  12. Smoking Habits and Attitudes in Students of the Third Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Prague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidrová, Dagmar; Herotová, Tereza Kopřivová; Šustková, Magdaléna; Hynčica, Viktor

    2016-06-01

    This study seeks to assess smoking habits, attitudes and intention to quit in students of the Third Faculty of Medicine of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. A cross-sectional survey designed to obtain information on smoking history, current smoking status, cessation attempts, and attitudes towards smoking among health professionals was conducted in 452 students of the first and last years of a 6-year Master's Study Programme (General Medicine) and a 3-year Bachelor's Study Programme (Public Health). An anonymous questionnaire was administered during the classes in the course of academic years 2011-12 and 2012-13. 5.7% of the Master's Study Programme students (3.3% women and 9.0% men ) and 4.8% of the Bachelor's Study Programme students reported that they are regular smokers. The share of regular smokers was almost twice as big in students of the English Curriculum of the Master's Programme (10.7%) in comparison with the students of the Czech Curriculum (4.5%), and more than twice as big in students of the last years of both study programmes (3.9% in students of the 1st year and 10.8% in students of the 6th year of the Master's Programme; 3.2% in students of the 1st year and 7.0% in students of the 3rd year of the Bachelor's Study Programme). At the time of the research, 18.9% of students of the Master's Programme and 17.1% of students of the Bachelor's Programme were occasional smokers. 5.9% of students of the Master's Programme and 19.0% of students of the Bachelor's Programme reported that they quit smoking during their studies at the medical faculty; on the contrary, 9.8% of students of the Master's Programme and 14.3% of students of the Bachelor's Programme started smoking during that time. Smoking in health professionals undermines their significant role in health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases in their patients. Therefore, education at the medical faculty should focus on motivation of future health professionals towards non-smoking

  13. The interplay of friendship networks and social networking sites: longitudinal analysis of selection and influence effects on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends' risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors.

  14. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China.We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM.We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years.Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should be developed to focus on these modifiable

  15. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops.

  16. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  17. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the LifeLines cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra N Slagter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI classes (BMI1 drink/day and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. CONCLUSION: Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  18. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  19. Parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use: assessing the importance of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P; Helgason, Asgeir R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate how family conflict contributes to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Population-based cross-sectional survey. School classrooms in Iceland in which an anonymous questionnaire was administered to respondents by supervising teachers. Participants were 7430 (81.4%) of 9124 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Cigarette smoking and alcohol use during the last 30 days were assessed by self-report. Parental divorce was related to adolescent cigarette smoking during the last 30 days (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.84-2.44) when controlling for gender only, but was insignificant (OR = 1.18 95%, CI 0.99-1.44) when controlling for relationship with parents, disruptive social changes and family conflict. There was a significant relationship between parental divorce and adolescent alcohol use during last 30 days (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.48-1.87), controlling only for gender; however, the relationship disappeared (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20) when controlling for other variables. Family conflicts are important contributors to the relationship between parental divorce and adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Conflict between parents and adolescents, but not inter-parental conflict, appears to be the most important factor in the relationship between family conflict and adolescent substance use.

  20. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.; Ormel, J.; Meijer, J. L.; Verbeek, T.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  1. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  2. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  3. Articulating addiction in alcohol and other drug policy: A multiverse of habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Concepts of addiction differ across time and place. This article is based on an international research project currently exploring this variation and change in concepts of addiction, in particular in the field of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Taking AOD policy in Australia and Canada as its empirical focus, and in-depth interviews with policy makers, service providers and advocates in each country as its key method (N=60), the article compares the addiction concepts articulated by professionals working in each setting. Drawing on Bruno Latour's theoretical work on the body and his proposal for a better science based on the 'articulation of differences', it explores the accounts of addiction offered across the Australian and Canadian project sites, identifying a shared dynamic in all: the juggling of difference and unity in discussions of the nature of addiction, its composite parts and how best to respond to it. The article maps two simultaneous trajectories in the data - one moving towards difference in participants' insistence on the multitude and diversity of factors that make up addiction problems and solutions, and the other towards unity in their tendency to return to narrow disease models of addiction in uncomfortable, sometimes dissonant, strategic choices. As I will argue, the AOD professionals interviewed for my project operate in two modes treated as distinct in Latour's proposal: in turning to reifying disease labels of addiction they take for granted, and work within, a 'universe of essences', but in articulating the multiplicity and diversity of addiction, they grope towards a vision of a 'multiverse of habits'. The article concludes by addressing this tension directly, scrutinising its practical implications for the development of policy and delivery of services in the future, asking how new thinking, and therefore new opportunities, might be allowed to emerge. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-08

    Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from  20% in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established. This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors. Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2% of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9% continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children. About 25.0% of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in

  6. Do smoking habits differ between women and men in contemporary Western populations? Evidence from half a million people in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R; Woodward, Mark

    2014-12-30

    Several studies have shown that smoking may confer a greater excess risk for chronic diseases in women compared with men. The reasons for this excess risk of smoking in women are unclear, yet sex differences in smoking habits may play a role. We, thus, characterised sex differences in smoking habits in a contemporary Western population. Cross-sectional population-based study. UK Biobank Resource. 499,797 (54% women) individuals with data on smoking habits. Women-to-men prevalence ratios in smoking status, and the women-minus-men mean difference in age at smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked daily and age at smoking cessation in 5-year birth cohort bands. The women-to-men ever-smoking ratio ranged from 0.57 in the oldest to 0.87 in the youngest birth cohort. In the oldest cohort, born 1935-1939, women started smoking 1.9 years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1) later than did men, but in those born after 1959 there was no difference in the age at initiation. The oldest women smoked 5.3 (95% CI 4.7 to 5.9) cigarettes per day fewer than did the oldest men, compared with 2.0 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.3) fewer cigarettes smoked per day in the youngest, born 1965-1969. Among quitters, women born before 1945 were, on average, 1.5 years older than their male contemporaries, but this differential was 1 year or less among people born after 1949. Differences in smoking behaviour between women and men have decreased over time. Even past differentials are unlikely to explain the increased susceptibility to smoking-related chronic disease in women compared with men that has previously been observed. Future studies are required to determine whether sex differences in the physiological and biological effects of smoking are responsible for the differential impact of smoking on health in women and men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Family time, parental behaviour model and the initiation of smoking and alcohol use by ten-year-old children: an epidemiological study in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family is considered to be the first and the most important child development and socialization bond. Nevertheless, parental behaviour model importance for the children, as well as family time for shared activity amount influence upon the child's health-related behaviour habit development has not been yet thoroughly examined. The aim of this paper is to indicate the advanced health-hazardous behaviour modelling possibilities in the families, as well as time spent for joint family activities, and to examine the importance of time spent for joint family activities for the smoking and alcohol use habit initiation among children. Methods This research was carried out in Kaunas, Lithuania, during the school year 2004–2005. The research population consisted of 369 fifth-grade schoolchildren (211 (57.2% boys and 158 (42.8% girls and 565 parents: 323 (57.2% mothers and 242 (48.2% fathers. The response rate was 80.7% for children; 96.1% and 90.6% for mothers and fathers correspondingly. Results Eating a meal together was the most frequent joint family activity, whereas visiting friends or relatives together, going for a walk, or playing sports were the most infrequent joint family activities. More than two thirds (81.5% of parents (248 (77.0% mothers and 207 (85.9% fathers (p Conclusion Joint family activity time deficit together with frequent parental examples of smoking and alcohol use underlie the development of alcohol and smoking addictions in children to some extent. The above-mentioned issues are suggested to be widely addressed in the comprehensive family health education programs.

  8. [Smoking habits among staff at the Rochefort-sur-Mer Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, B; Underner, M; Ingrand, P; Meurice, J-C

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an inventory of staff in the hospital who smoked to allow better identification of people at risk and thus develop targeted preventive strategies, which we hoped would be more effective. This survey was conducted at the Rochefort-sur-Mer Hospital in March 2008. The sociodemographic characteristics of the population responding and differences in characteristics between smokers and non-smokers were examined. The level of dependence of smokers and patterns of smoking in the workplace were also evaluated. The results were compared with those of the survey "Baromètre tabac personnel hospitalier 2003". The response rate was 57%, with the study population characterized by a high proportion of women (82%). The proportion of smokers was 29%, similar to that found in the general population (30%) but higher than 24% of the survey of hospital staff Tobacco Barometer 2003. The hospital staff is still weakly dependent on tobacco. The attitude to smoking was strongly linked to socioeconomic group and the domestic staff and health care assistants were most likely to smoke and were also the most dependent. Finally, the hospital has itself become a smoke free environment without tobacco. It is essential to promote measures to prevent smoking among hospital staff taking into account its specific features (high proportion of women). Targeted actions should in particular be conducted amongst the groups of workers who are the most affected. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental bad habits breed bad behaviors in youth: exposure to gestational smoke and child impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Barnett, Tracie A; Pagani, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    In utero exposure to cigarette smoke has been shown to have an adverse effect on healthy brain development in childhood. In the present study, we examine whether fetal exposure to mild and heavy smoking is associated with lower levels of impulsivity and cognitive control at age 10. Using a sample of 2120 children from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, we examine the association between gestational cigarette smoke exposure and fourth grade teacher reports of impulsivity and classroom engagement which represent behavioral indicators of executive functions. When compared to children of non-smokers, children of mothers who reported smoking heavily during pregnancy (10 or more cigarettes per day) were rated by their fourth grade teachers as displaying higher levels of impulsive behavior, scoring.112 standard deviation units higher than children of non-smokers. Children of mothers who smoked heavily were also less engaged in the classroom, scoring.057 standard deviation units lower than children of women who did not smoke. These analyses were adjusted for many potentially confounding child and family variables. Exposure to perinatal nicotine may compromise subsequent brain development. In particular, fetal nicotine may be associated with impairment in areas recruited for the effortful control of behavior in later childhood, a time when task-orientation and industriousness are imperative for academic success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...

  11. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes differs depending on histological type and smoking habit in completely resected non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, T; Muramatsu, R; Fujita, T; Nagumo, H; Sakurai, T; Noji, S; Takahata, E; Yaguchi, T; Tsukamoto, N; Kudo-Saito, C; Hayashi, Y; Kamiyama, I; Ohtsuka, T; Asamura, H; Kawakami, Y

    2016-11-01

    T-cell infiltration in tumors has been used as a prognostic tool in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the influence of smoking habit and histological type on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in NSCLC remains unclear. We evaluated the prognostic significance of TILs (CD4 + , CD8 + , CD20 + , and FOXP3 + ) according to histological type and smoking habit using automatic immunohistochemical staining and cell counting in 218 patients with NSCLC. In multivariate survival analyses of clinical, pathological, and immunological factors, a high ratio of FOXP3 + to CD4 + T cells (FOXP3/CD4) [hazard ratio (HR): 4.46, P smoking habit in AD, a high FOXP3/CD4 ratio was poorly prognostic with a smoking history (HR: 5.21, P smoking habit on the immunological environment may lead to the establishment of immunological diagnosis and appropriate individualized immunotherapy for NSCLC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Telomere Shortening Unrelated to Smoking, Body Weight, Physical Activity, and Alcohol Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross......-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary...... disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake...

  13. (Lead concentration in the blood and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in the erythrocytes depending on sex, age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the group of persons exposed to industrial dust)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuliczkowski, K

    1981-01-01

    A population of 399 persons (180 women and 219 men) has been examined. Anamnesis included detailed inquiries about smoking habit and alcohol drinking. In the laboratory, lead concentration in blood and ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been determined on empty stomach. No differences have been found in the mean lead concentration determined by sex, whereas the mean ALAD activity is higher in women than in men. The subjects' age has affected the test parameters neither in men nor women. In smoking men no changes in the mean lead concentration in blood and mean ALAD activity in erythrocytes have been found. In smoking women, the mean lead concentration is not changed, but the mean ALAD activity is lower. Alcohol drinking in men does not change the values of the test parameters, whereas drinking women have revealed higher mean blood lead concentration.

  14. A CLINICAL STUDY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PULMONOLOGY OPD IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR DURING 2012 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 200 patients attending Katuri Medical college Pulmonology OPD with a history of Tobacco smoking coming for various symptoms for various symptoms were analy sed regarding their smoking habits. Majority of them were the major bread earners of thei r families. Majority of them presented to the hospital in 4 th to 6 th decade of life. Male smokers were predominant but alternate modes of tobacco consumption and passi ve smoking are present in a majority of females. Majority of them are farmers, unemployed or semiskilled or unskilled with poor education and with low family incomes. A majority of them have high frequency of smoking tobacco per day Initiation of smoking o ccurred at less than 20 years of age. Majority presented with less than 40 pack years of smoking history.

  15. What is the association of smoking and alcohol use with the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Diderichsen, Finn; Grønbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    . In women the increase was mainly caused by smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The main explanation for the increase in social inequality in mortality since the mid-1980s is smoking and alcohol use. A significant reduction in the social inequality in mortality can only happen if the prevention of smoking and alcohol use......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of smoking and alcohol use on the increase in social inequality in mortality in Denmark in the period 1985-2009. DESIGN: A nationwide register-based study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The whole Danish population aged 30 years or more...... in the period 1985-2009. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is mortality rates in relation to educational attainments calculated with and without deaths related to smoking and alcohol use. An absolute measure of inequality in mortality is applied along with a result on the direct...

  16. Smoking habits and health-related quality of life in a rural Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Umeda, Takashi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the association between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a rural Japanese population. A cross-sectional study of data from 823 subjects in Iwaki area of Hirosaki City, Japan. SF-36 scores between non-smokers and smokers were compared. To test the sensitivity of SF-36 scores in detecting health deterioration, effects of having diseases and having deviations from normal thresholds in health check-up were analyzed by adding them into covariates in ANCOVA. There was no significant difference in SF-36 scores between non-smokers and smokers. Presence of diseases significantly decreased the physical components of SF-36 scores while the results of health check-up had no significant influence on SF-36 scores. The results suggested the possibility that in Japan, where smoking prevalence is still relatively high, smokers may be less sensitive to sub-clinical deterioration in their own health status than smokers in Western countries that already have experienced the major decline in their smoking rate. The importance of having the smoker become more sensitive to the sub-clinical adverse effects of cigarette smoking should be stressed for the success of smoking control programs.

  17. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  18. Influence Of Smoking Habit On Age At Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Mehrdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No studies have yet investigated the influence of smoking on age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, the present study was carried out. This study consisted of 605 females with pathologically confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the breast and 438 healthy females matched by age. Among our participants, 86 (14.2% patients and 62 (14.1% control subjects, respectively, were smokers. Based on a Cox regression model, evidence suggested that smoking status influenced the age at diagnosis of breast cancer (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99, P=0.040. After stratification of the patients according to their menopausal status, the same results were obtained. The present study indicated that non-smokers have a lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients who smoke.

  19. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  20. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  1. Carbon monoxide in chronic uraemia related to erythropoietin treatment and smoking habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunedborg, P; Nielsen, A L; Brinkenfeldt, H

    1995-01-01

    In 69 patients on chronic haemodialysis, blood sampled randomly during dialysis was analyzed for carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb). The median value was 1.40% (range 0.9-2.3) in non-smoking patients and (1.4-7.5) in smokers. In non-smokers treated with erythropoietin (EPO) correlation was found between C...

  2. Association between smoking habits and acne vulgaris. A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: acne vulgaris, is one of the most common skin disorder. Previous studies about the role of smoke in the pathogenesis of acne reported contradictory results. The aim of this study was to conduct a case-control study investigating the relationship between tobacco smoking and acne.

    Methods: a case-control study was performed during the period September 2009 - February 2010. A questionnaire was administrated to each participant, to assess the association acne - smoke. Cases were outpatients of the Dermatologic Ambulatory of the “Fiorini” Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy. Controls were age and gender-matched to the cases. The ratio cases-controls was 1:2. A univariate and a multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted; Odds Ratio (OR and the relative 95% confidence interval (95%CI were assessed. The statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: crude OR for the association acne - smoke was 7.26 (IC=2.27-23.18; adjusted OR for sex and age was 5.47 (IC=1.67-17.97. Of 93 cases, 6 had a severe grade of acne (6.5%, 19 had an intermediate grade of acne (20.4%, and 68 had a mild grade of acne (73.1%. No one of the smokers had a severe grade of acne, one had an intermediate grade of acne and 11 had mild acne; these differences are not statistically significant.

    Conclusions: the association between acne and smoke shows an increased risk (OR=7.26 with a statistically significant CI. Moreover, people ≥ 18 years of age have twice the risk compared to persons < 18 years of age (OR=2.31.

  3. Want, need and habit as drivers of smoking behaviour: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Luis; Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; West, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Models of tobacco smoking behaviour propose that anticipated pleasure or satisfaction, the need to alleviate a nicotine-induced drive state and a stimulus-driven impulse potentially play an important role. This study aimed to provide a preliminary assessment of how far urges to smoke are reported by smokers and whether the strength of such urges prior to a quit attempt predicts short-term success at quitting. In a prospective study, 566 smokers attending a treatment programme to help smokers quit completed a written questionnaire covering frequency of different types of urge to smoke (automatic impulse - 'automatic urges', anticipated pleasure - 'pleasure urges', and fulfilling a need - 'need urges'). They were asked to rate this for whichever of these urges was dominant for them. The questionnaire also assessed daily cigarette consumption, time to first cigarette of the day, age and gender. Carbon monoxide verified smoking status was recorded at 1 and 4weeks after the target quit date. A total of 47.9% (271) of smokers reported that automatic urges were dominant, 21.7% (123) reported pleasure urges to be dominant, and 30.4% (172) reported need urges to be dominant. The strength of automatic urges predicted abstinence at both 1week (OR=0.74, p=0.005, 95%CI=0.60-0.92) and 4weeks (OR=0.73, p=0.008, 95%CI=0.59-0.92). Associations between other urge types and abstinence were not statistically significant. A substantial proportion of smokers attending a clinic for help with quitting report that their dominant urges to smoke occur without any anticipation of pleasure or relief and the strength of the automatic urges predicts failure to sustain abstinence following a quit attempt. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Body fat distribution in relation to physical activity and smoking habits in 38-year-old European men. The European Fat Distribution Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Deslypere, J P; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Cruz, A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors studied 512 European men all born in 1950 from six different towns in the period October 1988 to May 1989. Anthropometric measurements were taken, including weight, height, and circumferences (waist, hip, thigh). Educational level, activity scores and information on smoking habits were

  5. The influence of estimated retail tobacco sale price increase on smokers' smoking habit in Jiangxi province, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiping; Zhu, Liping; Yan, Wei; Zeng, Guang; Michael, Engelgau

    2015-01-01

    China is the biggest tobacco producer and consumer in the world. Raising cigarette taxes and increasing tobacco retail prices have been prove as effective strategies to reduce tobacco consumption and the prevalence of smoking in western countries. But in China, it is uncertain how an increase of cigarette retail price will influence the tobacco consumption. From April to July, 2012, we selected 4025 residents over 15 years by a three stage random sampling in four cities, Jiangxi Province, China. We conducted interviews of their current smoking habits and how they would change their smoking behavior if tobacco retail prices increase. Overall, the prevalence of smoking is 27 % (47 % for male, 3.1 % for female). 15 % of smokers have tried to quit smoking in the past but all relapsed (168/1088), and over 50 % of current smokers do not want to quit, The average cigarette price per pack is 1.1 USD (range = 0.25-5.0). If retail cigarette prices increases by 50 %, 45 % of smokers say they will smoke fewer cigarettes, 20 % will change to cheaper brands and 5 % will attempt to quit smoking. Smokers who have intention to quit smoking are more sensitive to retail cigarette price increase. With retail cigarette price increases, more smokers will attempt to quit smoking. Chinese smokers will change their smoking habits if tobacco retail prices increase. Consequently the Chinese government should enact tobacco laws which increase the retail cigarette price. The implementation of new tobacco laws could result in lowering the prevalence of smoking. Meanwhile, price increase measures need to apply to all cigarette brands to avoid smokers switching cigarettes to cheaper brands.

  6. Obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption and years lived with disability: a Sullivan life table approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunst Anton E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To avoid strong declines in the quality of life due to population ageing, and to ensure sustainability of the health care system, reductions in the burden of disability among elderly populations are urgently needed. Life style interventions may help to reduce the years lived with one or more disabilities, but it is not fully understood which life style factor has the largest potential for such reductions. Therefore, the primary aim of this paper is to compare the effect of BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption on life expectancy with disability, using the Sullivan life table method. A secondary aim is to assess potential improvement of the Sullivan method by using information on the association of disability with time to death. Methods Data from the Dutch Permanent Survey of the Living Situation (POLS 1997-1999 with mortality follow-up until 2006 (n = 6,446 were used. Using estimated relative mortality risks by risk factor exposure, separate life tables were constructed for groups defined in terms of BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression models were fitted to predict the prevalence of ADL and mobility disabilities in relationship to age and risk factor exposure. Using the Sullivan method, predicted age-specific prevalence rates were included in the life table to calculate years lived with disability at age 55. In further analysis we assessed whether adding information on time to death in both the regression models and the life table estimates would lead to substantive changes in the results. Results Life expectancy at age 55 differed by 1.4 years among groups defined in terms of BMI, 4.0 years by smoking status, and 3.0 years by alcohol consumption. Years lived with disability differed by 2.8 years according to BMI, 0.2 years by smoking and 1.6 by alcohol consumption. Obese persons could expect to live more years with disability (5.9 years than smokers (3.8 years and drinkers (3.1 years. Employing

  7. [Attitudes to smoking and characteristics of the habit among a group of young asthmatics compared to a group of non-asthmatics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda Orive, J I; Peña Miguel, T; Reinares Ten, C; González Quijada, S; Escobar Sacristán, J; Sáez Valls, R; Herrera de la Rosa, A

    2000-03-01

    To compare the attitudes toward smoking and smoking patterns of young male asthmatics with the attitudes and habits of a group previously studied non-asthmatic men. Volunteers responded individually to as anonymous questionnaire. Responses were received from 488 asthmatics men (55.83%) of the sample, with 11 not responding) and 386 non-asthmatics (44.16%, with 27 not responding). The mean age of subjects was 19.91 +/- 2.76 yr. Smoking asthmatics numbered 154 (31.56%) non-asthmatic smokers numbered 207 (53.6%) (p non-smoking asthmatics. The prevalence of smoking is lower among asthmatics than among non-asthmatics and asthmatics smoke fewer cigarettes/day and have a lower level of addiction. There are no differences in age of or reasons for starting to smoke. Asthmatics have fewer smoking friends than do non-asthmatics and non-smoking asthmatics have fever still. the desire to quit smoking is high in both groups.

  8. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... are scheduled for radical cystectomy. Patients will be randomised to the 6-week Gold Standard Programme (GSP) or treatment as usual (control). The GSP combines patient education and pharmacologic strategies. Smoking and alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly...

  9. Severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with smoking, not with alcohol use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lifestyle factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol use can affect the presentation and course of psoriasis. There is a paucity of data on this subject from India. Aims: To find out whether increased severity of psoriasis in adult Indian males is associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol use. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the Department of Dermatology of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Subjects and Methods: Male patients above 18 years of age attending a psoriasis clinic between March 2007 and May 2009 were studied. Severity of psoriasis (measured using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index - PASI among smokers and non-smokers was compared. We also studied the correlation between severity of psoriasis and nicotine dependence (measured using Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and alcohol use disorders (measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test- AUDIT. Statistical Analysis: Z-test, Odd′s ratio, Chi-square test, Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: Of a total of 338 patients, 148 were smokers and 173 used to consume alcohol. Mean PASI score of smokers was more than that of non-smokers (Z-test, z = −2.617, P = 0.009. Those with severe psoriasis were more likely to be smokers (χ2 = 5.47, P = 0.02, OR = 1.8, Confidence Interval 1.09-2.962. There was a significant correlation between PASI scores and Fagerström score (Spearman′s correlation coefficient = 0.164, P 0.05. Conclusions: Increased severity of psoriasis among adult males is associated with tobacco smoking, but not with alcohol use.

  10. Habits of employees”: smoking, spies, and shopfloor culture at Hammermill Paper Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    As cigarette smoking expanded dramatically during the early twentieth century, it brought more and more workers into conflict with the policies and demands of the manufacturers who employed them. As this paper shows, addiction to nicotine ignited daily struggles over workers’ shopfloor rights and the ability of employers to set rules, establish discipline, and monitor behavior. A specific set of records from the archives of the Hammermill Paper Company, a paper manufacturer once based in Erie, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity to explore the impact of cigarette consumption on labor relations during the era of mass production, as two nosy factory spies probed and documented worker actions and attitudes in the summer of 1915. As a result of their intelligence gathering, the spies discovered a factory-wide work culture rooted in the addictive pleasure of cigarette smoke. This discovery worried them. Worker-smokers needed to dampen their hunger for nicotine with frequent, and often clandestine, breaks from work, typically in defiance of “no-smoking” rules, employer designations for the uses of factory space, and bosses’ demands for continuous production. Highlighting the intersections of the histories of labor, smoking, and addiction, this paper argues that cigarettes were a key battleground in workers’ and managers’ intensifying struggles over who really controlled the industrial shopfloor during the early 1900s.

  11. Rib fractures in chronic alcoholic men: Relationship with feeding habits, social problems, malnutrition, bone alterations, and liver dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; García-Valdecasas-Campelo, Elena; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Milena-Abril, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Pérez-Ramírez, Alina; Alemán-Valls, María Remedios

    2005-10-01

    Rib fractures are common in alcoholics. This high prevalence might be due to ethanol-associated malnutrition, bone disease, liver dysfunction, or the peculiar lifestyle of the alcoholic with frequent trauma and altercations. In this study we try to discern the role of these factors on rib fracture (assessed on a plain thoracic X-ray film) in 81 consecutive alcoholic patients, 25 of them cirrhotics. Serum albumin, prothrombin aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, insulin growth factor 1, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, estradiol, free testosterone, and corticosterone were measured, and the patients also underwent assessment of bone mineral density by a HOLOGIC QDR-2000 bone densitometer (Waltham, MA, USA). Body mass index, triceps skinfold, and brachial perimeter were also determined, and the patients and their families were asked about tobacco consumption, social and familial links, consumption of ethanol by other members of the family, kind of job, and feeding habits. Forty-two male nondrinker sanitary workers of similar age served as controls. Forty of the 81 patients showed rib fractures. There was a statistically significant association between rib fractures and disruption of social and familial links, irregular feeding habits (in bars or pubs, not at home), ethanol consumption by close relatives, and intensity of tobacco consumption, but not between rib fractures and liver function tests, nutritional parameters, or bone mineral density, besides a nearly significant trend (p = .053) with the presence of osteopenia at the femoral neck. Patients with major withdrawal symptoms at admission also presented more frequent rib fractures. We conclude that rib fractures in alcoholics are related to the peculiar lifestyle of these patients rather than to bone alterations, liver dysfunction, or nutritional status.

  12. Alcohol and smoking as risk factors in an epidemiology study of patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coté, Gregory A; Yadav, Dhiraj; Slivka, Adam; Hawes, Robert H; Anderson, Michelle A; Burton, Frank R; Brand, Randall E; Banks, Peter A; Lewis, Michele D; Disario, James A; Gardner, Timothy B; Gelrud, Andres; Amann, Stephen T; Baillie, John; Money, Mary E; O'Connell, Michael; Whitcomb, David C; Sherman, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in 60%-90% of patients, although percentages in the United States are unknown. We investigated the epidemiology of alcohol-related CP at tertiary US referral centers. We studied data from CP patients (n = 539) and controls (n = 695) enrolled in the North American Pancreatitis Study-2 from 2000 to 2006 at 20 US referral centers. CP was defined by definitive evidence from imaging or histologic analyses. Subjects and physicians each completed a study questionnaire. Using physician-assigned diagnoses, patients were assigned to an etiology group: alcohol (with/without other diagnoses), nonalcohol (any etiology of CP from other than alcohol), or idiopathic (no etiology identified). The distribution of patients among etiology groups was: alcohol (44.5%), nonalcohol (26.9%), and idiopathic (28.6%). Physicians identified alcohol as the etiology more frequently in men (59.4% men vs 28.1% women), but nonalcohol (18% men vs 36.7% women) and idiopathic etiologies (22.6% men vs 35.2% women) more often in women (P chronic renal disease or failure (5.2% vs 1.2%, P associated with idiopathic CP. The frequency of alcohol-related CP at tertiary US referral centers is lower than expected. Idiopathic CP and nonalcohol etiologies represent a large subgroup, particularly among women. Smoking is an independent risk factor for idiopathic CP. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and risk of subtypes of oesophageal and gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking may be differentially associated with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). However, because this was based on retrospective

  14. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...... at ethanol concentrations between 150 and 500 mM. Mean ADH activity was higher in antral specimens than in those from the gastric corpus of the same subjects. ADH activity decreased with increasing age in males, while the values in females aged 41-60 years were higher than those in women aged 20-40 or 61...... is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle...

  15. Influence of metabolic indicators, smoking, alcohol and socioeconomic position on mortality after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe Benzon; Kroman, Niels; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors differently distributed among social groups like obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol intake predict survival after breast cancer diagnosis and therefore might mediate part of the observed social inequality in survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted...... a cohort study among 1250 postmenopausal breast cancer patients identified among 29 875 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Participants completed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were made at enrollment. Information on survival, socioeconomic position, and comorbidity...... circumference and diabetes, and smoking and alcohol affected but did not explain the social gradient. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that these factors explain some but not all the social inequality in survival after breast cancer and that improvement of lifestyle to some extent would improve survival among...

  16. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyi Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration.We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994. Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview.In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0 for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3 for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9 while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0. The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3 and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4, respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2 and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7. Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4.Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  17. Coffee, alcohol, smoking, physical activity and QT interval duration: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-02-28

    Abnormalities in the electrocardiographic QT interval duration have been associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, there is substantial uncertainty about the effect of modifiable factors such as coffee intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on QT interval duration. We studied 7795 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994). Baseline QT interval was measured from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Coffee and tea intake, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activities over the past month, and lifetime smoking habits were determined using validated questionnaires during the home interview. In the fully adjusted model, the average differences in QT interval comparing participants drinking ≥6 cups/day to those who did not drink any were -1.2 ms (95% CI -4.4 to 2.0) for coffee, and -2.0 ms (-11.2 to 7.3) for tea, respectively. The average differences in QT interval duration comparing current to never smokers was 1.2 ms (-0.6 to 2.9) while the average difference in QT interval duration comparing participants drinking ≥7 drinks/week to non-drinkers was 1.8 ms (-0.5 to 4.0). The age, race/ethnicity, and RR-interval adjusted differences in average QT interval duration comparing men with binge drinking episodes to non-drinkers or drinkers without binge drinking were 2.8 ms (0.4 to 5.3) and 4.0 ms (1.6 to 6.4), respectively. The corresponding differences in women were 1.1 (-2.9 to 5.2) and 1.7 ms (-2.3 to 5.7). Finally, the average differences in QT interval comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of total physical activity was -0.8 ms (-3.0 to 1.4). Binge drinking was associated with longer QT interval in men but not in women. QT interval duration was not associated with other modifiable factors including coffee and tea intake, smoking, and physical activity.

  18. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adve...

  19. Joint effect of 90Sr, alcohol and smoking on some immunological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.; Mashneva, N.I.; Kupriyanova, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The experiments with white non-inbred mice showed that combined chronic exposure of the animals, preexposed to 90 Sr to ethanol and caused more manifested changes in non-specific humoral immunity (bactericidal properties of blood serum) and in immunologic indices (autoantibodies, immune complexes) than chronic administration of the radionuclide alone. The obtained data proved the possibility of summation and potentiation of the effects of internal irradiation, alcohol and smoking

  20. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-03-11

    High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Cross-sectional health examination survey. This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1-10/day, 11-20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into 'Yes' or 'No'. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥ 3.0 mg/L. After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥ 3.0 mg/L) in the second (1-10/day, n=133), third (11-20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  1. Smoking, low formal level of education, alcohol consumption, and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, U; Jacobsson, L T H; Nilsson, J Å; Wirfält, E; Turesson, C

    2013-01-01

    Suggested predictors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) include environmental exposure, such as smoking. Our purpose was to investigate potential predictors of RA in a nested case-control study based on a prospective cohort. Between 1991 and 1996, 30,447 persons were included in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS). Individuals who developed RA after inclusion up to 31 December 2004 were identified by linking the database to different registers. Four controls were selected for every case. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in the MDCS. We identified 172 incident cases of RA [36 men/136 women, mean age at diagnosis 63 years, 69% rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, median time from inclusion to diagnosis 5 (range 1-13) years]. In bivariate analyses, baseline smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-3.12] and a low level of formal education (i.e. ≤ 8 years; OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.18-4.93 vs. University degree) predicted subsequent development of RA. Infrequent baseline alcohol consumption was a predictor of RA (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.91-6.30) compared to recent use (within the past month), and individuals with moderate baseline alcohol consumption (3.5-15.2 g/day vs. education. Smoking and a low level of formal education were found to be independent predictors of RA. Moderate alcohol consumption may also be associated with a reduced risk.

  2. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-07-01

    Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86-9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62-1.39). In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not.

  3. [Consumption of medications, alcohol and smoking in pregnancy and assessment of teratogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rebeca Silveira; Bezerra, Samara Cavalcante; Lima, José Welington de Oliveira; Costa, Fabrício da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Medications, alcohol and smoking can cause fetal damage. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 326 mothers of the Fortaleza General Hospital to evaluate the use of drugs, alcohol and smoking during pregnancy and its relation to teratogenic potential in different population characteristics, between 2006 and 2007. Postpartum women who had their babies in the research site were included and those whose babies were not admitted as hospital inpatients were excluded. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used in the analysis, with a p value drugs/ pregnancy) and self-medication occurred in 11.3% of the cases. Single women took more drugs with high teratogenic potential (p=0.037). 11 cases of fetal malformation were observed, five of them were exposed to high teratogenic risks. Smoking occurred in 11.3% and alcohol use in 16%. Being single was found to be a risk factor for exposure to high teratogenic potential. Quality of prenatal care and other sociodemographic variables weren't related to exposure to teratogenic risks.

  4. Combined effect of internal irradiation, alcohol and smoking on some immunological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubik, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that chronic intake of 0.21 kBq/g 210 Po per day by laboratory animals after three months of experiment results in increase of autoantibody concentration to hepatic tissue and circulating immune complexes (CIC). Combined effect of radionuclide with ethanol or tobacco smokes didn't result in increase of autoantibody and CIC concentration independent of 210 Po concentration in experiments. During combined single chronic effect of radionuclide, ethanol and tobacco smokes considerable increase of autoantibody titers, particularly to hepatic tissue, as compared to mice, which intake of these components was separate, was detected. The results rermit to suppose on additive action of 210 Po, alcohol and tobacco smokes in case of their chronic effect on the boDy of laboratory animals

  5. Patterns of Smoking and Unhealthy Alcohol Use Following Sexual Trauma Among U.S. Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Amber D; Rivera, Anna C; Powell, Teresa M; Williams, Emily C; Peterson, Arthur V; Littman, Alyson J; Maynard, Charles; Street, Amy E; Bricker, Jonathan B; Boyko, Edward J

    2017-10-01

    In the first known longitudinal study of the topic, we examined whether experiencing sexual assault or sexual harassment while in the military was associated with increased risk for subsequent unhealthy alcohol use and smoking among U.S. service members in the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2012). Adjusted complementary log-log models were fit to estimate the relative risk of (a) smoking relapse among former smokers (men: n = 4,610; women: n = 1,453); (b) initiation of unhealthy alcohol use (problem drinking and/or drinking over recommended limits) among those with no known history of unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 8,459; women: n = 4,816); and (c) relapse among those previously reporting unhealthy alcohol use (men: n = 3,487; women: n = 1,318). Men who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had sixfold higher risk for smoking relapse: relative risk (RR) = 6.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.34, 18.73], than men who did not. Women who reported experiencing sexual assault while in the military had almost twice the risk for alcohol relapse: RR = 1.73; 95% CI [1.06, 2.83]. There were no other significant associations. These findings suggest that men and women may respond differently following sexual trauma, and support future concerted policy efforts by military leadership to prevent, detect, and intervene on sexual assault. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braganza, M Z; Rajaraman, P; Park, Y; Inskip, P D; Freedman, N D; Hollenbeck, A R; de González, A Berrington; Kitahara, C M

    2014-01-07

    Although cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking increase the risk of several cancers and certain components of cigarette smoke and alcohol can penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it remains unclear whether these exposures influence the risk of glioma. We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and risk of glioma in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective study of 477,095 US men and women ages 50-71 years at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using models with age as the time metric and adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. During a median 10.5 person-years of follow-up, 492 men and 212 women were diagnosed with first primary glioma. Among men, current, heavier smoking was associated with a reduced risk of glioma compared with never smoking, but this was based on only nine cases. No associations were observed between smoking behaviours and glioma risk in women. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of glioma, particularly among men (>2 drinks per day vs Smoking and alcohol drinking do not appear to increase the risk of glioma.

  7. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  8. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2 interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP, and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO, and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  9. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkoway, Harvey; Powers, Karen; Smith-Weller, Terri; Franklin, Gary M; Longstreth, W T; Swanson, Phillip D

    2002-04-15

    A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption.

  10. Feeding and smoking habits as cumulative risk factors for early childhood caries in toddlers, after adjustment for several behavioral determinants: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorana, Alessandra; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Conti, Giulio; Strohmenger, Laura; Campus, Guglielmo

    2014-02-15

    Several maternal health determinants during the first period of life of the child, as feeding practice, smoking habit and socio-economic level, are involved in early childhood health problems, as caries development. The potential associations among early childhood caries, feeding practices, maternal and environmental smoking exposure, Socio-Economic Status (SES) and several behavioral determinants were investigated. Italian toddlers (n = 2395) aged 24-30 months were recruited and information on feeding practices, sweet dietary habit, maternal smoking habit, SES, and fluoride supplementation in the first year of life was obtained throughout a questionnaire administered to mothers. Caries lesions in toddlers were identified in visual/tactile examinations and classified using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Associations between toddlers' caries data and mothers' questionnaire data were assessed using chi-squared test. Ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations among caries severity level (ICDAS score), behavioral factors and SES (using mean housing price per square meter as a proxy). Caries prevalence and severity levels were significantly lower in toddlers who were exclusively breastfed and those who received mixed feeding with a moderate-high breast milk component, compared with toddlers who received low mixed feeding and those exclusively fed with formula (p smoked five or more cigarettes/day during pregnancy showed a higher caries severity level (p smoke. Environmental exposure to smoke during the first year of life was also significantly associated with caries severity (odds ratio =7.14, 95% confidence interval = 6.07-7.28). No association was observed between caries severity level and fluoride supplementation. More than 50% of toddlers belonging to families with a low SES, showed moderate or high severity caries levels (p smoke during pregnancy living in area with a low mean housing price per square meter.

  11. Circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits are associated with serum polyunsaturated Fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Svingen, Gard F T; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A; Gregory, Jesse F; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman's rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

  12. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yumika; Ishikura, Masaharu; Maoka, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    Astaxanthin is a caroteonid that possesses strong antioxidant activity. Recently, many studies on biological activity have been reported. In general, the absorption of carotenoids is affected greatly by diet and by smoking. In this report, we investigated astaxanthin pharmacokinetics after administration of Haematococcus algal extract, a source of astaxanthin, to smokers and nonsmokers before and after a meal; astaxanthin was given before the meal to nonsmokers (n = 7), after the meal to nonsmokers (n = 6), and after the meal to smokers (n = 7), then serum samples were analyzed. The timing of administration greatly affected astaxanthin bioavailability including the area under the curve (AUC(0-168), 2,968 + or - 959 microg h/l in the before-meal group vs. 7,219 + or - 3,118 microg h/l in the after-meal group), indicating high availability in the after-meal group. Smoking also affected the pharmacokinetic parameters and reduced the half-life (t(1/2)) of astaxanthin elimination significantly.

  13. Lifetime smoking habits among Norwegian men and women born between 1890 and 1994: a cohort analysis using cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2014-10-17

    Providing lifetime smoking prevalence data and gender-specific cigarette consumption data for use in epidemiological studies of tobacco-induced cancer in Norway. Characterising smoking patterns in birth cohorts is essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control interventions and predicting smoking-related mortality. Norway. Previously analysed annual surveys of smoking habits from 1954 to 1992, and individual lifetime smoking histories collected in 1965 from a sample of people born in 1893-1927, were supplemented with new annual surveys of smoking habits from 1993 to 2013. Age range 15-74 years. Current smoking proportions in 5-year gender-and-birth cohorts of people born between 1890 and 1994. The proportion of smokers increased in male cohorts until the 1950s, when the highest proportion of male smokers (76-78%) was observed among those born in 1915-1934. Among women, the peak (52%) occurred 20 years later, in women born in 1940-1949. After 1970 smoking has declined in all cohorts of men and women. In the 1890-1894 cohorts, male smoking prevalence was several times higher than female, but the gap declined until no gender difference was present among those born after 1950. Gender-specific per capita consumption was even more skewed, and men have consumed over 70% of all cigarettes since 1930. The incidence of lung cancer for men peaked at around 2000, with the highest incidence rate estimated at ca. 38%. The incidence of lung cancer for women is still increasing, and estimated incidence rate for 2011 was 25.2%. In an epidemiological perspective, men have had a longer and more intense exposure to cigarettes than women. The gender-specific incidence of lung cancer reflects the gender difference in consumption over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. A study to determine the association between tobacco smoking habit and oral candidal infection in median rhomboid glossitis by cytologic and histopathologic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the association, if any, between tobacco smoking and candidal infection in median rhomboid glossitis (MRG and to histopathologically evaluate the presence of dysplastic changes in it. Study design: Hospital-based study consisting of 100 subjects who satisfied the clinical criteria of MRG- Smears and swabs were collected to ascertain the presence of Candida and sub-typing was done utilizing the CHROMagar technique. Biopsy and histopathological examination was done to determine the presence or absence of dysplasia of the lesional tissue. Results: All the subjects were male and had the habit of smoking- Smears and swabs taken from glossal lesion of 60 subjects′ showed 100% candidal positivity. Tissue section from 31 subjects showed histological picture consistent with MRG and 23 (74% showed dysplastic changes. Conclusion: MRG is a Candida-associated lesion and the tobacco-smoking habit in our cohort may play an important role in increasing the candidal colonization. As some of our cases exhibited mild epithelial dysplasia, both candidal colonization and smoking habits may have contributed to the dysplastic changes.

  15. Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    This paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England. Data were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogeneous Input (ARIMAX) modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of (a) smoking and high-risk drinking; (b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and (c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. Mean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.185% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking 2 months later [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.033 to 0.337, P = 0.017]. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β = 0.324, 95% CI = -0.371 to 1.019, P = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β = -0.026, 95% CI = -1.348 to 1.296, P = 0.969). Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Age, bodyweight, smoking habits and the risk of severe osteoarthritis in the hip and knee in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaervholm, Bengt; Lewold, Stefan; Malchau, Henrik; Vingard, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Background:The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of severe osteoarthritis, with the need for arthroplasty, in the knee and/or hip according to body mass index (BMI) both within a normal range and in persons with high BMI. Furthermore, we wanted to study the significance of smoking. Methods: This study identifies male construction workers participating in a national health control program (n = 320,192). The incidence rate for joint replacement was found by matching with the Swedish hospital discharge register between 1987 and 1998. BMI and smoking habit was registered at the time of the health examination. Results: In total 1495 cases of osteoarthritis of the hip and 502 cases of osteoarthritis of the knee were identified and included in this analysis. The incidence rate was found to increase linearly to the BMI even within low and normal BMI. The relative risk for osteoarthritis of the hip was more than two times higher in persons with a BMI of 20-24 than in men with a BMI 17-19. There was almost a doubling of the risk of severe knee osteoarthritis with an increase in BMI of 5 kg/m 2 . Smoker had a lower risk of osteoarthritis than non-smokers and ex-smokers. Conclusions: BMI is an important predictor of osteoarthritis even within normal BMI. A decreased risk of osteoarthritis of the hip was found in smokers, but the effect was weak compared to that of BMI or age. Contrary to studies of radiographic osteoarthritis our study indicates higher risk of hip than of knee osteoarthritis

  17. The automatic component of habit in health behavior: habit as cue-contingent automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbell, Sheina; Verplanken, Bas

    2010-07-01

    Habit might be usefully characterized as a form of automaticity that involves the association of a cue and a response. Three studies examined habitual automaticity in regard to different aspects of the cue-response relationship characteristic of unhealthy and healthy habits. In each study, habitual automaticity was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI). In Study 1 SRHI scores correlated with attentional bias to smoking cues in a Stroop task. Study 2 examined the ability of a habit cue to elicit an unwanted habit response. In a prospective field study, habitual automaticity in relation to smoking when drinking alcohol in a licensed public house (pub) predicted the likelihood of cigarette-related action slips 2 months later after smoking in pubs had become illegal. In Study 3 experimental group participants formed an implementation intention to floss in response to a specified situational cue. Habitual automaticity of dental flossing was rapidly enhanced compared to controls. The studies provided three different demonstrations of the importance of cues in the automatic operation of habits. Habitual automaticity assessed by the SRHI captured aspects of a habit that go beyond mere frequency or consistency of the behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Telomerase activity, telomere length and hTERT DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Francesca; Siniscalchi, Ester; Andreoli, Cristina; Allione, Alessandra; Fiorito, Giovanni; Medda, Emanuela; Guarrera, Simonetta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Crebelli, Riccardo

    2017-10-01

    Increased telomerase expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and, since the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, an association between telomerase reactivation and tobacco smoke has been proposed. In this work an investigation has been performed to assess the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and telomerase activity (TA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy smokers. The methylation status of the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT was concurrently investigated to assess the possible association between epigenetic modifications of hTERT and TA. Besides, the association between smoke and telomere length (TL) has been evaluated. Healthy monozygotic twins with discordant smoking habits were selected as study population to minimize inter-individual differences because of demographic characteristics and genetic heterogeneity. Statistically significant higher values of TA and TL were observed in smokers compared to nonsmoker co-twins. The multivariate analysis of data showed, besides smoking habits (P = 0.02), an influence of gender (P = 0.006) and BMI (P = 0.001) on TA and a borderline effect of gender (P = 0.05) on TL. DNA methylation analysis, focused on 100 CpG sites mapping in hTERT, highlighted nine CpG sites differentially methylated in smokers. When co-twins were contrasted, selecting as variables the intra-twin difference in TA and hTERT DNA methylation, a statistically significant inverse correlation (P = 0.003) was observed between TA and DNA methylation at the cg05521538 site. In conclusion, these results indicate an association of tobacco smoke with TA and TL and suggest a possible association between smoke-induced epigenetic effects and TA in healthy smokers. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:551-559, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  20. Evaluation of different smoking habits during music festivals through wastewater analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Grabic, Roman; Gál, Marián; Gál, Miroslav; Birošová, Lucia; Bodík, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Wastewater analysis is a powerful method that can provide useful information about the abuse of legal and illicit drugs. The aim of our study was to determine nicotine consumption during four different music festivals and to find a connection between smoking and preferences for specific music styles using wastewater analysis. The amount of the nicotine metabolite cotinine was monitored in wastewater at the influent of three waste water treatment plants WWTPs in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the festivals took place. Urinary bio-markers of nicotine utilization were analyzed by LC-HRMS. More than 80,000 festival participants were monitored during our study from June to September 2014. A significant increase of nicotine consumption was observed in wastewaters during music festivals. The nicotine ingestion level was back-calculated and expressed as mass of pure drug consumed per day and per 1000 inhabitants for selected cities of both countries. The highest differences between typical levels of cotinine in wastewaters and the levels during music festivals were detected in Piešťany: 4 g/L/1000 inhabitants during non-festival days compared to 8 g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Topfest pop-rock festival and 6g/L/1000 inhabitants during the Grape dance festival. No significant increase of the amounts of cotinine in wastewater was recorded for the Country and Folk festivals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ankle fractures and alcoholism. The influence of alcoholism on morbidity after malleolar fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Pedersen, A; Jensen, M R

    1991-01-01

    diseases, age, weight, smoking habits, anaesthesia and duration of surgery. The alcohol abusers developed significantly more early complications, especially infections, after surgery. Follow-up at six, nine and 12 weeks after surgery also revealed a significantly higher morbidity among the alcoholics....

  2. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  3. Use of aids for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction: A population survey of adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Beard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important for policy planning to chart the methods smokers and high-risk drinkers use to help them change their behaviour. This study assessed prevalence of use, and characteristics of users, of support for smoking cessation and alcohol reduction in England. Methods Data were used from the Smoking and Alcohol Toolkit Studies, which involve monthly face-to-face computer-assisted interviews of adults aged 16+ in England. We included data collected between June 2014 and July 2015 on 1600 smokers who had made at least one quit attempt and 911 high-risk drinkers (defined as scores >8+ on the full AUDIT or 5+ on questions 1–3 of the AUDIT-C who had made an attempt to cut down in the past 12 months. Participants provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics and use of aids during their most recent quit attempt including pharmacotherapy, face-to-face counselling, telephone support, self-help materials (digital and printed, and complementary medicine. Results A total of 60.3% of smokers used aids in the past year, compared with just 14.9% of high-risk drinkers. Use of pharmacotherapy was high among smokers and very low among drinkers (56.0%versus1.2%. Use of other aids was low for both behaviours: face-to-face counselling (2.6%versus4.8%, self-help materials (1.4%versus4.1% and complementary medicine (1.0%versus0.5%. Use of aids was more common among smokers aged 25–54 compared with 16–24 year olds (25–34,ORadj1.49,p = 0.012; 35–44,ORadj1.93,p 10 relative to 20,ORadj4.23,p = 0.001, and less common among ethnic minorities (ORadj0.69,p = 0.026. For alcohol reduction, use of aids was higher among ethnic minority groups (ORadj2.41;p = 0.015, and those of social-grade D/E relative to AB (ORadj2.29,p = 0.012&ORadj3.13,p < 0.001. Conclusion In England, the use of pharmacotherapy is prevalent for smoking cessation but not alcohol reduction. Other aids are used at a low rate, with

  4. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.

  5. Diverging trends of chronic bronchitis and smoking habits between 1998 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accordini Simone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No study has been carried out on the time trend in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis (CB in recent years, despite its clinical and epidemiological relevance. We evaluated the trend in CB prevalence during the past decade among young Italian adults. Methods A screening questionnaire was mailed to general population samples of 20–44 year-old subjects in two cross-sectional surveys: the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA (1998/2000; n = 18,873, 9 centres and the screening stage of the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases (GEIRD study (2007/2010; n = 10,494, 7 centres. CB was defined as having cough and phlegm on most days for a minimum of 3 months a year and for at least 2 successive years. The prevalence rates and the risk ratios (RRs for the association between CB and each potential predictor were adjusted for gender, age, season of response, type of contact, cumulative response rate, and centre. Results CB prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 12.1-12.9% in 1998/2000 and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.7-13.7% in 2007/2010; it increased among never smokers (from 7.6 to 9.1%, p = 0.003, current light smokers ( Conclusions Despite the significant reduction in current smoking, CB prevalence did not vary among young Italian adults. The temporal pattern of CB prevalence can only be partly explained by the increase of unemployment/premature retirement, asthma and allergic rhinitis, and suggests that other factors could have played a role.

  6. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sobreiro,Bernardo Passos; Lucon,Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto,Fábio Firmbach; Hallak,Jorge; Athayde,Kelly Silveira; Arap,Sami

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and Aug...

  7. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-07-17

    To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who are scheduled for radical cystectomy. Patients will be randomised to the 6-week Gold Standard Programme (GSP) or treatment as usual (control). The GSP combines patient education and pharmacologic strategies. Smoking and alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly meetings and at follow-up. Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been enrolled. Patient accrual is expected to be finalised before the end of 2017 and data will be published in 2018. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02188446 . Registered on 28 May 2014.

  8. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult population of selected regions of the Czech Republic. Relation to eating habits and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosátková, M; Ceřovská, J; Zamrazilová, H; Hoskovcová, P; Dvořáková, M; Zamrazil, V

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is around 25% in Europe but its occurrence grows in both genders with increasing age and weight. Lifestyle factors may contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and eating habits as well as length of sleep and smoking. Participants (519 women and 286 men aged 18-65 years) were chosen by random selection and questioned about their eating habits, sleep length and smoking. This information was combined with anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. The female group was divided into two subgroups depending on climacteric stage (before and after menopause). Metabolic syndrome prevalence does not differ between regions in neither female (29.9%) nor male (32.5%) group. Body mass index ≥25 was detected in 50.4% of all women and 65.7% of men; 23.5% of all women and 21.7% men had body mass index ≥30. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome prevalence was proved to depend on eating habits and family heredity. Positive correlation between the above mentioned factors demonstrated itself in the total sample but not in individual regions. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Czech adults is comparable with neighbouring countries. No significant interregional differences in metabolic syndrome prevalence within the Czech Republic were detected. In conclusion, relationship between eating habits and metabolic syndrome was confirmed.

  9. Resistin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human semen parameters in the presence of leukocytospermia, smoking habit, and varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Mazzi, Lucia; Campagna, MariaStella; Iacoponi, Francesca; Figura, Natale

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationships between resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and semen parameters, sperm apoptosis, and necrosis in infertile patients and in control subjects with unknown reproductive potential with/without smoking habits, leukocytospermia, and varicocele. Prospective study. Sperm laboratory. A total of 110 selected men. Family history, clinical/physical examination, ELISA determination (resistin, IL-6, TNF-α), semen analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide assay. Relationships among resistin, IL-6, and TNF-α and semen parameters in the presence of smoking habits, varicocele, leukocytospermia, and in infertile subjects. Resistin level was higher in semen than in serum. Resistin semen levels showed negative correlations with sperm motility and positive correlations with apoptotic, necrotic sperm and TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Resistin, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were higher in smokers compared with nonsmokers and in cases with leukocytospermia, in which an increase in necrotic sperm and a decrease in the number of sperm with normal morphology and motility were observed. Cytokine levels were significantly higher in infertile patients compared with control subjects with unknown reproductive potential. A total of 74.5% of infertile patients showed leukocytospermia. Semen resistin correlated with IL-6, TNF-α, and sperm quality; in cases of leukocytospermia and smoking habits, resistin concentrations were increased, suggesting that resistin may play a regulatory role in inflammation of the male reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and drug use in pregnancy: Prevalence and risk factors in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Saingam, Darika; Apakupakul, Nualta; Edwards, J Guy

    2017-03-01

    Substance use during pregnancy contributes to the risk of adverse health outcomes in mothers and children-in utero and during later development. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of substance use and associated factors in pregnant women receiving antenatal care in public hospitals in Thailand. Women (3578) attending 7 antenatal care clinics in Songkhla for the first time during their current pregnancy were interviewed with a structured questionnaire focusing on demographic data, obstetric history, use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances, and the General Health Questionnaire was administered. The use of substances was confirmed with the ultrarapid version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test and urine tests, which were also administered to 1 in 5 to 10 randomly selected women whose screening results were negative. Based on self-reports and General Health Questionnaire results, the weighted prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit substance use and that of "mental health problems" were 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-6.4) and 29.2% (95% CI, 27.5-30.9), respectively. On the basis of the ultrarapid version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test and urine tests, the prevalence of likely substance use disorder during the 3 months prior to assessment was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8-1.5) and 7.7% (95% CI, 4.6-10.7), respectively. Factors associated with substance use were religion, unmarried status, unplanned pregnancy, previous abortion, and current mental health problem. Our results emphasize the need for identification of substance use and mental health problems, with the help of questionnaires and biological markers, followed by early intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  12. Husband’s Education Level and Alcohol Drinking Habit as Risk Factors of HIV Infection among Housewives in Pati District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aeni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection in Pati District increase, particularly among housewives. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors of HIV infection among housewives in Pati District using case-control study design. The respondents were 90 housewives divided into case and control group. The case group consisted of 30 housewives living with HIV, while the control group comprised 60 housewives living in the similar area of the counterparts. The data collection was focused on demographic, sexual behaviour, and sociocultural variables possessed by housewives and their husbands. The study resulted that the risk factors of HIV infection among housewives based on bivariate analysis were housewife’s level of education, husband’s level of education, husband’s occupation, housewife’s sexual transmission disease (STD record, husband’s STD record, husband’s participation in religious activities, and husband’s alcohol drinking habit. The risk factors that fitted to logistic regression model were education level and alcoholic behaviour of husbands that contributed to 29.1% HIV infection among housewives. In conclusion, the husband’s variables are proved having stronger and very significant correlation with HIV infection among housewives than housewife’s variables.

  13. Serum levels of selenium and smoking habits at age 50 influence long term prostate cancer risk; a 34 year ULSAM follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmark, Birgitta; Zethelius, Björn; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Serum selenium level (s-Se) has been associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk. We investigated the relation between s-Se, smoking and non-screening detected PrCa and explored if polymorphisms in two DNA repair genes: OGG1 and MnSOD, influenced any effect of s-Se. ULSAM, a population based Swedish male cohort (n = 2322) investigated at age 50 for s-Se and s-Se influencing factors: serum cholesterol, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and smoking habits. At age 71 a subcohort, (n = 1005) was genotyped for OGG1 and MnSOD polymorphisms. In a 34-year-follow-up, national registries identified 208 PrCa cases further confirmed in medical records. Participants with s-Se in the upper tertile had a non-significantly lower risk of PrCa. Smokers with s-Se in the two lower tertiles (≤80 μg/L) experienced a higher cumulative incidence of PrCa than smokers in the high selenium tertile (Hazard Ratio 2.39; 95% CI: 1.09-5.25). A high tertile selenium level in combination with non-wt rs125701 of the OGG1 gene in combination with smoking status or rs4880 related variation of MnSOD gene appeared to protect from PrCa. S-Se levels and smoking habits influence long-term risk of PrCa. Smoking as a risk factor for PrCa in men with low s-Se is relevant to explore further. Exploratory analyses of variations in OGG1 and MnSOD genes indicate that hypotheses about patterns of exposure to selenium and smoking combined with data on genetic variation in genes involved in DNA repair can be valuable to pursue

  14. Smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, M D; Bower, J H; Maraganore, D M; McDonnell, S K; Peterson, B J; Ahlskog, J E; Schaid, D J; Rocca, W A

    2000-11-14

    To study the association of PD with preceding smoking, alcohol, and coffee consumption using a case-control design. The authors used the medical records linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, during the years 1976 to 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (+/-1 year) and sex to a general population control subject. The authors reviewed the complete medical records of cases and control subjects to abstract exposure information. For coffee consumption, the authors found an OR of 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16 to 0.78, p = 0.01), a dose-effect trend (p = 0.003), and a later age at PD onset in cases who drank coffee compared with those who never did (median 72 versus 64 years; p = 0.0002). The inverse association with coffee remained significant after adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol drinking and was restricted to PD cases with onset at age coffee drinking and PD; however, this association does not imply that coffee has a direct protective effect against PD. Alternative explanations for the association should be considered.

  15. The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irander, K; Borres, M P; Ghafouri, B

    2014-04-01

    Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosal function and smoking habits. The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n=18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometry. Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 ± 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 ± 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 ± 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. IMPACT OF SMOKING HABITS ON THE STATE OF CHROMATIN AND MORPHOLOGY OF BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, O; Ryabokon, E; Magda, I; Shckorbatov, Y

    2017-01-01

    The cells of buccal epithelium were investigated in groups of smoking and non-smoking students. Cell samples were collected by scraping with blunt sterile spatula, stained with orcein and photographed. The smoking of cigarettes and hookah induces significant decrease in nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area in cells of buccal epithelium. Smoking of hookah induces, besides, the heterochromatization in cell nuclei and the decrease of nuclear area. The data obtained indicate stress reaction in cells (heterochromatinization) and apoptosis-related changes in cells (decrease of nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area). These data show unfavorable effects of smoking cigarettes and even more harmful effect of hookah smoking.

  17. Evolução temporal do tabagismo em estudantes de medicina, 1986, 1991, 1996 Trends in smoking habits among medical students in 1986, 1991, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Menezes

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tendência temporal do tabagismo em estudantes de medicina nos últimos dez anos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com estudantes do primeiro ao quinto ano do curso de medicina, em 1996. A amostra foi de 449 alunos que responderam a questionário auto-aplicável. Fumante era aquele que fumava um ou mais cigarros por dia há pelo menos um mês; ex-fumantes foram aqueles que, no período da entrevista, não eram fumantes regulares, mas o haviam sido anteriormente. Pesquisa similar foi realizada em 1986 e 1991. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo foi de 11%, comparada com 14% em 1991 e 21% em 1986. Apesar da redução do tabagismo nas três séries estudadas, a queda percentual entre 1996 e 1991 foi menor do que aquela observada entre 1991 e 1986. Em 1996, a prevalência do vício de fumar aumentou conforme o ano cursado. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo. A maioria dos alunos mostrou-se favorável à proibição do fumo em locais de ensino e assistência e afirmaram que o tema era pouco valorizado no currículo da faculdade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in smoking habits among medical students in the last ten years. METHODS: In 1996, a cross-sectional survey of smoking habits was carried out among students in the first to the fifth year of medical school. Four hundred and nine students answered the questionnaire. A regular smoker was defined as someone who smokes one or more cigarettes a day at least for one month; former smokers were the ones who used to smoke in the past but not at the moment. Similar researchs were conducted in 1986 and 1991. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Smoking prevalence was 11% compared with 14% in 1991 and 21% in 1986. Although there was a significant reduction of smoking in the last three years, the actual decrease from 1991 to 1996 was less than that observed from 1986 to 1991. In 1961, the prevalence of smoking increased in the last years of medical school. There

  18. Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhao, J.K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhou, J.Y.; Wang, X.S.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese

  19. Avaliação de hábitos tabágicos em alunos do ensino secundário Smoking habits in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Damas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O consumo de tabaco é um factor de risco importante em doenças com mortalidade e morbilidade importante. O hábito de fumar é adquirido precocemente na adolescência, sendo esta fase do desenvolvimento um período crítico para a aquisição deste hábito. Métodos: De forma a avaliar os hábitos tabágicos, bem como os conhecimentos dos malefícios relacionados com o seu consumo, foi realizado um inquérito confidencial em quatro escolas secundárias da área do grande Porto. Os dados obtidos foram avaliados com recurso ao programa SPSS 1.2 (versão 2004. Resultados: Foram obtidas respostas de 1770 alunos, com idades compreendidas entre os 11 e os 21 anos (mediana de 15,1 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (58%. A maioria dos estudantes (n=952, 54,6% tinha conhecimento dos avisos relacionados com o fumo dispersos na escola. A grande maioria (n=1639, 92,7% considerava-se bem informada no que respeita aos malefícios do tabaco. No entanto, apenas 6,7% mencionou três ou mais patologias relacionadas com o consumo de tabaco. Quantos às fontes de informação os pais e os amigos foram as mais frequentemente referidas. Do total de estudantes que responderam ao inquérito 194 (11,1% eram fumadores, tendo em média começado a fumar com 15 anos. A maioria (n=111; 57,2% eram filhos de fumadores e a maioria dos fumadores (96,4% tinham amigos fumadores versus 83,1% dos não fumadores, sendo esta diferença estatisticamente significativa (pBackground: Smoking is an important health risk in general, and responsible for diseases with significant mortality and morbidity. Smoking habits start early and adolescence is a notorious time for starting smoking. Aim and Methods: To assess knowledge on smoking and smoking habits in a population of adolescents in four Porto schools, using a confidential self administered questionnaire. Collected data were evaluated using the SPSS 1.2 statistics program (2004 version. Results: A total of 1770 students

  20. Risk Factors for Peri-Implantitis: Effect of History of Periodontal Disease and Smoking Habits. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stacchi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this review was to evaluate whether history of periodontitis and smoking habits could represent a risk factor for peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and was registered at the PROSPERO database [registration numbers CRD42016034160 (effect of history of periodontitis and CRD42016033676 (effect of smoking]. Broad electronic (MEDLINE and manual searches were conducted among articles published from January 1st 1990 up to December 31st 2015, resulting in 49332 records for history of periodontitis and 3199 for smoking habits. Selection criteria included prospective studies comparing two cohorts of patients, with and without the investigated risk factor, with a minimum follow-up period of three years, and reporting data on peri-implantitis and implant loss occurrence. Considering that only prospective studies were included, dichotomous data were expressed as risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Three studies evaluating history of periodontitis (on which quantitative analysis was performed and one study on smoking effect were included. Both implant and patient-based meta-analyses revealed a significantly higher risk of developing peri-implantitis in patients with a history of periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy subjects, but not a statistically significant increased risk for implant loss. Conclusions: The outcomes of this systematic review indicate history of periodontitis as a possible risk factor for peri-implantitis, while insufficient data are present in literature to evaluate the role of smoking. However, available evidence is still weak and immature, and sound epidemiological studies are needed to analyse the specific contribution of these potential risk factors.

  1. Survival in individuals with severe alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) in comparison to a general population with known smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanash, Hanan A; Ekström, Magnus; Rönmark, Eva; Lindberg, Anne; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge about the natural history of severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is limited. Our aim was to compare the survival of PiZZ individuals with randomly selected controls from the Swedish general population.The PiZZ subjects (n=1585) were selected from the Swedish National AATD Register. The controls (n=5999) were randomly selected from the Swedish population register. Smoking habits were known for all subjects.Median follow-up times for the PiZZ subjects (731 never-smokers) and controls (3179 never-smokers) were 12 and 17 years, respectively (psmoking habits and presence of respiratory symptoms, the risk of death was still significantly higher for the PiZZ individuals than for the controls, hazard ratio (HR) 3.2 (95% CI 2.8-3.6; psmoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening, compared to never-smoking controls, HR 1.2 (95% CI 0.6-2.2).The never-smoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening had a similar life expectancy to the never-smokers in the Swedish general population. Early diagnosis of AAT deficiency is of utmost importance. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  2. Work Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Fishermen With a Smoking Habit: A Mediator Role of Nicotine Dependence and Possible Moderator Role of Expressive Suppression and Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongjuan; Li, Sailan; Yang, Juan

    2018-01-01

    This study examined pathways of influence between work stress, depressive symptoms, nicotine dependence, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal in fishermen with smoking habits in Qionghai, Hainan province, China (N = 1068). These fishermen responded to multiple assessments a week before leaving on a deep-sea fishing trip, including a Mental Stressor Investigation Questionnaire (MSIQ), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Russell Reason for Smoking Questionnaire (RRSQ), and an Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses of the collected data in Mplus 7 showed that work stress and nicotine dependence were independent predictors of depressive symptoms. The relationship between work stress and depressive symptoms was found to be partially mediated by nicotine dependence and be moderated by cognitive reappraisal. The evidence suggests it advantageous to examine the need of work stress, nicotine dependence, and cognitive reappraisal when attempting to understand depressive symptoms in fishermen with a smoking habit. These findings suggest that improving nicotine dependence through work stress management and training in cognitive reappraisal could be utilized as effective modalities for improving depressive symptoms.

  3. [Television and Internet as sources of women knowledge of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks impact on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Kobyłecka, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of the Internet allows obtaining information on different areas of life, including the impact of smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. Environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and active smoking are a serious risk for women's health, especially for women in reproductive age and children at any time in their lives. Alcohol is a risk factor for the development of general diseases, and consumed by pregnant women has a toxic effect on the body of women and a child in the prenatal period. Due to the increased consumption of energy drinks containing among others nervous system stimulants and carbohydrates, their consumption should be a conscious choice of the consumers. Knowledge of the health risks resulting from the lifestyle can be a decisive factor for the implementation of health behaviour. The aim of the study was to determine the sources from which men and women acquire information concerning the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and energy drinks on health. The respondents interest in the above mentioned subjects was also evaluated. The survey study was carried out in a group of 160 persons (114 women and 46 men), aged 19-60 years, randomly selected from the patients presenting to the Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics of the Medical University of Lublin. An author's questionnaire was prepared for this research. The data were analyzed statistically with the use of Pearson's X2 test. Statistically significant test values were those with psource of information about the impact of smoking cigarettes on health for 52.63% women and 56.52% men, about the alcohol effect on health for 57.02% women and 45.65% men, while about energy drinks for 61.40 % of women and 47.83% men. Differences between sex of the respondents and indicated source of information were not statistically significant. Obtaining information from television programmes on the impact of smoking on health reported 70.18% of women and 63

  4. Fathers' smoking and use of alcohol--the viewpoint of maternity health care clinics and well-baby clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyssälä, L; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Sillanpää, M

    1995-03-01

    The study population consists of the fathers of the families which took part in the project 'The Finnish Family Competence Study', conducted by the Department of Public Health, University of Turku. The initial phase of the study included 1279 men. At the onset of the study project their families were expecting their first baby. When examining the fathers' use of alcohol, it was found that those with the highest level of basic education and those in professional occupations had the highest frequency of alcohol use, but they only consumed small amounts of alcohol at a time. In contrast, industrial employees and those with a lower level of education used alcohol less frequently, but they used larger amounts at a time. Thirty-two per cent of the respondents reduced their drinking after the onset of the wife's pregnancy. Of the respondents 43.7% were smokers, 8.4% of whom stopped smoking after the onset of the wife's pregnancy. Smoking cessation by the father was statistically significantly explained by the fact that the wife had not smoked before pregnancy or that she had stopped smoking after the onset of pregnancy, in which case the father did the same. When the fathers were divided into two categories according to their alcohol use, i.e. lighter and heavier users, it was found that the latter group had a more negative attitude towards their children. Similarly, smoking fathers were found to have a more negative attitude towards their children that the non-smoking ones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (pdrugs (pconsumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of terminations of pregnancy represents an high-risk population. Physicians

  6. Investigation of aggravating psychosocial factors on health and predictability of smoking and alcohol use in post adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrosyni Barmpagianni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explore those factors which affect the health of students in postadolescent age, focusing on smoking and alcohol use, especially in regard to ways of predicting adoption of this behavior and its frequency to detect future users of tobacco and alcohol use but also high-risk groups, i.e. those people who are led to abuses. On the basis of the research part is the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the axes of which are to be investigated. Specifically, the factors evaluated, except for population parameters, behavioral attitudes, i.e. attitudes towards the behavior of tobacco use and alcohol regulations subjective perceptions and perceptions of control, perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Intention is explored to continue or start using tobacco and alcohol in the future and evaluate the behavior. The sample consisted of 138 students of postadolescent age, 18-25 years of both sexes, all of the University of Peloponnese and the Technological Educational Institute of Kalamata, Department of Sparta, Greece. The results of a series of statistical analysis, via SPSS 21.0 statistical program revealed the predictive power of perceived behavioral control and subjective norms to the intention of interpreting 64% of the variance of the latter, of the attitudes toward alcohol in relation to intention that interpret 69% of the variance, of the normative beliefs toward smoking with 69% range of interpretation to the dependent variable, of the perceived behavioral control of smoking with 72% and of the attitudes toward smoking with 77% of interpretation. The results demonstrate the significance and application in universities and technological educational institutes appropriate primary preventive interventions for students nonusers of tobacco and alcohol and appropriate programs of secondary and tertiary prevention in heavy users of tobacco and alcohol use and high-risk individual.

  7. Partner's and own education: Does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, C.W.S.; Lenthe, F.J. van; Graaf, N.D. de; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner's education, adjusted for own education, on self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  8. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments...

  9. Perceived ethnic discrimination in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups in The Netherlands: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marlies J.; Ikram, Umar Z.; Derks, Eske M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of

  10. The long-term effect of a population-based life-style intervention on smoking and alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Toft, Ulla Marie Nørgaard; Aadahl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether improvements in smoking and alcohol consumption throughout the 5-year course of a population-based multi-factorial life-style intervention were sustained 5 years after its discontinuation. DESIGN: Population-based randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Suburbs of Copenhage...

  11. Changes to smoking habits and addiction following tobacco excise tax increases: a comparison of Māori, Pacific and New Zealand European smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Megan R; Kivell, Bronwyn M; Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-02-01

    To compare changes in smoking habit and psychological addiction in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers in response to two annual excise tax increases from 2012 to 2014. Smokers from New Zealand cities completed questionnaires at three time points before and after two excise tax increases. There were no significant differences in cigarettes per day or psychological addiction at baseline, but a linear decline in both measures was observed in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers. Cigarettes per day reduced at a greater rate for Māori/Pacific than NZ European smokers but dependence did not. Results indicated that Māori/Pacific smokers' demand for cigarettes may be more price sensitive than NZ European smokers. Implications for Public Health: Tobacco excise tax may be particularly effective for Māori/Pacific smokers and may contribute to reductions in smoking-related health inequalities in NZ. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. Hemo rheological Changes Associated with Occupational Exposure to Low Doses Radiation from X-Ray Inspection Machines Influenced by Smoking Habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.M.; El-khatib, A.M.; Naim, M.A.; Ali, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of low dose x-ray radiation on some rheological parameters of blood were investigated in 30 male x-ray workers and 20 healthy volunteers not occupationally exposed to any type of radiation and match in age. Each group was classified according to smoking habits. The analysis of the flow curve of all subjects was performed by applying power-law model and Bingham plastic model. The results indicated elevates in whole blood viscosity and yield stress in smoker subjects as compared with non-smoker subjects and also showed that the elevation of blood viscosity of smoker radiation workers are related to work duration in the radiation field.We have observed that cigarette smoking increases the hazardous effects of radiation through the increase of blood viscosity, which excess the risk of cardiovascular disease. So it is recommended to consider blood viscosity measurements to be included in routine medical investigation for occupational workers and rheological

  13. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of alcohol use disorders among adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoko; Gilman, Stephen E; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and lifetime risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to explore possible mechanisms through which MSP may be related to neurobehavioral conditions during infancy and childhood, which could, in turn, lead to increased risk for AUD. A sample of 1,625 individuals was followed from pregnancy for more than 40 years. Capitalizing on the long follow-up time, we used survival analysis to examine lifetime risks of AUD (diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) in relation to levels of MSP (none, pregnancy) and child (to improve academic functioning) may reduce the risk for subsequent AUD.

  14. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, smoking, and recent alcohol use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ian M; Culhane, Jennifer F; Webb, David A; Coyne, James C; Hogan, Vijaya; Mathew, Leny; Elo, Irma T

    2010-06-01

    Perceived discrimination is associated with poor mental health and health-compromising behaviors in a range of vulnerable populations, but this link has not been assessed among pregnant women. We aimed to determine whether perceived discrimination was associated with these important targets of maternal health care among low-income pregnant women. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in English or Spanish with 4,454 multiethnic, low-income, inner-city women at their first prenatal visit at public health centers in Philadelphia, Penn, USA, from 1999 to 2004. Perceived chronic everyday discrimination (moderate and high levels) in addition to experiences of major discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D >or= 23), smoking in pregnancy (current), and recent alcohol use (12 months before pregnancy) were assessed by patients' self-report. Moderate everyday discrimination was reported by 873 (20%) women, high everyday discrimination by 238 (5%) women, and an experience of major discrimination by 789 (18%) women. Everyday discrimination was independently associated with depressive symptomatology (moderate = prevalence ratio [PR] of 1.58, 95% CI: 1.38-1.79; high = PR of 1.82, 95% CI: 1.49-2.21); smoking (moderate = PR of 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.36; high = PR of 1.41, 95% CI: 1.15-1.74); and recent alcohol use (moderate = PR of 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.36). However, major discrimination was not independently associated with these outcomes. This study demonstrated that perceived chronic everyday discrimination, but not major discrimination, was associated with depressive symptoms and health-compromising behaviors independent of potential confounders, including race and ethnicity, among pregnant low-income women.

  15. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Passos Sobreiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals’ semen characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. RESULTS: Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  16. Semen analysis in fertile patients undergoing vasectomy: reference values and variations according to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Lucon, Antonio Marmo; Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly Silveira; Arap, Sami

    2005-07-07

    Recent studies have shown regional and population differences in semen characteristics. The objective was to establish reference values for semen analysis and to verify the effect that age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking habits and coffee consumption have on fertile individuals' semen characteristics. Prospective study in the Urology Division, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo. Between September 1999 and August 2002, 500 fertile men requesting a vasectomy for sterilization purposes were asked to provide a semen sample before the vasectomy. We evaluated the effects of age, sexual abstinence, seasonality, smoking and coffee consumption on semen characteristics. Compared with World Health Organization values, 87.2% of the patients presented sperm morphology below the normal level. A significant decline in semen volume, sperm motility and sperm morphology in patients over 45 years of age was observed. In patients with 5 days or more of abstinence, there was reduced sperm motility. The lowest values for sperm concentration, motility and morphology were observed in summer and the highest in winter. No differences in semen parameters relating to smoking were detected. Patients who drank six or more cups of coffee per day presented higher sperm motility. Our sample had a very low percentage of normal sperm morphology. Only sperm morphology showed a high abnormality rate. Differences in semen parameters with regard to age, length of sexual abstinence, seasonality and coffee consumption were identified. No differences relating to smoking were detected.

  17. Changes in haemoglobin levels according to changes in body mass index and smoking habits, a 20-year follow-up of a male cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbakken, Tove; Dahl, Inger Marie S.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Langbakk, Bodil; Lochen, Maja-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin level declines with increasing age in cross sectional studies. Little is known about the longitudinal changes of haemoglobin. Because both high or low haemoglobin levels increase mortality and morbidity we examined how changes in lifestyle factors like body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits influence cohort changes in haemoglobin level. In all, 4159 men aged 20-49 years at baseline were examined in 1974 and 1994-1995 in a longitudinal, population-based study from the municipality of Tromso, Northern Norway. Mean haemoglobin was 148 g/l. There was no difference in mean haemoglobin after 20 years in any strata of age. Mean BMI increased 2.1 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of smokers decreased 20.1 percentage points. In a multiple regression analysis increase in BMI was associated with increased haemoglobin change. Smoking cessation lowered mean haemoglobin 1.6 g/l compared to never smokers. Haemoglobin increased 0.8 g/l in smoking quitters whose BMI increased >2.5 kg/m 2 compared to a decrease of 6.7 g/l in weight reducers. There was a positive dose-response relationship between changes in cigarettes smoked per day and change in haemoglobin among consistent smokers. In conclusion, in contrast to cross sectional studies, mean haemoglobin did not change during 20 years ageing of relatively young men. This could be explained by higher BMI and less smoking. The increase in BMI affected haemoglobin change to such an extent that the reduction in haemoglobin due to smoking cessation was counteracted. Prospective studies are needed to address the health implications

  18. Association between smoking habits and the first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation in Japanese patients: Evidence from the Shinken Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinya; Otsuka, Takayuki; Sagara, Koichi; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Takai, Hideaki; Kato, Yuko; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Kunihara, Takashi; Yajima, Junji; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported a cross-sectional analysis regarding the relationship between smoking and atrial fibrillation (AF) in a single hospital-based cohort with Japanese patients, but the effect of cessation of smoking and/or total tobacco consumption were unclear. We used data from the Shinken Database 2004-2011 (men/women, n=10,714/6803, respectively), which included all new patients attending the Cardiovascular Institute between June 2004 and March 2012. After excluding those previously diagnosed with AF (n=2296), 15,221 patients (men/women, n=9016/6205) were analyzed. During the follow-up period of 2.0±2.1 years (range 0.0-8.1), the incidence rates of new AF in smokers and non-smokers were 9.0 and 5.0 per 1000 patient-years, respectively. In adjusted models with Cox regression analysis, smokers were independently associated with new AF [hazard ratio (HR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.00]. Also, current smokers (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.17-2.79) and smokers with Brinkman index ≥800 (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70) were independently associated with new AF. However, in current smokers, the HRs were not different by Brinkman index (Brinkman index Smoking was independently associated with the first-appearance of AF in patients in sinus rhythm, especially when the patients continued their smoking habit. However, in patients who continued smoking, difference by total tobacco consumption was not observed, suggesting the significance of cessation of smoking for preventing AF. Our data are limited because of a single hospital-based nature and a relatively short observation period. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Smoking habits, attitudes and knowledges of medical students of Medicine, Pharmacy and Odonto-Stomatology's Faculty of Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Ndir, M; Quantin, X; Demoly, P; Godard, P; Bousquet, J

    2003-11-01

    Smoking is a public health problem that does not spare the medical profession. We set out to determine the prevalence of smoking in medical students in Dakar and to assess their attitudes and knowledge in the face of this problem. A cross sectional study was conducted by means of an auto-questionnaire among 1547 medical students between 3 and 31 May 2001. There were 1061 males (68.6%) and 486 females (31.4%). The overall prevalence of regular or occasional smoking was 34.6%, with 42.8% in the first cycle, 38% in the second and 19% in the third. It was significantly higher among males at 76.4%. The average age of starting smoking ranged from 10 to 22 years and average duration from 5 to 26 years. The influence of fashion was the most frequent initiating factor at 37.4% and 96.6% smoked commercial cigarettes. Nicotine dependence, assessed by the Fagerstrom score, was average in 59.3%, strong in 14% and very strong in 4.7%. 58.8% smoked in public places and 78.2% thought they could give up smoking within the next 5 years. 8.4% were unaware of the effects of tobacco on health and 20.5% of the relationship between tobacco and the diseases quoted. 37.7% of future doctors would not systematically avoid smoking in the presence of patients but 79% wished to ban advertising and 70.4% to ban the use of tobacco in hospitals. 94.4% of students wanted health care workers to be educated about the effects of smoking. Tobacco smoking among medical students has increased between 1989 (28.7%) and 2001 (35.6%). This observation should stimulate the establishment of a course on the pathology of tobacco smoking and the integration of education and prevention within the medical curriculum, increase the awareness of smokers and above all help them stop.

  20. The Correlation between Duration of Employment, Body Posture and Smoking Habit on Low Back Pain Incidence An Analytic Observational Study Among Taxi Driver in Semarang Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syifa Dian Firmanita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low back pain ((LBP ranks as number two of neurological disease’s highest prevalence after cephalgia and migraine in Indonesia. Objective: This study aim to determine the relationship between duration of employment, body posture and smoking habit on the incidence of low back pain on taxi driver. Method: This research is an observational analytic cross sectional design. Seventyfour taxi drivers in Semarang municipality was screened with Beck’s Depression Inventory Scale to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Respondents were then given Risk Factor of LBP questionnaire. Data were analyzed with a bivariate correlation test contingency coefficient to see the relationship between duration of employment, body posture, smoking habit and low back pain.Result: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years were moderate smokers and having astenis body posture. The analysis of correlation coefficients contingency test showed a significance relationship between duration of employment (p = 0,000, body posture (p = 0,000, and moderate smokers (p=0.010 with the incidence of LBP. Conclusion: the taxi driver with duration of employment >10 years with astenis body posture, and moderate smokers were posstively correlated with LBP.

  1. Age, smoking habits, heat stress, and their interactive effects with carbon monoxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate on man's aerobic power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, P.B.; Drinkwater, B.L.; Horvath, S.M.; Ruhling, R.O.; Gliner, J.A.; Sutton, J.C.; Bolduan, N.W.

    1972-10-01

    The interactive effects of age, smoking habits, and heat stress with carbon monoxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate inhalation on human aerobic power were examined. The subjects included 16 healthy middle-aged males (40-57 years); nine were nonsmokers and seven were smokers. There was no significant change in maximum aerobic power related to the presence of either air pollutant, although total working time was lowered at a temperature of 25/sup 0/C for subjects breathing 50 ppM CO. Older nonsmokers did show a decrement in maximum aerobic power while breathing 50 ppM CO, while older smokers failed to show any change. This difference, however, was related to the initial carboxyhemoglobin levels of the smokers who, when breathing this level of CO, showed only a 14 percent increase in COHb over the initial level as compared to a 200 percent increase in the nonsmokers. Smoking habits were the most influential factor affecting cardiorespiratory responses to maximal exercise in older men. Regardless of ambient conditions, smokers showed a significantly lower (27 percent) aerobic power than nonsmokers. They were also breathing closer to their maximal breathing capacities throughout the exercise period and showed a higher respiratory exchange ratio. The maximum aerobic power of nonsmokers was only 6 percent less than that of younger nonsmokers working under similar conditions, while the aerobic power of the older smokers was 26 percent lower than that of young smokers (24 years).

  2. Cognitive dissonance towards the smoking habit among nursing and physiotherapy students at the University of Balearic Islands in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericas, J; González, S; Bennasar, M; De Pedro, J; Aguiló, A; Bauzá, L

    2009-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking among physiotherapy and nursing students at the University of the Balearic Islands in Spain and to describe their perceptions, attitude and behaviour towards smoking and towards the Spanish Smoking Prevention Act. Active smoking is the first avoidable cause of death in the world while passive smoking is the third. The tobacco epidemic kills 5.4 million people a year from lung cancer, heart disease and other related illnesses. In Europe, around one-third of the Community population are smokers, with about 650,000 smoking-related deaths per year in the Community. In Spain, 56,000 people a year are estimated to die from tobacco-related illnesses. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study, with a sample of 345 out of 645 students (53.5% participation rate) who completed an anonymous, self-administered, standardized survey devised by the World Health Organization. The study revealed a 26.1% prevalence of tobacco smoking (26.9% among women and 22.6% among men), which is similar to percentages of students at other Spanish universities. Smokers and non-smokers reported many differences in attitude and behaviour, some of which have potential repercussions in their career, such as in estimating the harmful effects of tobacco smoke or the status of health professionals as role models in the society they serve. The results of this study will contribute to develop an anti-smoking programme at the university and to establish smoking-prevention campaigns.

  3. Trends in dietary patterns, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer in Polish population in 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.

  4. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Azary

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral of sporadic retinoblastoma.Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children's Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424 were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma.Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5-20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption.The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors.

  5. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seungmin; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle) for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type). Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67) higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98) for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92) for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92) or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80) than with a spouse and younger generations. Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  6. Effects of living alone versus with others and of housemate type on smoking, drinking, dietary habits, and physical activity among elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Jeong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examined differences in health behaviors between elderly people living alone and with others; it also investigated whether the effect of living with others differs according to housemate type, namely a spouse and/or younger generations. METHODS Gender-stratified data from the 2013 Korea Community Health Survey for individuals aged 60 to 74 living in Seoul were analyzed. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of the outcome variables (smoking, drinking, eating salty foods, inactive lifestyle for the variables of interest (living alone/with others, housemate type. Models were adjusted for confounding variables including history of medical conditions, employment type, and adjusted household income. RESULTS Analysis involved 1,814 men and 2,199 women. Risk of smoking was 1.80 times (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.67 higher for men living alone than living with others. Risk of eating salty foods was 0.78 times lower (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.98 for men living with a spouse than a spouse and younger generations. Risk of inactive lifestyle was 1.47 times higher (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.92 for women living alone. Risk of smoking was higher for women living alone (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.92 or with younger generations (OR, 9.12; 95% CI, 2.04 to 40.80 than with a spouse and younger generations. CONCLUSIONS Living alone was associated with smoking in men and physical activity in women; housemate type was associated with dietary habits in men and smoking in women. These gender-specific findings can help identify groups of individuals vulnerable to risky health behaviors and to develop policies.

  7. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Youthful Smoking: Patterns and Relationships to Alcohol and Other Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined smoking patterns in 27,335 junior and senior high school students. Found smoking was more prevalent among girls than boys, and among whites more than members of minority groups. Marijuana use was the best single predictor of whether a student smoked or not. Heavy drinking was the best predictor of quantity smoked among smokers. (Author/KS)

  9. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence......PURPOSE: Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. METHOD: We used...... of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated...

  10. Smoking and lifestyle in an urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Martínez L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is harmful for one’s health and affects many people in the world. Its consequences are high morbidity and mortality from cardio-respiratory diseases and cancer. This complex public health issue also entails high costs. In order to understand this addiction, it is necessary to find out whether its presence is an isolated habit or a part of an unhealthy behavior. Objective: to explore the relationship between smoking and some components of a lifestyle. Methodology: a cross-sectional study with 4,000 adults aiming at identifying the link between smoking and certain aspects of lifestyle such as age, gender, education, socioeconomic level, physical inactivity, eating habits, recreation and alcohol. Results: age and socioeconomic level were not found to be associated with smoking; however, gender, schooling level, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating habits, and inadequate recreation were found to be statistically and epidemiologically related to smoking. Conclusions: smoking is associated with other adverse components of an unhealthy lifestyle. Community control and health promotion activities should address this issue through comprehensive strategies aimed at modifying human behavior in order to achieve more effective results.

  11. Hábitos tabágicos em alunos do 6.º ano de Medicina e medidas anti-tabágicas Smoking habits of sixth year medical students and anti-smoking measures in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectivos: Estudar os hábitos tabágicos, caracterizar o conhecimento, aceitação de medidas anti -tabágicas e as expectativas em relação ao impacto destas na saúde pública em alunos do 6º ano de Medicina, em Portugal. Material e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal, cuja população alvo foram os alunos de Medicina do sexto ano, em Portugal. Foi utilizado um questionário auto -preenchido, anónimo, disponibilizado numa página online, que divulgámos por correio electrónico. Para a análise de algumas variáveis utilizamos tabelas de contingência e a prova do χ², com nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Obtivemos 255 questionários válidos. A taxa de fumadores foi de 18,04%. O consumo de cigarros mais frequente foi entre 1 -10 cigarros, sendo mais elevado entre os homens. A idade de início da maioria foi entre 13 -18 anos, com as mulheres a começarem mais tarde. Dos fumadores, 36,96% já fizeram uma tentativa de cessação tabágica. A maioria dos inquiridos concorda com as medidas anti-tabágicas inquiridas e considera que irão diminuir o consumo e a morbimortalidade da população em geral. A formação sobre cessação tabágica foi considerada suficiente por 34,90%. Conclusões: Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com as características da população em geral, nomeadamente quanto à prevalência de fumadores, idade de início do consumo de tabaco e elevada prevalência de mulheres fumadoras. As medidas anti-tabágicas parecem reunir consenso, segundo a nossa amostra, que também espera uma redução do consumo geral e individual, assim como da morbimortalidade.Objectives: To study the smoking habits of 6th year Portuguese medical students and assess their knowledge and acceptance of anti-smoking measures and how they felt these would impact on public health. Material and methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, in which a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was

  12. Smoking habits of relatives of patients with cancer: cancer diagnosis in the family is an important teachable moment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayran, Mutlu; Kilickap, Saadettin; Elkiran, Tamer; Akbulut, Hakan; Abali, Huseyin; Yuce, Deniz; Kilic, Diclehan; Turhal, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the rate and habitual patterns of smoking, intentions of cessation, dependence levels and sociodemographic characteristics of relatives of patients with a diagnosis of cancer. This study was designed by the Turkish Oncology Group, Epidemiology and Prevention Subgroup. The relatives of cancer patients were asked to fill a questionnaire and Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence. The median ages of those with lower and higher Fagerstrom scores were 40 years and 42 years, respectively. We found no evidence of variation between the two groups for the remaining sociodemographic variables, including the subject's medical status, gender, living in the same house with the patient, their educational status, their family income, closeness to their cancer patients or spending time with them or getting any help or wanting to get some help. Only 2% of the subjects started smoking after cancer was diagnosed in their loved ones and almost 20% of subjects had quit smoking during the previous year. The Fagerstrom score is helpful in determining who would be the most likely to benefit from a cigarette smoking cessation program. Identification of these people with proper screening methods might help us to pinpoint who would benefit most from these programs.

  13. Alcohol use disorder with and without stimulant use: brain morphometry and its associations with cigarette smoking, cognition, and inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Pennington

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC as well as light drinking controls (CON, the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU, and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control.All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control.PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON.Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further elucidation of these distinctive

  14. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  16. Is identification of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity by General Practitioners improving? A comparison over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Mazza, Danielle; Carey, Mariko; Walsh, Justin; Bisquera, Alessandra

    2015-12-01

    Detection of lifestyle risk factors by GPs is the first step required for intervention. Despite significant investment in preventive health care in general practice, little is known about whether GP detection of lifestyle risk factors have improved over time. To examine whether sensitivity and specificity of GP detection of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity has increased in patients presenting to see their GP, by comparing results from four Australian studies conducted between 1982 and 2011. Demographic characteristics of patient and GP samples and the prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of detection of each risk factor were extracted from published studies. Differences between GP and patient sample characteristics were examined. To identify trends over time in prevalence of risk factors, sensitivity and specificity of detection across studies and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend were calculated for each risk factor for the overall sample and by male and female subgroups. There were no statistically significant changes in the sensitivity of GP detection of smoking or overweight or obesity over time. Specificity of detection of smoking increased from 64.7% to 98% (P investment to increase GP detection and intervention for lifestyle risk factors, accurate detection of smoking, risky alcohol consumption and overweight and obesity occurs for less than two-thirds of all patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Assessing phosphatidylethanol (PEth) levels reflecting different drinking habits in comparison to the alcohol use disorders identification test - C (AUDIT-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    In addition to monitoring problematic or harmful alcohol consumption, drinking experiments indicated the potential of phosphatidylethanols (PEth) in abstinence monitoring. To date, no profound evaluation of thresholds for the differentiation of abstinence from moderate drinking and for detection of excessive consumption based on PEth homologues exists. Investigations with a large group of healthy volunteers (n=300) were performed to establish PEth reference values reflecting different drinking habits. Blood samples were analyzed for PEth 16:0/18:1 and 16:0/18:2 by online-SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Results were compared to AUDIT-C questionnaires, to the amounts of alcohol consumed during the two-weeks prior to blood sampling, and were statistically evaluated. PEth concentrations were significantly correlated with self-reported alcohol consumption (r>0.69) and with AUDIT-C scores (r>0.65). 4.0% of 300 volunteers reported abstinence (AUDIT-C score: 0), no PEth was detectable in their blood. PEth 16:0/18:1 concentrations below the limit of detection of 10.0ng/mL match with abstinence and light drinking habits (≤10g pure alcohol/day). However, some volunteers classified as "excessive alcohol consumers" had negative PEth results. In the group of volunteers classified as "moderate drinkers" (AUDIT-C score: 1-3 (women) and 1-4 (men)), 95% of the test persons had PEth 16:0/18:1 ranging from not detected to 112ng/mL, and PEth 16:0/18:2 ranging from not detected to 67.0ng/mL. Combination of self-reported alcohol consumption and AUDIT-C score showed that negative PEth results match with abstinence or light drinking. Moderate alcohol consumption resulted in PEth 16:0/18:1 from 0 to 112ng/mL and for PEth 16:0/18:2 ranged from 0 to 67.0ng/mL. Higher PEth concentrations indicated excessive alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Clustering of chronic disease risk factors with tobacco smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk ... The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants.

  20. Influence of alcohol consumption on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cancer patients--case-control study from Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamma, T; Bhutia, Rinchen Doma; Pokharel, Daya Ram; Yadav, Saraswati; Baxi, J

    2012-01-01

    The present study assess the effect of consumption of alcohol on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients suffering from different types of cancer. This hospital based case control study conducted in the Western part of Nepal covered a total of 93 cancer patients with or without alcohol intake and smoking habits, along with 94 age, sex and habit-matched individuals serving as controls. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), total antioxidant activity (TAA), vitamin C, α-tocopherol and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated and compared. The TBARS level was found to be significantly higher (p≤0.001) in all types of cancer patients when compared to controls, being aggravated in alcoholics with a smoking habit. No statistical significance (p≥0.05) was observed in the level of vitamin C and α-tocopherol. GSH and TAA level were significantly decreased (p≤0.001) in all the groups except those who consumed both branded as well as homemade alcohol and non-alcoholics without smoking habit. Alcohol, irrespective of its commercial brand, increases oxidative stress in all types of cancer patients. This is even higher when alcohol intake is combined with a smoking habit. Decreased TAA and GSH are major risk factors for cancer development.

  1. Use of cigarettes and alcohol by preschoolers while role-playing as adults: "Honey, have some smokes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gibson, Jennifer J; Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda T; Heatherton, Todd F

    2005-09-01

    To examine preschoolers' attitudes, expectations, and perceptions of tobacco and alcohol use. Structured observational study. Children used props and dolls to act out a social evening for adults. As part of the role play, each child selected items from a miniature grocery store stocked with 73 different products, including beer, wine, and cigarettes, for an evening with friends. A behavioral laboratory at the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College. One hundred twenty children, 2 to 6 years old, participated individually in the role-playing. Whether or not a child purchased cigarettes or alcohol at the store. Children purchased a mean of 17 of the 73 products in the store. Thirty-four children (28.3%) bought cigarettes and 74 (61.7%) bought alcohol. Children were more likely to buy cigarettes if their parents smoked (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-12.63). Children were more likely to buy beer or wine if their parents drank alcohol at least monthly (adjusted OR, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.02-9.10) or if they viewed PG-13- or R-rated movies (adjusted OR, 5.10; 95% CI, 1.14-22.90). Children's play behavior suggests that they are highly attentive to the use and enjoyment of alcohol and tobacco and have well-established expectations about how cigarettes and alcohol fit into social settings. The data suggest that observation of adult behavior, especially parental behavior, may influence preschool children to view smoking and drinking as appropriate or normative in social situations. These perceptions may relate to behaviors adopted later in life.

  2. Impact of a chronic smoking habit on the osteo-immunoinflammatory mediators in the peri-implant fluid of clinically healthy dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Brenno Marcondes; Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic cigarette smoking on the profile of osteo-immunoinflammatory markers in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from clinically healthy implants DESIGNS: Twenty-five smokers and 23 non-smoker subjects with a unitary screwed implant-supported crown in the molar or pre-molar region were enrolled in this study. The implants should have been in functioning for at least 12 months, and the peri-implant tissue should be clinically healthy [probing depth (PD)0.05). Moreover, higher ICTP concentrations and a higher TH1/TH2 ratio were observed in the PICF of the smoker patients (p0.05). Smoking habit modulate peri-implant cytokine profile, leading to reductions in IL-4, -8 TNF-α, and OPG levels and an increased ICTP and TH1/TH2 ratio in peri-implant crevicular fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Recreation Therapy on the Habit of Smoking and Positive–Negative Symptoms Among Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirbalouti M. G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric condition that has detrimental outcomes on an individual’s thinking, understanding and feelings. However, it not only affects one’s actions and emotions, but also, and quite specifically, creates an avenue for such antisocial behavior as seclusion. Hence, it is important to highlight the necessary requirements for the recovery of schizophrenic patients and subsequently delve deeper into the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia itself, especially among patients who have been confined to psychiatric care for too long. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of recreation therapy on smoking as well as the positive-negative symptoms of schizophrenia among patients who have reached the chronic stage of this condition. Essentially, this was a semi-experimental study with one pretest and one posttest. 50 patients under psychiatric care, aged between 30 to 50 years, were selected and then equally divided into the control and experimental groups. The instruments for this research were the Anderson questionnaire and the smoking cigarette questionnaire, the latter being created by the researcher. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. To evaluate the hypothesis of research, this study relied on a covariance analysis. Based on the results, it can be said that there were significant (p ≤ 0.05 differences between the control and experimental groups related to smoking as well as the positive-negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It shows that 4 months of recreation therapy was able to decrease the prevalence of smoking (19.9%, in addition to the positive symptoms (18.3% and negative symptoms (14.7% of schizophrenia within the experimental group. It is hoped that the results of this study will encourage the use of recreation therapy as a practical and non-pharmacological form of treatment for patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  4. Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and the risk of gallbladder cancer death: a prospective cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagyu, Kiyoko; Kikuchi, Shogo; Obata, Yuki; Lin, Yingsong; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Inaba, Yutaka; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2008-02-15

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis, and few risk factors have been identified to date. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with the risk of gallbladder cancer death. A baseline survey in 45 areas throughout Japan was conducted from 1988 to 1990 using a self-administered questionnaire, and a total of 113,496 participants (65,740 women) aged 40-89 years at entry were followed for 15 years. During the follow-up period, 165 gallbladder cancer deaths (95 women) were observed. Among women, the hazard ratio (HR) [95 percent confidence interval: 95% CI] of current smoker was 2.00 [0.91-4.42], when adjusted for age and drinking. There was no clear association between alcohol consumption and the risk. Among men, HR of current smoker was 2.27 [1.05-4.90]. HRs of those who smoked 21 cigarettes or more per day and those with 801-1,000 cigarette-years were 3.18 [1.18-8.53] and 3.44 [1.40-8.45], respectively, and positive linear associations were observed between that risk and the number of cigarettes per day (p for trend = 0.007) or "cigarette-years" (p for trend = 0.012). The alcohol dose was linearly associated with risk (p for trend = 0.004), where the HR among those who consumed 72.0 g or more of alcohol per day was 3.60 [1.29-9.85]. Among both men and women, cigarette smoking may elevate the risk of death from gallbladder cancer. Drinking may pose an elevated risk among men, but that seems to be less true among women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Twelve-Year Cardiovascular and Mortality Risk in Relation to Smoking Habits in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Men: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, Farzad; Derakhshan, Arash; Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Hasheminia, Mitra; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations between smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) / coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality events in men with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Middle Eastern cohort during a median follow-up of 12 years. The study population included 2230 subjects aged ≥ 40 years, free from CVD, comprised of 367 participants with diabetes (21.2% current smokers) and 1863 without (27.3% current smokers). Multivariate Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for smoking (considering different definitions) for those with and without diabetes. Potential confounding factors including age, body mass index, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and educational level were entered in the multivariate analysis. In men with diabetes, the HR (95% CI) of comparing current and non-smokers was 1.25 (0.74-2.12) for incident CHD, 1.52 (0.96-2.40) for CVD and 2.10 (1.27-3.47) for mortality events; the corresponding values for men without diabetes were 1.65 (1.24-2.20), 1.70 (1.30-2.22) and 1.72 (1.14-2.58), respectively (all P values for interactions > 0.46). After pooling past smokers with current smokers, among diabetic individuals there was no significant risk for CVD [1.29 (0.89-1.86)] or mortality events [1.25 (0.81-1.92)]; however, among non-diabetic individuals the HRs of current/past smokers reached significant levels for CVD [1.53 (1.23-1.91)] but not for mortality outcomes (all P values for interactions > 0.51). The strength of the associations between smoking habits and incident CVD/CHD and mortality events from all causes did not differ significantly among diabetic and non-diabetic participants. Therefore, a comprehensive community-based smoking prevention program is important, given the increasing trend of smoking among the Iranian population regardless of diabetes status.

  6. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  7. Is there an association between home-tobacco outlet proximity and smoking status in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; K Seid, Abdu; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    and/or tobacco outlets on smoking habits for the first time in a population based survey in Denmark. Method: Data came from the 2011 Danish national alcohol and drug survey of the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research of Aarhus University (response rate 64%) and registries of Statistics Denmark were...... between residing close to a tobacco outlet and the prevalence of current and previous smoking. However, no significant association was found between distance from residence to tobacco outlets and smoking habits. Discussion: The prevalence of current smokers (24%) is in accordance with the 2011 annual......Abstract It is well established that exposure to point-of-sale tobacco promotion or impulse purchases and access to and distance to tobacco outlets are related to youth and adult smoking. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of distance from residence to the nearest alcohol...

  8. Peer influences: the impact of online and offline friendship networks on adolescent smoking and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace C; Unger, Jennifer B; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication among adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examined the use of SNSs among friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 10th-grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed-effects models. The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNSs were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends' online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β = .11, p < .001) and alcohol use (β = .06, p < .05). Whereas adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by higher exposure to risky online pictures (β = -.10, p < .05). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and differential effects on risk behaviors. Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents' risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends' online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC. However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO. Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10-8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8 region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.91]; P = 2.1×10-4 and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51-0.75]; P = 1.3×10-6 but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059. No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk.

  10. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  11. Association between burnout syndrome, harmful use of alcohol and smoking in nursing in the ICU of a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Larissa Santi; Nitsche, Maria José Trevizani; Godoy, Ilda de

    2018-01-01

    The article aims to determine the presence of burnout syndrome among professionals in the field of Nursing in the Intensive Care Unit in a university hospital and a possible association with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Participants were 160 nursing professionals from 04 intensive care unit of a university hospital in the period from March 2013 to February 2014. We used a structured questionnaire, plus the smoking history, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Fagerström Dependence Questionnaire and the measurement of carbon monoxide. We used Fisher's chi-square or Fisher exact test. Syndrome was found in 34 professionals, most of them female, married and young adults. 18 professionals reported being smokers. 6,4% of Nursing Assistants, 50% Practical Nurses and Nurses 71,4% drank moderate; 5,4% Nursing Assistant and 14,3% Nurses scored default risk drinking and only 01 Practical Nurses had possible alcohol dependence. There was a positive association of the syndrome with smoking in 01 ICU. Final considerations: Hospital Intensive Care services need assistance from the managers of services for the purpose of caring for the health of their caregivers.

  12. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  13. Klotho-related Molecules Upregulated by Smoking Habit in Apparently Healthy Men: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kaori; Nishida, Makoto; Harada, Masaya; Ohama, Tohru; Kawada, Noritaka; Murakami, Masaaki; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko

    2015-09-18

    While aging is unavoidable, the aging mechanism is still unclear because of its complexity. Smoking causes premature death and is considered as an environmental aging accelerator. In the present study, we focused on the influence of smoking to the serum concentration of anti-aging protein α-klotho (αKl) and the β-klotho-associated protein fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 in men. Subjects consisted of apparently healthy men over 40 years of age who underwent health examination. Physical and biochemical parameters, including the levels of several cytokines and growth factors, were obtained from the subjects. Among middle-aged men (46.1 ± 5.1 years), serum levels of FGF-21, soluble αKl (sαKl), and inflammation-related cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly higher in smokers than in never-smokers. Serum levels of FGF-21 increased and correlated with alanine transaminase, γ guanosine-5'-triphosphate, and total cholesterol only in smokers, suggesting FGF-21 as a metabolic disorder-related factor in smokers. In aged men (60.3 ± 1.7 years), although the serum levels of sαKl in never-smokers were low, smokers showed highly increased serum levels of sαKl. Serum levels of sαKl was correlated with IL-6 in middle-aged never-smokers, suggesting sαKl regulates IL-6. However, this correlation was disrupted in smokers and aged men.

  14. Selenium and breast cancer risk: A prospective nested case-control study on serum selenium levels, smoking habits and overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsveden, Malte; Manjer, Jonas

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has not been conclusive regarding the association between selenium (Se) and breast cancer. This study was conducted to clarify if there is an association between prediagnostic serum Se levels and breast cancer risk. A population based cohort, the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, was used and linked with the Swedish cancer registry up to 31 December 2013. Our study included 1,186 women with breast cancer and an equal number of controls. Selenium levels were analysed from stored serum samples. The included individuals were divided into quartiles based on Se value and we compared breast cancer cases with controls using logistic regression yielding odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Serum Se was also analysed as a continuous variable regarding breast cancer risk. The analyses were adjusted for established risk factors and stratified on smoking status and body mass index (BMI). When comparing the highest Se quartile with the lowest, the adjusted OR for breast cancer was 0.98 (0.75-1.26). With selenium as a continuous variable the adjusted OR was 1.00 (1.00-1.01) per 10 ng/ml. When comparing the highest with the lowest Se quartile in women with BMI > 25 kg/m 2 the adjusted OR was 0.77 (0.53-1.14). We conclude that it is unlikely that prediagnostic serum selenium is overall associated with breast cancer risk and no modifying effect from BMI or smoking was seen. © 2017 UICC.

  15. GPX1 Pro(198)Leu polymorphism, erythrocyte GPX activity, interaction with alcohol consumption and smoking, and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dalgaard; Krath, Britta N.; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism and several lifestyle factors predict GPX activity in erythrocytes. The present study was nested within the prospective “Diet, Cancer and Health” study of 57,053 Danes including 375 colorectal cancer cases and a comparison group of 779 individuals matched on gender. Biomaterial was sampled...... and information on lifestyle factors was obtained from questionnaires filled in at enrolment in 1993–1997. GPX1 Pro198Leu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity were not associated with risk of colorectal cancer. We observed a higher risk associated with alcohol consumption and smoking among......198Leu genotype, gender, smoking intensity, and intake of fruits and vegetables. Our results indicate that lifestyle-related oxidative stress may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer among subjects with a lowered defence....

  16. Does early exposure to caffeine promote smoking and alcohol use behavior? A prospective analysis of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Kogan, Steven M; Mann, Michael J; Smith, Megan L; Juliano, Laura M; Lilly, Christa L; James, Jack E

    2018-04-30

    Despite the negative consequences associated with caffeine use among children and youth, its use is increasingly widespread among middle school students. Cross-sectional studies reveal links between caffeine and other substance use. The potential for caffeine use to confer increased vulnerability to substance use, however, has not been investigated using prospective designs. We hypothesized that caffeine use at baseline would be positively associated with increased alcohol use, drunkenness, smoking, and e-cigarette use. Prospective cohort study with 12 months separating baseline from follow-up. West Virginia, USA. Middle school students (6 th and 7 th grades; N = 3,932) in three West Virginia (WV) counties provided data at baseline and follow-up 12 months later. Youth self-reported their use of caffeine from multiple sources (e.g., soda, energy drinks, coffee and tea), cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, alcohol use, and drunkenness. Cross-lagged path models for individual substance use categories provided good fit to the data. Controlling for demographic variables and other substance use at baseline, caffeine at T1 was positively associated with T2 cigarette smoking (β = .27, p = .001), e-cigarette use (β = .21, p = .001), alcohol use (β = .17, p = .001), and drunkenness (β = .15, p = .001). Conversely, non-significant relations emerged between three of four substances at T1 and caffeine at T2. Positive relations were found between e-cigarette use at T1 and caffeine use at T2 (β = .07, p = .006). These findings were supported by an omnibus model with all substances included. Specifically, significant relations were observed between caffeine at T1 and all substance use outcomes at T2, whereas no significant relations were observed between substance use and caffeine over time. Caffeine may promote early use of other types of substances among middle school-aged adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The Salivary β-HEX A% Index as an Excellent Marker of Periodontitis in Smoking Alcohol-Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5–15% of most populations worldwide. Aim. The applicability of salivary β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Methods. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS and 32 healthy controls (C were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. Results. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF, in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96% and specificity (91%; the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937. There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI, and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Conclusion. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.

  18. Influence of alcoholism on morbidity after transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Schütten, B T; Tollund, L

    1988-01-01

    , age, weight, smoking habits, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine diseases, anaesthesia and weight of resected tissue. The postoperative morbidity was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the controls (62% vs. 20%). Follow-up at 1, 3 and 12 months revealed significantly...

  19. Study of polymorphic variants of the serotonin 2A receptor gene (5-HT2A) and its possible effects on smoking habits of a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Neto, E S; Mágulas, J O; Sousa, J J S; Moura, A C M; Pinto, G R; Yoshioka, F K N; Canalle, R; Motta, F J N

    2014-10-20

    Previous studies have revealed a genetic component, including genetic polymorphisms in the serotonergic pathway, particularly in the serotonin receptor gene (5-HT2A). The aim of this study was to investigate associations of the T102C (rs6313) and A-1438G (rs6311) polymorphisms with tobacco use in a population from northeastern Brazil. We evaluated these polymorphisms in 135 nonsmokers and 135 smokers using polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism. The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies and associations of polymorphisms with smoking were assessed with the chi-squared (χ(2)) test, the Fisher exact test, and odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). There were no differences in the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies between nonsmokers and smokers for A-1438G (P = 0.80) and T102C (P = 0.35). However, these polymorphisms were significantly associated with habit frequency (A/G: P = 0.02, OR = 6.87, 95%CI = 1.23-38.31, P = 0.04; A/G+G/G: P = 0.04, OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 1.06-12.75, P = 0.07), age of onset (C/C: P = 0.02, OR = 3.26, 95%CI = 1.17-9.07, P = 0.03, and nicotine dependence level (A/G: P = 0.02, OR = 3.28, 95%CI = 1.17-9.18, P = 0.04; A/G+G/G: P = 0.04, OR = 2.81, 95%CI = 1.13-6.99, P = 0.04; T/C: P = 0.03, OR = 3.12, 95%CI = 1.13-8.57, P = 0.04; T/C+C/C: P = 0.02, OR = 3.06, 95%CI = 1.22-7.70, P = 0.02). Therefore, these polymorphisms may not contribute significantly to smoking initiation, they do appear to be associated with habit maintenance.

  20. Night eating syndrome and its association with weight status, physical activity, eating habits, smoking status, and sleep patterns among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie; Potter, Stacey; Szymanski, Hailey; Smith, Karen; Pringle, Lindsay; Herman, Christine; Uribe, Manuela; Fu, Zhuxuan; Chung, Mei; Geliebter, Allan

    2017-09-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal ingestion. The main objective of this study was to assess the percentage of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with the diagnostic criteria for NES, and explore its association with body mass index (BMI), dietary habits, physical activity, smoking status, and sleep patterns, among a sample of college students. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 413 undergraduate students, mean age of 20.6 ± 1.68 SD, at Central Michigan University. Students completed an online survey including demographic information and the Night Eating Diagnostic Questionnaire (NEDQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Participants were grouped based on self-reporting of the presence and frequency of night eating-related symptoms and behaviors related to the diagnostic criteria for NES as follows: normal, mild night eater, moderate night eater, and full-syndrome night eater. Pearson's Chi-squared, Student's t test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to test the association between students with and without any night eating behavior in relation to BMI, lifestyle variables, and sleep duration/quality. Results showed that the proportion of students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with full-syndrome of NES was 1.2%. There were no significant differences between students complying with symptoms and behaviors consistent with any level of NES and those without any night eating behavior regarding BMI, eating habits, physical activity, and smoking status. NES was significantly related to sleep duration (P = 0.023). Students complying with symptoms consistent with any level of NES reported shorter sleep time and had higher total PSQI score (6.73 ± 4.06) than students without the syndrome (5.61 ± 2.61) (P = 0.007). Although the percentage of students complying with full-syndrome NES was relatively low in our student sample

  1. "Get drunk. Smoke weed. Have fun.": A Content Analysis of Tweets About Marijuana and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Melissa J; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2017-05-01

    To explore the sentiment and themes of Twitter chatter that mentions both alcohol and marijuana. Cross-sectional analysis of tweets mentioning both alcohol and marijuana during 1 month was performed. The study setting was Twitter. Tweets sent from February 4 to March 5, 2014, were studied. A random sample (n = 5000) of tweets that mentioned alcohol and marijuana were qualitatively coded as normalizing both substances, preferring one substance over the other, or discouraging both substances. Other common themes were identified. More than half (54%) of the tweets normalized marijuana and alcohol (without preferring one substance over the other), and 24% preferred marijuana over alcohol. Only 2% expressed a preference for alcohol over marijuana, 7% discouraged the use of both substances, and the sentiment was unknown for 13% of the tweets. Common themes among tweets that normalized both substances included using the substances with friends (17%) and mentioning substance use in the context of sex or romance (14%). Common themes among tweets that preferred marijuana over alcohol were the beliefs that marijuana is safer than alcohol (46%) and preferences for effects of marijuana over alcohol (40%). Tweets normalizing polysubstance use or encouraging marijuana use over alcohol use are common. Both online and offline prevention efforts are needed to increase awareness of the risks associated with polysubstance use and marijuana use.

  2. Decline of tactile acuity in aging: a study of body site, blood flow, and lifetime habits of smoking and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph C; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Dipietro, Loretta; Mack, Gary W; Green, Barry G

    2003-01-01

    Tactile acuity of 60 older subjects (> or = 65 years) and 19 younger subjects (18-28 years) was assessed by two-point gap thresholds at the upper and lower surfaces of the forefinger, at the upper and lower surfaces of the feet, and at the volar surface of the forearm. The older subjects were assigned to one of four groups of 15 subjects each, depending on reported lifetime habits of physical activity and smoking: (1) active smokers, (2) active nonsmokers, (3) inactive smokers, and (4) inactive nonsmokers. Peripheral blood flow was assessed at the forefinger, foot, and forearm by means of laser-Doppler imaging and skin temperature recordings, under resting conditions and during and after a 5-min exposure to mild cooling (28 degrees C). Consistent with previous studies, tactile acuity thresholds in the foot and finger averaged about 80% higher in the older subjects than in the younger subjects, but only about 22% higher in the forearm. Although the upper surface of the fingertip was more sensitive than the lower surface in both younger and older subjects, the age-related decline in tactile acuity was nearly identical on both sides of the finger and foot. The latter finding refutes the hypothesis that the larger effect of aging in the extremities results from greater physical wear and tear on the contact surfaces of the hands and feet. Self-reported lifetime histories of physical activity and smoking were not significantly associated with measures of cutaneous blood flow or tactile thresholds. Possible reasons for this lack of association are discussed, including the inherent limitations of testing only healthy older subjects, and the concept of "successful aging".

  3. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits.

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  6. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  7. A Descriptive Study of the Prevalence and Typology of Alcohol-Related Posts in an Online Social Network for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zhao, Kang; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Amato, Michael S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Papandonatos, George D; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use and problem drinking are associated with smoking relapse and poor smoking-cessation success. User-generated content in online social networks for smoking cessation provides an opportunity to understand the challenges and treatment needs of smokers. This study used machine-learning text classification to identify the prevalence, sentiment, and social network correlates of alcohol-related content in the social network of a large online smoking-cessation program, BecomeAnEX.org. Data were analyzed from 814,258 posts (January 2012 to May 2015). Posts containing alcohol keywords were coded via supervised machine-learning text classification for information about the user's personal experience with drinking, whether the user self-identified as a problem drinker or indicated problem drinking, and negative sentiment about drinking in the context of a quit attempt (i.e., alcohol should be avoided during a quit attempt). Less than 1% of posts were related to alcohol, contributed by 13% of users. Roughly a third of alcohol posts described a personal experience with drinking; very few (3%) indicated "problem drinking." The majority (70%) of alcohol posts did not express negative sentiment about drinking alcohol during a quit attempt. Users who did express negative sentiment about drinking were more centrally located within the network compared with those who did not. Discussion of alcohol was rare, and most posts did not signal the need to quit or abstain from drinking during a quit attempt. Featuring expert information or highlighting discussions that are consistent with treatment guidelines may be important steps to ensure smokers are educated about drinking risks.

  8. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  9. Independent and supra-additive effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and metabolic syndrome on the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Park

    Full Text Available We investigated the independent and combined effects of alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome on abnormal liver function, i.e., the elevation of serum liver enzyme levels. Participants of a Korean population-based prospective cohort aged ≥30 years without liver disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases were included. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome, defined as per the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III, were applied to evaluate their impact on serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome were the significant individual factors that elevated serum liver enzyme levels. Supra-additive effects of metabolic syndrome and either alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking were also identified. The combination of heavy drinking (≥24 g/day and metabolic syndrome conferred an effect that was higher than the sum of the two individual effects (Synergic Index (SI: AST, 2.37 [1.20-4.67]; GGT, 1.91 [1.17-3.13]. Only GGT level (odds ratio 6.04 [3.68-9.94], SI 2.33 [1.24-4.41] was significantly elevated when the effect of moderate drinking (20 pack years, 1.80 for ≥24 g/day and ≤20 pack years, 2.03 for ≥24 g/day and >20 pack years, while only the combined effect of drinking ≥24 g/day and smoking >20 pack years elevated the AST level (SI 4.55 [3.12-6.61]. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and metabolic syndrome was not supra-additive. To prevent fatty liver disease and other related diseases, a multifactorial prevention strategy that includes limited alcohol consumption, smoking cessation and rectification of adverse metabolic profiles is required.

  10. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Riaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities. Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ and MiniMental State(MMS. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly.

  11. A longitudinal study of work load and variations in psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Lipsey, Z; Mills, R; Oliver, G; Jarvis, M; Kirschbaum, C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of variations in work load (indexed by paid work hours) on psychological well-being, cortisol, smoking, and alcohol consumption were examined in a sample of 71 workers (44 women, 27 men) in the retail industry. Measures were obtained on four occasions over a six-month period, and assessments were ranked individually according to hours of work over the past seven days. Job strain (demand/control) and job social support were evaluated as potential moderators of responses. Paid work hours ranged from a mean of 32.6 to 48.0 hours per week, and ratings of work-home conflict and perceived stress varied across assessments. Salivary cortisol was inversely associated with job strain and did not vary across sessions. Female but not male smokers consumed more cigarettes during periods of long work hours, and self-reported smoking and cotinine concentrations were greater among smokers with higher nicotine dependency scores. Men but not women with poor social supports consumed more alcohol as work hours lengthened. These data indicate that health behaviors are affected only to a limited extent by variations in work load. Results are discussed in the context of adaptation to work and the pathways linking stressful experience with health risk.

  12. Associations of ECP (eosinophil cationic protein-gene polymorphisms to allergy, asthma, smoke habits and lung function in two Estonian and Swedish sub cohorts of the ECRHS II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janson Christer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP is a potent multifunctional protein. Three common polymorphisms are present in the ECP gene, which determine the function and production of the protein. The aim was to study the relationship of these ECP gene polymorphisms to signs and symptoms of allergy and asthma in a community based cohort (The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS. Methods Swedish and Estonian subjects (n = 757 were selected from the larger cohort of the ECRHS II study cohort. The prevalence of the gene polymorphisms ECP434(G>C (rs2073342, ECP562(G>C (rs2233860 and ECP c.-38(A>C (rs2233859 were analysed by DNA sequencing and/or real-time PCR and related to questionnaire-based information of allergy, asthma, smoking habits and to lung functions. Results Genotype prevalence showed both ethnic and gender differences. Close associations were found between the ECP434(G>C and ECP562(G>C genotypes and smoking habits, lung function and expression of allergic symptoms. Non-allergic asthma was associated with an increased prevalence of the ECP434GG genotype. The ECP c.-38(A>C genotypes were independently associated to the subject being atopic. Conclusion Our results show associations of symptoms of allergy and asthma to ECP-genotypes, but also to smoking habits. ECP may be involved in impairment of lung functions in disease. Gender, ethnicity and smoking habits are major confounders in the evaluations of genetic associations to allergy and asthma.

  13. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  14. Identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits in a paediatric unit - are screening and brief intervention appropriate methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene B L; Gerke, Oke; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck

    2011-01-01

    child using motivational interviewing (MI) and screening for risky alcohol behaviour by Cut down, Annoyance from others, feel Guilty, Early-morning Craving (CAGE)-C. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, and relationships were tested with a statistical significance level of 0.05, using SPSS...

  15. Sun exposure habits and health risk-related behaviours among individuals with previous history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Faresjö, Ashild; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between UV exposure and other health risk behaviours in different social environments and in regard to previous history of skin cancer. In two closely-located, equally-sized cities in Sweden, representing different social environments (blue collar and white collar), patients aged 55-69 years, diagnosed with skin cancer (study group, n=489) or seborrhoeic keratosis (control group, n=664), were identified through a regional Health Care Register, and were given a questionnaire mapping for sun habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity. A previous history of skin cancer was associated with reduced UV exposure (phistory of skin cancer appears to promote increased UV protection. In contrast to alcohol/smoking habits, no association between social environment and sun habits was found.

  16. PAYING FOR PERFORMANCE: THE POWER OF INCENTIVES OVER HABITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Jody L.

    2010-01-01

    New evidence suggests that individuals do not always make rational decisions, especially with regard to health habits. Smoking, misuse of alcohol, overeating and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, influencing health habits is critical for improving overall health and well-being. This editorial argues that economists should take a more active role in shaping individuals’ health habits. Two recent innovations in economic theory pave the way. One change is that some economists now view rationality as bounded and willpower in short supply. Another, related to the first, is a more accepting perspective on paternalism, authorizing economists to help individuals make better choices when the neoclassical model breaks down. Findings from psychology offer incentive-based approaches; specifically, contingency management (CM). Economists could use this approach as a basis for developing public and private policies. PMID:18348117

  17. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio, E-mail: ojimenezgarza@ugto.mx [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min [Laboratory of Environmental Epigenetics, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio [Health Sciences Division, University of Guanajuato Campus León, Blvd. Puente del Milenio 1001, Fracción del Predio San Carlos, C.P. 37670 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro [Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Laboratory, Nayarit Autonomous University, Av. Ciudad de la Cultura s/n, “Amado Nervo”, Tepic, Nayarit C.P. 63155 (Mexico); Albores, Arnulfo [Department of Toxicology, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2015-08-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m{sup 3}) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m{sup 3}) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1

  18. CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation in chronic, low-level toluene exposure: Relationship with oxidative stress and smoking habit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Byun, Hyang-Min; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Albores, Arnulfo

    2015-01-01

    Background: CYP2E1 is a versatile phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of most volatile organic compounds, including toluene. Human toluene exposure increases CYP2E1 mRNA and modifies its activity in leucocytes; however, epigenetic implications of this interaction have not been investigated. Goal: To determine promoter methylation of CYP2E1 and other genes known to be affected by toluene exposure. Methods: We obtained venous blood from 24 tannery workers exposed to toluene (mean levels: 10.86 +/− 7 mg/m 3 ) and 24 administrative workers (reference group, mean levels 0.21 +/− 0.02 mg/m 3 ) all of them from the city of León, Guanajuato, México. After DNA extraction and bisulfite treatment, we performed PCR-pyrosequencing in order to measure methylation levels at promoter region of 13 genes. Results: In exposed group we found significant correlations between toluene airborne levels and CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = − .36, p < 0.05), as well as for IL6 promoter methylation levels (r = .44, p < 0.05). Moreover, CYP2E1 promoter methylation levels where higher in toluene-exposed smokers compared to nonsmokers (p = 0.009). We also observed significant correlations for CYP2E1 promoter methylation with GSTP1 and SOD1 promoter methylation levels (r = − .37, p < 0.05 and r = − .34, p < 0.05 respectively). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering CYP2E1 epigenetic modifications, as well as its interactions with other genes, as key factors for unraveling the sub cellular mechanisms of toxicity exerted by oxidative stress, which can initiate disease process in chronic, low-level toluene exposure. People co-exposed to toluene and tobacco smoke are in higher risk due to a possible CYP2E1 repression. - Highlights: • We investigated gene-specific methylation in persons chronically exposed to toluene. • In a previous study, a reduced CYP2E1 activity was observed in these participants. • CYP2E1 promoter

  19. Influence of alcoholism on morbidity after transurethral prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Schütten, B T; Tollund, L

    1988-01-01

    Morbidity after transurethral resection of the prostate gland was retrospectively investigated by comparing 73 alcoholics with 73 controls (daily alcohol consumption greater than or equal to 60 g vs. less than 25 g). The compared groups derived from 1,172 patients and were matched for diagnosis......, age, weight, smoking habits, treatment for cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine diseases, anaesthesia and weight of resected tissue. The postoperative morbidity was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the controls (62% vs. 20%). Follow-up at 1, 3 and 12 months revealed significantly...... more complications among the alcoholics and also more frequent requirement of supplementary procedures than in the controls....

  20. A systematic review of SNAPO (Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity) randomized controlled trials in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Morgan, Philip J; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Young, Myles D; Collins, Clare E

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol, Physical activity and Obesity (SNAPO) interventions in young men exclusively. The secondary aim was to evaluate the recruitment, retention and engagement strategies. A search with no date restrictions was conducted across seven databases. Randomized controlled trials recruiting young men only (aged 18-35 years) into interventions targeting any SNAPO risk factors were included. Ten studies were included (two nutrition, six alcohol use, two targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors). Six studies (two nutrition, three alcohol use and one targeting multiple SNAPO risk factors) demonstrated significant positive short-term intervention effects, but impact was either not assessed beyond the intervention (n=3), had short-term follow-up (≤6 months) (n=2) or not sustained beyond six months (n=1). Overall, a high risk of bias was identified across studies. Only one study undertook a power calculation and recruited the required sample size. Adequate retention was achieved in three studies. Effectiveness of engagement strategies was not reported in any studies. Despite preliminary evidence of short-term effectiveness of SNAPO interventions in young men, few studies characterized by a high risk of bias were identified. High quality SNAPO interventions for young men are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients affects their drinking habits: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kurt; Nielsen, Charlotte; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effect of exercise training on physical capacity and alcohol consumption in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients. One hundred and five AUD patients were randomly assigned to treatment as usual combined with running and brisk walking for 30-45 min twice a week, either in small supervised groups (GR) or individually (IND), or to a control group with no running (C). Assessments were made after 6 and 12 months of training. Training volume was estimated as 36 min per training bout at an intensity of 78% of HR max with no differences between GR and IND ( p>.05). A highly significant reduction in training frequency was seen in both training groups after the first month ( phabits after running in both groups. However, no additional effect was seen when compared with the control group. A drop in the training frequency during the intervention might have resulted in an insignificant training stimulus.

  2. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  3. ROLE OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AND LIFESTYLE HABITS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GASTRODUODENAL DISEASES IN A POPULATION FROM THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira VINAGRE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Although more than half of the world's population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori, it remains unknown why this organism is able to produce severe disease in some hosts and be innocuous in others. The clinical outcome of infection is determined by several factors, including differences in the host response to bacterial stimulation, specific virulence factors of the organism and environmental influences, or a combination of these factors. Objectives This study compared the prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors (infection with CagA+ strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and inadequate eating habits between patients with different gastrointestinal disorders and associated these risk factors with the histopathological findings. Methods In a prospective study, samples were collected from 442 patients and a standardized questionnaire regarding lifestyle habits (excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and eating habits was applied. The presence of H. pylori and of the cagA gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Gastric biopsies were obtained for histological assessment. Results The frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, inadequate diet and infection with CagA+ H. pylori was higher among patients with peptic ulcer and adenocarcinoma when compared to those with gastritis. Gastric inflammation was more pronounced in patients infected with CagA+ strains. Conclusion We conclude that infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and inadequate eating habits increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma.

  4. A Prospective Longitudinal Study on Implant Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Controlled HIV-Positive Patients with 1-Year Follow-Up: The Role of CD4+ Level, Smoking Habits, and Oral Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlone, Enrico F; Capparé, Paolo; Tecco, Simona; Polizzi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella

    2016-10-01

    A recent study showed that implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in well-controlled HIV patients gave slightly worse results than in an healthy population, and failures were all linked to infection. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the success of implant-prosthetic treatment and systemic CD4+ level, smoking habits, and oral hygiene. This mono-centric study included HIV patients with a stable disease and good oral hygiene requiring implant rehabilitation. Each patient received at least one dental implant. Prosthesis were delivered after 90 days in the upper jaw and 60 days in the lower jaw. Primary outcome measures were prosthetic failures, implant failures, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, and biological complications (peri-implantitis, pus, pain, paresthesia). The possible association with CD4 count, smoking habits, and oral hygiene was analyzed. Sixty-eight patients received 194 implants, and 66 patients (190 implants) were followed for 1 year. No significant associations were found between CD4+ count, oral hygiene-associated variables, and any of the outcome measures. If compared with nonsmoking/light smoking patients, patients who smoked >10 cigarettes/day suffered a statistically significant greater number of implant failures (p ≤ .005), presented a comparatively higher number of peri-implantitis (p 10 cigarettes/day) demonstrated an increased risk of early implant failure, peri-implantitis, episodes of pus, and self-reported pain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effects of alcoholism and smoking on advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute supportive/palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the characteristics and symptom burden of advanced cancer patients with alcoholism problems and smoking, who were referred to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (ASPCU) of a comprehensive cancer center. Patients' characteristics, indications for admission, kind of admission, awareness of prognosis, and anticancer treatments were recorded. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) was used to assess physical and psychological symptoms, and the CAGE questionnaire for the diagnosis of alcoholism. Patients were also divided in three groups: persistent smokers (PS), former smokers (FS), and non-smokers (NS). The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) was used to assess the cognitive status of patients. Analgesic drugs and their doses at admission and discharge were recorded, as well opioid escalation index during hospital stay. Three hundred fourteen consecutive cancer patients were surveyed. Forty-seven (14.9%), 143 (45.5%), and 124 (39.5%) subjects were PS-patients, FS-patients, and NS-patients, respectively. Sixteen patients were CAGE-positive. Females were more frequently NS, while males were more frequently FS (p = 0.0005). Statistical differences were also observed in disease awareness among the categories of smoking (p = 0.048). No statistical differences were found in ESAS items, except for drowsiness at T0 in NS-patients. Differences were found in OME and OEI, although the large variability of data did not determined a statistical difference. Higher values of nausea (at T0, p = 0.0005), dyspnea (at T0 and TX, p = 0.08 and 0.023, respectively), and well-being (at TX p = 0.003) were reported in CAGE-positive patients. No correlation was found between CAGE-positive patients and smokers. Although smoking and alcoholism have obvious implications in advanced cancer patients, data remain controversial, as present data did provide limited data to confirm risk factors for advanced cancer patients

  6. Do unfavourable alcohol, smoking, nutrition and physical activity predict sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, Carla F J; Möller, Jette; Forsell, Yvonne; Ekblom, Maria; Galanti, Maria R; Engström, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Comparing lifestyle of people remaining sedentary during longer periods of their life with those favourably changing their behaviour can provide cues to optimize interventions targeting sedentary behaviour. The objective of this study was to determine lifestyle predictors of sustained leisure time sedentary behaviour and assess whether these predictors were dependent on gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. Data from a large longitudinal population-based cohort of adults (aged 18-97years) in Stockholm responding to public health surveys in 2010 and 2014 were analysed (n=49,133). Leisure time sedentary behaviour was defined as >3h per day of leisure sitting time e.g. watching TV, reading or using tablet. Individuals classified as sedentary at baseline (n=9562) were subsequently categorized as remaining sedentary (n=6357) or reduced sedentary behaviour (n=3205) at follow-up. Lifestyle predictors were unfavourable alcohol consumption, smoking, nutrition, and physical activity. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. Unfavourable alcohol consumption (OR=1.22, CI:1.11-1.34), unfavourable candy- or cake consumption (OR=1.15, CI:1.05-1.25), and unfavourable physical activity in different contexts were found to predict sustained sedentary behaviour, with negligible differences according to gender, age, socioeconomic position and occupational sedentary behaviour. People with unfavourable lifestyle profiles regarding alcohol, sweets, or physical activity are more likely to remain sedentary compared to sedentary persons with healthier lifestyle. The impact of combining interventions to reduce leisure time sedentary behaviour with reducing alcohol drinking, sweet consumption and increasing physical activity should be tested as a promising strategy for behavioural modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables.We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23 or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46 during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07, pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09 and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96 of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected.Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  8. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing-Huan; Zheng, Xin-Min; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Wei-Bin; Zheng, Hang; Chen, Mi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity are thought to increase the risk of cryptorchidism in newborn males, but the evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, and pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism. Articles were retrieved by searching PubMed and ScienceDirect, and the meta-analysis was conducted using Stata/SE 12.0 software. Sensitivity analysis was used to evaluate the influence of confounding variables. We selected 32 articles, including 12 case-control, five nested case-control, and 15 cohort studies. The meta-analysis showed that maternal smoking (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.23) or diabetes (OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.46) during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism. Overall, the association between maternal alcohol drinking (OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.87-1.07), pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95-1.09) and risk of cryptorchidism were not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed reduced risk (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96) of cryptorchidism with moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy. No dose-response relationship was observed for increments in body mass index in the risk of cryptorchidism. Sensitivity analysis revealed an unstable result for the association between maternal diabetes, alcohol drinking and cryptorchidism. Moderate heterogeneity was detected in studies of the effect of maternal alcohol drinking and diabetes. No publication bias was detected. Maternal gestational smoking, but not maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, was associated with increased cryptorchidism risk in the offspring. Moderate alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of cryptorchidism while gestational diabetes may be a risk factor, but further studies are needed to verify this.

  9. Partner’s and own education : does who you live with matter for self-assessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monden, Christiaan W.S.; Lenthe, Frank van; Graaf, Nan Dirk De; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the importance of partner status and partner’s education, adjusted for own education, on selfassessed health, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The relationship between socio-economic factors and health-related outcomes is traditionally studied from an individual

  10. The economic burden of ill health due to diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and obesity in the UK: an update to 2006-07 NHS costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin K; Allender, Steve; Foster, Charlie; Rayner, Mike

    2011-12-01

    Estimates of the economic cost of risk factors for chronic disease to the NHS provide evidence for prioritization of resources for prevention and public health. Previous comparable estimates of the economic costs of poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and overweight/obesity were based on economic data from 1992-93. Diseases associated with poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and overweight/obesity were identified. Risk factor-specific population attributable fractions for these diseases were applied to disease-specific estimates of the economic cost to the NHS in the UK in 2006-07. In 2006-07, poor diet-related ill health cost the NHS in the UK £5.8 billion. The cost of physical inactivity was £0.9 billion. Smoking cost was £3.3 billion, alcohol cost £3.3 billion, overweight and obesity cost £5.1 billion. The estimates of the economic cost of risk factors for chronic disease presented here are based on recent financial data and are directly comparable. They suggest that poor diet is a behavioural risk factor that has the highest impact on the budget of the NHS, followed by alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity.

  11. A systematic review of eHealth behavioral interventions targeting smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or obesity for young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveen, Emilie; Tzelepis, Flora; Ashton, Lee; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review of randomized control trials (RCT) was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth behavioral interventions aiming to improve smoking rates, nutrition behaviors, alcohol intake, physical activity levels and/or obesity (SNAPO) in young adults. Seven electronic databases

  12. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  13. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  14. Religiosidade, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas e tabagismo em adolescentes Religiousness, alcohol consumption and smoking in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bezerra

    2009-11-01

    religiousness and exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking in adolescence. METHODS: The sample included 4 210 high-school students from state schools in Pernambuco, Brazil, selected through two-stage cluster sampling. Information was collected using the Global school-based student health survey (GSHS. Exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking was defined as consumption of either substance at least 1 day in the past 30 days, regardless of intensity. Religious affiliation and practice were analyzed as religiousness-related variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of exposure to alcohol consumption was 30.3% (95%CI: 28.9-31.7. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in males (38.6% than females (24.8%. The prevalence of exposure to smoking was 7.8% (IC95%: 7.0-8.7, higher in males (9.8% than females (6.2%. Crude analyses revealed that regardless of sex, exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking was inversely proportional to religious affiliation or practice. Logistic regression adjustment revealed that the likelihood of reporting exposure to alcohol consumption (OR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.60-0.83 and smoking (OR = 0.61; 95%CI: 0,46-0,79 was lower in adolescents who reported religious practice, independently of affiliation. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that religiousness may act as a modulator for the exposure to alcohol consumption and smoking in adolescence. Further studies should be carried out to analyze how the protective effect of religiousness can be enhanced through health interventions and campaigns.

  15. Smoking as a risk factor for complications in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces-Regueira, María; Iglesias-García, Julio; Lindkvist, Björn; Castiñeira-Alvariño, Margarita; Nieto-García, Laura; Lariño-Noia, José; Domínguez-Muñoz, J Enrique

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, less is known about the role of smoking in the development of CP-related complications. Our aim was to investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on age of onset and complications at CP diagnosis. A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Alcohol consumption and smoking habits were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Morphologic severity was defined based on endoscopic ultrasound criteria for CP and classified as mild (3-4 criteria), moderate (5-6 criteria), and severe (≥7 criteria or calcifications). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed using the C-mixed triglyceride breath test. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CP-related complications were calculated using a case-case design. A total of 241 patients were included. Smoking was associated with PEI (OR [95% CI], 2.4 [1.17-5.16]), calcifications (OR [95% CI], 2.33 [1.10-4.95]), and severe morphologic changes (OR [95% CI], 3.41 [1.31-8.85]) but not with pseudocysts or diabetes. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was associated with age of onset. Tobacco, but not alcohol, is associated with PEI, calcifications, and severe morphologic (≥7 criteria or calcifications) CP at diagnosis. Smoking cessation should be encouraged in patients with CP.

  16. Do interviewers health beliefs and habits modify responses to sensitive questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    If interviewers' personal habits or attitudes influence respondents' answers to given questions, this may lead to bias, which should be taken into consideration when analyzing data. The authors examined a potential interviewer effect in a study of pregnant women in which exposure data were obtained...... through computer-assisted telephone interviews. The authors compared interviewer characteristics for 34 interviewers with the responses they obtained in 12,910 interviews carried out for the Danish National Birth Cohort Study. Response data on smoking and alcohol consumption in the first trimester...... of pregnancy were collected during the time period October 1, 1997-February 1, 1999. Overall, the authors found little evidence to suggest that interviewers' personal habits or attitudes toward smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy had consequences for the responses they obtained; neither did...

  17. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993-1994, 1999-2001 and 2005-2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  18. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bjerregaard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective. The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design. Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results. For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion. Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups.

  19. Bidirectional relationship between time preference and adolescent smoking and alcohol use: Evidence from longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae

    2017-07-01

    Scholarly interest in time preference as a potential predictor of risky health behaviors in adolescents has increased in recent years. However, most of the existing literature is limited due to the exclusive reliance on cross-sectional data, precluding the possibility of establishing the direction of causality. Using longitudinal data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (2003-7), which followed up a nationally representative sample of 3449 adolescents aged 14years for five years, this study examines a bidirectional relationship between time preference and smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents. We used discrete time hazard models of smoking and drinking initiation as a function of time preference measured at the baseline and fixed-effects ordered logit model of time preference, respectively. Our measure of time preference was derived from the survey question on a hypothetical choice between immediate enjoyment today and likely higher scores on an exam tomorrow. The overall results provide evidence on the bidirectional relationship; that is, higher time discounting (i.e., greater relative preference for present utility over future utility) results in an increased risk of engaging in smoking and drinking, and conversely, adopting such behaviors leads to a higher discount rate. The bidirectional relationship may function as a mechanism for adolescents to engage in increased smoking and drinking or additional negative health behaviors via gateway effects, strengthening the case for preventing the initiation of risky health behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in leisure time physical activity, smoking, body mass index and alcohol consumption in Danish adults with and without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Snorgaard, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: In recent decades there has been an increased focus on non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in leisure time physical activity (PA), smoking, body mass index (BMI), and alcohol consumption reported in 2000, 2005 and 2010 by Danish subjects......-sectional analyses from 2000, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: In participants with diabetes, leisure time PA levels increased from 2000 to 2010: The percentage of those that were physically active increased from 53.5% to 78.2% (p... in participants with diabetes compared to participants without diabetes throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of physically active Danish participants older than 45 years with diabetes increased from 2000 to 2010, and the most beneficial trends in life style were observed among the women. These trends...

  1. What are the Patterns Between Depression, Smoking, Unhealthy Alcohol Use, and Other Substance Use Among Individuals Receiving Medical Care? A Longitudinal Study of 5479 Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Fang, Yixin; Tate, Janet; Mentor, Sherry M; Bryant, Kendall J; Fiellin, David A; Justice, Amy C; Braithwaite, R Scott

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate and characterize the structure of temporal patterns of depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use among individuals receiving medical care, and to inform discussion about whether integrated screening and treatment strategies for these conditions are warranted. Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) we measured depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use and other substance use (stimulants, marijuana, heroin, opioids) and evaluated which conditions tended to co-occur within individuals, and how this co-occurrence was temporally structured (i.e. concurrently, sequentially, or discordantly). Current depression was associated with current use of every substance examined with the exception of unhealthy alcohol use. Current unhealthy alcohol use and marijuana use were also consistently associated. Current status was strongly predicted by prior status (p depression in the HIV infected subgroup only (p depression, smoking, unhealthy alcohol use, and other substance use were temporally concordant, particularly with regard to depression and substance use. These patterns may inform future development of more integrated screening and treatment strategies.

  2. The association of perioperative dexamethasone, smoking and alcohol abuse with wound complications after laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    , and this was not statistically significant when adjusting for stratification variables originally used in the PROXI trial [OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.24)]. In smokers, the primary outcome occurred in 32%, compared with 23% of non-smokers (P = 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher frequency of SSI (25% vs 17%, P ... abdomen (3.8% vs 2.4%, P = 0.04). In alcohol abusers, the primary outcome occurred in 48%, compared with 25% in patients who did not abuse alcohol (P = 0.0006). Burst abdomen occurred more commonly in alcohol abusers (15% vs 2.3%, P 

  3. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes...

  4. Prediction of Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, and Psychoactive Drugs Abuse Based on Emotional Dysregulation and Child Abuse Experience in People with Borderline Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GannadiFarnood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.

  5. The smoking habit of a close friend or family member--how deep is the impact? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti J; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J

    2014-02-18

    To assess the risk of becoming a smoker in adulthood associated with parental smoking as well as the smoking of siblings and close friends. A cross-sectional study. 4 oral healthcare centres in Finland and a follow-up. An age cohort born in 1979 (n=2586) and living in four Finnish towns. Of those reached by the 2008 follow-up, 46.9% (n=1020) responded. Smoking behaviour at the age of 29. Smoking behaviour at the age of 13 and smoking behaviour of family members and close friends. Smoking of a current close friend was strongly associated with participants' own smoking (OR 5.6, 95% CI 3.6 to 8.8). The smoking of a close friend during schooldays was similarly associated (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.5). Smoking among men was associated with the smoking behaviour of mothers and siblings while that among females was not. The impact of a smoker as a close friend is greater than that of a smoking parent or sibling in school age when it comes to smoking behaviour in adulthood. This should be taken into consideration when attempting to prevent smoking initiation or continuation. At clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01348646).

  6. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda; Paludan-Müller, Georg; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Storm, Hans H; Barendregt, Jan J

    2010-09-01

    Among the known risk factors, smoking is clearly related to the incidence of lung cancer and alcohol consumption is to breast cancer. In this manuscript we modelled the potential benefits of reductions in smoking or alcohol prevalence for the burden of these cancers. We used Prevent v.3.01 to assess the changes in incidence as a result of risk factor changes. Incidence of lung and breast cancer until 2050 was predicted under two scenarios: ideal (total elimination of smoking and reduction of alcohol intake to maximum 1 units/d for women) and optimistic (decreasing prevalence of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5 years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated. Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12 g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit of interventions and may serve as guidance in political decision-making. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been...

  8. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  9. Internet-based self-help smoking cessation and alcohol moderation interventions for cancer survivors: a study protocol of two RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujcic, Ajla; Blankers, Matthijs; Boon, Brigitte; Engels, Rutger; van Laar, Margriet

    2018-04-02

    Brief interventions for smoking cessation and alcohol moderation may contribute considerably to the prevention of cancer among populations at risk, such as cancer survivors, in addition to improving their general wellbeing. There is accumulating evidence for the effectiveness of internet-based brief health behaviour interventions. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness, patient-level cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of two new online theory-based self-help interventions among adult cancer survivors in the Netherlands. One of the interventions focuses on alcohol moderation, the other on smoking cessation. Both interventions are tailored to cancer survivors. Effectiveness will be assessed in two separate, nearly identical 2-armed RCTs: alcohol moderation (AM RCT) and smoking cessation (SC RCT). Participants are randomly allocated to either the intervention groups or the control groups. In the intervention groups, participants have access to one of the newly developed interventions. In the control groups, participants receive an online static information brochure on alcohol (AM RCT) or smoking (SC RCT). Main study outcome parameters are the number of drinks post-randomisation (AM RCT) and tobacco abstinence (SC RCT). In addition, cost-data and possible effect moderators and mediators will be assessed. Both treatments are internet-based minimally guided self-help interventions: MyCourse - Moderate Drinking (in Dutch: MijnKoers - Minderen met Drinken) and MyCourse - Quit Smoking (MijnKoers - Stoppen met Roken). They are based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), motivational interviewing (MI) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Both interventions are optimized in collaboration with the target population of cancer survivors in focus groups and interviews, and in collaboration with several experts on eHealth, smoking cessation, alcohol misuse and cancer survivorship. The present study will add to scientific knowledge on the (cost

  10. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntaro Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett's esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46 and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40. Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett's esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41 and the presence of Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56.Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett's esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.

  11. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, Kristian; Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    respiratory disease and lifestyle habits, including alcohol consumption. SPT positivity was defined as a positive reaction (> or =3 mm) against at least 1 of 10 common inhalant allergens. RESULTS: Before and after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, atopic predisposition, and pet keeping, no significant...

  12. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  13. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  14. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  15. Tabaquismo en enfermeras de Atención Primaria: Factores que influyen en su inicio y mantenimiento Smoking habits among Primary Health Care Nurses: Factors that influence taking up and maintaining it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Pericàs Beltrán

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermeras de Atención Primaria (AP son profesionales adecuados en la lucha contra el tabaquismo. No obstante, algunas de ellas fuman y esto puede disminuir su credibilidad y su sentimiento de autoeficacia frente al problema. El objetivo de este estudio es evidenciar los factores que pueden influir en el inicio y el mantenimiento del hábito tabáquico. Para ello, se ha realizado un estudio cualitativo desde una perspectiva fenomenológica social, en 15 enfermeras fumadoras de AP, recogiendo los datos mediante entrevista semiestructurada en profundidad. Los principales temas que emergieron fueron la falta de concienciación y el papel socializador del tabaco. Se tiene poca conciencia del papel de la publicidad y no se considera al estrés como un determinante del hábito en el ámbito de AP. Puede resultar decisivo el control del peso corporal.Primary Health Care Nurses (PHC are suitable professionals in the fight against the smoking habit. Nevertheless some of them smoke and this may diminish their credibility and their feeling of self-efficacy when faced with this problem. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the factors that may influence taking up and maintaining the smoking habit. Thus, we carried out a qualitative study from a social phenomenological perspective, in 15 PHC nurses who are smokers, collecting the data by means of a semi-structured in-depth interview. The main issues that emerged were lack of awareness and the socializing role of tobacco. There is little awareness of the role of publicity and stress is not considered to be a determining factor of the habit in the area of PHC. The control of body weight may be decisive.

  16. Modeling of combined effect of alcohol, tobacco smokes and internal irradiation of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukal'skaya, S.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Concentration of 90 Sr and 20 Po in kidneys and bone tissues was measured both separately and in combination with ethanol introduction. Carbon oxide (CO), which content was measured by a gas analyser, served as an index of tobacco smokes in a chamber with test animals. It is shown that ethanol had no noticeable effect either on the character or the levels of radionuclide accumulation in kidneys and bone tissues. Under experimental conditions quantitative characteristics of studied factors (intensity, the effect time and levels) remained stable within the specified limits independent on their combination

  17. The effect of computer usage in internet café on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among chinese adolescents and youth: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  18. The Effect of Computer Usage in Internet Café on Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Use among Chinese Adolescents and Youth: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Delva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006. Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.

  19. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  20. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...