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Sample records for smoking cessation therapies

  1. [Medical therapy for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. Physicians are in the unique position to promote smoking cessation and to support patients in quitting smoking is a key task for every single health care provider. Counselling smoking cessation is clearly shown to be both efficient and cost-effective in terms of years of live saved. Nicotine is highly addictive and to achieve long-term abstinence pharmacotherapy is frequently inevitable. Nicotine replacement therapy is efficacious and doubles the odds of permanently abstain from smoking. Further, strong evidence supports the use of buproprion, an atypical antidepressive agent, for quit smoking. Varenicline is the first medication specifically developed for smoking cessation. Varenicline is a partial agonist and antagonist at the nicotinic receptor that reduces craving, withdrawal symptoms and the reinforcing effect of smoking. This review summarises the current clinical data on the pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and provides practical advice for daily clinical practice.

  2. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  3. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  4. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  5. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may be worthwhile targeting this population group when developing smoking cessation strategies. Nicotine dependence. Tobacco products contain nicotine, which is the drug that produces dependence in smokers.6. Nicotine affects the dopaminergic system in the brain, causing a sense of well- being, and also increases ...

  7. Discontinuation of nicotine replacement therapy among smoking-cessation attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Emily K; Levinson, Arnold H

    2008-03-01

    Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) doubles successful quitting, but more than half of NRT users do not comply with optimal treatment regimens. From the 2005 Colorado state tobacco survey, quit attempters who utilized NRT (N=366) were analyzed in spring 2007. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to examine reasons for discontinuing NRT, length of time on NRT, and quit intentions. The reasons for discontinuing NRT were resuming smoking (34%), side effects (17%), NRT not helping with quitting (14%), quitting smoking (10%), and cost (5%). Poverty, age, and non-Latino minority status were associated with reasons for discontinuation other than quitting smoking. Having side effects was associated with a short duration of NRT use and 95% lower odds of intending to quit in the next month. In the first population-level study examining reasons for discontinuing NRT, general-population smokers who initiate NRT use when attempting to quit are highly likely to discontinue NRT prematurely. Age and culturally-appropriate medication management interventions may increase NRT compliance and improve cessation outcomes.

  8. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  9. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: Results after 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisca Rosa, Ecinele; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were...... extended, resulting in 116 eligible among the 286 screened subjects. They received NSPT and concurrent smoking cessation interventions. Periodontal maintenance was performed every three months. A calibrated examined, blinded to smoking status, performed full-mouth periodontal examination in six sites per.......05). CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation promoted additional benefits on NSPT in chronic periodontitis subjects....

  10. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  11. Time-varying processes involved in smoking lapse in a randomized trial of smoking cessation therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Piper, Megan E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Liu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jingyun; Li, Runze

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have increasingly begun to gather ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data on smoking, but new statistical methods are necessary to fully unlock information from such data. In this paper, we use a new technique, the logistic time-varying effect model (logistic TVEM), to examine the odds of smoking in the 2 weeks after a quit attempt. Data are from a subsample of participants from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies who achieved initial abstinence (N = 1,106, 58% female). Participants completed up to 4 EMA assessments per day during the 2 weeks after their quit day. Predictors include baseline nicotine dependence, EMA measures of craving and negative affect, and whether an individual was assigned to a placebo, monotherapy, or combination therapy condition. Time-varying effects of these predictors were estimated using logistic TVEM. Cravings were a significant predictor of smoking throughout the entire 2 weeks postquit, whereas the effect of baseline dependence became nonsignificant by the second week, and the effect of negative affect increased over time. Individuals in the monotherapy and combination therapy conditions had decreased odds of smoking compared with placebo in the first week postquit, but these differences were nonsignificant in the second week. Findings suggest that pharmacotherapies are more effective compared with placebo earlier in a quit attempt, when the effect of baseline nicotine dependence on smoking is stronger, whereas the effect of craving and negative affect increased over time. Future cessation therapies may be more successful by providing additional support in the second week after quit attempt.

  12. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  13. Changes in self-efficacy associated with success in quitting smoking in participants in Japanese smoking cessation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie; Tanaka, Hideo; Saka, Hideo; Oze, Isao; Tachibana, Kazunobu; Nozaki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Yukio; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2018-03-23

    To identify the strength of self-efficacy during 12-week smoking cessation therapy (SCT) that consisted of 5 sessions and its association with the success of smoking cessation at the end of SCT. Few studies showed to what level self-efficacy should be reinforced to facilitate success in smoking cessation. Prospective cohort study. We enrolled 488 smokers who received SCT from 6 Japanese smoking cessation clinics between October 2008 and October 2014. In each smoker, the self-efficacy of quitting smoking was assessed at each session of SCT. The association of the strength of self-efficacy with the success of smoking cessation was investigated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, having a present illness, prescription, and nicotine dependence score. The self-efficacy of the 398 abstainers was significantly higher than that of the 90 nonabstainers at the first to fifth sessions of the SCT (P self-efficacy scores of greater than 60% were significantly more likely to attain abstinence than those with scores of 40% and less. During SCT, nurses' counselling to maintain patients' self-efficacy scores of smoking cessation in the range from 61% to 100% may be important for assisting patients in achieving smoking cessation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Lung Cancer: Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients. All smokers should be offered behavioral and pharmacotherapy assistance in quitting. Pregnant women who smoke should be offered behavioral methods first. However, if these methods are unlikely to be effective, pharmacotherapy can be offered after a discussion about risks and benefits. The behavioral method with the most evidence of efficacy is group therapy. Nicotine replacement therapy (eg, gums, lozenges, transdermal patches, inhalers, nasal sprays), bupropion SR, and varenicline are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for management of nicotine withdrawal during smoking cessation. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  16. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S.; Godfrey, C.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  17. Wound healing and infection in surgery: the pathophysiological impact of smoking, smoking cessation, and nicotine replacement therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to clarify how smoking and nicotine affects wound healing processes and to establish if smoking cessation and nicotine replacement therapy reverse the mechanisms involved. Smoking is a recognized risk factor for healing complications after surgery, but the pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Pathophysiological studies addressing smoking and wound healing were identified through electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE) and by hand-search of articles' bibliography. Of the 1460 citations identified, 325 articles were retained following title and abstract reviews. In total, 177 articles were included and systematically reviewed. Smoking decreases tissue oxygenation and aerobe metabolism temporarily. The inflammatory healing response is attenuated by a reduced inflammatory cell chemotactic responsiveness, migratory function, and oxidative bactericidal mechanisms. In addition, the release of proteolytic enzymes and inhibitors is imbalanced. The proliferative response is impaired by a reduced fibroblast migration and proliferation in addition to a downregulated collagen synthesis and deposition. Smoking cessation restores tissue oxygenation and metabolism rapidly. Inflammatory cell response is reversed in part within 4 weeks, whereas the proliferative response remains impaired. Nicotine does not affect tissue microenvironment, but appears to impair inflammation and stimulate proliferation. Smoking has a transient effect on the tissue microenvironment and a prolonged effect on inflammatory and reparative cell functions leading to delayed healing and complications. Smoking cessation restores the tissue microenvironment rapidly and the inflammatory cellular functions within 4 weeks, but the proliferative response remain impaired. Nicotine and nicotine replacement drugs seem to attenuate inflammation and enhance proliferation but the effect appears to be marginal.

  18. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: results after 24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ecinele Francisca; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene; Gomes, Elaine Fueta; Guglielmetti, Mariana Rocha; Sanda, Sheila Regina; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were extended, resulting in 116 eligible among the 286 screened subjects. They received NSPT and concurrent smoking cessation interventions. Periodontal maintenance was performed every 3 months. A calibrated examiner, blinded to smoking status, performed full-mouth periodontal examination in six sites per tooth at baseline, 3, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Expired air carbon monoxide concentration measurements and interviews were performed to gather demographic and behavioural information. From the 116 enrolled subjects, 61 remained up to 24 months of follow-up. Of these, 18 quit smoking (Q), 32 continued smoking (NQ) and 11 oscillated (O) at 24 months of follow-up. Thereby, Q showed significantly higher mean CAL gain in diseased sites and higher reduction in the proportion of sites with CAL ≥ 3 mm, when compared to NQ. In addition, Q presented significantly higher mean probing depth reduction relative to NQ(p ≤ 0.05). Smoking cessation promoted additional benefits on NSPT in chronic periodontitis subjects. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Bibliographical analysis of research on smoking cessation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J. R.; Liguori, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth of research on treatments for smoking with that for similar medical/behavioural disorders. DESIGN: We surveyed Medline for 1967-1994 for articles on smoking, alcohol, anxiety, and obesity disorders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of articles published in two-year intervals. RESULTS: The number of articles per year on smoking/nicotine in humans increased fivefold from 1967 to 1994 compared with twofold for Medline as a whole. The rate of growth of empirical...

  20. Pilot Cases of Combined Cognitive Processing Therapy and Smoking Cessation for Smokers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, Eric A; Resick, Patricia A; McFall, Miles E; Dennis, Paul A; Olsen, Maren; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking are often comorbid, and both problems are in need of improved access to evidence-based treatment. The combined approach could address two high-priority problems and increase patient access to both treatments, but research is needed to determine whether this is feasible and has promise for addressing both PTSD and smoking. We collected data from 15 test cases that received a treatment combining two evidence-based treatments: cognitive processing therapy-cognitive version (CPT-C) for PTSD and integrated care for smoking cessation (ICSC). We explored two combined treatment protocols including a brief (six-session) CPT-C with five follow-up in-person sessions focused on smoking cessation (n=9) and a full 12-session CPT-C protocol with ICSC (n=6). The combined interventions were feasible and acceptable to patients with PTSD making a quit attempt. Initial positive benefits of the combined treatments were observed. The six-session dose of CPT-C and smoking cessation resulted in 6-month bioverified smoking abstinence in two of nine participants, with clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction in three of nine participants. In the second cohort (full CPT-C and smoking treatment), both smoking and PTSD symptoms were improved, with three of six participants abstinent from smoking and four of six participants reporting clinically meaningful reduction in PTSD symptoms. Results suggested that individuals with PTSD who smoke are willing to engage in concurrent treatment of these problems and that combined treatment is feasible. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Blogging as 'therapy'? Exploring personal technologies for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Connor; Rouncefield, Mark; Satchell, Christine

    2009-12-01

    This article presents some early, design-oriented research findings from a study that introduced mobile blogging technologies to four people who wished to make a health-related life change--giving up smoking. We wanted to establish the nature of the relationship between blogging and quitting smoking (if any), inspired by some earlier work in the domain showing that social technologies may help with the quit process. We present an account of three participants, documenting details of how blogging technologies fitted into their (changing) lives and examples of digital content they produced. We describe, using examples from participant blogs, instances of self-expression, replacement and self-awareness. We suggest, despite all participants failing in their quit attempts, that there are possible provisional, therapeutic characteristics to such social technologies. Finally, we suggest this therapeutic process can be understood better through a concept of personal translucence.

  2. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... that in COPD patients, pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling is more effective than each strategy separately. Neither the intensity of counselling nor the type of anti-smoking drug made a difference....

  3. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... Eight trials enrolling a total of 1156 people met the inclusion criteria. One of these did not report cessation as an outcome. Two trials initiated multisession face to face counselling at least 6 weeks before surgery whilst six used a brief intervention. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was offered...

  4. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  5. Acceptance and commitment therapy smoking cessation treatment for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Sido, Hannah; Forsyth, John P; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Kalman, David; Cooney, Judith L

    2015-01-01

    Veterans with PTSD smoke at rates two to three times higher than the general population, while their quit rate is less than half that of the general population. The present study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Tobacco Addiction (ACT-PT), which focuses on helping veterans overcome emotional challenges to quitting smoking. Veterans with current PTSD who smoked 15 or more cigarettes/day (N = 19) participated in an open trial of ACT-PT. Participants attended nine weekly individual counseling sessions and received eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy. Primary outcomes included feasibility and acceptability of the intervention, and secondary outcomes included expired-air carbon monoxide confirmed seven-day point prevalence abstinence, cravings, and PTSD symptoms. The retention rate for ACT-PT was good (74%) and client satisfaction ratings were high. Participants made multiple quit attempts (M = 3.6, SD = 4.2) during the study period and were significantly more confident that they could quit smoking at three-month follow-up. At the end of treatment, 37% of participants were abstinent from smoking and 16% were abstinent at three-month follow-up. Overall, participants reduced their smoking by 62% at the end of treatment and 43% at three-month follow-up. PTSD symptoms and smoking urges significantly decreased from baseline to the end of treatment and three-month follow-up. ACT-PT appears to be a promising smoking cessation treatment for veterans with PTSD. Future research should evaluate ACT-PT in a randomized controlled trial.

  6. Treatment of Thromboangiitis Obliterans Using Smoking Cessation and Far-infrared Therapy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, I-Han; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) is a rare, nonatherosclerotic segmental inflammatory vasculitis that commonly involves small- and medium-sized vessels. Ischemic tenderness impairs patient quality of life and places patients at high risk for amputation. The only definitive known treatment is smoking cessation. Far-infrared (FIR) therapy has shown promising effects on blood flow and healing, but its use in patients with Buerger's disease has not been reported. A 31-year-old man with a 15-pack-year history of smoking, no drug abuse, and no other significant medical history, trauma, or family history diagnosed with thromboangiitis obliterans presented for care at the authors' clinic. Claudication with severe tenderness of both legs and an ischemic ulcer over the right big toe were noted. After surgical debridement of the devitalized tissue, the patient received FIR therapy (5-25 µm, peak at 8.2 µm) applied 25 cm above the surface of the ischemic wound for 40 minutes, 3 times per week. The patient also tapered his smoking. The wound started to heal; granulation tissue was evident and, after 8 weeks, the right lower extremities gradually rewarmed from 24° C to 28° C as measured on the dorsal foot. His pain level decreased from 8 to 5. FIR therapy was continued until the patient stopped smoking (8 months). At the 10-month follow-up visit, the wound had healed completely and resting pain had improved. The results of this case study suggest additional research to explore the potential effects of FIR on patients with thromboangiitis obliterans is warranted.

  7. Smoking cessation in workplace setting: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions.; Between 2006 a...

  8. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  9. Suitability of a Group Behavioural Therapy Module for Workplace Smoking Cessation Programs in Malaysia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Muhammad Faizal; Ali, Adliah Mhd; Amit, Noh; Bakry, Mohd Makmor; Taha, Nur Akmar

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, data on components suitability the established smoking cessation module is limited. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the suitability of the components developed in the module for group behavioural therapy in workplace smoking cessation programs. Twenty staff were identified but only eight individuals were selected according to the study criteria during the recruitment period in May 2014. Focus group discussion was conducted to identify themes relevant to the behavioural issues among smokers. Thematic analysis yielded seven major themes which were reasons for regular smoking, reasons for quitting, comprehending smoking characteristics, quit attempt experiences, support and encouragement, learning new skills and behaviour, and preparing for lapse/relapse or difficult situations. As a result, the developed module was found to be relevant and suitable for use based on these themes.

  10. [Establishment of a practical training program in smoking cessation for use by pharmacists using cognitive-behavioral therapy and the motivational interview method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Moemi; Nodate, Yoshitada; Maruyama, Keiji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Watanabe, Machiko; Niwa, Sin-ichi

    2012-01-01

    We established a practical training program to nurture pharmacists who can give smoking cessation instructions. The program was provided to 85 interns (45 males and 40 females) in Teikyo University Hospital. The one-day practical training was provided to groups comprised of five members each. The training consisted of studies on the adverse effects of smoking, general outlines of the outpatient smoking cessation service, experiencing Smokerlyzer, studies about smoking-cessation drugs, studies about a smoking cessation therapy using cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing, and case studies applying role-playing. Before and after the practical training, we conducted a questionnaire survey consisting of The Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND) and the assessment of the smoking status, changes in attitudes to smoking, and willingness and confidence to give smoking cessation instructions. The overall KTSND score significantly dropped from 14.1±4.8 before the training to 8.9±4.8 after the training. The confidence to give smoking cessation instructions significantly increased from 3.4±1.9 to 6.2±1.3. Regarding the correlation between the smoking status and willingness and confidence to give smoking cessation instructions, the willingness and confidence were lower among the group of interns who either smoked or had smoked previously, suggesting that smoking had an adverse effect. A total of 88.2% of the interns answered that their attitudes to smoking had "changed slightly" or "changed" as a result of the training, indicating changes in their attitudes to smoking. Given the above, we believe that our newly-established smoking cessation instruction training is a useful educational tool.

  11. Estimating the public economic consequences of introducing varenicline smoking cessation therapy in South Korea using a fiscal analytic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Baker, Christine L; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-02-13

    Smoking gives rise to many cross-sectorial public costs and benefits for government. Costs arise from increased healthcare spending and work-related social benefits, while smoking itself provides significant revenue for government from tobacco taxes. To better understand the public economic impact of smoking and smoking cessation therapies, this study developed a government perspective framework for assessing smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality and associated public costs. This framework includes changes in lifetime tax revenue and health costs, as well as changes in tobacco tax revenue, from fewer smokers. A modified generational accounting framework was developed to assess relationships between smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality and public economic consequences of smoking, including lifetime tax revenue gains/losses, government social transfers, and health spending. Based on the current prevalence of smoking in South Korean males, a cohort model was developed for smokers, former-smokers, and never-smokers. The model simulated the lifetime discounted fiscal transfers for different age cohorts in 5 year age bands, and the return on investment (ROI) from smoking cessation therapy. Former smokers are estimated to generate higher lifetime earnings and direct tax revenues and lower lifetime healthcare costs due to the reduction of smoking-attributable mortality and morbidity compared to smokers, even after accounting for reduced tobacco taxes paid. Based on the costs of public investments in varenicline, this study estimated a ROI from 1.4-1.7, depending on treatment age, with higher ROI in younger cohorts, with an average ROI of 1.6 for those aged less than 65. This analysis suggests that reductions in smoking can generate positive public economic benefits for government, even after accounting for lost tobacco tax revenues. The results described here are likely applicable to countries having similar underlying smoking prevalence, comparable taxation

  12. Hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke and smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Reverte Bernal, María Perpetuo Socorro; Aparicio-Erroz, Sergio; López de la Fuente, Raquel

    2003-01-01

    Smoking cessation is considered as a good solution for stroke prevention. Unfortunately, first-line therapies to reduce cigarette smoking are not always useful. Some clinical effects of these drugs are able to produce cardiovascular adverse events. El artículo trata sobre la hipertensión arterial, las enfermedades cerebrovasculares y el hecho de dejar de fumar.

  13. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  14. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim

    2014-02-26

    The workplace has potential as a setting through which large groups of people can be reached to encourage smoking cessation. 1. To categorize workplace interventions for smoking cessation tested in controlled studies and to determine the extent to which they help workers to stop smoking.2. To collect and evaluate data on costs and cost effectiveness associated with workplace interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (July 2013), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2013), EMBASE (1985 - June 2013), and PsycINFO (to June 2013), amongst others. We searched abstracts from international conferences on tobacco and the bibliographies of identified studies and reviews for additional references. We selected interventions conducted in the workplace to promote smoking cessation. We included only randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials allocating individuals, workplaces, or companies to intervention or control conditions. One author extracted information relating to the characteristics and content of all kinds of interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the studies, and a second author checked them. For this update we have conducted meta-analyses of the main interventions, using the generic inverse variance method to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We include 57 studies (61 comparisons) in this updated review. We found 31 studies of workplace interventions aimed at individual workers, covering group therapy, individual counselling, self-help materials, nicotine replacement therapy, and social support, and 30 studies testing interventions applied to the workplace as a whole, i.e. environmental cues, incentives, and comprehensive programmes. The trials were generally of moderate to high quality, with results that were consistent with those found in other settings. Group therapy programmes (odds ratio (OR) for cessation 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 2.80; eight trials, 1309 participants), individual

  15. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...

  16. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  17. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  18. Hypnotherapy is more effective than nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Faysal M; Zagarins, Sofija E; Pischke, Karen M; Saiyed, Shamila; Bettencourt, Ann Marie; Beal, Laura; Macys, Diane; Aurora, Sanjay; McCleary, Nancy

    2014-02-01

    The efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation is well documented. However, due to relapse rates and side effects, hypnotherapy is gaining attention as an alternative treatment option. The aim of this one-center randomized study was to compare the efficacy of hypnotherapy alone, as well as hypnotherapy with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to conventional NRT in patients hospitalized with a cardiac or pulmonary illness. We evaluated self-reported and biochemically verified 7-day prevalence smoking abstinence rates at 12 and 26 weeks post-hospitalization. Patients (n=164) were randomized into one of three counseling-based treatment groups: NRT for 30 days (NRT; n=41), a 90-min hypnotherapy session (H; n=39), and NRT with hypnotherapy (HNRT; n=37). Treatment groups were compared to a "self-quit" group of 35 patients who refused intervention. Hypnotherapy patients were more likely than NRT patients to be nonsmokers at 12 weeks (43.9% vs. 28.2%; p=0.14) and 26 weeks after hospitalization (36.6% vs. 18.0%; p=0.06). Smoking abstinence rates in the HNRT group were similar to the H group. There was no difference in smoking abstinence rates at 26 weeks between "self quit" and participants in any of the treatment groups. In multivariable regression analysis adjusting for diagnosis and demographic characteristics, H and HNRT were over three times more likely than NRT participants to abstain at 26-weeks post-discharge (RR=3.6; p=0.03 and RR=3.2; p=0.04, respectively). Hypnotherapy is more effective than NRT in improving smoking abstinence in patients hospitalized for a smoking-related illness, and could be an asset to post-discharge smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  20. Cost effectiveness of varenicline in Belgium, compared with bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy, brief counselling and unaided smoking cessation: a BENESCO Markov cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemans, Lieven; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Bartsch, Pierre; Prignot, Jacques; Marbaix, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Varenicline is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist that is approved for use as an aid to smoking cessation. Randomized clinical trials show that its efficacy is superior to that of other current smoking cessation therapies. This study set out to determine the cost effectiveness of varenicline relative to other smoking cessation interventions (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]) as well as brief counselling alone and unaided cessation in a cohort of Belgian adult smokers making a one-time quit attempt, from the perspective of the healthcare payer (public and private). A Markov model, the Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes (BENESCO) model, was applied to calculate the long-term health and economic benefits of smoking cessation. Cost effectiveness was expressed as cost per life-year (LY) gained and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Clinical and economic model inputs were obtained from the literature and public healthcare databases. Costs were discounted at 3% and health outcomes at 1.5%. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and a one-way sensitivity analysis were performed to test the robustness of the results. Varenicline is associated with a reduction of smoking-related morbidity and mortality as well as with a decrease in healthcare costs compared with the pharmacological agents bupropion and NRT. Varenicline also leads to additional LYs and QALYs compared with brief counselling alone and unaided cessation over a lifetime period. Varenicline is a dominant strategy compared with bupropion and NRT. Compared with brief counselling alone and unaided cessation, varenicline presents a cost/QALY of euro240 and euro1656, respectively. Varenicline is a cost-effective alternative to brief counselling and unaided cessation, and is a cost-saving treatment in comparison with bupropion and NRT, in a Belgian population of smokers willing to quit.

  1. Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews the efficacy of nortriptyline for smoking cessation based on a meta-analysis of the Cochrane Library. Six placebo-controlled trials have shown nortriptyline (75-100 mg) doubles quit rates (OR = 2.1). Between 4% and 12% of smokers dropped out because of adverse events, but no serious adverse events occurred. The efficacy of nortriptyline did not appear to be related to its antidepressant actions. Nortriptyline is an efficacious aid to smoking cessation with a magnitude of effect similar to that for bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies. Whether nortriptyline produces serious side effects at these doses in healthy, nondepressed smokers remains unclear because it has been tested in only 500 smokers. The finding that nortriptyline and bupropion are effective for smoking cessation but that selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors are not suggests that dopaminergic or adrenergic, but not serotonergic, activity is important for cessation efficacy. Until further studies can verify a low incidence of significant adverse events, nortriptyline should be a second-line treatment for smoking cessation.

  2. The Danish Smoking Cessation Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve......, and prognostic factors. The outcome data are smoking status at the end of the programme and after six months and satisfaction with the SC intervention. Validity: Approximately 80-90% of all SC clinics offering systematic face-to-face SC interventions are reporting data to the SCDB. The data completeness...... of the SCDB is very high, at 95-100%. Validation checks have been implemented to ensure high data quality. Conclusion: The SCDB is a well-established clinical database and a priceless tool for monitoring and improving SC interventions in Denmark to identify the best solution to helping smokers become smoke...

  3. Mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment versus cognitive behavioral therapy and usual care for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Anderson, Natalie K; Houchins, Sean C; Vinci, Christine; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W

    2017-11-01

    To examine cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment (MBAT) versus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and usual care (UC) for smoking cessation. Participants in the parent study from which data were drawn (N = 412; 54.9% female; 48.2% African American, 41.5% non-Latino White, 5.4% Latino, 4.9% other; 57.6% annual income <$30,000) were randomized to MBAT (n = 154), CBT (n = 155), or UC (n = 103). From quit date through 26 weeks postquit, participants completed measures of emotions, craving, dependence, withdrawal, self-efficacy, and attentional bias. Biochemically confirmed 7-day smoking abstinence was assessed at 4 and 26 weeks postquit. Although the parent study did not find a significant treatment effect on abstinence, mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine treatment effects on hypothesized mechanisms, and indirect effects of treatments on abstinence were tested. Participants receiving MBAT perceived greater volitional control over smoking and evidenced lower volatility of anger than participants in both other treatments. However, there were no other significant differences between MBAT and CBT. Compared with those receiving UC, MBAT participants reported lower anxiety, concentration difficulties, craving, and dependence, as well as higher self-efficacy for managing negative affect without smoking. Indirect effects of MBAT versus UC on abstinence occurred through each of these mechanisms. Whereas several differences emerged between MBAT and UC, MBAT and CBT had similar effects on several of the psychosocial mechanisms implicated in tobacco dependence. Results help to shed light on similarities and differences between mindfulness-based and other active smoking cessation treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline ® , along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  5. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647...... pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...

  6. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...

  7. Dental Practitioners and Smoking Cessation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Keogan

    2015-10-01

    Smoking prevalence is low among dentists in Ireland. Most recognized the need to provide adequate smoking cessation support and advice to patients but felt under-trained to do so. Most were not aware of existing referral pathways to specialist smoking cessation services and, thus, referral rates were low.

  8. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  9. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  10. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  11. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  12. Smoking cessation and response to periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridi, F; Tsantila, S; Pepelassi, E

    2017-09-16

    Smoking has detrimental oral effects. The aim of this study was to review the literature related to the impact of smoking cessation on periodontal health, periodontal disease and periodontal treatment outcome as well as to review the smoking cessation strategies and the dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort. Smoking cessation seems to have a positive effect on the periodontium, to decrease the risk for incidence and progression of periodontitis and to lead to a non-significant trend for greater mean probing depth reductions after non-surgical treatment over a 12-month period. Smoking cessation effect on the periodontium should be further investigated. Dentists should inform their patients on the harmful effect of smoking and the beneficial effect of smoking cessation on oral health. They should advise, motivate and support their patients to quit smoking. Smoking-control strategies should be incorporated in dental practise. The dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort is important. Guidelines on smoking-control strategies applied in the dental office are required. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  13. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  14. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Auricular Acupuncture in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Peng Wu

    2007-08-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that auricular acupuncture did not have a better efficacy in smoking cessation compared to sham acupuncture. Combined acupuncture with behavior counseling or with nicotine replacement therapy should be used in further smoking cessation trials to enhance the success rate of smoking cessation.

  15. Impact of connecting tuberculosis directly observed therapy short-course with smoking cessation on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awaisu Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With evolving evidence of association between tuberculosis (TB and tobacco smoking, recommendations for the inclusion of tobacco cessation interventions in TB care are becoming increasingly important and more widely disseminated. Connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions has been strongly advocated as this may yield better outcomes. However, no study has documented the impact of such connection on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective of this study was to document the impact of an integrated TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS plus smoking cessation intervention (SCI on HRQoL. Methods This was a multi-centered non-randomized controlled study involving 120 TB patients who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis in Malaysia. Patients were assigned to either of two groups: the usual TB-DOTS plus SCI (SCIDOTS group or the usual TB-DOTS only (DOTS group. The effect of the novel strategy on HRQoL was measured using EQ-5D questionnaire. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to examine the effects. Results When compared, participants who received the integrated intervention had a better HRQoL than those who received the usual TB care. The SCIDOTS group had a significantly greater increase in EQ-5D utility score than the DOTS group during 6 months follow-up (mean ± SD = 0.98 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.14, p = 0.006. Similarly, the mean scores for EQ-VAS showed a consistently similar trend as the EQ-5D indices, with the scores increasing over the course of TB treatment. Furthermore, for the EQ-VAS, there were significant main effects for group [F (1, 84 = 4.91, p = 0.029, η2 = 0.06], time [F (2, 168 = 139.50, p = 2 = 0.62] and group x time interaction [F (2, 168 = 13.89, p = 2 = 0.14]. Conclusions This study supports the evidence that an integrated TB-tobacco treatment strategy could potentially improve overall quality of life outcomes among TB patients who are smokers.

  16. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Heath, Laura; Livingstone-Banks, Jonathan; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-15

    Healthcare professionals, including nurses, frequently advise people to improve their health by stopping smoking. Such advice may be brief, or part of more intensive interventions. To determine the effectiveness of nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions in adults. To establish whether nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions are more effective than no intervention; are more effective if the intervention is more intensive; differ in effectiveness with health state and setting of the participants; are more effective if they include follow-ups; are more effective if they include aids that demonstrate the pathophysiological effect of smoking. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and CINAHL in January 2017. Randomized trials of smoking cessation interventions delivered by nurses or health visitors with follow-up of at least six months. Two review authors extracted data independently. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically-validated rates if available. Where statistically and clinically appropriate, we pooled studies using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model and reported the outcome as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of which are new for this update. Pooling 44 studies (over 20,000 participants) comparing a nursing intervention to a control or to usual care, we found the intervention increased the likelihood of quitting (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.38); however, statistical heterogeneity was moderate (I 2 = 50%) and not explained by subgroup analysis. Because of this, we judged the quality of evidence to be moderate. Despite most studies being at unclear risk of bias in at least one domain, we did not downgrade the quality of evidence further, as restricting the main analysis to only those studies at low risk

  17. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  18. Changes in hemorheological and biochemical parameters following short-term and long-term smoking cessation induced by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K O; Krause, J; Haustein, H; Rasmussen, T; Cort, N

    2004-02-01

    Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular (CV) disease, but the relative roles of nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke remain unclear. We investigated the effect of stopping smoking by using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on hemorheology parameters, on the cotinine and thiocyanate plasma concentrations and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Open, parallel-group trial (intervention group and control smokers). 197 males, aged 25-45 years, smoking > 20 cigarettes per day (cpd). 164 subjects were instructed to stop smoking and received NRT for 12 weeks and 33 acted as controls. After 12 weeks, NRT was discontinued and all subjects were followed-up at 26 weeks. Beginning with week 4, the treated subjects were divided into abstainers (self-reported, verified by exhaled CO hematocrit, white blood cells, cotinine and thiocyanate plasma concentrations and exhaled CO, all assessed at 4, 8, 12 and 26 weeks. After 6 months, plasma fibrinogen (228.2 vs. 275.4 mg/dl at baseline, p hematocrit and white blood cell count decreased to a greater extent in abstainers than in reducers and relapsers. Not only abstainers but also reducers did benefit of the temporarily stop smoking. Smoking cessation improved CV parameters despite the measured cotinine and thiocyanate plasma levels, and use of nicotine medications did not negate these improvements. A smoking cessation for a short time and smoking of reduced cpd also improved these parameters temporarily.

  19. Physician advice for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Buitrago, Diana; Preciado, Nataly; Sanchez, Guillermo; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Lancaster, Tim

    2013-05-31

    Healthcare professionals frequently advise people to improve their health by stopping smoking. Such advice may be brief, or part of more intensive interventions. The aims of this review were to assess the effectiveness of advice from physicians in promoting smoking cessation; to compare minimal interventions by physicians with more intensive interventions; to assess the effectiveness of various aids to advice in promoting smoking cessation, and to determine the effect of anti-smoking advice on disease-specific and all-cause mortality. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register in January 2013 for trials of interventions involving physicians. We also searched Latin American databases through BVS (Virtual Library in Health) in February 2013. Randomised trials of smoking cessation advice from a medical practitioner in which abstinence was assessed at least six months after advice was first provided. We extracted data in duplicate on the setting in which advice was given, type of advice given (minimal or intensive), and whether aids to advice were used, the outcome measures, method of randomisation and completeness of follow-up.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We also considered the effect of advice on mortality where long-term follow-up data were available. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. People lost to follow-up were counted as smokers. Effects were expressed as relative risks. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We identified 42 trials, conducted between 1972 and 2012, including over 31,000 smokers. In some trials, participants were at risk of specified diseases (chest disease, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease), but most were from unselected populations. The most common setting for delivery of advice was primary care. Other settings included hospital

  20. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  1. High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E

    2016-05-01

    Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. What are the effects of varenicline compared with nicotine replacement therapy on long-term smoking cessation and clinically important outcomes? Protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Neil M; Taylor, Gemma; Taylor, Amy E; Thomas, Kyla H; Windmeijer, Frank; Martin, Richard M; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-11-05

    Smoking is a major avoidable cause of ill-health and premature death. Treatments that help patients successfully quit smoking have an important effect on health and life expectancy. Varenicline is a medication that can help smokers successfully quit smoking. However, there are concerns that it may cause adverse effects, such as increase in the occurrence of depression, self-harm and suicide and cardiovascular disease. In this study we aim to examine the effects of varenicline versus other smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on smoking cessation, health service use, all-cause and cause-specific mortality and physical and mental health conditions. In this project we will investigate the effects of varenicline compared to nicotine replacement therapies on: (1) long-term smoking cessation and whether these effects differ by area level deprivation; and (2) the following clinically-important outcomes: rate of general practice and hospital attendance; all-cause mortality and death due to diseases of the respiratory system and cardiovascular disease; and a primary care diagnosis of respiratory illness, myocardial infarction or depression and anxiety. The study is based on a cohort of patients prescribed these smoking cessation medications from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We will use three methods to overcome confounding: multivariable adjusted Cox regression, propensity score matched Cox regression, and instrumental variable regression. The total expected sample size for analysis will be at least 180,000. Follow-up will end with the earliest of either an 'event' or censoring due to the end of registration or death. Ethics approval was not required for this study. This project has been approved by the CPRD's Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC). We will disseminate our findings via publications in international peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  3. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim Penberthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers, 1 4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.

  4. Is nicotine replacement therapy overvalued in smoking cessation? Analysis of smokers' and quitters' communication in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurko, Terhi; Linden, Kari; Kolstela, Maija; Pietilä, Kirsi; Airaksinen, Marja

    2015-12-01

    Internet discussion forums provide new, albeit less used data sources for exploring personal experiences of illness and treatment strategies. To gain an understanding of how discussion forum participants value nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in smoking cessation (SC). Finnish national Internet-based discussion forum, STUMPPI, supporting SC and consisting of ten free discussion areas, each with a different focus. The analysis was based on STUMPPI forum participants' postings (n = 24 481) in five discussion areas during January 2007-January 2012. Inductive content analysis of the postings concerning NRT use or comparing NRT to other SC methods. Three major themes related to NRT in SC emerged from the discussions. These were as follows: (I) distrust and negative attitude towards NRT; (II) neutral acceptance of NRT as a useful SC method; and (III) trust on the crucial role of NRT and other SC medicines. The negative attitude was related to following perceptions: NRT use maintains tobacco dependence, fear of NRT dependence or experience of not gaining help from NRT use. NRT was perceived to be useful particularly in the initiation of SC attempts and in dealing with physiological dependence. The most highlighted factors of successful quitting were quitters' own psychological empowerment and peer support from the discussion community. The majority of STUMPPI forum participants had low or balanced expectations towards the role of NRT in SC. More research from the smokers' and quitters' perspective is needed to assess the real value of NRT compared to other methods in SC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of smoking cessation therapy alone or integrated with prolonged exposure therapy for smokers with PTSD: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Kleinsasser, A.L.; Lee-Furman, E.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Rosenfield, D.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to an increased risk of smoking cessation failure. In fact, the quit rate in smokers with PTSD (23.2%) is one of the lowest of all mental disorders. Features of PTSD that contribute to smokers' progression to nicotine dependence and cessation relapse

  6. iPhone Apps for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C.; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Background With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. Purpose This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Methods Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and their (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service’s 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Apps were also coded for their (3) frequency of downloads. Results Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. Conclusions iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. PMID:21335258

  7. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F

    2017-03-31

    moderate-quality evidence (downgraded due to imprecision) of a benefit of counselling when all participants received pharmacotherapy (nicotine replacement therapy) (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.51; 6 studies, 2662 participants; I 2 = 0%). There was moderate-quality evidence (downgraded due to imprecision) for a small benefit of more intensive counselling compared to brief counselling (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.53; 11 studies, 2920 participants; I 2 = 48%). None of the five other trials that compared different counselling models of similar intensity detected significant differences. There is high-quality evidence that individually-delivered smoking cessation counselling can assist smokers to quit. There is moderate-quality evidence of a smaller relative benefit when counselling is used in addition to pharmacotherapy, and of more intensive counselling compared to a brief counselling intervention.

  8. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    of these, all trial participants were provided with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Three other trials in adults did not detect significant long term effects. One of these provided access to a website as an adjunct to counselling and bupropion, one compared web-based counselling, proactive telephone-based counselling or a combination of the two as an adjunct to varenicline. The third only provided a list of Internet resources. One further short-term trial did show a significant increase in quit rates at 3 months. A trial in college students increased point prevalence abstinence after 30 weeks but had no effect on sustained abstinence. Two small trials in adolescents did not detect an effect on cessation compared to control, whilst a third small trial did detect a benefit of a web-based adjunct to a group programme amongst adolescents.Ten trials, all in adult populations, compared different Internet sites or programmes. There was some evidence that sites that were tailored and interactive might be more effective than static sites, but this was not detected in all the trials that explored this factor. One large trial did not detect differences between different Internet sites. One trial of a tailored intervention as an adjunct to NRT use showed a significant benefit but only had a 3-month follow up. One trial detected evidence of a benefit from tailored email letter compared to a non-tailored one. Trials failed to detect a benefit of including a mood management component (three trials), or an asynchronous bulletin board. Higher abstinence rates were typically reported by participants who actively engaged with the programme (as reflected by the number of log-ins). Results suggest that some Internet-based interventions can assist smoking cessation, especially if the information is appropriately tailored to the users and frequent automated contacts with the users are ensured, however trials did not show consistent effects.

  9. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  10. Perceptions of smoking cessation among Glasgow's Chinese community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Spence

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-cessation services should consider the culture of this ethnic minority population to improve cessation uptake. Further investigation of this community’s needs and expectations is needed to tailor smoking-cessation interventions for Chinese immigrants in Glasgow.

  11. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  12. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial...

  13. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  14. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada; Fernanda Ewerling; Anderson Moreira Aristides dos Santos; Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi; Ana Maria Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: ag...

  15. Smoking cessation or reduction with nicotine replacement therapy: a placebo-controlled double blind trial with nicotine gum and inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavsson Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even with effective smoking cessation medications, many smokers are unable to abruptly stop using tobacco. This finding has increased interest in smoking reduction as an interim step towards complete cessation. Methods This multi-center, double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nicotine 4 mg gum or nicotine 10 mg inhaler in helping smokers (N = 314 to reduce or quit smoking. It included smokers willing to control their smoking, and participants could set individual goals, to reduce or quit. The study was placebo-controlled, randomized in a ratio of 2:1 (Active:Placebo, and subjects could choose inhaler or gum after randomization. Outcome was short-term (from Week 6 to Month 4 and long-term (from Month 6 to Month 12 abstinence or reduction. Abstinence was defined as not a single cigarette smoked and expired CO readings of Results Significantly more smokers managed to quit in the Active group than in the Placebo group. Sustained abstinence rates at 4 months were 42/209 (20.1% subjects in the Active group and 9/105 (8.6% subjects in the Placebo group (p = 0.009. Sustained abstinence rates at 12 months were 39/209 (18.7% and 9/105 (8.6%, respectively (p = 0.019. Smoking reduction did not differ between the groups, either at short-term or long-term. Twelve-month reduction results were 17.2% vs. 18.1%, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion In conclusion, treatment with 10 mg nicotine inhaler or 4 mg nicotine chewing gum resulted in a significantly higher abstinence rate than placebo. In addition a large number of smokers managed to reduce their cigarette consumption by more than 50% compared to baseline.

  16. Success of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Anick; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Sheehy, Odile

    2016-11-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a modifiable risk factor associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, low birthweight, congenital malformations, and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the fact that it is well known that smoking can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, 13-25% of pregnant women overall continue to smoke during this critical period. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of gestational use of bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy on the risk of the following: (1) smoking cessation, (2) prematurity, and (3) small for gestational age. Women included in the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort who filled the annual autoadministered questionnaire between Jan. 1, 1998, and June 30, 2009, were studied. Smokers before gestation with a pregnancy resulting in a live birth comprised the study population. Three mutually exclusive study groups were formed among those who smoked at the beginning of pregnancy: gestational users of nicotine patch replacement therapy, bupropion, and smokers who did not use nicotine patch replacement therapy or bupropion. Rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy as well as the risk of prematurity and small for gestational age were studied. Of the 1288 women who met inclusion criteria, 900 were smokers, 72 were bupropion users, and 316 were nicotine patch replacement therapy users. Bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy use during pregnancy were associated with higher rates of smoking cessation: 81% in the bupropion group; 79% for nicotine patch replacement therapy; and 0% in those not using buproprion or nicotine patch replacement therapy. After discontinuing smoking cessation medications, 60% of bupropion users and 68% of nicotine patch replacement therapy users did not smoke again during and after pregnancy. Adjusting for potential confounders, nicotine patch replacement therapy use was associated with a lower

  17. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  18. Evaluation of smoking cessation services in disadvantaged areas of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A socioeconomic gradient exists in both smoking prevalence and cessation; individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) smoke more and successfully quit less frequently than their high SES peers. Smoking cessation behavioural therapy (SCBT) with/without pharmacotherapy, offered free in

  19. [Counseling interventions for smoking cessation: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Luz Helena; Murillo, Raúl; Castillo, Juan Sebastián

    2013-04-01

    A systematic review on efficacy and safety of smoking cessation counseling was developed. The ADAPTE methodology was used with a search of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane. DELBI was used to select CPG with score over 60 in methodological rigor and applicability to the Colombian health system. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were assessed according to counseling provider, model, and format. In total 5 CPG out of 925 references were selected comprising 44 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Physician brief counseling and trained health professionals' intensive counseling (individual, group, proactive telephone) are effective with abstinence rates between 2.1% and 17.4%. Only practical counseling and motivational interview were found effective intensive interventions. The clinical effect of smoking cessation counseling is low and long term cessation rates uncertain. Cost-effectiveness analyses are recommended for the implementation of counseling in public health programs.

  20. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD.......Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  1. Training health professionals in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  2. The influence of smoking cessation on hemodynamics and arterial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Shmuel; Isakov, Irina; Golzman, Boris; Kogan, Jacob; Turkot, Svetlana; Peled, Ronit; Yosefy, Chaim

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with consistent changes in small arteries and arterioles. Recently, arterial compliance was determined in smokers; however, the effect of smoking cessation on arterial compliance has not yet been investigated. The objective of the study was to assess how smoking cessation, achieved with use of behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, influences vascular compliance and arterial stiffness in smokers. In an open-label study, 60 habitual smokers were treated for 2 months with buproprion 300 mg per day and personal and group conversations in order to facilitate smoking cessation. Hemodynamic variables, including vascular compliance and augmentation index (AI), were measured twice, at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Of the 60 smokers, 35 stopped smoking and 25 failed at the end of the 2-month treatment period. Of the 35 who were initially successful, 12 went back to smoking, and thus only 23 remained nonsmokers at the end of 6 months. Smoking cessation was accompanied by significantly lower arterial pressure and heart rate but by weight gain. Among the 23 subjects who stopped smoking for 6 months capacitive compliance (C(1)) did not change but oscillatory compliance (C(2)) rose significantly (from 5.1 +/-2.3 to 6.3 +/-3.0 p<0.01), and AI decreased significantly (from 63.1 +/-22 to 50.6 +/-17 p<0.05), whereas in smokers who still smoked after this period, both C(1) and C(2) and augmentation index did not change significantly from their basal values. The authors conclude that smoking cessation improves arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index, owing mainly to increasing the small artery compliance, which is known to be an early index of endothelial damage.

  3. Combining Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Adolescent Smokers: A Preliminary Comparison of Two Different CBT Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Cooney, Judith L.; Duhig, Amy M.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Babuscio, Theresa; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the optimal format of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to combine with contingency management (CM) in a four-week, high school-based smoking cessation program. Thirty-four adolescent smokers received a standard weekly version of CBT or a frequent brief behavioral intervention. Results indicate a trend toward a higher seven-day point prevalence end-of-treatment abstinence rate and percent days abstinent during treatment in the CBT condition. In addition, significantly more participants in the CBT group completed treatment. These preliminary results suggest that when combined with CM, the standard weekly format of CBT is more acceptable to adolescent smokers. PMID:18058412

  4. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-14

    -Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study, and where appropriate we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. Our searches identified over 1700 records, from which we include 24 completed studies (three RCTs, two of which were eligible for our cessation meta-analysis, and 21 cohort studies). Eleven of these studies are new for this version of the review. We identified 27 ongoing studies. Two RCTs compared EC with placebo (non-nicotine) EC, with a combined sample size of 662 participants. One trial included minimal telephone support and one recruited smokers not intending to quit, and both used early EC models with low nicotine content and poor battery life. We judged the RCTs to be at low risk of bias, but under the GRADE system we rated the overall quality of the evidence for our outcomes as 'low' or 'very low', because of imprecision due to the small number of trials. A 'low' grade means that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. A 'very low' grade means we are very uncertain about the estimate. Participants using an EC were more likely to have abstained from smoking for at least six months compared with participants using placebo EC (RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.96; placebo 4% versus EC 9%; 2 studies; 662 participants. GRADE: low). The one study that compared EC to nicotine patch found no significant difference in six-month abstinence rates, but the confidence intervals do not rule out a clinically important difference (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.34; 584 participants. GRADE: very low).Of the included studies, none reported serious adverse events considered related to EC use. The most frequently reported AEs were mouth and throat irritation, most commonly dissipating over time. One RCT provided data on the proportion of participants experiencing any adverse events. The proportion of participants in the study arms

  5. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Adrian R; Rampes, Hagen; Liu, Jian Ping; Stead, Lindsay F; Campbell, John

    2014-01-23

    Acupuncture and related techniques are promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation in the belief that they may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The objectives of this review are to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and the related interventions of acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation in smoking cessation, in comparison with no intervention, sham treatment, or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (which includes trials of smoking cessation interventions identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) and AMED in October 2013. We also searched four Chinese databases in September 2013: Sino-Med, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data and VIP. Randomized trials comparing a form of acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy or electrostimulation with either no intervention, sham treatment or another intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of smokers recruited, the nature of the intervention and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up.We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before six weeks) and at the last measurement point between six months and one year. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing smokers. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis pooling risk ratios using a fixed-effect model. We included 38 studies. Based on three studies, acupuncture was not shown to be more effective than a waiting list control for long-term abstinence, with wide confidence intervals and evidence of heterogeneity (n = 393, risk ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98 to 3.28, I² = 57%). Compared with sham acupuncture, the RR for the short-term effect of acupuncture was 1

  6. The role of employers in facilitating smoking cessation among staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University authorities should build on this and take specific steps to institute a comprehensive workplace antitobacco policy which includes smoking cessation interventions to assist staff who smoke to quit. Keywords: Tobacco cessation, Workplace no-smoking policy, Workplace smoking cessation interventions ...

  7. Evaluation of Two Mobile Health Apps in the Context of Smoking Cessation: Qualitative Study of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Versus Non-CBT-Based Digital Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor-Sfetea, Carina; Rabee, Riham; Najim, Muhammad; Amin, Nima; Chadha, Mehak; Jain, Minal; Karia, Kishan; Kothari, Varun; Patel, Tejus; Suseeharan, Melanie; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Siddiqui, Sarim; Lin, Yuting; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2018-04-18

    Mobile health (mHealth) apps can offer users numerous benefits, representing a feasible and acceptable means of administering health interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT is commonly used in the treatment of mental health conditions, where it has a strong evidence base, suggesting that it represents an effective method to elicit health behavior change. More importantly, CBT has proved to be effective in smoking cessation, in the context of smoking-related costs to the National Health Service (NHS) having been estimated to be as high as £2.6bn in 2015. Although the evidence base for computerized CBT in mental health is strong, there is limited literature on its use in smoking cessation. This, combined with the cost-effectiveness of mHealth interventions, advocates a need for research into the effectiveness of CBT-based smoking cessation apps. The objective of this study was, first, to explore participants' perceptions of 2 mHealth apps, a CBT-based app, Quit Genius, and a non-CBT-based app, NHS Smokefree, over a variety of themes. Second, the study aimed to investigate the perceptions and health behavior of users of each app with respect to smoking cessation. A qualitative short-term longitudinal study was conducted, using a sample of 29 smokers allocated to one of the 2 apps, Quit Genius or Smokefree. Each user underwent 2 one-to-one semistructured interviews, 1 week apart. Thematic analysis was carried out, and important themes were identified. Descriptive statistics regarding participants' perceptions and health behavior in relation to smoking cessation are also provided. The thematic analysis resulted in five higher themes and several subthemes. Participants were generally more positive about Quit Genius's features, as well as about its design and information engagement and quality. Quit Genius users reported increased motivation to quit smoking, as well as greater willingness to continue using their allocated app after 1 week. Moreover

  8. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (Ppediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  9. Characterizing Internet searchers of smoking cessation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2006-09-19

    The Internet is a viable channel to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatment that has the potential to make a large population impact on reducing smoking prevalence. There is high demand for smoking cessation information and support on the Internet. Approximately 7% (10.2 million) of adult American Internet users have searched for information on quitting smoking. Little is known about these individuals, their smoking status, what type of cessation services they are seeking on the Internet, or how frequently these searches for cessation information are conducted. The primary goal of this study was to characterize individuals who search for smoking cessation information on the Internet to determine appropriate triage and treatment strategies. The secondary goal was to estimate the incidence of searches for cessation information using publicly available search engine data. We recruited individuals who clicked on a link to a leading smoking cessation website (QuitNet) from within the results of a search engine query. Individuals were "intercepted" before seeing the QuitNet home page and were invited to participate in the study. Those accepting the invitation were routed to an online survey about demographics, smoking characteristics, preferences for specific cessation services, and Internet search patterns. To determine the generalizability of our sample, national datasets on search engine usage patterns, market share, and keyword rankings were examined. These datasets were then used to estimate the number of queries for smoking cessation information each year. During the 10-day study period, 2265 individuals were recruited and 29% (N = 655) responded. Of these, 59% were female and overall tended to be younger than the previously characterized general Internet population. Most (76%) respondents were current smokers; 17% had quit within the last 7 days, and 7% had quit more than 7 days ago. Slightly more than half of active smokers (53%) indicated that they

  10. Does Acceptance and Relationship Focused Behavior Therapy Contribute to Bupropion Outcomes? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth V.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Pierson, Heather M.; Piasecki, Melissa P.; Antonuccio, David O.; Palm, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a treatment combining bupropion with a novel acceptance and relationship focused behavioral intervention based on the acceptance and relationship context (ARC) model. Three hundred and three smokers from a community sample were randomly assigned to bupropion, a widely used smoking cessation medication, or bupropion plus…

  11. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Gislene; Rosa, Ecinele F.; Fueta Gomes, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    .16-12.30), baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76-19.23), not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76-30.98) and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55-20.43). We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette......The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking...... cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation...

  12. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  13. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  14. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... just be an excuse to avoid facing your nicotine addiction. Most people gain 5 to 10 pounds when they quit smoking. This is much less of a health risk than smoking. Exercising ... between alcohol and nicotine? Can the smell of smoke from others make ...

  15. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive......, medium intensity and less intensive. Follow-up for postoperative complications was 30 days. For smoking cessation it was from the day of surgery to 12 months thereafter. Overall, the interventions significantly reduced the occurrence of complications (pooled risk ratio 0.56 (95 per cent confidence...

  16. A health sciences student-run smoking cessation clinic experience within a homeless population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kelsey; Tsu, Laura; Hormann, Sabrina; Giang, Kevin; Bills, April; Early, Nicole; Jackowski, Rebekah

    The primary objective is to describe a professional and graduate student-run approach to smoking cessation education combined with motivational interviewing and pharmacotherapy in regard to the frequency of follow-up with a smoking cessation quitline program in the homeless population. The secondary objective is to assess participants' self-reported level of confidence, knowledge, and willingness to quit before and after participation in the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Homeless shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. A previously established professional and graduate student-led clinic focused on providing a wide variety of free health services to homeless populations at a homeless shelter. One service not offered was smoking cessation support; thus, a student-run smoking cessation clinic was established. Patients were provided smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy by health sciences professional and graduate students. Patients were then given a 2-week supply of nicotine replacement therapy and referred to the state's smoking cessation quitline. The impact of multiple concomitant smoking cessation strategies provided by students within a homeless population has not been studied previously. A 10-day post-referral status update on the success of contact with patients was provided to study investigators from the smoking cessation quitline. Surveys were also used to assess the patient's self-reported level of perceived benefit with the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Of the 139 unique patients, 19 (13.7%) successfully contacted the smoking cessation quitline. Patients reported high baseline confidence, knowledge, and willingness related to quit attempts; they reported a small improvement in reported values after participation in the student-run clinics. In the homeless population, smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy had a low follow-up frequency with a smoking cessation quitline, but

  17. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Stead, Lindsay F; Lancaster, Tim

    2012-04-18

    3.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.01 to 7.87). One trial of dianicline (602 people) failed to find evidence that it was effective (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.75). Fifteen trials compared varenicline with placebo for smoking cessation; three of these also included a bupropion treatment arm. We also found one open-label trial comparing varenicline plus counselling with counselling alone. We found one relapse prevention trial, comparing varenicline with placebo, and two open-label trials comparing varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We also include one trial in which all the participants were given varenicline, but received behavioural support either online or by phone calls, or by both methods. This trial is not included in the analyses, but contributes to the data on safety and tolerability. The included studies covered 12,223 participants, 8100 of whom used varenicline.The pooled RR for continuous or sustained abstinence at six months or longer for varenicline at standard dosage versus placebo was 2.27 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.55; 14 trials, 6166 people, excluding one trial evaluating long term safety). Varenicline at lower or variable doses was also shown to be effective, with an RR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.78; 4 trials, 1272 people). The pooled RR for varenicline versus bupropion at one year was 1.52 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.88; 3 trials, 1622 people). The RR for varenicline versus NRT for point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks was 1.13 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.35; 2 trials, 778 people). The two trials which tested the use of varenicline beyond the 12-week standard regimen found the drug to be well-tolerated during long-term use. The main adverse effect of varenicline was nausea, which was mostly at mild to moderate levels and usually subsided over time. A meta-analysis of reported serious adverse events occurring during or after active treatment and not necessarily considered attributable to treatment suggests there may be a one-third increase in the chance of

  18. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cahill

    found that more participants taking cytisine stopped smoking compared with placebo at longest follow-up, with a pooled RR of 3.98 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.01 to 7.87. One trial of dianicline (602 people failed to find evidence that it was effective (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.75. Fifteen trials compared varenicline with placebo for smoking cessation; three of these also included a bupropion treatment arm. We also found one open-label trial comparing varenicline plus counselling with counselling alone. We found one relapse prevention trial, comparing varenicline with placebo, and two open-label trials comparing varenicline with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. We also included one trial in which all the participants were given varenicline, but received behavioural support either online or by phone calls, or by both methods. This trial is not included in the analyses, but contributes to the data on safety and tolerability. The included studies covered 12,223 participants, 8100 of whom used varenicline. The pooled RR for continuous or sustained abstinence at six months or longer for varenicline at standard dosage versus placebo was 2.27 (95% CI 2.02 to 2.55; 14 trials, 6166 people, excluding one trial evaluating long term safety. Varenicline at lower or variable doses was also shown to be effective, with an RR of 2.09 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.78; 4 trials, 1272 people. The pooled RR for varenicline versus bupropion at one year was 1.52 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.88; 3 trials, 1622 people. The RR for varenicline versus NRT for point prevalence abstinence at 24 weeks was 1.13 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.35; 2 trials, 778 people. The two trials which tested the use of varenicline beyond the 12-week standard regimen found the drug to be well-tolerated during long-term use. The main adverse effect of varenicline was nausea, which was mostly at mild to moderate levels and usually subsided over time. A meta-analysis of reported serious adverse events occurring during or after active treatment and

  19. Job stressors and smoking cessation among Malaysian male employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, S M; Retneswari, M; Moy, F-M; Darus, A; Koh, D

    2012-04-01

    Job stressors may reduce the likelihood of quitting smoking. To assess the association between job strain, smoking behaviour and smoking cessation among Malaysian male employees involved in a smoking cessation programme. The study was conducted among employees in two major public universities in Malaysia. All staff from both universities received an invitation to participate in this study. At the start of treatment, participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and the Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The JCQ consists of scales of job control, job demand, supervisor support, co-worker support, job insecurity, job decision latitude and job skill discretion. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. Participants were contacted at 1 week, 3 months and 6 months to determine their smoking status. One hundred and eighty five staff from both universities responded and voluntarily showed interest in quitting. At three months (OR = 8.96; 95% CI: 1.14-70.76) and six months (OR = 8.9; 95% CI: 1.15-68.65), men with higher co-workers' support demonstrated a higher likelihood of quitting. Smokers in a 'passive job' also demonstrated higher likelihood of quitting compared with those working in the 'low strain' category at six months (OR = 9.92; 95% CI: 1.20-82.68). No meaningful associations were found between other psychosocial job variables and smoking cessation. A positive relationship with and support from co-workers are important factors for workplace smoking cessation.

  20. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. PMID:27849293

  1. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Military Treatment Facilities at no cost, including no co-pay. The type of smoking cessation medications... language further stated that refunds of copayments paid by Medicare-eligible beneficiaries are available... military treatment facility may have access to those services that the ASD(HA) has determined may be...

  2. Social class, education, and smoking cessation: Long-term follow-up of patients treated at a smoking cessation unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, Esteve; Schiaffino, Anna; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan; Ariza, Carles; Ramon, Josep Maria; Twose, Jorge; Nebot, Manel; Kunst, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to examine social class and educational differences in long-term smoking cessation success among a cohort of smokers attending a specialized smoking clinic. We studied sustained abstinence after cessation among 1,516 smokers (895 men and 621 women) treated for smoking cessation

  3. The switch drug phenomenon: a phenomenological inquiry into the role of nicotine replacement therapy in smoking cessation behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Roger

    1999-01-01

    This thesis sets out to explore consumers’ health behaviour in an era of increased consumer autonomy with the emergence of a new category o f drugs; those that have ‘switched’ from prescription (Rx) control to over-the-counter (OTC) availability. The switching of drugs presents an opportunity for consumer researchers to explore preventive health behaviour and the move to more self-medication practices by consumers. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), to help those who wish to stop smoking, ha...

  4. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... intervals and a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. Date of death and cause of death were obtained by record linkage with nationwide registers. By means of Cox proportional hazards models, heavy smokers (>or=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their daily tobacco intake by at least 50% without quitting between...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...

  5. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  6. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates.

  7. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  8. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  10. Smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Smriti; Gupta, Michael K; Strychowsky, Julie E; Sommer, Doron D

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate tobacco smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (inception to October 2012) by 3 independent review authors. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort (PCs) studies evaluating tobacco smoking cessation interventions with patients assigned to a usual care or an intervention group. The primary outcome measure was smoking cessation rates. Two authors extracted data independently for each study. When applicable, disagreements were resolved by consensus. The systematic review identified 10 RCTs and 3 PCs. Statistical analysis was conducted using StatsDirect software (Cheshire, UK). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for smoking cessation interventions were calculated in 2 groups based on follow-up duration. The therapeutic interventions included counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion, and varenicline. Smoking cessation interventions had a pooled odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.909-2.64) for patients in the shorter follow-up group and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.931-1.84) in the longer follow-up group. Smoking cessation interventions in the perioperative period had a pooled odds ratio of 2.31 (95% CI, 1.32-4.07). Our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that tobacco cessation interventions in the oncology population, in both the short-term and long-term follow-up groups, do not significantly affect cessation rates. The perioperative period, though, may represent an important teachable moment with regard to smoking cessation.

  11. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L.; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. Purpose The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Methods Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3 days, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Results Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Conclusions Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction. PMID:26743533

  12. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2016-06-01

    Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction.

  13. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  14. Increasing Pediatricians' Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katharine E H; Kisely, Steve; Urrego, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    The link between second hand smoke exposure (SHSe) and health issues in children has been well established. The objective of this study was to determine if a short intervention implemented among pediatricians promotes improvement in the promotion of smoking cessation to caregivers and increase pediatricians' awareness of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT). Pediatricians from 6 clinics were randomly assigned to the control or intervention group. All pediatricians received a survey to assess baseline knowledge, confidence and behaviors in smoking cessation promotion and utilization of the SCT. Pediatricians in intervention group received an educational lecture delivered by a physician. Two months post intervention, pediatricians in the control and intervention group received a survey to assess changes from baseline. Out of 36 general pediatricians, 27 completed the surveys for use in the analysis of this study (75%). Intervention group made more referrals to the SCT, compared to controls (p=0.048) and to baseline (p=0.0065). Pediatricians in the intervention group were more confident in recommending the use of NRT (0.040) and schedule a follow up to discuss smoking cessation (p=0.029) after the intervention. The intervention group was more likely to refer caregivers to smoking cessation programs (p=0.027), discuss a child's health risk from SHSe (0.031) and recommending the use of NRT to help quit (p=0.047) post intervention. The results from this study indicate that a short intervention can increase confidence and behavior in various parameters of smoking cessation promotion and significantly improve the rate in which pediatricians refer smoking caregivers to the SCT.

  15. Smoking cessation counseling in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Joseph T; Crigger, Mary; English, Emily; Wan, Jim; Likes, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal dysplasia. We will study the prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with genital dysplasia and effect of counseling on smoking cessation. All patients with genital dysplasia were screened for smoking history. One clinician provided smoking cessation counseling using the US Department of Health 5 A's technique: ask patients about their smoking status, advise smokers to quit, assess their readiness to quit, assist with their smoking cessation effort, and arrange for follow-up visits. Patients were informed on how smoking may cause worsening of genital dysplasia and increased risk of progression to cancer. Each patient received 2 counseling sessions, but no pharmacological or psychological interventions. Smoking cessation was evaluated by patient self-report via phone or during clinic visits. From January 2007 to December 2010, 344 patients were referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic for evaluation of genital dysplasia. Patients who were smokers (n=125, 36%) were counseled to cease smoking in 2 counseling sessions, with 100% compliance for attendance. At study analysis (July 2011), 83 patients still smoke and 40 patients quit smoking (smoking cessation rate of 32%). Caucasian patients (P=.0013) and patients with vulvar dyplasia (P=.411) seemed to smoke more than other races and patients with cervical/vaginal dysplasia respectively. Smoking cessation counseling for the genital dysplasia patients who smoked was associated with smoking cessation in 32% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applying a new theory to smoking cessation: case of multi-theory model (MTM) for health behavior change

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manoj; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Nahar, Vinayak K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline t...

  17. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation: A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  18. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  19. General practitioners' views on and referral to NHS smoking cessation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A; West, R; Owen, L; Raw, M

    2005-04-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation remains a major public health goal. To help achieve this in the UK, National Health Service (NHS) smoking cessation services have been established to provide treatment for smokers wanting help with stopping. Referrals from general practitioners (GPs) are crucial to the success of these clinics. This study aimed to assess English GPs' self-reported interactions with, and attitudes towards, their local smoking cessation services. Postal survey assessing the attitudes of GPs in England towards, and formal interactions with, NHS smoking cessation services. A questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 544 GPs in England (response rate 63%). GPs' self-reported interactions with smoking cessation services and their attitudes towards these clinics were assessed. GPs were also asked what factors determined whether they prescribed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) and Buproprion (Zyban), and what was the extent and nature of their smoking cessation interventions with their patients. Most GPs (94%) reported that they were aware of the specialist smoking cessation service in their area. Seventy percent of GPs supported the continuation of current funding for specialist smoking cessation services. Seventy percent reported that they referred patients to these services, and 55% had staff within their practices trained as community smoking cessation advisors. Most GPs (79%) reported 'clinical need' as a determinant of whether they prescribed NRT/Zyban, and a few GPs cited 'budgetary constraints' as a factor (15%). Ninety-eight percent of GPs reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise smokers to stop 'at least every now and then'. GPs support the existence and continuation of specialist smoking cessation services, and most reported that they refer patients to them. Virtually every GP reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise

  20. Depression and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Smoking Cessation Clinic with 1-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankova, Lenka; Kralikova, Eva; Zvolska, Kamila; Pankova, Alexandra; Ovesna, Petra; Blaha, Milan; Brose, Leonie S

    2017-06-01

    Smoking is more prevalent among people with depression. Depression may make cessation more difficult and cessation may affect depression symptoms. The aims of this study were to assess the associations between (1) baseline depression and 1-year smoking abstinence and (2) abstinence and change in depression. Observational study using data collected routinely in a smoking cessation clinic in the Czech Republic from 2008 to 2014. Aim 1: N = 3775 patients; 14.3% reported mild and 15.4% moderate/severe baseline depression levels measured using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Logistic regressions assessed if depression level predicted 1-year biochemically verified abstinence while adjusting for patient and treatment characteristics. Aim 2: N = 835 patients abstinent at 1 year; change in depression was analysed using Chi-square statistics, t test and mixed method analyses of variance. Rate of abstinence was lower for patients with mild (32.5%, OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.87, p = 0.002) and moderate/severe depression (25.8%; OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.74, p smoking cessation clinic, depression at the start of treatment predicted reduced smoking abstinence 1 year later. Patients abstinent from smoking experienced considerable improvement in depression.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion......, which has been in use for some years. The cost-effectiveness of varenicline depends on the cost of the therapy and the cost-savings achieved through reduced morbidity and mortality; several investigations, based on the situation in different countries, indicate that varenicline either finances itself...

  2. Medicaid Coverage of Smoking Cessation Counseling and Medication Is Underutilized for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Jacobson, Lisette T; Shireman, Theresa I

    2017-05-01

    Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013. We analyzed the number of pregnant women who received physician-provided smoking cessation counseling indicated by procedure billing codes (ie, G0436 and G0437) and medication (ie, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline) located in outpatient managed care encounter and fee-for-service claims data. We estimated the number of Medicaid-insured pregnant smokers using the national smoking prevalence (14%) in this population and the number of live births reported in Kansas. Annually from 2010 to 2013, approximately 27.2%-31.6% of pregnant smokers had claims for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Excluding claims for bupropion, a medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, claims ranged from 9.3% to 11.1%. Following implementation of Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation counseling, less than 1% of estimated smokers had claims for counseling. This low claims rate suggests that simply changing policy is not sufficient to ensure use of newly implemented benefits, and that there probably remain critical gaps in smoking cessation treatment. This study evaluates the use of Medicaid reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling among low-income pregnant women in Kansas. We describe the Medicaid claims rates of physician-provided smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women, an evidence-based and

  3. Mining twitter to understand the smoking cessation barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-26

    Smoking cessation is challenging and lack of positive support is a known major barrier to quitting cigarettes. Previous studies have suggested that social influences might increase smokers' awareness of social norms for appropriate behavior, which might lead to smoking cessation. Although social media use is increasing among young adults in the United States, research on the relationship between social media use and smoking cessation is lacking. Twitter has provided a rich source of information for researchers, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in smoking cessation research. To the best of our knowledge, this study conducted a data mining analysis of Twitter to assess barriers to smoking cessation. In conclusion, Twitter is a cost-effective tool with the potential to disseminate information on the benefits of smoking cessation and updated research to the Twitter community on a global scale.

  4. Behavioral Interventions Associated with Smoking Cessation in the Treatment of Tobacco Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable premature death worldwide. While the majority of smokers would like to stop, the habitual and addictive nature of smoking makes cessation difficult. Clinical guidelines suggest that smoking cessation interventions should include both behavioural support and pharmacotherapy (e.g. nicotine replacement therapy. This commentary paper focuses on the important role of behavioural interventions in encouraging and supporting smoking cessation attempts. Recent developments in the field are discussed, including ‘cut-down to quit’, the behaviour change techniques taxonomy (BCTT and very brief advice (VBA on smoking. The paper concludes with a discussion of the important role that health professionals can and should play in the delivery of smoking cessation interventions.

  5. Achieving Smoking Cessation in Individuals with Schizophrenia: Special Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cather, Corinne; Pachas, Gladys N; Cieslak, Kristina M; Evins, A Eden

    2017-06-01

    Premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease in those with schizophrenia is the largest lifespan disparity in the US and is growing; adults in the US with schizophrenia die, on average, 28 years earlier than those in the general population. The rate of smoking prevalence among individuals with schizophrenia is estimated to be from 64 to 79%. Smokers with schizophrenia have historically been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies. However, converging evidence indicates that a majority of smokers with schizophrenia want to quit smoking, and that available pharmacotherapeutic smoking cessation aids are well tolerated by this population of smokers and are effective when combined with behavioral treatment. The aim of this review is to present updated evidence for safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with schizophrenia spectrum illness. We also highlight implications of the very low abstinence rates for smokers with schizophrenia who receive placebo plus behavioral treatment in randomized trials, and review treatment approaches to address the high rate of rapid relapse observed upon pharmacologic treatment discontinuation in this population. Recommendations for monitoring for treatment-emergent nicotine withdrawal symptoms, side effects, and effects of cessation on antipsychotic medication are also provided. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should be encouraged to quit smoking and should receive varenicline, bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or NRT, all in combination with behavioral treatment for at least 12 weeks. Maintenance pharmacotherapy may reduce relapse and improve sustained abstinence rates. Controlled trials in smokers with schizophrenia consistently show no greater rate of neuropsychiatric adverse events with pharmacotherapeutic cessation aids than with placebo.

  6. Applying a new theory to smoking cessation: case of multi-theory model (MTM) for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline therapy. The success rates with each of these approaches vary with clear need for improvement. Moreover, there is a need for a robust theory that can guide smoking cessation counseling interventions and increase the success rates. A fourth generation approach using multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change is introduced in this article for smoking cessation. An approach for developing and evaluating an intervention for smoking cessation is presented along with a measurement tool. Methods: A literature review reifying the MTM of health behavior change for smoking cessation has been presented. An instrument designed to measure constructs of MTM and associated smoking cessation behavior has been developed. Results: The instrument developed is available for validation, reliability and prediction study pertaining to smoking cessation. The intervention is available for testing in a randomized control trial involving smokers. Conclusion: MTM is a robust theory that holds promise for testing and application to smoking cessation.

  7. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  8. the role of employers in facilitating smoking cessation among staff

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -338. 9. Worldbank. Smoke-free workplaces. Public Health at a Glance; HNP notes. Washington, DC: World. Bank Group, 2011, p. 1 - 4. 10. Cahill K, Moher M and Lancaster T. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. The Cochrane.

  9. Willingness of pulmonologists to guide COPD patients in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolman, Catherine; Sino, Carolien; Hekking, Paul; van Keimpema, Anton; van Meerbeeck, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Effective smoking cessation interventions include steps often protocolised as the 4A method. This study assessed how pulmonologists address the smoking behaviour of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and analysed psychosocial differences between pulmonologists who intend to use

  10. Willingness of pulmonologists to guide COPD patients in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolman, C; Sino, C; Hekking, P; van Keimpema, A; van Meerbeeck, J

    Effective smoking cessation interventions include steps often protocolised as the 4A method. This Study assessed how pulmonologists address the smoking behaviour of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and analysed psychosocial differences, between pulmonologists who intend to use

  11. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McIvor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.

  12. Reversal of Smoking Effects on Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-10-01

    Objective To understand whether the impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is reversible after smoking cessation. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Subjects and Methods A total of 103 former-smoker CRS patients and 103 nonsmoker CRS patients were prospectively recruited. The primary outcome measure was sinonasal symptom severity measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), and secondary outcome measures were general health-related quality of life (QOL) measured with the 5-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year. Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since cessation of smoking for former smokers. Results Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 score ( P = .019) and EQ-5D VAS score ( P = .001) and reported using more CRS-related antibiotics ( P = .003) and oral corticosteroids in the past year ( P = .013). In former smokers, every year was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.05; P = .032), EQ-5D VAS score (β = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91; P = .046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (relative risk = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .001). Given the differences in our study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, we estimate that the reversible impacts of smoking on CRS may resolve after 10 to 20 years. Conclusions CRS patients who are former smokers have worse sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related medication usage than nonsmokers. Every year since cessation of smoking is associated improvements in sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use, potentially reaching nonsmoker levels after 10 to 20 years.

  13. WIC providers' perspectives on offering smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mary Lober; Goody, Cynthia M; Lowe, John B

    2003-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of WIC clinic providers on offering smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. Four focus groups consisting of WIC nurses, dietitians, and social workers (N = 25) were conducted at WIC clinics in eastern Iowa. Researchers developed discussion guidelines to determine how WIC providers currently approached pregnant women who smoke cigarettes and what they considered barriers to providing effective smoking cessation interventions. Code mapping was used to analyze focus group discussions. Factors influencing the ability of WIC staff to provide a smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women included available time, clinic priorities, staff approaches to clients, and staff training. In addition, providers expressed concerns about educational materials for clients as well as additional client issues that prevented smoking cessation. The absence of mechanisms to track clinic outcomes related to smoking cessation was also noted. WIC providers have time limitations that may necessitate minimal or low-intensity interventions for smoking cessation, but did not know that such approaches are actually effective. WIC providers require more education about the entire issue of smoking cessation in order to become more proactive in their attempts to help pregnant women quit. Training that enhances self-efficacy and understanding of the impact of smoking on mothers, infants, and children should be initiated to motivate staff to intervene. Another strategy to motivate WIC staff in this regard could be tracking clinic outcomes in helping women to quit smoking or prevent relapse.

  14. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p test). Cotinine-validated cessation rates during pregnancy were significantly higher among the former (7%) than the latter (2%) (p = 0...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation.......003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  15. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were...... to the results from other studies. Intensive smoking cessation intervention was not superior to short smoking cessation intervention. Thus, other factors than intensity of smoking cessation intervention might influence the smoking cessation rates after stroke or TIA....

  16. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  17. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  18. Doctors' attitudes and practices regarding smoking cessation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doctors' attitudes and practices regarding smoking cessation during pregnancy. ... South African Medical Journal ... To investigate the current smoking cessation practices and attitudes of doctors working in the public antenatal services, as well as their perceived barriers to addressing the issue in the context of routine care.

  19. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  20. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for this ratio may change the predictors of success. From a behavioural science perspective, another recent study found that financial incentives were associated with successful smoking cessation and that harnessing the individual's aversion to loss in a cessation programme may encourage a change in smoking behaviour.

  1. Lessons learned implementing a province-wide smoking cessation initiative in Ontario's cancer centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W K; Truscott, R; Cameron, E; Peter, A; Reid, R; Selby, P; Smith, P; Hey, A

    2017-06-01

    A large body of evidence clearly shows that cancer patients experience significant health benefits with smoking cessation. Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial agency responsible for the quality of cancer services in Ontario, has undertaken a province-wide smoking cessation initiative. The strategies used, the results achieved, and the lessons learned are the subject of the present article. Evidence related to the health benefits of smoking cessation in cancer patients was reviewed. A steering committee developed a vision statement for the initiative, created a framework for implementation, and made recommendations for the key elements of the initiative and for smoking cessation best practices. New ambulatory cancer patients are being screened for their smoking status in each of Ontario's 14 regional cancer centres. Current or recent smokers are advised of the benefits of cessation and are directed to smoking cessation resources as appropriate. Performance metrics are captured and used to drive improvement through quarterly performance reviews and provincial rankings of the regional cancer centres. Regional smoking cessation champions, commitment from Cancer Care Ontario senior leadership, a provincial secretariat, and guidance from smoking cessation experts have been important enablers of early success. Data capture has been difficult because of the variety of information systems in use and non-standardized administrative and clinical processes. Numerous challenges remain, including increasing physician engagement; obtaining funding for key program elements, including in-house resources to support smoking cessation; and overcoming financial barriers to access nicotine replacement therapy. Future efforts will focus on standardizing processes to the extent possible, while tailoring the approaches to the populations served and the resources available within the individual regional cancer programs.

  2. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647.......003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  3. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.

  4. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Richard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that will test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of linking inpatient smoking care with ongoing community cessation support for smokers with a mental illness. Methods/Design This study will be conducted as a randomised controlled trial. 200 smokers with an acute mental illness will be recruited from a large inpatient mental health facility. Participants will complete a baseline survey and will be randomised to either a multimodal smoking cessation intervention or provided with hospital smoking care only. Randomisation will be stratified by diagnosis (psychotic, non-psychotic. Intervention participants will be provided with a brief motivational interview in the inpatient setting and options of ongoing smoking cessation support post discharge: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; referral to Quitline; smoking cessation groups; and fortnightly telephone support. Outcome data, including cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts, and self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (validated by exhaled carbon monoxide, will be collected via blind interview at one week, two months, four months and six months post discharge. Process information will also be collected, including the use of cessation supports and cost of the intervention. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the potential of an integrated, multimodal smoking cessation intervention for persons with an acute mental illness, linking inpatient with community cessation support. Trial Registration

  5. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette; Kroman, Niels; Maibom, Annerikke; Sauerberg, Marie-Louise; Møller, Ann M

    2010-11-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefore to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation. A randomized controlled multicentre trial with blinded outcome assessment conducted at 3 hospitals in Denmark. One hundred and thirty patients were randomly assigned to brief smoking intervention (n = 65) or standard care (n = 65). The intervention followed the principles of motivational interviewing and included personalized nicotine replacement therapy aimed at supporting smoking cessation from 2 days before to 10 days after surgery. The overall postoperative complication rate (including seroma requiring aspiration) was 61% in both groups risk ratio (RR) 1.00 (95% CI 0.75-1.33). The wound complication rate was 44% versus 45%. The effect on perioperative smoking cessation was modest, 28% intervention versus 11% control group patients, RR 2.49 (95% CI 1.10-5.60). There was no effect on smoking cessation at 12 months, 13% versus 9%. Brief smoking intervention administered shortly before breast cancer surgery modestly increased self-reported perioperative smoking cessation without having any clinical impact on postoperative complications. The study adds to the body of evidence indicating that brief intervention has no clinical importance for surgical patients in regard to postoperative morbidity. Future studies should be designed to determine the optimal time of smoking cessation before surgery.

  6. Smoking Cessation Interventions in HIV-Infected Adults in North America: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is more prevalent in HIV-infected adults when compared to the general population (50-70%) and is linked to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Of important clinical relevance, however, 40% of HIV-infected smokers express a willingness to attempt smoking cessation and two-thirds are interested in or considering quitting when asked. The purpose of this paper is to provide a state of the science review of the extant literature on smoking cessation interventions in HIV-infected adults. A comprehensive search of a computerized database for articles appearing in peer-reviewed journals was conducted. The integrative review included 10 articles from medical and nursing journals. Smoking cessation rates ranged from 6%-50% across studies employing pharmacologic and behavioral approaches. Samples sizes were frequently small and the effect was often not sustained over time. Emotional distress was related to smoking behaviors and may have been a barrier to successful smoking cessation. Adherence to pharmacologic therapy often declined over time and may have contributed to low cessation rates. Nicotine replacement therapy combined with a cell phone-delivered intensive counseling intervention showed promising results. Given the high prevalence of smoking among adults infected with HIV, this review supports the need for the development and implementation of innovative and effective interventions tailored to this population that will ultimately result in lower smoking prevalence and improved overall health.

  7. What accounts for the association of education and smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, David W; Cofta-Gunn, Ludmila; Irvin, Jennifer E; Fouladi, Rachel T; Wright, Kelli; Daza, Patricia; Mazas, Carlos; Cinciripini, Paul M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2005-04-01

    Education has been identified as a potent sociodemographic predictor of smoking cessation and the Healthy People 2010 goals include the elimination of health disparities attributable to education. The current study prospectively examined the association of education with smoking cessation as well variables that might account for that association among employed adults residing in the southeastern United States. A strong educational gradient in cessation was evident. Only 6% of smokers with less than a high school (HS) degree quit smoking during the 4-year study period, whereas 17% of smokers with a HS degree but no college degree and 28% of smokers with at least a college degree quit smoking. Education appeared to uniquely contribute to the prediction of smoking abstinence over and above the effects of demographic, environmental, tobacco dependence, transtheoretical model, and job-related variables. Obtaining a better understanding of how or why education influences smoking cessation could contribute to reducing the educational gradient in abstinence and warrants further research attention.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of varenicline for smoking cessation using data from the EAGLES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Pietri, Guilhem

    2018-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of varenicline has been demonstrated in the US health care setting using the Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes (BENESCO) model to simulate the lifetime direct costs and consequences of a hypothetical cohort of US adult smokers who make a single attempt to quit. The aim of this study was to undertake an updated cost-effectiveness analysis, using current epidemiology inputs and recently published smoking cessation data from the Evaluating Adverse Events in a Global Smoking Cessation Study (EAGLES), the largest clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies conducted to date. BENESCO is a Markov model simulating the effect of a single attempt to quit smoking on four smoking-related diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease, and lung cancer. Inputs were updated to include efficacy from EAGLES and newer data for the epidemiology of smoking in the US, the epidemiology and direct treatment costs of the four morbidities, and the costs of the interventions. Analyses compared varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch, and placebo with regard to the incidence of smoking-related morbidity, the incidence of smoking-related mortality, and cost-effectiveness at a time horizon from 2 years to lifetime. The study cohort comprised of 18,394,068 US adult smokers who made a single quit attempt during the first year of the model. For varenicline, there were an estimated 319,730 fewer smoking-related morbidities at the lifetime compared with placebo. Similarly, smoking-related mortality decreased by 198,240 subjects when varenicline was compared with placebo. For the same time horizon, varenicline was more effective and less costly, ie, dominant, compared with all comparators in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Based on the BENESCO model, smoking cessation with varenicline results in reduced incidence of smoking-related morbidity and mortality compared with other smoking cessation interventions

  9. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum....... We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity....

  10. The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azodi, O. Sadr; Lindstrom, D.; Adami, J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that smokers constitute an important risk group of patients undergoing surgery. It is unknown how smoking cessation intervention initiated 4 weeks prior to elective surgery affects the probability of permanent cessation. We randomly assigned 117 patients, scheduled to undergo elective...... orthopaedic and general surgery, to smoking cessation intervention and control group. The intervention group underwent a programme initiated, on average, 4 weeks prior to surgery with weekly meetings or telephone counselling and were provided with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The control group...

  11. iPhone apps for smoking cessation: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C; Padmanabhan, Nalini; Thaweethai, Lalida; Phillips, Todd

    2011-03-01

    With the proliferation of smartphones such as the iPhone, mobile phones are being used in novel ways to promote smoking cessation. This study set out to examine the content of the 47 iPhone applications (apps) for smoking cessation that were distributed through the online iTunes store, as of June 24, 2009. Each app was independently coded by two reviewers for its (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to the U.S. Public Health Service's 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Each app was also coded for its (3) frequency of downloads. Apps identified for smoking cessation were found to have low levels of adherence to key guidelines in the index. Few, if any, apps recommended or linked the user to proven treatments such as pharmacotherapy, counseling, and/or a quitline. iPhone apps for smoking cessation rarely adhere to established guidelines for smoking cessation. It is recommended that current apps be revised and future apps be developed around evidence-based practices for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  13. Pharmacist prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alex J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2018-02-06

    To characterize the status of state laws regarding the expansion of pharmacists' prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications and to summarize frequently asked questions and answers that arose during the associated legislative debates. Legislative language was reviewed and summarized for all states with expanded authority, and literature supporting the pharmacist's capacity for an expanded role in smoking cessation is described. The core elements of autonomous tobacco cessation prescribing models for pharmacists vary across states. Of 7 states that currently have fully or partially delineated protocols, 4 states (Colorado, Idaho, Indiana, New Mexico) include all medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation, and 3 (Arizona, California, Maine) include nicotine replacement therapy products only. The state protocol in Oregon is under development. Most states specify minimum cessation education requirements and define specific elements (e.g., patient screening, cessation intervention components, and documentation requirements) for the autonomous prescribing models. Through expanded authority and national efforts to advance the tobacco cessation knowledge and skills of pharmacy students and licensed pharmacists, the profession's role in tobacco cessation has evolved substantially in recent years. Eight states have created, or are in the process of creating, pathways for autonomous pharmacist prescriptive authority. States aiming to advance tobacco control strategies to help patients quit smoking might consider approaches like those undertaken in 8 states. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene INOUE

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation counseling and support were also provided by the dentists, during periodontal maintenance sessions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Smoking status was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire, and was validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO measurements. The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence was used to assess smoking dependence. Of the 61 individuals that remained up to the 24-month examination, 31, 21 and 18 declared that they were not smoking at 3, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Smoking cessation after 24 months was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.77, 95%CI = 1.16–12.30, baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76–19.23, not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76–30.98 and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55–20.43. We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette dependence variables.

  15. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is now an indispensable part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardized form. We extracted smoking cessation outcomes of six months follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Clinical and statistical heterogeneity limited our ability to pool studies. This updated review includes a total of 28 studies with over 45,000 participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Fifteen trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet-based smoking cessation intervention or to a no-intervention control. Ten of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and two recruited adolescents. Seven of the trials in adults had follow-up at six months or longer and compared an Internet intervention to usual care or printed self help. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, pooled results from three trials that compared

  16. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...

  17. Factors affecting smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Jennifer; Pettey, Donna; Aubry, Tim; Stol, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    People with severe mental illness are much more likely to smoke than are members of the general population. Smoking cessation interventions that combine counseling and medication have been shown to be moderately effective, but quit rates remain low and little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental illness in smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate factors that help or hinder the smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness. We recruited 16 people with severe mental illness who had participated in a clinical trial of two different smoking cessation interventions, one involving nicotine replacement therapy only and the other nicotine replacement therapy combined with motivational interviewing and a peer support group. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with participants, who ranged in age from 20 to 56 years old, were equally distributed by gender (eight men and eight women), and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 13, 81%). Primary mental illness diagnoses included schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 6, 38%), depression (n = 5, 31%), bipolar disorder (n = 4, 25%), and anxiety disorder (n = 1, 6%). At entry into the clinical trial, participants smoked an average of 22.6 cigarettes per day (SD = 13.0). RESULTS indicated that people with mental illness have a diverse range of experiences in the same smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation experiences were influenced by factors related to the intervention itself (such as presence of smoking cessation aids, group supports, and emphasis on individual choice and needs), as well as individual factors (such as mental health, physical health, and substance use), and social-environmental factors (such as difficult life events and social relationships). An improved understanding of the smoking cessation experiences of people with severe mental illness can inform the delivery of

  18. Effects of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy on arterial elasticity, endothelial glycocalyx and oxidative stress during a 3-month smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Marinou, Margarita; Vlastos, Dimitrios; Kourea, Kallirhoe; Andreadou, Ioanna; Liarakos, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Pavlidis, George; Tsougos, Elias; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John

    2017-07-01

    The effects of medically-aided smoking cessation on vascular function and oxidative stress are not fully clarified. One hundred eighty-eight current smokers were randomized to varenicline or nicotine replacement treatment (NRT) for a 3-month period. We assessed: (a) augmentation index (Aix) and pulse wave velocity (PWV); (b) perfusion boundary region (PBR) of sublingual microvasculature (range:5-25 μm), an index of the endothelial glycocalyx thickness, using Sideview, Darkfield imaging; (c) the exhaled CO; and (d) the malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) plasma levels, as markers of oxidative stress, at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. After 3 months of treatment, CO, MDA, PC and Aix were decreased in all subjects (median CO: 25 vs. 6 ppm, MDA: 0.81 vs. 0.63 nmol/L, PC: 0.102, vs. 0.093 nmol/mg protein, Aix: 13% vs. 9%, p smoking (n = 84 out of 188), while the above markers and PWV deteriorated in relapsed smokers (p smoking cessation program using varenicline or NRT for 3 months resulted in a decrease of CO, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness and restored endothelial glycocalyx. These effects were more evident after varenicline treatment, likely because of a greater CO reduction, and were maintained after 1 year only in subjects who abstained from smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  20. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Polymorphism Is a Predictor of Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Hiroyuki; Gallus, Silvano; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Yokomizo, Akira; Eto, Masatoshi; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-09-01

    Smoking cessation has been known to be associated with drinking behaviors, which are influenced by polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolizing enzymes. The aim was to evaluate the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2, rs671) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B, rs1229984) polymorphisms together with drinking behaviors on smoking cessation. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1137 former smokers and 1775 current smokers without any cancer at Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between 2001 and 2005. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for successful smoking cessation by comparing former smokers (quitters) with current smokers (non-quitters). Older age, lower amount of cumulative smoking exposure, lower number of cigarettes per day, younger age of smoking initiation, shorter smoking duration, longer time to first cigarette in the morning, and lower amount of drinking among ever drinkers were predictors of smoking cessation. After careful adjustment for age, sex, smoking patterns, and drinking status, the ORs for smoking cessation among subjects with ALDH2 Glu/Lys and Lys/Lys were 1.02 (95% CI 0.84-1.23) and 1.78 (95% CI 1.23-2.58) compared with those with ALDH2 Glu/Glu, respectively Mediation analyses confirmed that the effect of ALDH2 Lys/Lys on smoking cessation was independent by dinking behaviors. No statistically significant association between ADH1B polymorphism and smoking cessation was observed. In our Japanese population, ALDH2 polymorphism predicts smoking cessation, independent by drinking behaviors. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation by ALDH2 polymorphism may be useful in Asian populations. We newly show that subjects with ALDH2 Lys/Lys genotype in a functional polymorphism, rs671, are more likely to quit smoking than those with ALDH2 Glu allele in a Japanese population. Our finding suggests that ALDH2 polymorphism may be useful for promoting smoking

  1. Positive smoking cessation-related interactions with HIV care providers increase the likelihood of interest in cessation among HIV-positive cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Matthew W

    2017-10-01

    Smoking cessation has proven to be a challenge for HIV-positive smokers. Patient and provider characteristics may provide barriers to smoking cessation. We aimed to identify characteristics associated with interest in cessation as well as characterize use of, current interest in, and provider recommendations for smoking cessation modalities. Data came from 275 HIV-positive smokers recruited online. Half (49.1%) of the sample was interested in quitting; daily smoking was associated with decreased likelihood of interest in cessation, whereas making a lifetime quit attempt, receiving encouragement to quit from an HIV care provider, and greater frequency of discussions regarding cessation with HIV care providers were associated with increased likelihood of interest in cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy was the most commonly used (42.9%), generated the most interest (59.1%), and was the most commonly clinician-recommended (70.7%) cessation modality. Findings emphasize the importance of the healthcare provider-patient relationship for smoking cessation promotion in HIV-positive smokers.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Factors associated with smoking cessation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alcohol abuse remains high in South Africa,6 limited data are available on the relationship between alcohol abuse and smoking in South. Africa. Most reports on the factors that relate to smoking cessation are based on data from developed countries. Since smoking and alcohol abuse are associated with social ...

  3. Supporting smoking cessation in the medical specialist practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    Although smoking cessation reduces the cardiovascular risk of smoking, why this is so is still uncertain. Nevertheless, because they are strongly and authoritatively involved in much of the serious health damage caused by smoking, medical specialists should do all they can to support their patients

  4. Self-reported smoking cessation activities among Swiss primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffieux Christiane

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual counselling, pharmacotherapy, and group therapy are evidence-based interventions that help patients stop smoking. Acupuncture, hypnosis, and relaxation have no demonstrated efficacy on smoking cessation, whereas self-help material may only have a small benefit. The purpose of this study is to assess physicians' current clinical practice regarding smokers motivated to stop smoking. Methods The survey included 3385 Swiss primary care physicians. Self-reported use of nine smoking cessation interventions was scored. One point was given for each positive answer about practicing interventions with demonstrated efficacy, i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, counselling, group therapy, and smoking cessation specialist. No points were given for the recommendation of acupuncture, hypnosis, relaxation, and self-help material. Multivariable logistic analysis was performed to identify factors associated with a good practice score, defined as ≥ 2. Results The response rate was 55%. Respondents were predominately over the age of 40 years (88%, male (79%, and resided in urban areas (74%. Seventeen percent reported being smokers. Most of the physicians prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (84%, bupropion (65%, or provided counselling (70%. A minority of physicians recommended acupuncture (26%, hypnosis (8%, relaxation (7%, or self-help material (24%. A good practice score was obtained by 85% of respondents. Having attended a smoking cessation-training program was the only significant predictor of a good practice score (odds ratio: 6.24, 95% CI 1.95–20.04. Conclusion The majority of respondents practice recommended smoking cessation interventions. However, there is room for improvement and implementing an evidence-based smoking cessation-training program could provide additional benefit.

  5. Sleep as a Target for Optimized Response to Smoking Cessation Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Grandner, Michael A; Malone, Susan K; Rizzo, Albert; Davey, Adam; Edwards, David G

    2017-10-23

    Declining national rates of current tobacco use to an all-time low of 15.1% represents a public health victory. Undermining this progress, however, are smoking rates of up to 50% among high-risk, low-income populations. Current FDA-approved treatments for nicotine dependence are ineffective with between 70-95% of treatment-seekers relapsing within the first year of attempted abstinence. Thus, identification of novel intervention targets to optimize response to currently available treatments for nicotine dependence is a critical next step. One such target may be sleep insomnia. Insomnia is a clinically verified nicotine withdrawal symptom but, to date, addressing insomnia or other sleep disturbance symptoms as an adjunctive smoking cessation therapy has yet to be fully considered. To this end, this manuscript presents a narrative review of: (a) sleep continuity and architecture in smokers versus non-smokers; (b) effects of nicotine abstinence on sleep; (c) possible mechanisms linking sleep with smoking cessation outcomes; (d) plausible adjunctive sleep therapies to promote smoking cessation; (e) possible treatments for unhealthy sleep in smokers, and, (f) directions for future research. Taken together, this will provide conceptual support for sleep therapy as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation. This narrative literature review presents a comprehensive discussion of the relationship between habitual sleep and cigarette smoking. The extent to which unhealthy sleep in smokers may be a viable intervention target for promoting response to smoking cessation treatment is considered. Ultimately, this review provides conceptual support for sleep therapy as an adjunctive treatment for smoking cessation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Break the habit! Designing an e-therapy intervention using a virtual coach in aid of smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grolleman, J.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; van Emst, A.; IJsselsteijn, W.; de Kort, Y.; Midden, C.; Eggen, B.; van den Hoven, E.

    2006-01-01

    E-therapy offers new means to support smokers during their attempt to quit. An embodied conversational agent can support people as a virtual coach on the internet. In this paper requirements are formulated for such a virtual coach and a global design is proposed. The requirements and the design are

  7. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  8. Study protocol of a pragmatic, randomised controlled pilot trial: clinical effectiveness on smoking cessation of traditional and complementary medicine interventions, including acupuncture and aromatherapy, in combination with nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Park, Sunju; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Yu Lee; Lee, Ju Ah; Cho, Chung-Sik; Go, Ho-Yeon; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-06-02

    Nicotine dependence is a disease, and tobacco use is related to 6 million deaths annually worldwide. Recently, in many countries, there has been growing interest in the use of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) methods, especially acupuncture, as therapeutic interventions for smoking cessation. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of T&CM interventions on smoking cessation. The STOP (Stop Tobacco Programme using traditional Korean medicine) study is designed to be a pragmatic, open-label, randomised pilot trial. This trial will evaluate whether adding T&CM methods (ie, ear and body acupuncture, aromatherapy) to conventional cessation methods (ie, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), counselling) increases smoking cessation rates. Forty participants over 19 years old who are capable of communicating in Korean will be recruited. They will be current smokers who meet one of the following criteria: (1) smoke more than 10 cigarettes a day, (2) smoke less than 10 cigarettes a day and previously failed to cease smoking, or (3) smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes a day and have a nicotine dependence score (Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence) of 4 points or more. The trial will consist of 4 weeks of treatment and a 20 week follow-up period. A statistician will perform the statistical analyses for both the intention-to-treat (all randomly assigned participants) and per-protocol (participants who completed the trial without any protocol deviations) data using SAS 9.1.3. This study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Dunsan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University (IRB reference no: DJDSKH-15-BM-11-1, Protocol No. version 4.1.).The protocol will be reapproved by IRB if it requires amendment. The trial will be conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki, 7th version (2013). This study is designed to minimise the risk to participants, and the investigators will explain the study to the

  9. Smoking Cessation Counseling Beliefs and Behaviors of Outpatient Oncology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Blackstock, A. William; Spangler, John; Thomas, Leslie; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Many cancer patients continue to smoke after diagnosis, increasing their risk for treatment complications, reduced treatment efficacy, secondary cancers, and reduced survival. Outpatient oncology providers may not be using the “teachable moment” of cancer diagnosis to provide smoking cessation assistance. Providers and Methods. Physicians and midlevel providers (n = 74) who provide outpatient oncology services completed an online survey regarding smoking cessation counseling behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers. Outpatient medical records for 120 breast, lung, head and neck, colon, prostate, and acute leukemia cancer patients were reviewed to assess current smoking cessation assessment and intervention documentation practices. Results. Providers reported commonly assessing smoking in new patients (82.4% frequently or always), but rates declined at subsequent visits for both current smokers and recent quitters. Rates of advising patients to quit smoking were also high (86.5% frequently or always), but oncology setting. PMID:22334454

  10. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  11. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  12. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking cessation among pharmacy technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking cessation. A pre/post survey of a single group. Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Pharmacy technicians. One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smoking cessation for pharmacy technicians. Changes in scores before and after the CE sessions among three domains (knowledge, efficacy, and outcome) of a validated survey instrument. Fifty-one technicians completed both the presession and postsession questionnaire. For the three survey domains, technicians' knowledge (P = .034), efficacy (P < .001), and outcome (P < .001) showed significant improvement between the presession and postsession surveys (Wilcoxon signed rank test). Pharmacy technicians who attended a CE program on smoking cessation improved their knowledge, attitudes, and self-confidence in helping smokers quit. Additional research should be conducted to test the role of pharmacy technicians in smoking cessation promotion.

  13. Influence of having a psychiatric diagnosis on smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Ayesta

    2017-05-01

    Since the characteristics associated with smoking in these patients are not alone responsible for the cessation differences, this seems to suggest that the own psychiatric condition is also responsible for it.

  14. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Perceptions of smoking cessation among Glasgow's Chinese community

    OpenAIRE

    William Spence; Lanyu Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:\\ud Health related needs and services are stratified by ethnicity in UK. The Chinese community is Scotland’s second-largest minority ethnic group but a relatively under-researched one. This study aimed to explore the views and experiences of smoking cessation and related services among Chinese community members in Glasgow and to inform them about smoking cessation interventions.\\ud \\ud Methods:\\ud This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 using a qualitative research metho...

  16. Internet and cell phone based smoking cessation programs among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Purvi Mehta,; Manoj Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can preventthe adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy,household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessationdeterminants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among adolescents,smoking cessation programs are beginning to adopt these new delivery methods. The purpose ofthe study is to review interventions between 20...

  17. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  18. Effects of smoking cessation on hormonal levels in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruškovičová, H; Dušková, M; Simůnková, K; Hill, M; Pospíšilová, H; Rácz, B; Králíková, E; Vondra, K; Stárka, L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic smoking can cause imbalance in endocrine homeostasis and impairment of fertility in both sexes. The male reproductive system is more resilient, still the literature provides conflicting results about the influence of smoking on the steroid hormone levels. The data about smoking cessation are limited; there has not yet been a study primarily focused on changes in steroids levels. In our study, we analyzed levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in male smokers and during smoking cessation. Monitored analytes were determined by RIA. The free testosterone index was calculated. Basal samples of men successful and unsuccessful in smoking cessation did not differ and monitored hormones could hardly predict success of smoking cessation. After one year without smoking, a significant BMI increase and SHBG decrease in former smokers was observed. The decrease in total testosterone was non-significant. Changes in SHBG and testosterone did not correlate with BMI, presumably due to the direct effect of smoking cessation.

  19. Women Smoking Cessation and Disadvantage:A Mixed Methods Investigation of the Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, F E

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundWomen are less likely than men to successfully quit smoking when using NHScessation services (The Information Centre, 2012, ICD, 2011).MethodsThe research used mixed methods and consisted of two studies. Study one was asecondary data analysis of service use data from cessation services in Glasgow, North Cumbria and Nottingham. The study examined whether women had lower cessation outcomes compared to men. Further analyses explored whether women using cessation support differed from m...

  20. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  1. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Y; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms.

  2. ADHD symptoms impact smoking outcomes and withdrawal in response to Varenicline treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Karoly, Hollis C; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2017-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34.13(10.07), average baseline cigarettes per day=14.71(7.06)]. Given that varenicline's putative therapeutic mechanism is attenuation of withdrawal severity during abstinence, we also tested changes in withdrawal as a mediator of treatment effects in high and low ADHD groups. ADHD symptom severity in this sample was in the subclinical range. Cessation was associated with HI, but not IN, such that high HI individuals on varenicline reported the lowest smoking levels at the end of treatment across all groups (3.06cig/day for high HI vs 4.02cig/day for low HI). Individuals with high HI who received placebo had the highest smoking at the end of treatment (7.69cigs/day for high HI vs 5.56cig/day for low HI). Patterns continued at follow-up. Varenicline significantly reduced withdrawal for those with high HI, but not low HI. However, path models did not support an indirect effect of medication on reducing smoking via withdrawal in either group, suggesting that unmeasured variables are involved in varenicline's effect on reducing smoking. These data add to a gap in the smoking cessation literature regarding the impact of ADHD symptoms on the efficacy and mechanisms of frontline pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  4. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption...... with no such motivation. Age, social status, spouse/cohabitant's smoking behaviour, and the daily consumption of tobacco predict success in smoking cessation, irrespective of smokers' former motivation to stop....

  5. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  6. Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers.

  7. The influence of discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Lam, Cho Y; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Wetter, David W

    2014-03-01

    Although studies have shown a cross-sectional link between discrimination and smoking, the prospective influence of discrimination on smoking cessation has yet to be evaluated. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of everyday and major discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos making a quit attempt. Participants were 190 Spanish speaking smokers of Mexican Heritage recruited from the Houston, TX metropolitan area who participated in the study between 2009 and 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of everyday and major discrimination with smoking abstinence at 26 weeks post-quit. Most participants reported at least some everyday discrimination (64.4%), and at least one major discrimination event (56%) in their lifetimes. Race/ethnicity/nationality was the most commonly perceived reason for both everyday and major discrimination. Everyday discrimination was not associated with post-quit smoking status. However, experiencing a greater number of major discrimination events was associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence, OR=.51, p=.004, and continuous smoking abstinence, OR=.29, p=.018, at 26 weeks post-quit. Findings highlight the high frequency of exposure to discrimination among Latinos, and demonstrate the negative impact of major discrimination events on a smoking cessation attempt. Efforts are needed to attenuate the detrimental effects of major discrimination events on smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial and ethnic differences in predictors of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Patricia; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mazas, Carlos; Fouladi, Rachel T; Cinciripini, Paul M; Gritz, Ellen R; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    Racial/ethnic differences in the determinants of smoking cessation could have important treatment implications. The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in smoking cessation, prospective predictors of cessation, and whether the predictive ability of these factors differed by race/ethnicity. Participants were 709 employed adults recruited through the National Rural Electric Co-op Association or through natural gas pipeline corporations. Data were collected in 1990 and 1994. Although race/ethnicity was not predictive of abstinence, Hispanic, African American, and White smokers displayed differential on tobacco-, alcohol-, and work-related variables. These racial/ethnic differences highlight the specific factors that should be considered when providing smoking cessation treatment to specific populations. Limitations are noted.

  9. Budgetary impact analysis on funding smoking-cessation drugs in patients with COPD in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Solano-Reina, Segismundo; Signes-Costa, Jaime; de Higes-Martinez, Eva; Granda-Orive, José I; Lorza-Blasco, José J; Riesco-Miranda, Juan A; Altet-Gomez, Neus; Barrueco, Miguel; Oyagüez, Itziar; Rejas, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the budgetary impact of funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients in Spain. A hybrid model (cohort and Markov) was developed for a 5-year time horizon. Only approved cessation drugs (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy) were considered. Irrespective of the drug, the model allowed for an initial cessation attempt, and up to three additional attempts in case of failure or smoking relapse during a 5-year period. Drug effectiveness was based on controlled clinical trials. National Health System perspective was applied; therefore, only medical resources were included. The pharmaceutical costs for smoking-cessation drugs, extra medical follow-up as a consequence of public reimbursement, and annual savings for health costs avoided due to stopping smoking were considered. The model estimated that 17,756 COPD patients would stop smoking if public funding was available, compared with 1,303 without reimbursement. In the reimbursement scenario, the savings accounted for a total of €48.0 million, compensating for expenditures on drugs and medical visits (€40.4 million). Accumulated total additional savings in 5 years (€4.3 million) compared with the scenario without reimbursement was shown. Sensitivity analyses supported the results robustness. Funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients seems to be an efficient option and a National Health System drug reimbursement scheme would represent a cost-saving policy in Spain. PMID:26451100

  10. STUDY ON SMOKING PATTERN AND KNOWLEDGE OF CESSATION METHODS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING A PULMONOLOGY CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tobacco is a public health problem globally and an important cause of preventable premature death in middle and low income countries. The government of India has taken several measures to ensure tobacco control and suggested that a systematic surveillance system is a key strategy in tobacco control. However the fact remains that people continue to smoke. This study was undertaken to understand the smoking patterns among patients attending a Pulmonology clinic and to assess their knowledge of smoking cessation methods. Data from this study can be used for planning and resource allocation of a smoking cessation clinic. The aim is to study the smoking patterns and the knowledge of cessation strategies and to analyse the willingness of the patients to quit smoking in patients attending a Pulmonology clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS Around 489 patients visiting the Pulmonology clinic for 15 days were screened and patients with history of smoking habit were included in the study. 133 such patients were assessed with a structured questionnaire and results were analysed. RESULTS The prevalence of patients with smoking habits was 27.2%. The mean age of smoking initiation was 20.9 years of age. Percentage of beedi smokers (52.6% was much higher than the cigarette smokers (37.6%. The average number of cigarettes or beedis smoked per day was 16.6. Only 12.8% were aware of therapeutic options for nicotine de-addiction. Most of the patients had difficulty in smoking cessation. CONCLUSION Most of the patients lack health education regarding the ill effects of smoking or about smoking cessation strategies. Many of them still have inhibitions and fail to seek health services at the earliest, hence we should be able to bridge the gap and give due importance to information, education and communication (IEC activities. Creation of smoking cessation clinics with trained personnel offering various cessation strategies such as psychological counselling

  11. Flexible, dual-form nicotine replacement therapy or varenicline in comparison with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Heather E; Pipe, Andrew L; Els, Charl; Clyde, Matthew J; Reid, Robert D

    2016-06-07

    Extended use of combined pharmacotherapies to treat tobacco dependence may increase smoking abstinence; few studies have examined their effectiveness. The objective of this study was to evaluate smoking abstinence with standard nicotine patch (NRT), extended use of combined formulations of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT+), or varenicline (VR). A total of 737 smokers, including those with medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were randomly assigned to one of the above three treatment conditions. The NRT group received 10 weeks of patches (21 mg daily maximum); the NRT+ group received patches (35 mg daily maximum) and gum or inhaler for up to 22 weeks; and the VR group received 1 mg twice daily for up to 24 weeks (22 weeks post target quit date). All participants also received six standardized 15-minute smoking cessation counseling sessions by nurses experienced in tobacco dependence treatment. The primary outcome was carbon monoxide-confirmed continuous abstinence rates (CAR) from weeks 5-52. Secondary outcomes were: CAR from weeks 5-10 and 5-22, and carbon monoxide-confirmed 7-day point prevalence (7PP) at weeks 10, 22, and 52. Adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted using intention-to-treat procedures. The CARs for weeks 5-52 were 10.0 %, 12.4 %, and 15.3 % in the NRT, NRT+, and VR groups, respectively; no group differences were observed. Results with 7PP showed that VR was superior to NRT at week 52 (odds ratio (OR), 1.84; 97.5 % Confidence Interval (CI), 1.04-3.26) in the adjusted intention-to-treat analysis. Those in the VR group had higher CAR at weeks 5-22 (OR, 2.01; CI, 1.20-3.36) than those in the NRT group. Results with 7PP revealed that both NRT+ (OR, 1.72; CI, 1.04-2.85) and VR (OR, 1.96; CI, 1.20-3.23) were more effective than NRT at 22 weeks. As compared to NRT monotherapy, NRT+ and VR produced significant increases in CAR for weeks 5-10 (OR, 1.52; CI, 1.00-2.30 and OR, 1.58; CI, 1.04-2.39, respectively); results were

  12. Knowledge and practice of smoking cessation services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and practice of smoking cessation services among health care workers in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. Journal Home ... Despite efforts at national, regional and global levels to control cigarette smoking, there is still much yet to be achieved.

  13. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    situations, the risk of relapse increased when returning to everyday life. Conclusions: The smoking and alcohol cessation intervention was well received by the participants. Cancer surgery served as a kind of refuge and was a useful cue for motivating patients to quit smoking and to reconsider...

  14. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tang R, Posner MI. Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110(34):13971-13975. Walker N, Howe C, Glover M, et al. Cytisine versus nicotine for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(25): ...

  15. Varenicline for smoking cessation: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Chopra, Sarvesh C

    2009-02-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable risk to human health. Various agents have been used to promote smoking cessation, but none has had long-term efficacy. Varenicline, a new nicotinic ligand based on the structure of cytosine, was approved by the US Food amd Drug Administration for use as a smoking cessation aid. The aims of this review were to provide an overview on the mechanism of action and preclinical and clinical data of the new drug, varenicline, and to discuss the current and future impact of varenicline as a treatment for smoking cessation. MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and Google scholar databases were searched (March 1, 2007-July 1, 2008) using the terms varenicline, smoking cessation, and nicotinic receptors. Full-text articles in English were selected for reference, and articles presenting the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and data from preclinical and clinical trials were included. The initial literature search yielded 70 papers. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Varenicline, an α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, inhibits dopaminergic activation produced by smoking and decreases the craving and withdrawal syndrome that accompanies cessation attempts. In Phase III clinical trials, the carbon monoxide-confirmed 4-week continuous abstinence rates were significantly higher with varenicline than with buproprion sustained release or placebo for weeks 9 through 12. Varenicline has been found to be well tolerated, with nausea being the most commonly reported (28.1%) adverse event. Varenicline is the first drug for smoking cessation that has been found to have significant effectiveness in long-term relapse prevention (up to 52 weeks). Varenicline, with its unique profile of agonist and antagonist properties, increased cessation rates (both short- and long-term) compared with both placebo and bupropion sustained release.

  16. Positive affect and mood management in successful smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Penilla, Carlos; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-01-01

    To examine the influence of positive affect and mood-management in the completion and success of an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. Participants were recruited online (n = 1000) and randomized to 4 different interventions. Half of the participants received a mood-management tool. Retention was predicted by positive affect at 3 and 12 months. There was a higher 12-month abstinence rate among those who were assigned to the mood-management intervention and had initial low positive affect. The study supports the inclusion of mood-management tools in smoking cessation interventions and indicates that positive affect increases persistence to quit smoking.

  17. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  18. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Ghorai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape.

  19. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  20. Postnatal Cardiovascular Consequences in the Offspring of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Smoking and Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1.6 packs/day, inhalation), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d subcutaneously), and bupropion (13 mg/kg twice daily orally) were assessed for fetoplacental weight, cardiac function, blood pressure, and vascular reactivity. Fetoplacental weights were decreased and spontaneous beating and intracellular calcium in neonatal cardiomyocytes were increased in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring; however, these effects were more accentuated in smoking followed by nicotine and bupropion offspring. Increased heart rate and decreased cardiac output, stroke volume, and left ventricular percent posterior wall thickening were observed in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring. The left ventricular mass was reduced in smoking and nicotine but not in bupropion offspring. Blood pressure was higher with decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation and exaggerated vascular contraction to angiotensin II in smoking and nicotine offspring, with more pronounced dysfunctions in smoking than nicotine offspring. Maternal bupropion did not impact offspring's blood pressure, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and vascular contraction. In conclusion, maternal nicotine intervention adversely affects offspring's cardiovascular outcomes, albeit less severely than continued smoking. However, bupropion causes cardiac derangement in offspring but does not adversely affect blood pressure and vascular function.

  1. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  2. Smoking cessation advice for people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Priya; Clifton, Andrew V; Banks, David; Tosh, Graeme E

    2016-01-28

    People with a serious mental illness are more likely to smoke more and to be more dependent smokers than the general population. This may be due to a wide range of factors that could include a common aetiology to both smoking and the illness, self medication, smoking to alleviate adverse effects of medications, boredom in the existing environment, or a combination of these factors. It is important to undertake this review to facilitate improvements in both the health and safety of people with serious mental illness who smoke, and to reduce the overall burden of costs (both financial and health) to the smoker and, eventually, to the taxpayer. To review the effects of smoking cessation advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Specialized Trials Register up to 2 April 2015, which is based on regular searches of CENTRAL, BIOSIS, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and trial registries. We also undertook unsystematic searches of a sample of the component databases (BNI, CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO), up to 2 April 2015, and searched references of all identified studies We planned to include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that focussed on smoking cessation advice versus standard care or comparing smoking cessation advice with other more focussed methods of delivering care or information. The review authors (PK, AC, and DB) independently screened search results but did not identify any trials that fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this review. We did not identify any RCTs that evaluated advice regarding smoking cessation for people with serious mental illness. The excluded studies illustrate that randomisation of packages of care relevant to smokers with serious mental illness is possible. People with serious mental illness are more likely to smoke than the general population. Yet we could not find any high quality evidence to guide the smoking cessation advice healthcare professionals pass onto

  3. Impact of a smoking cessation educational program on nurses' interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda P; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kraliková, Eva; Kmetova, Alexandra; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Malá, Katerina; Roubicková, Eva; Wells, Marjorie J; Brook, Jenny K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate a brief educational program about smoking cessation on the frequency of nurses' interventions with smokers, and impact of nurses' smoking status on outcomes. Prospective, single group design with prestudy and 3 months post-study data. Nurses in the Czech Republic attended hospital-based 1-hr educational programs about helping smokers quit. They completed surveys about the frequency (i.e., always, usually, sometimes, rarely, never) of their smoking cessation interventions with patients using the five A's framework (i.e., ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange), and their attitudes prior to and 3 months after the course. Demographic data included smoking status. Among the 98 nurses with prestudy and post-study data, all were female, mean age was 43 years, 33% were current smokers, and 64% worked in a medical or surgical or oncology settings. At 3 months, compared to baseline, significantly (p < .05) more nurses assessed patients' interest in quitting, assisted with quit attempts, and recommended the use of the quitline for cessation. At 3 months after the program, nurses who smoked were less likely to ask about smoking status (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.71, 10.53]), advise smokers to quit (OR = 3.03, 95% CI [1.24,7.45]), and refer patients to a quitline (OR = 2.92, 95% CI [0.99, 8.63]) compared to nonsmokers, despite no differences in delivery of interventions at baseline. Three months after attendance at an educational program focused on the nurses' role in supporting smoking cessation efforts, more nurses engaged in interventions to help smokers quit. However, the program was less effective for nurses who smoked. This program demonstrated promise in building capacity among Czech nurses to assist with smoking cessation, but nurses' smoking poses a challenge. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  5. Smoking cessation advice: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among clinical dental students'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allama Prabhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the single most important public health challenge facing the National Health Service. The detrimental effects on the general health of tobacco smoking are well documented. Smoking is a primary risk factor for oral cancer and many oral diseases. Dental professional scan plays an important role in preventing adverse health effects by promoting smoking cessation. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice among clinical dental students in giving smoking cessation advice and to explore the barriers to this activity. Materials and Methods: A total of 262 clinical dental trainee of two dental colleges (College of Dental Sciences and Bapuji Dental College of Davangere city were included in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward Tobacco Cessation Advise. Results: Among the 262 participants in the study, around 51% said they know about Nicotine Replacement Therapy, and among them, only 4.6% were aware of the options available in the market. When asked about 5A's of tobacco cessation, only 35.5% were aware of it. Similarly, when asked about 5R's of tobacco cessation, 48.5% were unaware of it. Conclusions: The respondents did not have sufficient knowledge regarding tobacco cessation advice. With patient's disinterest and lack of time being quoted as the important barriers in providing tobacco cessation advice, it is highly recommended that there is need to incorporate few chapters on tobacco, its effect and cessation of habit in the undergraduate dental curriculum with simultaneous application of the same in clinical practice.

  6. [Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing smoking cessation program on cessation change in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Young Sun; Choi, Yeon Hee

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an Adolescent Motivational Interviewing Cessation program on smoking cessation change. The study was done with a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 39 high school students from G city, who were in school from September 1 to October 30, 2009. The students were assigned to the experimental group (20) and participated in the motivational interviewing cessation program or to the control group (19) who did not participate. Data analyses involved χ²-test, independent t-test, Repeated Measures ANOVA, and utilized the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly less daily smoking, nicotine dependence and smoking temptation in comparison to the control group. The experimental group had significantly higher stage of change in comparison to the control group. The results of the study indicate that a motivational interviewing cessation program delivered to adolescents who smoke is an effective method of encouraging cessation, and can be utilized as an effective nursing intervention for adolescents who smoke.

  7. A Workshop on Smoking Cessation for Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittoun, Renee; Saini, Bandana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students. Assessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8±9.1 and 86.4±12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9±8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8±9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation. PMID:24249860

  8. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  9. The efficacy of a smoking cessation programme in patients undergoing elective surgery - a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azodi, O. Sadr; Lindstrom, D.; Adami, J.

    2009-01-01

    orthopaedic and general surgery, to smoking cessation intervention and control group. The intervention group underwent a programme initiated, on average, 4 weeks prior to surgery with weekly meetings or telephone counselling and were provided with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The control group...

  10. Treatment of intermittent claudication with physical training, smoking cessation, pentoxifylline, or nafronyl: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girolami, B.; Bernardi, E.; Prins, M. H.; ten Cate, J. W.; Hettiarachchi, R.; Prandoni, P.; Girolami, A.; Büller, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    There is no consensus on the efficacy of physical training, smoking cessation, and pharmacological therapy (pentoxifylline or nafronyl oxalate) in the treatment of patients with intermittent claudication at Fontaine stage II of disease. A MEDLINE and manual search was used to identify relevant

  11. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  12. The effect of an intensive smoking cessation intervention on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Ida Kristiane; Thomsen, Thordis; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    intervention (motivational counselling combined with tailored nicotine replacement therapy) versus standard care on smoking cessation, and consequently on disease activity. Secondary objectives are to explore the effect on flare, risk factors for CVD, lung function, physical function, HR-QoL, pain and fatigue......-intervention. Discussion: This trial will reveal whether intensive smoking cessation counselling helps smokers with RA to achieve continuous smoking cessation and whether, as a concomitant benefit, it will reduce their RA disease activity. The trial aims to generate high quality evidence for the feasibility of a health......Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory rheumatic disease with the potential to induce significant disability. Patients with RA are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Smokers with RA tend to experience more pain and fatigue, higher disease activity, more...

  13. Heroin use impairs smoking cessation among Australian prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indig, Devon; Wodak, Alex D; Richmond, Robyn L; Butler, Tony G; Archer, Vicki A; Wilhelm, Kay A

    2013-12-19

    Prisoners have extremely high rates of smoking with rates 3-4 times higher than the general community. Many prisoners have used heroin. The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of heroin use on smoking cessation and the social determinants of health among prisoners. Secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial of a multi-component smoking cessation intervention involving 425 Australian male prisoners. Inmates who, prior to imprisonment, used heroin regularly were compared to those who did not use heroin regularly. Self-reported smoking status was validated at baseline and each follow-up by measuring carbon monoxide levels. Readings exceeding 10 ppm were defined as indicating current smoking. Over half (56.5%) of the participants had ever used heroin while 37.7% regularly (daily or almost daily) used heroin in the year prior to entering prison. Prisoners who regularly used heroin had significantly worse social determinants of health and smoking behaviours, including lower educational attainment, more frequent incarceration and earlier initiation into smoking. Prisoners who regularly used heroin also used and injected other drugs significantly more frequently. At 12-month follow-up, the smoking cessation of prisoners who had regularly used heroin was also significantly lower than prisoners who did not regularly use heroin, a finding confirmed by logistic regression. Regular heroin use prior to imprisonment is an important risk factor for unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking among prisoners and is also associated with worse social determinants of health, higher drug use, and worse smoking behaviours. More effective and earlier smoking cessation interventions are required for particularly disadvantaged groups. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12606000229572.

  14. Lebanese medical students' intention to deliver smoking cessation advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jradi, Hoda; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Pirie, Phyllis P; Binkley, Philip F; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-06-01

    Objectives of this study were to examine the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and determine how they predict Lebanese medical students' behavioral intention to advise patients to quit smoking. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 191 medical students from six medical schools in Lebanon. The instrument contained scales that measured attitudes toward the behavior, behavioral beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Psychometric properties of the scale were examined. Item to total scale score correlations were determined and linear regression was conducted to predict the intention to advise smokers to quit. Respondents had a positive, but not very high, intention to deliver smoking cessation advice. Students reported a positive attitude toward advising patients to quit cigarette smoking and a strong belief in the physician's obligations in smoking cessation advising. The majority reported lack of time to provide smoking cessation advice, insufficient knowledge of pharmacological aids, and the lack of openness of the patient to receive the advice. The attitude scale was the only variable that yielded a significant prediction of the intended behavior. The construct of attitude toward the behavior appeared to be the most predictive of the intention to deliver advice to quit smoking among Lebanese medical students. Focusing training efforts on this construct could improve the rate of delivery of brief cessation counseling. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (<14.2 ng/mL) or urine (<44.7 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes included birth weight, engagement, and self reported quit at four weeks. Recruitment was extended from 12 to 15 months to achieve the target sample size. Follow-up continued until September 2013. Of the 306 women randomised, three controls opted out soon after enrolment; these women did not want their data to be used, leaving 306 intervention and 303 control group participants in the

  16. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption......, baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtained when the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers...

  17. Intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary; Marcus, Joel; Bates, Jeff; Hasan Rajab, M; Cook, Teresa

    2006-07-01

    This study reports on a prospective pilot trial of intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The hypnotherapy involved multiple individual sessions (8 visits) over approximately 2 months, individualization of hypnotic suggestions, and a supportive therapeutic relationship. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either an intensive hypnotherapy condition or to a wait-list control condition. The target quitting date was 1 week after beginning treatment. Patients were evaluated for smoking cessation at the end of treatment and at Weeks 12 and 26. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon-monoxide concentration in expired air of 8 ppm or less. The rates of point prevalence smoking cessation, as confirmed by carbon-monoxide measurements for the intensive hypnotherapy group, was 40% at the end of treatment; 60% at 12 weeks, and 40% at 26 weeks (p < .05).

  18. The barriers to smoking cessation in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stohler Rudolf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates in methadone-maintained patients are almost three times higher than in the general population and remain elevated and stable. Due to the various negative health effects of smoking, nicotine dependence contributes to the high mortality in this patient group. The purpose of the current study was to investigate Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients' willingness to stop smoking and to clarify further smoking cessation procedures. Methods Substance abuse history, nicotine dependence, and readiness to stop smoking were assessed in a sample of 103 opiate-dependent patients in the metropolitan area of Zurich, Switzerland. Patients were asked to document their smoking patterns and readiness to quit. Results Only a small number of patients were willing to quit smoking cigarettes (10.7% and, even though bupropione or nicotine replacement therapy was included in the fixed daily treatment care, only one patient received nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. A diagnosis of depression in patients' clinical records was associated with readiness to stop smoking. No significant associations were found between readiness to quit smoking and age, methadone treatment characteristics, and presence of co-dependencies. Conclusion The current prescription level of best medicine for nicotine dependence in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients is far from adequate. Possible explanations and treatment-relevant implications are discussed.

  19. Woman focused smoking cessation programming: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Penner, Jessica; Voci, Sabrina; Selby, Peter

    2016-03-12

    Several studies of smoking cessation programs in clinical settings have revealed poorer outcomes for women compared to men, including counselling alone or in combination with pharmacotherapy. The objective of the current study was to explore treatment and program structure needs and preferences among female clients in a specialized smoking cessation clinic in an academic mental health and addiction health science centre in order to inform program design so that it meets the needs of female clients. Four focus groups were conducted with current and former female clients (n = 23, mode age range = 50-59 years old, 56.5% were still smoking and 43.5% had quit) who had registered for outpatient smoking cessation treatment. Questions were designed to examine what aspects of the services were helpful and what changes they would like to see to better assist them and other women with quitting smoking. A thematic analysis of the raw data (audio recordings and notes taken during the focus groups) was conducted using a phenomenological theoretical framework. Themes that emerged indicated that females trying to quit smoking are best supported if they have choice from a variety of services so that treatment can be individualized to meet their specific needs; psychosocial support is provided both one-one-one with health care professionals and by peers in support groups; free pharmacotherapy is available to eliminate financial barriers to use; women-specific educational topics and support groups are offered; the clinic is accessible with evening/weekend hours, options to attend a local clinic, and childcare availability; and communication about clinic services and operation are clear, readily available, and regularly updated. An ideal smoking cessation program for women includes a women's centred approach with sufficient variety and choice, free pharmacotherapy, non-judgmental support, accessible services and clear communication of program options and changes. Findings may suggest

  20. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  1. Fiscal Impact of Smoking Cessation in Thailand: A Government Perspective Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Suthipinijtham, Pichaya; Rungruanghiranya, Suthat

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate the broader public economic consequences of investments in smoking cessation that change lifetime productivity, which can influence future government tax revenue and social transfer costs and health care spending. The analysis applies a government perspective framework for assessing the intergenerational relationships between morbidity and mortality and lifetime tax revenue and social transfers received. Applying smoking prevalence in Thailand, a cohort model was developed for smoker and former smokers to estimate impact on lifetime direct taxes and tobacco taxes paid. Age-specific earnings for males and wage appropriate tax rates were applied to estimate net taxes for smokers and former smokers. Introducing smoking cessation leads to lifetime public economic benefits of THB13 998 to THB43 356 per person depending on the age of introducing smoking cessation. Factoring in the costs of smoking cessation therapy, an average return on investment of 1.35 was obtained indicating fiscal surplus generated for government from the combined effect of increased tax revenues and of averting smoking-attributable health care costs.

  2. Predictors of smoking cessation among staff in public Universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Masilamani, Retneswari; Ming, Moy Foong; Koh, David

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation studies are often performed in clinic based settings. The present example aimed to find predictors of success among staff in worksite smoking cessation programmes in two major public universities in Klang Valley, Malaysia. All staff from both universities received an open invitation via staff e-mail and letters to participate. At the start of treatment, participants were administered the Rhode Island Stress and Coping Questionnaire and Family Support Redding's Questionnaire. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were given as treatment. After two months, they were contacted to determine their smoking status. 185 staff from University A (n=138) and University B (n=47), responded and voluntarily showed interest to quit. There was no significant difference in respondents with respect to socio demographic characteristics and smoking history. After two months of treatment, quit rates were 24% in University A vs. 38 % in University B (p>0.05). Univariate predictors of cessation were adherence to NRT (psmoking fewer cigarettes per day (psmoking cessation. Participants attending more than one session (OR= 27.00; 95% CI : 6.50; 111.6), and having higher pre-treatment general stress (OR= 2.15; 95% CI: 1.14; 4.05) were more likely to quit, while a higher number of cigarettes smoked (OR= 0.19: 95% CI: 0.06; 0.59) reduced the likelihood of quitting. Increasing age, ability to cope with stress and family support were not significant predictors. We conclude that factors such as the number of counseling sessions, the amount of cigarettes smoked at baseline, adherence to NRT and pretreatment stress are important considerations for success in a worksite smoking cessation programme.

  3. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Increasing smoking cessation care in a preoperative clinic: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Knight, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Spigelman, Allan; Kerridge, Ross; Moore, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Evidence suggests that preoperative clinics, like other hospital outpatient clinics and inpatient wards, fail to systematically provide smoking cessation care to patients having planned surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy, acceptability, and cost of a multifaceted intervention to facilitate the provision of comprehensive smoking cessation care to patients attending a preoperative clinic. Two hundred ten smoking patients attending a preoperative clinic at a major teaching hospital in Australia took part in the study. One hundred twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group and 86 patients to a usual cessation care group. A multifaceted intervention was developed that included the use of opinion leaders, consensus processes, computer-delivered cessation care, computer-generated prompts for care provision by clinic staff, staff training, and performance feedback. Ninety-six percent of experimental group patients received behavioral counseling and tailored self-help material. Experimental group patients were significantly more likely than usual care patients to report receiving brief advice by nursing (79% vs. 47%; P < 0.01) and anaesthetic (60% vs. 39%; P < 0.01) staff. Experimental group patients who were nicotine dependent were also more likely to be offered preoperative nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (82% vs. 8%; P < 0.01) and be prescribed postoperative NRT (86% vs. 0%; P < 0.01). The multifaceted intervention was found to be acceptable by staff. A multifaceted clinical practice change intervention may be effective in improving the delivery of smoking cessation care to preoperative surgical patients.

  5. Awareness on smoking cessation counseling among dentists in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benley George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although dentists are ideally placed to deliver smoking cessation advice and assistance to their patients, smoking cessation interventions are not often incorporated as a routine part of dental care. Aim: To assess the awareness on smoking cessation counseling among dental practitioners in Kerala. Materials and Methods: A pretested questionnaire was used for the study. Four hundred and sixteen registered dentists practicing all over Kerala participated in the survey. Results: Dentists are willing to ask and advise patients about smoking, but are less inclined to assist patients to quit or arrange follow-up. Dentists are more likely to implement one-off, opportunistic interventions rather than take a systematic preventive approach. Dentists are interested in attending further education and say they require training to be relevant to the context of their day-to-day running of the dental practice. Conclusions: Training should aim to legitimize the dentist′s role in smoking cessation and provide strategies and resources so that dentists can practice interventions as part of their day-to-day work.

  6. Smoking cessation research via the internet: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jacqueline; Delucchi, Kevin; Muñoz, Ricardo; Collins, Noah; Stable, Eliseo Pérez; Augustson, Erik; Lenert, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    To reverse the present stagnation in progress toward reduced smoking rates, new widely accessible treatment methods for smoking cessation must be developed and evaluated with large groups of smokers. We tested the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study over the Internet using a brief, self-help educational intervention. Through a direct e-mail sent from a large health information web site (WebMD), and with our presence on the Internet, we recruited 538 adult smokers to the study. Most participants (90.5%) completed all baseline questionnaires. Questionnaires showed acceptable to good reliability and were comparable with studies using paper-and-pencil methods. Participants appeared to be highly dependent on nicotine. Forty-two percent indicated being ready to quit smoking at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, 42.8% of baseline participants returned a complete follow-up questionnaire, 40% of whom indicated having made a serious quit attempt, and 8.3% of whom indicated 7-day abstinence. Most follow-up participants rated the site as at least somewhat helpful to quitting (74.9%) and reported at least a slight increased intention to quit smoking over baseline (67.3%). While Internet-enabled self-help interventions for smoking cessation are able to reach large numbers of smokers interested in quitting smoking, additional procedures are needed to retain these users for treatment and follow-up assessments.

  7. Effects of Nicotine Dependence and Depressive Symptoms on Smoking Cessation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal

  8. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  9. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  10. Genetic variation as a predictor of smoking cessation success. A promising preventive and intervention tool for chronic respiratory diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, M; van Schayck, C P; Knaapen, A M; van Schooten, F J

    2009-03-01

    Tobacco smoking continues to be the largest preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality throughout the world, including chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most smokers are highly motivated to quit and many smoking cessation therapies are available, cessation rates remain very low. Recent research strongly suggests that variation in genetic background is an important determinant of smoking behaviour and addiction. Since these genetic variants might also influence the response to smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, it is likely that assessment of genetic background could be a promising tool to guide selection of the most effective cessation treatment for an individual smoker. Recently, it has been shown that genetic variants in the dopaminergic system, opioid receptors, the bupropion-metabolising enzyme CYP2B6 and the nicotine-metabolising enzyme CYP2A6 may play an important role in predicting smoking cessation responses to nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion treatment. Despite the progress that has been made, several challenges will still have to be overcome before genetically tailored smoking cessation therapy can be implemented in standard clinical practice.

  11. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and

  12. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  13. Correlates of smoking cessation among Filipino immigrant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel M; Romero, Romina A; Maxwell, Annette E

    2010-04-01

    A survey on tobacco use among 318 Filipino immigrant men aged 40-75 years was conducted in Los Angeles, California. Those who reported more English language use with their family, friends and neighbors (OR = 1.31) and who lived in households with complete smoking prohibition (OR = 3.82) were more likely to be successful in quitting smoking. Those who endorsed more positive beliefs on physical and social consequences of smoking (OR = 0.69) and who had mostly smoking friends (OR = 0.37) were less likely to be successful in quitting smoking. Our findings suggest that prohibiting smoking in households, creating social networks of non-smokers, and education or counseling are important components of a smoking cessation intervention for Filipino immigrant men.

  14. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2005-01-01

    Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined.......Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined....

  15. Benefits of smoking cessation for coronary heart disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Hidayat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence increases with age and is frequently higher in the elderly.(1 Therefore prevention of CVD in the elderly through management of risk factors is important in order to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. There are several risk factors of CVD that can be modified, such as smoking, physical activity, and unhealthy diet. Cessation of smoking is the most potent measure to prevent thousands of CVD events and death

  16. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masefield, Sarah; Powell, Pippa; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Hajek, Peter; Lewis, Keir; Andreas, Stefan; Tønnesen, Philip; van Schayck, Onno; Gratziou, Christina; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Tonstad, Serena; Hering, Thomas; Nardini, Stephano; Fletcher, Monica

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on "Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit". A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%); age 40-55 years (39%); 11-20 cigarettes a day (39%); smokes within 30 min of waking (61%); and has made 1-5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%). 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  18. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Masefield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%; age 40–55 years (39%; 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%; smokes within 30 min of waking (61%; and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%. 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  19. Smoking and timing of cessation on postoperative pulmonary complications after curative-intent lung cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Sebastian T; Tikka, Theofano; Agostini, Paula J; Kerr, Amy; Adams, Kerry; Kalkat, Maninder S; Steyn, Richard S; Rajesh, Pala B; Bishay, Ehab; Thickett, David R; Naidu, Babu

    2017-06-19

    Smoking is a risk factor for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) following non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) surgery. The optimal timing for preoperative smoking cessation has not been identified. Our study aimed to observe the impact of preoperative smoking cessation on PPC incidence and other postoperative outcomes including long-term survival. A prospective study included consecutive patients following resection for NSCLC in a regional thoracic centre over a 4-year period (2010-2014). Patients were stratified according to self-reported preoperative smoking status. The primary endpoint was PPC incidence, which was assessed from postoperative day one onwards using the Melbourne Group Scale. Secondary endpoints included short-term outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], intensive therapy unit [ITU] admission, 30-day hospital readmission rate) and long-term survival. Four hundred and sixty-two patients included 111 (24%) current smokers, 55 (12%) ex-smokers smoking groups prior to surgery. There was no significant difference in long-term survival found between the groups of differing smoking status (median follow-up 29.8 months, 95%CI 28.4-31.1). Current smokers have higher postoperative morbidity; this risk reduces following smoking cessation but 6 weeks does not appear to identify a time-point where differences in outcomes are noted.

  20. Educational inequalities in smoking cessation trends in Italy, 1982-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federico, B.; Costa, G.; Ricciardi, W.; Kunst, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Smoking prevalence rates are declining in most industrialised countries, partly because of growing cessation rates. However, little is known on recent time-trends in smoking cessation by socioeconomic position. This study aims to estimate educational inequalities in smoking cessation

  1. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefore...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  2. High cessation rates of cigarette smoking in subjects with and without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Timens, W; Postma, DJ; ten Hacken, N

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: In general, smoking cessation programs have low success rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of a 1-year smoking cessation program. This program was part of a research project investigating the effects of smoking cessation. Participants: In this longitudinal study on the

  3. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available With growing recognition of stagnant rates of attempted cigarette smoking cessation, the current study examined demographic and psychometric characteristics associated with successful and attempted smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample. This additional understanding may help target tobacco cessation treatments toward sub-groups of smokers in order to increase attempts to quit smoking.Data were used from the 2011 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 50,000.Current smoking status and demographics, health characteristics, comorbidities, and health behaviors.In 2011, 18%, 29%, and 52% of U.S. adults were current, former, or never smokers, respectively. Over one quarter (27% of current smokers were attempting to quit. Current smokers (vs. others were significantly more likely to be poorer, non-Hispanic White, less educated, ages 45-64, and uninsured, and they had fewer health-conscious behaviors (e.g., influenza vaccination, exercise. Attempting quitters vs. current smokers were significantly less likely to be non-Hispanic White and more likely to be younger, educated, insured, non-obese, with family history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and they had more health-conscious behaviors.Smokers, attempting quitters, and successful quitters differ on characteristics that may be useful for targeting and personalizing interventions aiming to increase cessation attempts, likelihood, and sustainability.

  5. Smoking cessation interventions for in-patients: a selective review with recommendations for hospital-based health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Walsh, Raoul; Wiggers, John

    2003-12-01

    A selective review of the literature was conducted to provide evidence-based recommendations for the clinical management of hospitalized smokers. The Cochrane library, in particular the Cochrane review of 'Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients', was the basis for the review and was supplemented with other clinical and non-clinical literature where the review did not inform clinicians sufficiently. Evidence was reviewed on issues considered by the authors to be of importance to health professionals interested in providing a smoking cessation intervention to their patients. The review suggests that effective hospital interventions: incorporate an in-patient intervention lasting greater than 20 minutes in duration with extended post discharge follow-up; consist of at least five intervention contacts; and be delivered over at least a 3-month period. Furthermore, interventions should include in-patient advice and counselling, the provision of nicotine replacement therapy and extended proactive post discharge telephone support. The review also indicates that cessation interventions are particularly effective when delivered to patients with a cardiovascular diagnosis. All health professionals may be effective in providing cessation treatments; however, the addition of a specialist smoking cessation counsellor appears to improve interventions in this setting. Finally, without the development of supportive systems, routine intervention with smoking patients by health professionals is unlikely. Recommendations for the delivery of effective smoking cessation interventions in hospitals are provided. [Wolfenden L, Campbell E, Walsh RA, Wiggers J. Smoking cessation interventions for in-patients: a selective review with recommendations for hospital-based health professionals.

  6. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting. Objective. To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement ...

  7. Smoking-cessation services in Iowa community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B; Zillich, Alan J; Lowe, John B

    2003-05-01

    To examine community pharmacy practice with regard to providing smoking-cessation counseling. Mailed survey. Iowa community pharmacies. A stratified random sample of pharmacists statewide. Descriptive statistics were computed for all study variables. Fisher exact test or chi2 analysis was performed on selected variables to determine the relationship of each item with pharmacists routinely offering smokers suggestions for quitting. Responses from 129 (38.2%) of 338 pharmacists indicated that although most felt it is important to offer smoking-cessation counseling, about half actually offer this service. Most pharmacists indicated they are prepared to provide counseling, but fewer than 25% had received formal training or were aware of national clinical practice guidelines. Those who had received specific training (p=0.020) or recently attended an educational program (p=0.014) on smoking cessation were more likely to counsel smokers. Primary barriers to providing counseling were lack of time, inability to identify smokers, low patient demand, and lack of reimbursement. Our findings suggest that opportunities exist for improving pharmacist education and reducing practice barriers in order to bridge the gap between pharmacists' knowledge and attitudes related to smoking-cessation counseling and their provision of patient counseling in community pharmacy practice.

  8. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To identify frames of interaction that allow smoking cessation advice in general practice consultations. Design . Qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with GPs and their patients. Each of the GPs’ consultations were observed during a three-day period. Interviews...... consultations by relevance criteria. Relevance criteria served the purpose of limiting the number of issues in individual consultations. Issues could be included if they connected to something already communicated in a consultation. Smoking cessation advice was subject to these relevance criteria...... and was primarily discussed if it posed a particular risk to a particular patient. Smoking cessation advice also occurred in conversations addressing the patient ’ s well-being. If occurring without any other readable frame, smoking cessation advice was apt to be perceived by patients as part of a public campaign...

  9. Electronic cigarettes in North America: history, use, and implications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Budlovsky, Talia; Windle, Sarah B; Filion, Kristian B; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-05-13

    Designed to mimic the look and feel of tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may facilitate smoking cessation. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarette use for this purpose remain poorly understood. Our objectives were to review the available data on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation and to consider issues relevant to the context in which they are used, including product awareness and regulatory and ethical concerns. We systematically searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials and uncontrolled, experimental studies involving e-cigarettes. Included studies were limited to English or French language reports. Quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We identified 169 publications, of which 7 studies were included. Studies have concluded that e-cigarettes can help reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and may be as effective for smoking cessation as the nicotine patch. Although there is a lack of data concerning the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation therapy, available evidence showed no significant difference in adverse event rates between e-cigarettes and the nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are widely used among smokers attempting to quit. However, significant international variation remains in the regulatory mechanisms governing the sale and distribution of e-cigarettes. Ethical concerns surround the use of e-cigarettes among minors and their potential to undermine efforts to reduce cigarette smoking. Given the limited available evidence on the risks and benefits of e-cigarette use, large, randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to definitively establish their potential for smoking cessation.

  10. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. Analisar os custos do Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo no Sistema Único de Saúde e estimar o custo de sua implementação plena em um município brasileiro. A

  11. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Bupropion Sustained-Release for Smoking Cessation in Heavy Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Paszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking damages just about every organ in the body and reduces overall health. Even with the prevalence of accessible nicotine replacement therapies and behavioral counseling, there remains a need for alternative therapies to improve the odds of successfully abstaining from smoking in the long term. Bupropion sustained-release (SR is a pharmacological, prescription-only intervention that is approved as a first-line treatment for smoking cessation. This meta-analysis examines the effectiveness of bupropion sustained-release for smoking cessation amongst heavy smokers, defined as those who consistently smoke at least fifteen or more cigarettes per day. Across five qualifying studies, bupropion SR increased odds of cessation over placebo treatment at six and twelve months. Bupropion SR is a well-tolerated, non-nicotinic therapy for smoking cessation. Treatment with bupropion SR reduces initial cravings and withdrawal effects but does not appear to address the multi-faceted problem of cigarette addiction, resulting in decreased abstinence rates over time. An integrated approach incorporating bupropion SR with other interventions, such as nicotine replacement therapies and psychotherapy, may provide the necessary means to achieve lasting cessation and promote well-being.

  13. Control Systems Engineering for Understanding and Optimizing Smoking Cessation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Piper, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major public health issue. Despite a variety of treatment options, existing intervention protocols intended to support attempts to quit smoking have low success rates. An emerging treatment framework, referred to as adaptive interventions in behavioral health, addresses the chronic, relapsing nature of behavioral health disorders by tailoring the composition and dosage of intervention components to an individual's changing needs over time. An important component of a rapid and effective adaptive smoking intervention is an understanding of the behavior change relationships that govern smoking behavior and an understanding of intervention components' dynamic effects on these behavioral relationships. As traditional behavior models are static in nature, they cannot act as an effective basis for adaptive intervention design. In this article, behavioral data collected daily in a smoking cessation clinical trial is used in development of a dynamical systems model that describes smoking behavior change during cessation as a self-regulatory process. Drawing from control engineering principles, empirical models of smoking behavior are constructed to reflect this behavioral mechanism and help elucidate the case for a control-oriented approach to smoking intervention design.

  14. Left-digit price effects on smoking cessation motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Blackburn, Ashley; Murphy, James G; Carrigan, Maureen; Carpenter, Matthew J; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Cigarette price increases have been associated with increases in smoking cessation, but relatively little is known about this relationship at the level of individual smokers. To address this and to inform tax policy, the goal of this study was to apply a behavioural economic approach to the relationship between the price of cigarettes and the probability of attempting smoking cessation. Adult daily smokers (n=1074; ie, 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education) completed in-person descriptive survey assessments. Assessments included estimated probability of making a smoking cessation attempt across a range of cigarette prices, demographics and nicotine dependence. As price increases, probability of making a smoking cessation attempt exhibited an orderly increase, with the form of the relationship being similar to an inverted demand curve. The largest effect size increases in motivation to make a quit attempt were in the form of 'left-digit effects,' (ie, maximal sensitivity across pack price whole-number changes; eg, US$5.80-6/pack). Significant differences were also observed among the left-digit effects, suggesting the most substantial effects were for price changes that were most market relevant. Severity of nicotine dependence was significantly associated with price sensitivity, but not for all indices. These data reveal the clear and robust relationship between the price of cigarettes and an individual's motivation to attempt smoking cessation. Furthermore, the current study indicates the importance of left-digit price transitions in this relationship, suggesting policymakers should consider relative price positions in the context of tax changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  16. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Blok (David); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study,

  17. National Survey of Smoking and Smoking Cessation Education Within UK Midwifery School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jane; Harris, James M; Lorencatto, Fabiana; McEwen, Andy; Duaso, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    Smoking in pregnancy in the United Kingdom remains prevalent (11%). To encourage and support pregnant smokers to quit, midwives must be adequately trained to do so. Substantial curricular gaps have been identified in the smoking cessation training of medical, nursing, and optometry schools. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training and assessment in UK midwifery schools. All UK undergraduate midwifery schools (n = 53) were invited to complete a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. Twenty-nine (55%) midwifery schools responded. Most teaching was completed in the initial year of study. All reported teaching the harmful effects of tobacco use. The majority of respondents (83%) reported training students in brief intervention delivery and ways to assist quit attempts. Only 24% of schools in this study included relapse prevention in their curriculum. The most frequently reported barriers to teaching smoking cessation were "lack of knowledge amongst staff" (17%), "no space in a crowded curriculum" (17%), and "administrative problems" (13%). Midwifery schools are teaching the harmful effects of smoking and providing training on brief interventions. However, in some schools student midwives are not being sufficiently trained on relapse prevention or assessed in the practical skills necessary for delivering evidence-based interventions. Midwifery schools should revise the content and delivery of smoking cessation training to ensure midwives are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to contribute to the challenge of smoking cessation in pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. HIV Care Initiation: A Teachable Moment for Smoking Cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Frank, Summer G; Savin, Micah J; Waters, Andrew J; Li, Yisheng; Chen, Sixia; Fletcher, Faith E; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-09-25

    Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post enrollment, and HIV-related clinical data were collected from participants' electronic medical records. Variables of interest included intention to quit smoking, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), and stage of HIV. Data were collected in Houston, Texas from 2009 to 2015. The sample was 75% male and 62% Black. Findings indicated that intention to quit smoking increased between baseline and 3 months, and subsequently trended downward from 3 to 12 months. Results from linear and generalized linear mixed models indicated that participants with advanced HIV disease (vs. not advanced) reported significantly (p<.05) higher intention to quit smoking at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post study enrollment. A similar though non-significant pattern was observed in the smoking abstinence outcome. HIV treatment initiation appears to be associated with increases in intention to quit smoking thus serves as a potential teachable moment for smoking cessation intervention. This study documents significant increases in intention to quit smoking in the 3-month period following HIV care initiation. Moreover, quit intention trended downward following the 3-month follow-up until the 12-month follow-up. In addition, a marked effect for HIV disease stage was observed, whereby

  19. User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Javier; Zeng, Emily; Kientz, Julie A; Ries, Richard; Otis, Chad; Hernandez, Kayla

    2018-01-01

    Background Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. Objective The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial. Methods We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app’s core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company. Results We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms. Conclusions Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the

  20. User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Rizo, Javier; Zeng, Emily; Kientz, Julie A; Ries, Richard; Otis, Chad; Hernandez, Kayla

    2018-01-16

    Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial. We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app's core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company. We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms. Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the systematic development of the first smoking

  1. Smokers can quit regardless of motivation stage in a worksite smoking cessation programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Retneswari, Masilamani; Moy, Foong Ming; Koh, David; Isahak, Marzuki

    2011-01-01

    There is an unclear relationship between smoker's early motivation and success rates. Here we aimed to explore the correlates of motivation and smoking abstinence and relapse in worksite smoking cessation programmes. This prospective cohort study involved employees from two major public universities in Malaysia. Participants were actively recruited into a smoking cessation programme. At the start of treatment, participants were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and 'stage of change'. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. A similar stage of change questionnaire was given at six months, and their smoking status was determined. There were 185 smokers from both Universities, who joined the programme. At six months, 24 smokers reported sustained abstinence while the others had relapsed. Prior to the programme, the majority of smokers were seriously planning on quitting (59.5%--preparation stage), but over a third had no plans to quit (35.5%--contemplation stage). There was no significant difference noted in changes of motivation stage among the relapsers and the non quitters. In addition, logistic regression showed that sustained abstinence was not predicted by pre-session motivation stage, but this did predict higher relapse for the participants, compared to those in the preparation stage. It is possible to help smokers in the lower motivation groups to quit, provided extra caution is taken to prevent relapse. Healthcare providers' recruitment strategies for cessation programmes should thus encompass smokers in all motivation stages.

  2. Inflammatory changes in the airways of mice caused by cigarette smoke exposure are only partially reversed after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraneveld Aletta D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking irritates and damages the respiratory tract and contributes to a higher risk of developing lung emphysema. At present, smoking cessation is the only effective treatment for reducing the progression of lung emphysema, however, there is hardly anything known about the effects of smoking cessation on cytokine and chemokine levels in the airways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported in vivo study in which cytokine profiles were determined after cessation of cigarette smoke exposure. Methods The severity of airway remodeling and inflammation was studied by analyzing alveolar enlargement, heart hypertrophy, inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissue and by determining the cytokine and chemokine profiles in the BALF of A/J mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 weeks and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. Results The alveolar enlargement and right ventricle heart hypertrophy found in smoke-exposed mice remained unchanged after smoking cessation. Although the neutrophilic inflammation in the BALF of cigarette smoke-exposed animals was reduced after smoking cessation, a sustained inflammation in the lung tissue was observed. The elevated cytokine (IL-1α and TNF-α and chemokine (CCL2 and CCL3 levels in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice returned to basal levels after smoking cessation, while the increased IL-12 levels did not return to its basal level. The cigarette smoke-enhanced VEGF levels did not significantly change after smoking cessation. Moreover, IL-10 levels were reduced in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice and these levels were still significantly decreased after smoking cessation compared to the control animals. Conclusion The inflammatory changes in the airways caused by cigarette smoke exposure were only partially reversed after smoking cessation. Although smoking cessation should be the first step in reducing the progression of lung emphysema, additional

  3. Results from a community-based smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; Kuhns, Lisa M; Tasker, Timothy B; Cesario, John A

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people's response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. A total of N = 198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association's "Freedom from Smoking Program" (ALA-FFS) and were tailored to LGBT smokers' needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Participants (M age = 40.5) were mostly White (70.4%) and male (60.5%) and had at least a college degree (58.4%). Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions). Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45), use of NRT (OR = 4.24), and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73) were positively associated with quitting smoking. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  4. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia K. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N=198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5 were mostly White (70.4% and male (60.5% and had at least a college degree (58.4%. Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions. Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45, use of NRT (OR = 4.24, and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73 were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  5. Internet and cell phone based smoking cessation programs among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi Mehta,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can preventthe adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy,household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessationdeterminants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among adolescents,smoking cessation programs are beginning to adopt these new delivery methods. The purpose ofthe study is to review interventions between 2005 and 2009 that used the Internet or cell phonesfor smoking cessation among 11 to 19 year olds. A systematic search of the CINAHL, ERIC,Google Scholar, and Medline databases was done. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria.Interventions mainly used the Internet as a form of assistance to enhance the effectiveness of theprogram. One intervention used text messaging through cell phones. Self-efficacy, household andsocial support systems and perceived benefits were found to be significant predictors. Programswith multiple approaches, using the Internet as an adjunct were more effective than programs thatsolely relied on the Internet. Future research is needed to verify its success in cessation practices.Recommendations for future research are provided.

  6. Smoking cessation affects the natural history of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiu-Wu Bai,1 Xiao-xin Chen,2 Shengsheng Liu,3 Li Yu,1 Jin-Fu Xu11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Peoples Hospital of Nantong, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 3Department of Tuberculosis, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients.Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into “death” or “survival” groups based on follow-up results and “quitting-smoking” or “continuing-smoking” groups based on whether they gave up smoking.Results: Patients in the death group had a longer smoking time, lower prevalence of quitting smoking, later onset of COPD symptoms, older age at quitting smoking, lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 % predicted, and lower ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity. Age, age at quitting smoking, and FEV1% predicted were independently associated with mortality from COPD. Compared to the continuing-smoking group, the quitting-smoking group had a lower mortality rate, longer course of COPD, earlier onset of COPD symptoms, and lower residual volume percent predicted. During the 5-year follow-up, 113 deaths were recorded (quitting-smoking group: n=92; 40 deaths; continuing-smoking group: n=112; 73 deaths. The mortality risk remained significantly higher in the continuing-smoking group than the quitting-smoking group (log-rank test, 13.59; P=0.0002.Conclusion: Smoking time may be related to the mortality rate from COPD. Smoking cessation has the greatest capacity to influence the natural history of COPD.Keywords: chronic

  7. The Adverse Effects and Treatment Results of Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapy During Fasting/Non-Fasting State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Tural Onur, Seda; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur; Tanriverdi, Elif; Bagci, Belma Akbaba; Bahadir, Ayse; Hattatoglu, Didem Gorgun; Ortakoylu, Mediha Gonenc; Yurt, Sibel

    2017-07-03

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common addictions worldwide. Muslim smokers reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke during Ramadan due to the long fasting hours. We aimed to share our experience in a smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan by analyzing the efficacy and adverse effects of once-daily dosing of bupropion or varenicline in a fasting group compared with conventional dosing in a non-fasting group. We analyzed 57 patients who attended our smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan of 2014 and 2015, and at least one follow-up visit. For the fasting patients, we prescribed bupropion or varenicline after dinner (once daily) as the maintenance therapy. We recorded demographic characteristics of the patients, fasting state, drugs taken for smoking cessation, and the dosage of the medication. At the first follow-up visit, adverse effects seen with the treatment were recorded. We conducted telephone interviews 6 months after the first visits of the patients to learn the current smoking status of the groups. Of the total 57 patients, 20 (35.1%) were fasting and 37 (64.9%) were not fasting. Fasting and non-fasting patients were similar for sex, age, smoking pack-years, marital status, educational status, and mean Fagerström scores (p >.05). Adverse effects and quit rates after 6 months of follow-up were similar between the fasting and non-fasting groups (p >.05). Although our sample size was small, we found no difference in the rates of adverse effects or smoking cessation using a single daily oral dose of bupropion or varenicline between a fasting group and a non-fasting group that received conventional dosing.

  8. Prospective association of dopamine-related polymorphisms with smoking cessation in general care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Lutz P; Twardella, Dorothee; Hoffmann, Michael M; Witt, Stephanie H; Treutlein, Jens; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-04-01

    Genetic contributions to nicotine dependence have been demonstrated repeatedly, but the relevance of individual polymorphisms for smoking cessation remains controversial. We examined genotypes at two dopamine-related loci, DRD2/ANKK1 (rs1800497) and DBH (rs77905), in 577 heavy smokers participating in a prospective study of smoking cessation in general care in Germany. Smoking status after 1 year was significantly associated with DRD2/ANKK1, odds of abstinence being 4.4-fold (95% CI: 1.5-12.9) increased in TT- versus CC-homozygous subjects (p = 0.008). No effect was observed for the DBH genotype. The smoking cessation drug bupropion appeared to be particularly effective in CC-homozygotes (among CC subjects there was a 28% higher cessation probability among those taking buproprion; among T carrier subjects there was an increase only by 12%). The large effects observed for DRD2/ANKK1 might be related to our study design, in which individual therapy was decided by the physician. Further studies are needed to clarify the genetic effects of DRD2/ANKK1 especially in 'real-life' settings outside clinical trials.

  9. Smoking cessation and stress among teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkin, Gregory P; Fryer, Craig S; Mahadeo, Madhuvanti

    2007-07-01

    The authors describe the experience of quitting smoking, focusing on the obstacles youth struggle with, based on individual interviews and focus groups with 54 teenagers in New York City. A major obstacle was the belief that people should stop smoking forever. The youth had to cope with temptation, frequent and often intense urges or cravings for cigarettes, and lack of social support from their family and friends. The young participants not only had to cope with general life stresses without being able to use cigarettes to reduce tensions but also had to contend with new stressful situations, such as friends who put them down for not smoking. In addition, the teens had to give up things that were important to them, such as friendships, during their quit attempts. The study describes how quitting can be a much more stressful experience for youth than research typically acknowledges. The authors discuss public health implications.

  10. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cessation of smoking is widely recommended in patients with stroke to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent stroke, but little is known regarding how patients modify their smoking habits after a stroke. We used data from a prospective follow-up study...... to assess modification of smoking habits and to identify predictors of persistent smoking after first-ever stroke. METHODS: All patients admitted to the only neurology department of Funen County (465 000 inhabitants) with first-ever stroke from August 1, 1999, to January 31, 2001, were prospectively...... identified. A comprehensive structured interview was completed both during hospitalization and at 6-month follow-up. The interview comprised questions on education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, concomitant diseases, and functional disability. We estimated the relative risk of persistent smoking...

  11. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  12. Smoking cessation interventions for patients with coronary heart disease and comorbidities: an observational cross-sectional study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blane, David N; Mackay, Daniel; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about how smoking cessation practices in primary care differ for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have different comorbidities. To determine the association between different patterns of comorbidity and smoking rates and smoking cessation interventions in primary care for patients with CHD. Cross-sectional study of 81 456 adults with CHD in primary care in Scotland. Details of eight concordant physical comorbidities, 23 discordant physical comorbidities, and eight mental health comorbidities were extracted from electronic health records between April 2006 and March 2007. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were constructed to determine the association between these patterns of comorbidity and smoking status, smoking cessation advice, and smoking cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy) prescribed. The most deprived quintile had nearly three times higher odds of being current smokers than the least deprived (odds ratio [OR] 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.49 to 3.05). People with CHD and two or more mental health comorbidities had more than twice the odds of being current smokers than those with no mental health conditions (OR 2.11; 95% CI = 1.99 to 2.24). Despite this, those with two or more mental health comorbidities (OR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.98) were less likely to receive smoking cessation advice, but absolute differences were small. Patterns of comorbidity are associated with variation in smoking status and the delivery of smoking cessation advice among people with CHD in primary care. Those from the most deprived areas and those with mental health problems are considerably more likely to be current smokers and require additional smoking cessation support. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  13. Interventions to facilitate smoking cessation | Okuyemi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco use, primarily cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, and nearly one third of those who try a cigarette become addicted to nicotine. Family physicians, who see most of these patients in their offices every year, have an important opportunity to decrease ...

  14. Effectiveness of electronic aids for smoking cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ellen; Tackett, Alayna P.; Wagener, Theodore L.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the world, and though current evidence-based approaches have substantially reduced rates of smoking, these rates remain disturbingly high. Two recent technological advancements, the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) and mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer smokers an alternative way to quit smoking. E-cigarettes continue to be fiercely debated. Preliminary evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are likely much safer than regular cigarettes and are helpful to some smokers as a means of reducing or quitting smoking. Questions, however, still remain as to how they will affect overall public health—if they will be used as a “gateway” product or reduce motivation to quit smoking, to name but a few. Similarly, mHealth interventions appear to be effective and accepted by users. However, mobile ‘apps’ have yet to be tested in randomized trials and there are concerns about violations of users privacy and state jurisdictions. PMID:24319519

  15. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Harold G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19 in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh] via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA (χ2(3 = 8.068, p fpA (χ2(3 = 8.477, p h (χ2(3 = 37.599, p gpA and d(PfpA lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA, 64% of baseline for d(PfpA, vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh. Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis.

  16. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Tyndale

    Full Text Available CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants, rs16969968, rs588765 and rs578776, are consistently associated with tobacco consumption among smokers, but the association with smoking cessation is less consistent. Among the studies that reported significant associations with cessation, the effects were observed in smokers treated with placebo treatment in some studies and conversely in those receiving active pharmacological therapy (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies in others. Thus, it remains unclear whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a useful marker for optimizing smoking cessation. Using data from 654 Caucasian smokers treated with placebo, nicotine patch or varenicline, we investigated whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were associated with smoking cessation outcomes, and whether there were significant genotype-by-treatment or haplotype-by-treatment interactions. We observed no significant associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation, despite replicating previous associations with baseline tobacco consumption. At end of treatment the effect size on smoking cessation in the placebo, patch and varenicline groups for rs16969968 [GG vs. GA+AA] was OR = 0.66 (P = 0.23, OR = 1.01 (P = 0.99, and OR = 1.30 (P = 0.36 respectively, of rs588765 [CC vs. CT+TT] was OR = 0.96 (P = 0.90, OR = 0.84 (P = 0.58, and OR = 0.74 (P = 0.29 respectively, and for rs578776 [GG vs. GA+AA] on smoking cessation was OR = 1.02 (P = 0.95, OR = 0.75 (P = 0.35, and OR = 1.20 (P = 0.51 respectively. Furthermore, we observed no associations with cessation using the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype (constructed using rs16969968 and rs588765, nor did we observe any significant genotype-by-treatment interactions, with or without adjusting for the rate of nicotine metabolism (all P>0.05. We also observed no significant genetic associations with 6 month or 12 month smoking abstinence. In conclusion, we found no association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation rates in this clinical

  17. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  18. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  20. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hilly, Abdulrahman Abdulla; Iqbal, Sheeraz Syed; Ahmed, Maroof; Sherwani, Yusuf; Muntasir, Mohammed; Siddiqui, Sarim; Al-Fagih, Zaid; Usmani, Omar; Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-10-24

    Finding ways to increase and sustain engagement with mHealth interventions has become a challenge during application development. While gamification shows promise and has proven effective in many fields, critical questions remain concerning how to use gamification to modify health behavior. The objective of this study is to investigate how the gamification of mHealth interventions leads to a change in health behavior, specifically with respect to smoking cessation. We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study using a sample of 16 smokers divided into 2 cohorts (one used a gamified intervention and the other used a nongamified intervention). Each participant underwent 4 semistructured interviews over a period of 5 weeks. Semistructured interviews were also conducted with 4 experts in gamification, mHealth, and smoking cessation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis undertaken. Results indicated perceived behavioral control and intrinsic motivation acted as positive drivers to game engagement and consequently positive health behavior. Importantly, external social influences exerted a negative effect. We identified 3 critical factors, whose presence was necessary for game engagement: purpose (explicit purpose known by the user), user alignment (congruency of game and user objectives), and functional utility (a well-designed game). We summarize these findings in a framework to guide the future development of gamified mHealth interventions. Gamification holds the potential for a low-cost, highly effective mHealth solution that may replace or supplement the behavioral support component found in current smoking cessation programs. The framework reported here has been built on evidence specific to smoking cessation, however it can be adapted to health interventions in other disease categories. Future research is required to evaluate the generalizability and effectiveness of the framework, directly against current behavioral support therapy

  1. Game On? Smoking Cessation Through the Gamification of mHealth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisingerich, Andreas B

    2016-01-01

    against current behavioral support therapy interventions in smoking cessation and beyond. PMID:27777216

  2. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  4. Smoking behaviour and preferences for cessation support among clients of an Indigenous community-controlled health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Nicole; Gartner, Coral; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-03-02

    Reducing smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians is a vital part of closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Community-controlled health clinics are an important setting for delivering smoking cessation advice and assistance. This study measured tobacco and e-cigarette use, knowledge of smoking-related health effects, motivations to quit and interest in cessation aids. Clients of Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Community Health Service dental clinics in Southeast Queensland (n = 421) completed a brief written questionnaire while in the waiting room. Nearly half (n = 184, 47%) of the participants currently smoked daily, of which 9% (n = 7) currently used e-cigarettes. Few smokers (8%, n = 13) had no intention to quit smoking. For current smokers, previously used quit methods were abrupt cessation (42%, n = 78), nicotine replacement therapies (NRT; 25%, n = 45), prescription medications (23%, n = 43), e-cigarettes (9%, n = 17) and other methods (3%, n = 6). Current smokers were most interested in cutting down (85%, n = 110), abrupt cessation (75%, n = 98) and free NRT (72%, n = 101). Fewer (34%, n = 36) were interested in purchasing NRT for smoking cessation. Our study found there was interest in accessing smoking cessation aids among the clients of this community-controlled health clinic, particularly if provided free of charge. Embedding smoking cessation advice and assistance into a range of community-controlled health clinics could provide opportunities for addressing the high smoking prevalence among Indigenous Australians. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  6. Socioeconomic class in smoking cessation groups- who perseveres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Karni

    2017-05-01

    One quarter of participants in smoking cessation groups only attend 1 or 2 sessions. This may be partly due to the requirement of enrollment in the groups to obtain subsidized medication, but SES was not associated with the decision to drop out. People in the lower SES category were more likely to attend more sessions, possibly because they have less sources of support and information.

  7. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Koilpillai, Priya; Fanshawe, Thomas R; Lancaster, Tim

    2016-03-24

    Both behavioural support (including brief advice and counselling) and pharmacotherapies (including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion) are effective in helping people to stop smoking. Combining both treatment approaches is recommended where possible, but the size of the treatment effect with different combinations and in different settings and populations is unclear. To assess the effect of combining behavioural support and medication to aid smoking cessation, compared to a minimal intervention or usual care, and to identify whether there are different effects depending on characteristics of the treatment setting, intervention, population treated, or take-up of treatment. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in July 2015 for records with any mention of pharmacotherapy, including any type of NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials evaluating combinations of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support for smoking cessation, compared to a control receiving usual care or brief advice or less intensive behavioural support. We excluded trials recruiting only pregnant women, trials recruiting only adolescents, and trials with less than six months follow-up. Search results were prescreened by one author and inclusion or exclusion of potentially relevant trials was agreed by two authors. Data was extracted by one author and checked by another.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. Fifty-three studies with a total of more than 25,000 participants met the inclusion criteria. A large proportion of studies recruited people in

  8. Acceptance of cravings: how smoking cessation experiences affect craving beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Woody, Sheila R

    2014-08-01

    Metacognitive models theorize that more negative appraisals of craving-related thoughts and feelings, and greater efforts to avoid or control these experiences, exacerbate suffering and increase chances the person will use substances to obtain relief. Thus far, little research has examined how attempts to quit smoking influence the way people perceive and respond to cravings. As part of a larger study, 176 adult smokers interested in quitting participated in two lab sessions, four days apart. Half the sample began a quit attempt the day after the first session; craving-related beliefs, metacognitive strategies, and negative affect were assessed at the second session. Participants who failed to abstain from smoking more strongly endorsed appraisals of craving-related thoughts as negative and personally relevant. Negative appraisals correlated strongly with distress and withdrawal symptoms. Attempting to quit smoking increased use of distraction, thought suppression and re-appraisal techniques, with no difference between successful and unsuccessful quitters. Negative beliefs about cravings and rumination predicted less change in smoking one month later. Results suggest that smoking cessation outcomes and metacognitive beliefs likely have a bidirectional relationship that is strongly related to negative affect. Greater consideration of the impact of cessation experiences on mood and craving beliefs is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    , in smokers, predictive of long-term lung cancer development. Whether smoking cessation impacts the suPAR level is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight smokers were randomized into three groups of 16: (i) continued to smoke 20 cigarettes per day, (ii) refrained from smoking and used transdermal...... nicotine patches and (iii) refrained from smoking and used placebo patches. Nonsmokers were included for comparison. suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: At baseline, the suPAR level was significantly higher in the 48 smokers (median 3·2 ng mL, IQR (2·5-3·9)) than...... in 46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly...

  10. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  11. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Brianna L; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

  12. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling).......To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  13. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing a smoking cessation program in social and community service organisations: a feasibility and acceptability trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Hull, Philip; O'Brien, Jon

    2012-07-01

    Novel ways of accessing and engaging smokers who are socially and economically disadvantaged may help reduce socioeconomic disparities in smoking rates. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating smoking cessation support into usual care at a social and community service organisation (SCSO). One SCSO providing a Personal Helpers and Mentors program participated. Support workers were provided with training in 5A's, brief motivational interviewing and use of nicotine replacement therapy, and then recruited clients into a 6 month smoking program. Acceptability and feasibility was assessed prior to receiving training and at 3 and 6 month follow up for support workers, and at enrolment into the program and at 4 and 6 month follow up for clients. Six support workers (67%) and 20 of their clients (65%) took part. Overall acceptability of the program was high, particularly among clients. The amount of time spent talking about smoking increased from 3.8 min per visit at baseline to 15.5 min at 6 month follow up. There was a significant reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked from 20.5 cigarettes per day at baseline to 15 cigarettes per day at 6 month follow up (P = 0.04). SCSOs are both interested in and capable of providing smoking care and the majority of clients found the smoking cessation intervention acceptable and helpful. Given the demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of this approach, further research to determine the effectiveness of this approach is warranted. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  17. Smoking cessation in COPD causes a transient improvement in spirometry and decreases micronodules on high-resolution CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhariwal, Jaideep; Tennant, Rachel C; Hansell, David M; Westwick, John; Walker, Christoph; Ward, Simon P; Pride, Neil; Barnes, Peter J; Kon, Onn Min; Hansel, Trevor T

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation is of major importance for all smokers; however, in patients with COPD, little information exists on how smoking cessation influences lung function and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan appearances. In this single-center study, we performed screening spirometry in a group of heavy smokers aged 40 to 80 years (N = 358). We then studied the effects of smoking cessation in two groups of selected subjects: smokers with COPD (n = 38) and smokers with normal spirometry (n = 55). In parallel to subjects undergoing smoking cessation, we studied a control group of nonsmokers (n = 19). Subjects with COPD who quit smoking had a marked, but transient improvement in FEV1 at 6 weeks (184 mL, n = 17, P < .01) that was still present at 12 weeks (81 mL, n = 17, P < .05) and only partially maintained at 1 year. In contrast, we saw improvement in the transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide at 6 weeks in both subjects with COPD who quit smoking (0.47 mmol/min/kPa, n = 17, P < .01) and subjects who quit smoking with normal spirometry (0.40 mmol/min/kPa, n = 35, P < .01). An upper-zone single HRCT image slice reliably identified emphysema at baseline in 74% of smokers with COPD (28 of 38) and 29% of healthy smokers (16 of 55). Smoking cessation had no significant effect on the appearances of emphysema but decreased the presence of micronodules on HRCT imaging. Cigarette smoking causes extensive lung function and HRCT image abnormalities, even in patients with normal spirometry. Smoking cessation has differential effects on lung function (FEV1 and gas transfer) and features on HRCT images (emphysema and micronodules). Cessation of smoking in patients with COPD causes a transient improvement in FEV1 and decreases the presence of micronodules, offering an opportunity for concomitant therapy during smoking cessation to augment these effects. Smoking cessation at the earliest possible opportunity is vital to minimize permanent damage to the lungs.

  18. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. Methods This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. Results The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159) for physicians and 72.2% (122/169) for nurses. Smoking prevalence was almost five times higher in physicians compared to nurses (31.2% vs. 6.6%, p Armenia. The study found substantial behavioral and attitudinal differences in these two groups. The study revealed a critical need for integrating cessation counseling training into Armenia’s medical education. As nurses had more positive attitudes toward cessation counseling compared to physicians, and more often reported having cessation training, they are an untapped resource that could be more actively engaged in smoking cessation interventions in healthcare settings. PMID:23176746

  19. Smoking cessation care among patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Kristen; Martínez, Úrsula; Britton, Ben; Baker, Amanda; Bonevski, Billie; Carter, Gregory; Beck, Alison; Wratten, Chris; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Halpin, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in improving cessation rates and smoking related behaviour in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Design A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Methods We searched the following data sources: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to February 2016. A search of reference lists of included studies and Google Scholar (first 200 citations published online between 2000 and February 2016) was also undertaken. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). 2 study authors independently screened and extracted data with disagreements resolved via consensus. Results Of the 5167 studies identified, 3 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of included studies were 2 randomised controlled trials and 1 non-randomised controlled trial. 2 studies received a weak methodological rating and 1 received a moderate methodological rating. The trials examine the impact of the following interventions: (1) nurse delivered cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) via telephone and accompanied by a workbook, combined with pharmacotherapy; (2) nurse and physician brief advice to quit and information booklets combined with pharmacotherapy; and (3) surgeon delivered enhanced advice to quit smoking augmented by booster sessions. Only the trial of the nurse delivered CBT and pharmacotherapy reported significant increases in smoking cessation rates. 1 study measured quit attempts and the other assessed consumption of cigarettes per day and readiness to change. There was no significant improvement in quit attempts or cigarettes smoked per day among patients in the intervention groups, relative to control. Conclusions There are very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions that report results specific to the HNC

  20. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  1. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione--Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mons, Ute; Muscat, Joshua E; Modesto, Jennifer; Richie, John P; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of free radical components that induce oxidative stress. Smoking-induced oxidative stress is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer through degenerative processes in the lung and other tissues. It is uncertain however whether smoking cessation lowers the burden of oxidative stress. We used data from a randomized controlled cessation trial of 434 current smokers for a post-hoc examination of the effects of smoking cessation on blood plasma levels of total glutathione (tGSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in cells, and total cysteine (tCys), an amino acid and constituent of glutathione. Smoking status was validated based on serum cotinine levels. Multivariate linear mixed models were fitted to examine the association of smoking cessation and change in cigarette consumption with tGSH and tCys. After 12 months follow-up, quitters (n=55) had significantly increased levels of tGSH compared to subjects who continued to smoke (Psmoke but reduced their intensity of smoking. No significant effect of smoking cessation or reduction was observed on levels of tCys. These results suggest that smoking cessation but not smoking reduction reduces levels of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Advertising on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising on youth smoking. NRT advertising could decrease smoking by informing smokers that the product can make quitting easier and thus inducing more smokers to try and quit. However, a moral hazard is created because NRT advertising increases the expectation that cessation is relatively easy. NRT advertising could thus induce youth to smoke, to smoke more and/or to delay quit attempts. Data from Nielsen Media Research ...

  3. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Raymond, Nancy C; Cooney, Ned L; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2015-08-29

    Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals' cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70% or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies the health consequences of tobacco use. Participants will be randomized to one of three groups, including (1) an integrated intensive smoking plus alcohol intervention using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), (2) intensive smoking intervention using CBT or (3) usual care (i.e., brief smoking cessation and brief alcohol counseling). All participants will receive 12-week treatment with a nicotine patch plus nicotine gum or lozenge. Counseling will include weekly individual sessions for 3 months, followed by monthly booster group sessions for 3 months. The primary smoking outcome is cotinine-verified 7-day smoking abstinence at follow-up week 52, and the primary alcohol outcome will be breathalyzer-verified 90-day alcohol abstinence at week 52. This study protocol describes the design of the first community-based controlled trial (n = 645) designed to examine the efficacy of integrating alcohol abuse treatment with smoking cessation among homeless smokers. To further address the gap in effectiveness of evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the homeless population, we are conducting a renewed smoking cessation clinical trial called Power to Quit among smokers experiencing homelessness. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01932996. Date of registration: 20 November 2014.

  4. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece Robin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during

  5. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: case of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon; Pieters, Karen; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Reece, Robin; Reid, Robert D

    2011-09-14

    The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight into issues affecting program

  6. Reward-related frontostriatal activity and smoking behavior among adolescents in treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Yip, Sarah W; Balodis, Iris M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is often initiated during adolescence and continued into adulthood despite desires to quit. A better understanding of the neural correlates of abstinence from smoking in adolescents may inform more effective smoking cessation interventions. Neural reward systems are implicated in tobacco use disorder, and adolescent smokers have shown reduced reward-related ventral striatal activation related to increased smoking. The current study evaluated nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers using a monetary incentive delay task in fMRI pre- and post- smoking cessation treatment (n=14). This study tested how changes in neural responses to reward anticipation pre- to post-treatment were related to reduced smoking. An exploratory analysis in a larger sample of adolescents with only pre-treatment fMRI (n=28) evaluated how neural responses to reward anticipation were related to behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation scales. Adolescent smokers showed pre- to post-treatment increases in reward anticipation-related activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and insula, and medial prefrontal cortex, and greater increases in reward anticipation-related activity were correlated with larger percent days of smoking abstinence during treatment. These findings suggest that reduced smoking during smoking cessation treatment is associated with a "recovery of function" in frontostriatal responses to nondrug reward anticipation in adolescent smokers, although comparison with a developmental control group of adolescent nonsmokers is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  8. Factor structure of the Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy Questionnaire among smokers with and without a psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Matthew; Pipe, Andrew; Els, Charl; Reid, Robert; Tulloch, Heather

    2017-03-01

    Cessation self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent predictor of smoking cessation outcomes. To date, no scale assessing cessation self-efficacy has been validated across smokers with and without a psychiatric diagnosis (current or past). Smokers with a psychiatric diagnosis are typically heavy smokers, have a more difficult time quitting, and are more prone to experience lower self-efficacy. Determining whether smoking cessation self-efficacy scores are invariant across these populations is crucial for future research and intervention strategies. Data from the Flexible and Extended Dosing of Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) and Varenicline in Comparison to Fixed Dose NRT for Smoking Cessation: The FLEX Trial, a randomized control trial for smoking cessation, was used to assess the factor structure of the Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SEQ-12), a 12-item scale assessing an individual's confidence to refrain from smoking. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare the model's fit between the original factor structure and the present data, and to test for measurement invariance across with a current, past, or no psychiatric diagnosis. Initial support was found for both a 2- and 3-factor structure. Using CFA, only the 3-factor model displayed adequate fit indices (Global Fit Index [GFI] = 0.924). Results from the model comparisons showed no differences between those with a current, past, or no psychiatric diagnosis (cmin (30) = 38.64, p = .134). The 3 factors were highly correlated, indicative of an underlying global factor. The SEQ-12 was found to be measurement invariant across treatment-seeking smokers, with preliminary evidence suggesting it is a valid measurement scale for evaluating overall cessation self-efficacy, regardless of psychiatric status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  10. The association of environmental, individual factors, and dopamine pathway gene variation with smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Lulu; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Huijie; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Nan; Han, Mingkui; Jia, Chongqi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine whether dopamine (DA) pathway gene variation were associated with smoking cessation, and compare the relative importance of infulence factors on smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from 17 villages of Shandong Province, China. Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 DA pathway genes were genotyped. Weighted gene score of each gene was used to analyze the whole gene effect. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of the total gene score for smoking cessation. Dominance analysis was employed to compare the relative importance of individual, heaviness of smoking, psychological and genetic factors on smoking cessation. 415 successful spontaneous smoking quitters served as the cases, and 404 unsuccessful quitters served as the controls. A significant negative association of total DA pathway gene score and smoking cessation was observed (p smoking cessation was heaviness of smoking score (42%), following by individual (40%), genetic (10%) and psychological score (8%). In conclusion, although the DA pathway gene variation was significantly associated with successful smoking cessation, heaviness of smoking and individual factors had bigger effect than genetic factors on smoking cessation.

  11. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  12. Evaluation of a smoking cessation service in elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxony, Jennifer; Cowling, Lis; Catchpole, Leanne; Walker, Natalie

    2017-05-15

    No best practice service models exist for promoting preoperative smoking cessation support, despite smokers experiencing more perioperative complications than nonsmokers. A novel specialist stop smoking service for patients undergoing elective surgery (called 'ELECT') was established in 2012 in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). An evaluation of the service was undertaken in 2014. The ELECT service involved regular staff training and the development of setting-specific and easy-to-use referral procedures. Cessation treatment emphasized temporary abstinence around the time of surgery, as opposed to long-term smoking abstinence. Information on referral rates and cessation outcomes were collated for the evaluation. Summary statistics are reported, with multiple logistic regression analysis undertaken to determine key associations between outcome variables. A total of 527 patients were referred to ELECT over a 27 mo period, representing one-fifth of all identified smokers. Nearly 60% (n = 308) of those referred received at least one treatment session involving intense behavioral support and nicotine replacement treatment; for Māori (indigenous NZers), this figure was 75%. A shorter time to contact of referred patients, older age, being Māori (versus NZ European) and being referred through the surgical hospital services were all positively associated with likelihood of receiving at least one treatment session (P < 0.05). Of the 123 patients who set a formal quit date, 68% (n = 82) self-reported sustained abstinence 4 wk post-quit, and 48% (n = 58) were still abstinent 12 wk post-quit. The ELECT service appears both feasible and sustainable over time and has a clear impact on helping patients achieve smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of social and neighborhood contexts on smoking cessation among urban minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearfield, Craig T; Horn, Kimberly A; Jipguep-Akhtar, Marie C

    2017-12-21

    A range of individual, social, and neighborhood factors influence the smoking-related health inequities of urban minorities. Yet little is known about how these factors interact to influence smoking behaviors, including cessation. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate the variance in cessation service utilization among a sample of primarily African American adults accounted for by individual, social, and neighborhood factors. Findings showed individual and social factors were important predictors of cessation service utilization. Social contexts have significant effects on smoking cessation service use, and social influences were more significant predictors of cessation service use than neighborhood factors.

  14. Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Maritza Muzzi Cardozo; Rondina, Regina de Cássia; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Botelho, Clóvis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded. PMID:26578135

  15. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  16. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  17. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Spillmann, Maria; Kraemer, Thomas; Rust, Kristina; Schaub, Michael

    2012-04-04

    A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome paper include the lack of standardisation of hypnotic

  18. What is the quality of smoking cessation advice in guidelines of tobacco-related diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Agrawal, Sanjay; Gregory, Benjamin; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2015-12-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a range of diseases, and quitting smoking provides considerable benefits to health. It therefore follows that clinical guidelines on disease management, particularly for diseases caused by smoking, should include smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which this is the case. We conducted a systematic review investigating clinical guidelines and recommendations issued by UK national or European transnational medical speciality associations and societies issued between 2000 and 2012 on a range of diseases caused by smoking. We then investigated whether selected guidelines contained reference to smoking cessation and smoking cessation advice. Although the extent to which smoking and smoking cessation was mentioned in the guidelines varied between diseases, only 60% of guidelines identified recognised that smoking is a risk factor for the development of the disease and 40% recommended smoking cessation. Only 19% of guidelines provided detailed information on how to deliver smoking cessation support. Smoking cessation is not comprehensively addressed in current UK and transnational European clinical practice guidelines and recommendations. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Correll, Patricia; Bentley, Jason

    2015-04-18

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the child. Rates of smoking during pregnancy, and rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy, vary between demographic groups. This study describes demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, and describes trends in smoking cessation in demographic subgroups over the period 2000 - 2011. Data were obtained from the New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection, a population-based surveillance system covering all births in New South Wales. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between smoking cessation during pregnancy and demographic factors. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation in pregnancy increased from 4.0% to 25.2%. Demographic characteristics associated with lower rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy included being a teenage mother, being an Aboriginal person, and having a higher number of previous pregnancies. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased dramatically across all demographic groups. However, specific demographic groups remain significantly less likely to quit smoking, suggesting a need for targeted efforts to promote smoking cessation in these groups.

  20. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  1. Smoking behaviours and cessation services among male physicians in China: evidence from a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Guo, Chaoran; Yu, Shaohua; Feng, Yan; Song, Julia; Eriksen, Michael; Redmon, Pam; Koplan, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence and cessation services provided by male physicians in hospitals in three Chinese cities. Data were collected from a survey of male physicians employed at 33 hospitals in Changsha, Qingdao and Wuxi City (n=720). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent variables, and confirmatory structural equation modelling analysis was performed to test the relationships between predictor variables and smoking in male physicians, and their provision of cessation services. Of the sampled male physicians, 25.7% were current smokers, and 54.0% provided cessation services by counselling (18.8%), distributing self-help materials (17.1%), and providing traditional remedies or medication (18.2%). Factors that predicted smoking included peer smoking (OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and uncommon knowledge (OR 0.94 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), a variable measuring awareness of the association of smoking with stroke, heart attack, premature ageing and impotence in male adults as well as the role of passive smoking in heart attack. Factors that predicted whether physicians provided smoking cessation services included peer smoking (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89), physicians' own smoking (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93), training in cessation (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45) and access to smoking cessation resources (OR 1.69 95% CI 1.58 to 1.82). The smoke-free policy is not strictly implemented at healthcare facilities, and smoking remains a public health problem among male physicians. A holistic approach, including a stricter implementation of the smoke-free policy, comprehensive education on the hazards of smoking, training in standard smoking-cessation techniques and provision of cessation resources, is needed to curb the smoking epidemic among male physicians and to promote smoking cessation services in China.

  2. Smoking behaviour of lung and colorectal cancer patients during and after diagnosis. Which factors hinder smoking cessation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki-Eirini Chatzea

    2017-05-01

    The study findings highlight the urgent need of addressing more effectively tobacco treatment in cancer patients who are smokers. Physician’s role should be enhanced towards smoking cessation while integration with anti-smoking centers is considered crucial.

  3. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905). Analyses were adjusted for the size of the network, age, sex, and education. Respondents with the largest proportion of smokers in their social network were less likely to quit smoking (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.11-0.66) and more likely to experience a relapse (6.08; 3.01-12.00). Smoking cessation and relapse were most strongly associated with the proportion of smokers among household members and friends. The proportion of smokers in family outside the household was not related to smoking cessation and smoking relapse. In conclusion, smoking behavior in social networks, especially among household members and friends, is strongly associated with smoking cessation and relapse. These findings further support the spread of smoking within social networks, and provide evidence for network-based interventions, particularly including household members and friends. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1......, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies...

  5. Free smoking cessation mobile apps available in Australia: a quality review and content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Birrell, Louise; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Shaw, Brad; Forbes, Erin; Deady, Mark; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-12-01

    This review aimed to identify free, high-quality, smoking cessation mobile applications (apps) that adhere to Australian smoking cessation treatment guidelines. A systematic search of smoking cessation apps was conducted using Google. The technical quality of relevant apps was rated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale. The content of apps identified as high quality was assessed for adherence to smoking cessation treatment guidelines. 112 relevant apps were identified. The majority were of poor technical quality and only six 'high-quality' apps were identified. These apps adhered to Australian treatment guidelines in part. The efficacy of two apps had been previously evaluated. In lieu of more substantial research in this area, it is suggested that the high-quality apps identified in this review may be more likely than other available apps to encourage smoking cessation. Implications for public health: Smoking cessation apps have the potential to address many barriers that prevent smoking cessation support being provided; however few high-quality smoking cessation apps are currently available in Australia, very few have been evaluated and the app market is extremely volatile. More research to evaluate smoking cessation apps, and sustained funding for evidence-based apps, is needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Martínez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-04-08

    The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation.

  7. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Methods The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. Results The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. Conclusions We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation. PMID:23565918

  8. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  9. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  10. The effect of an intensive smoking cessation intervention on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Ida Kristiane; Thomsen, Thordis; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory rheumatic disease with the potential to induce significant disability. Patients with RA are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Smokers with RA tend to experience more pain and fatigue, higher disease activity, more...... intervention (motivational counselling combined with tailored nicotine replacement therapy) versus standard care on smoking cessation, and consequently on disease activity. Secondary objectives are to explore the effect on flare, risk factors for CVD, lung function, physical function, HR-QoL, pain and fatigue...... cessation counsellor based on the principles of motivational counselling. Furthermore, intervention patients will be offered nicotine replacement therapy tailored to individual needs. Participants randomised to the control group will receive standard care. The co-primary outcome is a hierarchical endpoint...

  11. Profile and motivation for smoking cessation in surgical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Corrêa

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the profile of smokers hospitalized for surgery, and investigate their motivation to quit. The sample consisted of 100 patients recruited from a university hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected between February and May 2013, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample was predominantly male (n=58; 58% and had a mean age of 54.5±13.8 years. Seventy-nine (79% of the participants were white, 38(38% were married and 67(67% had primary education only. Patients started smoking at a mean age of 17±6.6 years, smoked approximately 20(10 to 28.7 cigarettes/day and had been smoking for a mean of 37.4±14.4 years. Ninety-one (91% patients wanted to stop smoking, 57(57% were in the preparation phase, 36(36% had low nicotine dependence and 35(35% had been encouraged to quit. We concluded that, although hospitalization is a good moment to address smoking cessation, health care professionals do not enact effective and systematic interventions in this regard.

  12. Smoking Cessation and Changes in Body Mass Index: Findings From the First Randomized Cessation Trial in a Low-Income Country Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Ward, Kenneth D; Asfar, Taghrid; Jaber, Rana; Bahelah, Raed; Maziak, Wasim

    2017-03-01

    In high-income countries, quitting cigarette smoking is associated with weight gain, which can reduce motivation to abstain. Whether smoking cessation is associated with weight gain in a low-income country context has never been investigated. We aimed to determine the post-cessation changes in body mass index (BMI) and its predictors among smokers who received a smoking cessation intervention in a low-income country setting. We performed post hoc analyses of data from 269 smokers who participated in a two-group, parallel-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of combined nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and behavioral counseling in primary care clinics in Aleppo, Syria. We used generalized estimating equation modeling to identify predictors of changes in BMI at 6 weeks and 6- and 12-month follow-ups after quit date. The mean pre-cessation BMI of the sample was 27.9kg/m2 (SD = 5.2). Over 12 months of follow-up, BMI of smoking abstainers averaged 1.8 BMI units (approximately 4.8kg) greater than non-abstainers (p = .012). Throughout the study, greater BMI was associated with being female (p = .048), reporting smoking to control weight (p benefit from tailored cessation interventions with integrated body weight management elements that take into consideration the prevailing local and cultural influences on diet and levels of physical activity. This study provides the first evidence regarding post-cessation changes in BMI among smokers who attempt to quit in a low-income country setting. Our findings advance knowledge regarding post-cessation weight gain and offers insight for researchers and clinicians to identify smokers at higher risk of post-cessation weight gain. This information will help in delivering interventions that take into account the prevailing cultural influence on diet and physical activity and will ultimately help in designing future tailored cessation programs in Syria and other low-income countries with similar cultural background

  13. Identifying attendance patterns in a smoking cessation treatment and their relationships with quit success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquart, J.; Papini, S.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Frierson, G.M.; Hopkins, L.B.; Baird, S.O.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Otto, M.W.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While important for substance use outcomes, knowledge about treatment attendance patterns, and their relation with clinical outcomes is limited. We examined the association between attendance patterns and smoking outcomes in a randomized, controlled smoking cessation intervention trial.

  14. Comparing abrupt and gradual smoking cessation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2011-11-01

    To compare abrupt and gradual smoking cessation. Randomized trial and observational study, Internet, 2007-2010. Smokers with no strong preference for abrupt or gradual quitting were randomly assigned to quitting immediately (n=472), or to gradually reducing their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks and then quit (n=502). Smokers who strongly preferred to quit abruptly were instructed to do so immediately (n=2456), those who strongly preferred gradual were instructed to reduce their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks, then quit (n=1801). Follow-up was conducted 4 weeks after target quit dates. Those who preferred abrupt quitting were the most motivated to quit and the most confident in their ability to quit. At follow-up, quit rates were 16% in those who preferred abrupt cessation, 7% in those who preferred gradual cessation and 9% in those who had no preference (pmotivation to quit and confidence in ability to quit: those who had low levels of motivation or low levels of confidence were more likely to quit at follow-up if they preferred and used abrupt rather than gradual. In those who had no strong preference for either method, abrupt and gradual produced similar results. Those who preferred and used the abrupt method were more likely to quit than those who preferred and used the gradual method, in particular when they had low motivation and confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of participants' self-selected future smoking goals in adolescent smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Goecke, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption that abstinence is the treatment goal of young smokers that deliberately participate in cessation interventions, but this may not always be the case. To gain information on subgroups of adolescent intervention participants, we compare participants who want to achieve smoking abstinence (Abst) with those stating a non-abstinence future smoking goal (NAbst), with regard to baseline characteristics, reasons for participation, quit motivation, retention, goal attainment, and smoking abstinence. The sample consisted of 202 adolescent smokers (49.5% female). At baseline, 118 (58.4%) indicated abstinence as future smoking goal and 84 (41.6%) indicated non-abstinence. All participants received a behavioral smoking cessation intervention. Assessments took place before, during, and after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Regression analyses were conducted. Abst and NAbst participants reported similar baseline characteristics. Abst participants, however, were more likely to report a previous quit attempt and indicated a higher quit motivation before and during treatment. Abst participants were more likely to participate based on own initiative and NAbst participants because of participating friends. Both groups attended a similar number of intervention sessions and were equally likely to attain their self-selected smoking goal. However, more Abst participants reported a successful quit attempt during treatment and abstinence at post-treatment and follow-up. NAbst participants may represent a substantial subgroup in smoking cessation interventions for adolescents. Results indicate that future smoking goals can influence treatment outcomes. NAbst participants in treatment may benefit from additional information on the negative health consequences of light smoking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Providing smoking cessation programs to homeless youth: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Tucker, Joan S; Mullins, Leslie; Staplefoote, Lynette

    2014-10-01

    There is almost no information available on cigarette smoking among homeless youth, whether they are currently receiving services for smoking cessation, and how to best help them quit. This paper presents data collected from a series of semi-structured telephone interviews with service providers from 23 shelters and drop-in centers serving homeless youth in Los Angeles County about their current smoking cessation programming, interest in providing smoking cessation services to their clients, potential barriers to providing this service, and ways to overcome these barriers. Results indicated that 84% of facilities did not offer smoking cessation services, although nearly all (91%) were interested in doing so. Barriers to implementing formal smoking cessation programs on site included lack of resources (e.g., money, personnel) to support the programs, staff training, and concern that smoking cessation may not be a high priority for homeless youth themselves. Overall, service providers seemed to prefer a less intensive smoking cessation program that could be delivered at their site by existing staff. Data from this formative needs assessment will be useful for developing and evaluating a smoking cessation treatment that could be integrated into the busy, complex environment that characterizes agencies that serve homeless youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, B; Hjalmarson, A; Kruse, E; Landfeldt, B; Westin A

    2001-08-01

    This open study examined the effect of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on established cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-eight healthy adult smokers (smoking >or=15 cigarettes/day for at least 3 years) were provided with nicotine nasal spray (to be used ad libitum) and asked to stop smoking. The primary goal during the first 8 weeks, however, was to reduce their daily smoking by at least 50%. Subjects were then followed for another 8 weeks; at this point, 33 participants had successfully stopped smoking. Cardiovascular risk factors including fibrinogen, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 9 and 17 weeks. After 8 weeks of smoking reduction, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day had decreased from 21.5 +/- 0.6 (baseline) to 10.8 +/- 0.6 (p < 0.001). This was accompanied by significant improvements in fibrinogen (from 2.9 +/- 0.1 g/l at baseline to 2.6 +/- 0.1 g/l, p = 0.011), white blood cells (from 7.0 +/- 0.4 to 6.2 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/l, p = 0.005) and the high-density/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) ratio (0.33 +/- 0.03 to 0.37 +/- 0.03, p < 0.005). Following 8 weeks of abstinence from smoking, the mean white blood cell count was further reduced (to 6.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/l, p = 0.026 vs. baseline) and there were also significant improvements in HDL (from 1.16 +/- 0.06 mmol/l at baseline to 1.32 +/- 0.06, p < 0.001) and LDL (from 3.78 +/- 0.16 mmol/l at baseline to 3.52 +/- 0.17, p = 0.015). In conclusion, 8 weeks of smoking reduction resulted in clinically significant improvements in established cardiovascular risk factors. These improvements were even greater after an additional period of abstinence from smoking.

  18. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological rel...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...

  19. A methodological inquiry into the evaluation of smoking cessation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, M

    1999-06-01

    This paper examines a methodological controversy and aims to show the advantages of introducing an alternative methodological approach, i.e. the 'scientific realist approach', into evaluation studies on health education programmes for smoking cessation. The methodological difficulties of the existing standard evaluation model, i.e. the quasi-experimental approach, are examined. This model fails to investigate how the programme setting influences outcomes (context problem) and draws attention away from understanding why programmes work because it adopts a 'successionist' logic (causation problem). An alternative methodology, the scientific realist approach, is proposed in order to cope with such problems. This approach adopts the 'generative' logic which looks at the matter of causation internally. This logic posits that the working of underlying mechanisms within a more basic level of reality causes relationships between visible events. According to the scientific realist approach, the actual outcomes of smoking cessation programmes follow from the workings of potential mechanisms whose functioning is afforded by contexts conducive to their operation.

  20. Acculturation differentially predicts smoking cessation among Latino men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Yessenia; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W

    2009-12-01

    The current study examined the influence of gender, acculturation indicators, and their interaction on smoking cessation among Latinos. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the main effects of gender, acculturation indicators, and their interactions on self-reported 7-day abstinence at 12-week follow-up among 271 Latino smokers seeking cessation counseling. Analyses revealed significant main effects for several acculturation indicators and significant interactions of gender with number of years lived in the United States, proportion of life lived in the United States, and preferred media language (all P values <0.05). Follow-up analyses indicated no significant relationships between abstinence and acculturation indicators among women. Among men, abstinence rates increased with years in the United States, proportion of life in the United States, and preferred media language of English. Greater acculturation predicted higher abstinence rates, but this relationship was restricted to men. This study is among the first to examine the effects of gender and acculturation on smoking abstinence among Latinos. Findings highlight the need for research focused on mechanisms underlying these relationships.

  1. School-based promotion of cessation support: reach of proactive mailings and acceptability of treatment in smoking parents recruited into cessation support through primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several forms of cessation support have been shown effective in increasing the chance of successful smoking cessation, but cessation support is still underutilized among smokers. Proactive outreach to target audiences may increase use of cessation support. Methods: The present study

  2. The alternative five-factor model of personality, nicotine dependence and relapse after treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, Gemma; Valero, Sergi; Bruguera, Eugeni; Andión, Óscar; Trasovares, M Victoria; Gual, Antoni; Casas, Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Personality is one of several factors that have been related to the initiation, maintenance and cessation of smoking. This paper aims to analyze the relationship between the alternative five-factor model of personality (AFFM), nicotine dependence (ND), nicotine use (NU) and cessation after twelve months of a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with medication. In this prospective study, a sample of 103 smokers who were taking part in a workplace smoking cessation intervention, answered the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. ND and NU were measured with the Fagerström Test for the Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), respectively. Tobacco cessation was self-reported at twelve months follow-up and biologically confirmed. Results varied according to gender. In men, low scores on Sociability predicted high ND and large number of CPD. In addition, low scores on Sensation Seeking and high scores on Impulsivity predicted also a high smoking rate at baseline. No personality traits were found to explain ND in women, but high Impulsivity-Sensation Seeking and General Activity predicted high CPD. Predictors of cessation also differed by gender. Apart from FTND level, high levels on Impulsivity predicted relapse in males. In women, high levels on Sociability predicted relapse. This model correctly classified two thirds of abstainers and relapsers for men and three fourths for women at 12months. Furthermore an interaction between personality and gender was observed. The AFFM appears to have a substantial power for predicting cessation. Personality assessment when beginning treatment for smoking cessation could allow incorporating strategies to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Weekly enrollment and usage patterns in an Internet smoking cessation intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Welding

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior research, the beginning of the week appears to be a time when individuals are more likely to enroll in an Internet smoking cessation intervention and engage with its core features. Emphasizing marketing and promotional efforts during the beginning of the week could result in greater reach of Internet smoking cessation interventions.

  4. Optimal locations of establishing smoking cessation services for cancer patients in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla

    2017-05-01

    The proposed optimum locations for establishing smoking cessation services are expected to contribute to the enhancement of cancer control in Crete. Furthermore, this study will guide a smoking cessation program in the region of Crete aiming to minimize the burden of tobacco-induced cancers.

  5. Brief preoperative smoking cessation counselling in relation to breast cancer surgery: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Samuelsen, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe how women smokers with newly diagnosed breast cancer experienced brief preoperative smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery. BACKGROUND: Preoperative smoking cessation intervention is relevant for short- and long-term risk reduction in newly diagnosed ...

  6. Predictors of Retention in Smoking Cessation Treatment among Latino Smokers in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christina S.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Only one previous study on minority retention in smoking cessation treatment has been conducted (Nevid JS, Javier RA, Moulton JL III. "Factors predicting participant attrition in a community-based, culturally specific smoking cessation program for Hispanic smokers." "Health Psychol" 1996; 15: 226-29). We investigated predictors of…

  7. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  8. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, David; Sadr Azodi, Omid; Wladis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications.......To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications....

  9. Smoking cessation for free: outcomes of a study of three Romanian clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofor Antigona Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Romania implemented a national program for smoking cessation, providing medication and counseling, entirely for free. The present study focuses on the results of the program among participating smokers treated in three smoking cessation centers from three main cities of Romania: Iasi, Targu Mures and Cluj.

  10. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  11. An evaluation of usage patterns, effectiveness and cost of the national smoking cessation quitline in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeyai, Aronrag; Yunibhand, Jintana; Punkrajang, Paweena; Pitayarangsarit, Siriwan

    2015-09-01

    Telephone-based smoking cessation services (quitlines) offering counselling for smoking cessation without nicotine replacement therapy may be important components of tobacco control efforts in low and middle income countries, but evaluations in such resource-limited settings are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the usage, effectiveness and cost of the Thailand National Quitline (TNQ). Analysis of retrospective data for callers to the TNQ between 2009 and 2012 and a follow-up survey in 1161 randomly selected callers. Between 2009 and 2012 there were 116 862 callers to the TNQ; 36 927 received counselling and at least one follow-up call. Compared with smokers in the general population, callers were younger, more highly educated, more likely to be students, and more likely to smoke cigarettes rather than roll-your-own tobacco. Continuous abstinence rates at 1, 3 and 6 months after calling were 49.9%, 38.0% and 33.1%. The predicted rate at 12 months was 19.54% (95% CI 14.55 to 26.24). Average cost per completed counselling was $31 and the average cost per quitter was $253. Assuming all (and two-thirds) TNQ callers who succeed in quitting would have failed to quit without the assistance of the TNQ, cumulative life years saved (LYS) for the 4-year period were 57 238 (36 733) giving a cost per LYS of $32 (50) (about 7.93 LYS per quitter) and an estimated return on investment over 4 years of 9.01 (5.78). A low-cost quitline without nicotine replacement therapy is a promising model for smoking cessation services and likely to offer good value for money in Thailand. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. General practitioners' beliefs about effectiveness and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications: qualitative and quantitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marteau Theresa M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners' (GPs negative beliefs about nicotine dependence medications may act as barriers to prescribing them. Methods Study1: Twenty-five GPs from 16 practices across London were interviewed in this qualitative study. Framework analysis was used to identify key themes. Study 2: A convenience sample of 367 GPs completed an internet-based survey. Path-analysis was used to examine the relations between beliefs and intentions to prescribe smoking cessation medications. Results Study 1: Whilst nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and bupropion were generally perceived as effective and cost-effective, the effectiveness of NRT was seen as critically dependent on behavioural support for smoking cessation. This dependence appeared to be influenced by perceptions that without support smokers would neglect psychological aspects of smoking and use NRT incorrectly. GPs perceived bupropion as dangerous and were concerned about its side-effects. Study 2: GPs' beliefs had medium (NRT, f2 = .23 to large (bupropion, f2=.45; NRT without support, f2=.59 effects on their intentions to prescribe medications. Beliefs about effectiveness of NRT and bupropion and the perceived danger of bupropion were the key predictors of intentions to prescribe NRT and bupropion, respectively. Beliefs about neglecting psychological aspects of smoking and incorrect use had indirect effects on intentions to prescribe NRT without support, operating via beliefs about effectiveness. Conclusion GPs vary in their beliefs about the effectiveness and safety of smoking cessation medications. Their intentions to prescribe these medications vary in line with these beliefs. Interventions aimed at increasing the likelihood with which GPs prescribe these medications may be more effective if they addressed these beliefs.

  13. Smoking cessation intervention using stepwise exercise incentives for male workers in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gyu-Seok; Jung, Hye-Sun; Yi, Yunjeong; Yoon, Chungsik; Choi, Jae-Wook

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program as one of the workplace health promotion program. The aim of this study is to evaluate the program offered in an electronics company in Korea. A total of 109 electronics company employees were recruited. Participants were surveyed for smoking history, nicotine dependence, and job stress. They received smoking cessation education and were provided with a stepwise fitness center ticket. Of 109 participants, 58 (53.2%) successfully ceased smoking for 3 months. Significant differences between success and fail groups were apparent in cigarettes smoked per day (P = .002) and nicotine dependence score (P = .049). However, there was no significant difference in job stress between success and fail groups. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, there were no identifiable factors associated with smoking cessation. In conclusion, a stepwise exercise-incentive-based smoking cessation program was highly effective when applied in a workplace setting.

  14. Benefits of smoking cessation with focus on cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Prescott, Eva

    2011-10-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial in preventing premature morbidity, disability and mortality worldwide. The effectiveness of quitting tobacco use surpasses any other intervention to minimise the risk for chronic cardiac and respiratory conditions. The overall health benefits of smoking cessation have been recognised for decades but as tobacco legislation has been changing in recent years, new evidence particularly concerning the effect of less smoke exposure on the vascular system has emerged. Recently, much research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has concerned the ongoing inflammation - also in former smokers - and disease heterogeneity, which provides new knowledge regarding current and ex-smokers with COPD. Many other cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are associated with smoking, and the course of these diseases is not always studied in the context of smoking cessation versus continued smoking. This review summarises the latest available data on health benefits of smoking cessation with focus on both common and infrequent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. [Cross-sectional survey of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in adults in Jiangxi province, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Y; Zhu, L P; Yan, W; Liu, J; Ji, L; Xu, Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation in adults of Jiangxi province in 2013. Methods: Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 6 000 individuals aged ≥18 years from 10 chronic and non-communicable disease and risk factor surveillance points of Jiangxi province in 2013. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information about the risk factors for chronic and non-communicable diseases and 5 997 records were used in final analysis of smoking and smoking cessation. Sample was weighted to represent the adult population of Jiangxi province. The prevalence of different groups were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of current smoking of the sample was 21.53 % (1 291/5 997). After complex weighting, the prevalence of smoking was 26.07 % in adults in Jiangxi (95 %CI :23.48 % -28.66 % ), and it was much higher in men (50.62 % , 95 %CI : 46.31 % -54.94 % ) than in women(1.46 % , 95 %CI : 0.57 % -2.35 % ), the difference was statistically significant ( P smoking prevalence were significant among different age groups ( P =0.029), and the smoking prevalence increased with educational level, but decreased with the worse of self-reported health condition. Most current smokers smoked every day (87.16 % , 95 %CI : 83.29 % -91.03 % ) and averagely 19.27 (95 %CI : 17.69-20.85) cigarettes were smoked daily. The proportion of smokers with average daily consumption ≥20 cigarettes was 64.74 % (95 %CI : 55.79 % -73.70 % ). The smokers'average age of starting daily smoking was 20.28 (95 %CI : 19.74-20.82) years old, which was lower in men [20.11(95 %CI : 19.61-20.61) years old] than in women [26.88(95 %CI : 24.73-29.03) years old], the difference was statistically significant ( P smoking, and the proportion was 17.46 % (95 %CI : 0 % -37.71 % ) in female smokers. The smoking cessation rate was 14.80 % (95 %CI : 10.88 % -18.72 % ) and increased with age, the increase of income level and the worse of

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of opioid antagonists for smoking cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Sean P; Chu, Isabella M; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F; Evins, A Eden; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the efficacy of opioid antagonists in promoting long-term smoking cessation. Post-treatment abstinence was examined as a secondary outcome and effects on withdrawal symptoms, craving and reduced consumption were also explored. Design The search strategy for this meta-analysis included clinical trials (published and unpublished data) in the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and MEDLINE. Participants Adult smokers. Interventions We included randomised trials comparing opioid antagonists to placebo or an alternative therapy for smoking cessation and reported data on abstinence for a minimum of 6 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures Outcomes included smoking abstinence at long-term follow-up (primary); abstinence at end of treatment (secondary); and effects on withdrawal, craving and smoking consumption (exploratory). Results 8 trials with a total of 1213 participants were included. Half the trials examined the benefit of adding naltrexone versus placebo to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There was no significant difference between naltrexone and placebo alone (relative risk (RR) 1.00; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.51) or as an adjunct to NRT (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.30), with an overall pooled estimate of RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.24. Findings for naltrexone effects on withdrawal, craving and reduced smoking were equivocal. Conclusions The findings indicate no beneficial effect of naltrexone alone or as an adjunct to NRT on short-term or long-term smoking abstinence. While further trials may narrow the confidence limits, they are unlikely to appreciably alter the conclusion. PMID:24633528

  17. A randomized trial of contingency management for smoking cessation in the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Carla J; Petry, Nancy M; Alessi, Sheila M

    2018-03-01

    Smoking-cessation services are an unmet need among the homeless, who smoke at rates more than 4 times the national estimate. Successful interventions have high potential for improving tobacco-related health disparities among homeless smokers. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioral intervention with efficacy in a number of substance-use disorder populations, including smokers. However, no randomized studies have evaluated the effect of CM in homeless smokers. We examined smoking-related outcomes in homeless smokers (N = 70) randomized to standard-care (SC) smoking cessation involving transdermal nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT), standard counseling, and carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring or the same SC plus CM for negative CO sample submissions. Participants randomized to CM achieved significantly longer durations of consecutive abstinence and submitted a significantly higher proportion of CO-negative samples relative to standard-care participants. At 4 weeks postquit day, 22% were abstinent in the CM condition and 9% were abstinent in the SC condition. At the 6-month follow-up, about 10% of smokers in both conditions were abstinent. This study demonstrates that CM is an efficacious option to increase initial quit rates in homeless smokers, but methods to extend effects are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Wangsmo Steffenssen, Mia Charlotte; Bakholdt, Vivi T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... variables were smoking cessation counseling and smoking cessation interventions. The outcome was smoking cessation. Data collection and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 of the authors. Selected publications were assessed for potential risk of bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated...... using National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Review Manager 5.3 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 1,239 patients were included (3 randomized controlled trials, 3 cohorts, and 2 case series). Smoking cessation was achieved considerably more often...

  19. Distress, race/ethnicity and smoking cessation in treatment-seekers: implications for disparity elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2015-09-01

    Distress is a modifiable risk factor for smoking maintenance. This study aimed to assess racial/ethnic differences in distress pre- and post-cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation, and relations with abstinence. Analyses of variance and logistic regressions were conducted. University-based smoking cessation laboratory in South Florida, USA. The sample comprised 234 treatment-seekers recruited from the community (18% white, 60% African American and 22% Hispanic). All participants received eight sessions of group CBT plus 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine patches (TNP). Demographics and smoking history [baseline], perceived stress and depressive symptoms [baseline and end of therapy (EOT)], carbon monoxide-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence (p.p.a.) at EOT, 3 months post-CBT (primary outcome) and 6 months (self-report). Compared with whites, African Americans reported greater baseline perceived stress (P = 0.03) and depressive symptoms (P = 0.06); no EOT differences were found. African Americans (P perceived stress reduction, and African Americans reported greater reductions in depressive symptoms (P perceived stress (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.93 (0.89-0.98)) and depressive symptoms [AOR = 0.96 (0.93-0.99)] were associated inversely with 7-day p.p.a. at 3 months. Reductions in perceived stress [AOR = 0.93 (0.89-0.98)] and depressive symptoms at the EOT [AOR = 0.96 (0.93-0.99)] were associated with cessation, such that reduced distress increased the odds of abstinence. The interactions between race/ethnicity and distress on 7-day p.p.a. were not significant at any assessment point. Among smokers in Florida, USA, racial/ethnic differences in distress before starting cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation were eliminated at the end of treatment, driven by improvements among African Americans and Hispanics. High levels of distress were associated with reduced odds of abstinence through 6

  20. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  1. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda G; Al-Bashaireh, Ahmad M; Ferrell, Anastasiya V; Ghadban, Roula

    2017-04-13

    To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack -a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5%) and post-intervention phases (47.7%) wanted to quit smoking "very much". For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = -6.915, p smoking, and (b) culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  2. Smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators: does it apply to black women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Azure B; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Messeri, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Smokers who initiate as adults are more likely to quit than those who initiate as adolescents. Black women are more likely than White women to initiate smoking in adulthood and are less likely to quit. There is a paucity of research examining whether the smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators applies to Black women. The study objective is to examine race differences in the effect of developmental stage of smoking initiation on number of years until cessation among Black and White women. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a national cohort of women between the ages of 49 and 61 years in 2003. The analytic sample comprised 1,008 White women and 271 Black women with a history of smoking. Survival analysis procedures were utilized to address the study objective. Racial disparities in smoking cessation were most evident among women who initiated smoking as adults. White young adult initiators had a 31% increased hazard of smoking cessation advantage (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.65) over adolescent initiators, whereas Black young adult initiators had no smoking cessation advantage (adjusted HR: 0.85, CI: 95% 0.55-1.30) over adolescent initiators. Prior observations that smoking initiation in adulthood is associated with high rates of cessation do not apply to black women. To contribute to the reduction of disparities in women's cessation efforts to prevent initiation should target young adult women, particularly Black young adult women.

  3. Two-Year Therapeutic Effectiveness of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in a Real World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Francisco Pastor; Fontoba Ferrándiz, Julio; Gil Sanchez, María Carmen; Ponce Lorenzo, Francisco; Botella Estrella, Carlos

    2016-01-28

    Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation therapy in clinical trials. However, its effectiveness might vary in a real world setting and its long term effectiveness (2-year) has not been reported yet. The objective was ascertaining the effectiveness of varenicline in the treatment of tobacco consumption in Primary Care settings. Observational, multicenter, retrospective study using medical records of smokers followed for 24 months. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, type of treatment (varenicline with or without group therapy), and smoking characteristics (Fageström and Richmond tests, starting age, number of cigarettes, cessation attempts, and initial CO-oximeter measurements) were evaluated. 773 smokers treated with varenicline (72.4%) or varenicline combined with group therapy (27.6%) were included. Mean age was 43.6 years [51.7% male (n = 400)]. Continuous abstinence rate at 24 months was 44.4%, with no significant gender or age differences. Median cessation time was 398 days (95%CI: 376-421). A clear association was detected between the probability of remaining abstinent at 24 months and participation in group therapy (OR: 1.877, 95%CI: 1.362-2.589), as well as treatment adherence (compliance >80%) (OR: 6.556, 95%CI: 5.870-7.242), but not with co-financing of treatment (observed in 77% of patients). For every day that varenicline was taken, abstinence increased by an average of 6.6 days. This retrospective cohort study suggests that 2-year effectiveness of varenicline might be substantial in a real world setting. The abstinence rate was higher for those who also receive group therapy.

  4. Factors influencing European GPs' engagement in smoking cessation: a multi-country literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Holme, Ingrid; Cohen, David; Tait, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation advice by GPs is an effective and cost-effective intervention, but is not implemented as widely as it could be. Aim This wide-ranging Europe-wide literature review, part of the European Union (EU) PESCE (General Practitioners and the Economics of Smoking Cessation in Europe) project, explored the extent of GPs' engagement in smoking cessation and the factors that influence their engagement. Method Two searches were conducted, one for grey literature, across all European countries, and one for academic studies. Data from eligible studies published from 1990 onwards were synthesised and reported under four categories of influencing factors: GP characteristics, patient characteristics, structural factors, and cessation-specific knowledge and skills. Results The literature showed that most GPs in Europe question the smoking status of all new patients but fewer routinely ask this of regular patients, or advise smokers to quit. The proportion offering intensive interventions or prescribing treatments is lower still. Factors influencing GPs' engagement in smoking cessation include GPs' own smoking status and their attitudes towards giving smoking cessation advice; whether patients present with smoking-related symptoms, are pregnant, or heavy smokers; time, training, and reimbursement are important structural factors; and some GPs lack knowledge and skills regarding the use of specific cessation methods and treatments, or have limited awareness of specialist cessation services. No single factor or category of factors explains the variations in GPs' engagement in smoking cessation. Conclusion Strategies to improve the frequency and quality of GPs' engagement in smoking cessation need to address the multifaceted influences on GPs' practice and to reflect the widely differing contexts across Europe. PMID:19674514

  5. Trends in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges among homeless smokers participating in a smoking cessation RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Erika Ashley; Hennrikus, Deborah Jane; Erickson, Darin J; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Forster, Jean Lois; Okuyemi, Kolawole Stephen

    2018-03-01

    In the U.S., approximately 73% of homeless adults smoke cigarettes and they experience difficulty quitting. Homeless smokers report low self-efficacy to quit and that smoking urges are a barrier to quitting. Self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges are dynamic and change throughout smoking cessation treatment. This study examines changes in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges throughout a smoking cessation intervention among the homeless and identifies predictors of change in these characteristics. Homeless smokers (n=430) participating in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial in the U.S. completed surveys at baseline, and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 26 on demographic and smoking characteristics (i.e., confidence to quit, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, and smoking urges). A growth curve analysis was conducted by modeling change in the smoking characteristics over time and examining the variability in the change in smoking characteristics by demographic characteristics and treatment group. Among the full sample, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking increased linearly over time, confidence to quit increased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently decreased, and smoking urges decreased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently increased. There were race differences in these trajectories. Racial minorities experienced significantly greater increases in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking than Whites and Blacks had higher confidence to quit than Whites. White participants experienced less increase in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking and lower confidence to quit and therefore may be a good target for efforts to increase self-efficacy to quit as part of homeless-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Sustaining high confidence to quit and low smoking urges throughout treatment could be key to promoting higher cessation rates among the homeless. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The efficacy of computer-delivered treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; McClure, Jennifer B; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Mazas, Carlos A; Cao, Yumei; Cinciripini, Paul M; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Wetter, David W

    2011-07-01

    The current study evaluated the efficacy of an individualized, hand-held computer-delivered treatment (CDT) versus standard treatment (ST) for the maintenance of smoking abstinence following a quit attempt. Participants were 303 adult daily smokers randomized to CDT or ST, plus pharmacotherapy. Abstinence though 1 year was examined using logistic random intercept models, a type of generalized linear mixed model regression. Results did not support the efficacy of the CDT program through 1 year postquit in analyses adjusted for time and study site (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.55-1.30), or after further adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, gender, education, marital status, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day before quitting (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.57-1.39). CDT did not increase short- or long-term abstinence rates over ST in this study. Findings differ from some in the literature and suggest the need for continued research on the use of CDT for smoking cessation. ©2011 AACR

  7. Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Ibrahim, Normala; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Tee, Eng Ong; Lai, Wai Yee; Nik Mohamad, Mohd Haniki; Sidek, Sherina Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

  8. Determinants of Smoking Cessation in Patients With COPD Treated in the Outpatient Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra S.; Thomsen, Reimar W.; Johnsen, Søren P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of smoking cessation on the progression of COPD are well established. Nevertheless, many patients with COPD continue to smoke. METHODS: In this nationwide hospital-based prospective follow-up study, we examined rates of smoking cessation and clinical...... and sociodemographic determinants of smoking cessation in 3,233 patients with COPD who smoked on outpatient contact during 2008 to 2012. Using multivariate Cox regression, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of quitting. RESULTS: Within 1 and 5 years from first outpatient contact, the probability of quitting was 19...... timely smoking cessation. A novel finding is that patients with milder COPD are less likely to quit. The findings suggest a need for interventional studies focusing on these subgroups to ensure abstinence to halt disease progression....

  9. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  10. Beliefs about smoking cessation among out-of-school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, W R; Lowe, J B; Fisher, K J; Gillespie, A M; Rose, J M

    1999-05-03

    Although the majority of adolescents in the 13-18 age range are at school, there is a need to target specific groups of young smokers such as unemployed youth. For those young people who are not at school, few directed programs are available in either prevention or cessation and information is needed about the design and delivery of appropriate programs for this population. This report presents the results from a survey of unemployed youth and students at vocational colleges about various aspects of smoking cessation. The majority of out-of-school youth smokers had not tried to quit, but 52% were contemplating action to quit. Only a quarter of the smokers had quit for more than a week. Few young smokers would use a recognised program though more females would change to a lower nicotine brand, quit with the help of a friend or participate in a group quit program. The method of quitting most would recommend to peers is 'use of will power'. Incentives to quit were attractive to only a third of the smokers, and many enhancing and inhibiting factors for participation in programs were identified. In particular, efforts to quit increased their confidence in quitting, supporting the need to assist those who are contemplating action to quit. Programs need to incorporate input from youth and be tailored for them but not necessarily for different groups such as non-secondary school students and unemployed youth.

  11. Smoking cessation: Exploration of perceived technology-related information value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; McHaney, Roger; Hirak, Eyal; Merker, Ben

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a unique approach to information transfer affecting the perceived value of this information and related impact on smoker behavior. Data were collected via survey, sampling approximately 120 participants. An online survey tool was used for the survey creation, data collection and monitoring. Another online tool was used by participants to create short animation videos as a means of increasing their engagement with information in an experiential fashion. Study findings included that the process experienced by the test group was influential and facilitated participants' change of mind regarding enrollment in a smoking cessation workshop. This was partly attributable to the IKEA effect. The study provides evidence that a change in habits crucial to improve health and enhance positive lifestyle choices can be stimulated through active engagement with artifact creation in a technology-mediated environment.

  12. Smoking Status Confirmation by Proxy: Validation in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Zachary Z.; Kelley, Jennifer H. K.; Reyen, Michele; Korotkin, Molly; Japuntich, Sandra J.; Viana, Joseph C.; Levy, Douglas E.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biochemical confirmation (BC) of self-report is the gold standard of evidence for abstinence in smoking cessation research, but difficulty in obtaining samples may bias estimates of quit rates. Proxy confirmation (PC) has not been validated in cessation trials. We assessed the feasibility and validity of PC in a cessation trial for hospitalized smokers. Methods: We enrolled 402 daily cigarette smokers during a hospital admission. At enrollment, participants provided demographics, smoking history, and named proxies to confirm their smoking status at follow-up. Participants provided self-reported (SR) 7-day tobacco abstinence by telephone at 6 months post-discharge. SR quitters were asked to mail a saliva sample for BC. Incentives were offered for survey completion ($20) and returned samples ($50). We called proxies for all those with SR to obtain PC. Quit rates were calculated with missing data indicating smoking. We assessed associations of nonresponse with baseline characteristics using chi-squared tests and logistic regression. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of PC in detecting smokers as determined by BC. Results: All patients named at least one proxy. Response rates were 82% for SR, 84% for PC, and 69% for BC. Observed participant characteristics were unrelated to provision of sample for BC. Estimated quit rates were 35% for SR, 27% for SR + PC, 21% for SR + BC and 27% for SR + BC or PC. Sensitivity of PC was not higher than SR (73% vs. 77%); specificity was lower (84% vs. 100%). Conclusion: PC was feasible but not superior to self-report in a cessation trial. PMID:25847290

  13. Facilitated Extinction Training to Improve Pharmacotherapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Unrod, Marina; Drobes, David J; Sutton, Steven K; Hawk, Larry W; Simmons, Vani N; Brandon, Karen O; Roetzheim, Richard G; Meltzer, Lauren R; Miller, Ralph R; Cahill, Shawn P

    2017-09-12

    Varenicline reduces smoking satisfaction during the pre-cessation run-in period, which may contribute to extinction of cravings and smoking behavior. Research indicates that efficacy is enhanced when the run-in period is increased from 1 to 4 weeks, providing a longer extinction opportunity. We hypothesized that efficacy could be further enhanced by harnessing basic and applied research on extinction. We developed a pre-cessation extinction-facilitating intervention and tested its feasibility in a pilot trial. The Facilitated Extinction (FE) intervention comprised brief counseling and a workbook recommending strategies to maximize extinction processes during the run-in, including instructions to smoke at a normal rate across contexts and cues, and use of an extinction cue to enhance generalization. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 varenicline interventions: standard (1-week run-in), extended (4-week run-in), and extended + FE. Interventions were delivered prior to the target quit date (TQD). Assessments were conducted in weeks 1 and 4 pre-TQD and 1 and 3 months post-TQD, with focus on feasibility indices. Recruitment and retention goals were met (N=58). Treatment satisfaction was high across groups. The majority of FE participants adhered to instructions and maintained their usual smoking rate during the run-in period. Greater decreases in craving and smoking satisfaction were observed among participants in both extended groups versus the standard group (p's<.005). Feasibility was demonstrated. Participants adhered to the FE intervention, thereby optimizing the number and variety of extinction trials. Findings support testing the novel FE smoking cessation intervention in a fully-powered trial. This study expands the research on the clinical benefits of extending the pre-cessation run-in period of varenicline. It introduces the hypothesis that further benefit might be achieved by translating basic behavioral research, as well as cue-exposure research

  14. Improving Participants’ Retention in a Smoking Cessation Intervention Using a Community-based Participatory Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Estreet, Anthony; Apata, Jummai; Kamangar, Farin; Schutzman, Christine; Buccheri, Jane; O’Keefe, Anne-Marie; Wagner, Fernando; Sheikhattari, Payam

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study compares participant’ sretention in three phases of smoking cessation interventions, one provided in a health clinic and the subsequent two in community-based settings. Methods: Smoking cessation interventions were conducted in three phases from 2008 to 2015 in two underserved urban communities with low socioeconomic profiles and high rates of smoking (n = 951). Phase I was conducted in a clinic; Phases II and III were conducted in community venues. In Phases II and III...

  15. Improving participants' retention in a smoking cessation intervention using a community-based participatory research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Estreet; Jummai Apata; Farin Kamangar; Christine Schutzman; Jane Buccheri; Anne-Marie O'Keefe; Fernando Wagner; Payam Sheikhattari

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study compares participants' retention in three phases of smoking cessation interventions, one provided in a health clinic and the subsequent two in community-based settings. Methods: Smoking cessation interventions were conducted in three phases from 2008 to 2015 in two underserved urban communities with low socioeconomic profiles and high rates of smoking (n = 951). Phase I was conducted in a clinic; Phases II and III were conducted in community venues. In Phases II and III...

  16. Utilization of smoking cessation medication benefits among medicaid fee-for-service enrollees 1999?2008

    OpenAIRE

    Kahende, Jennifer; Malarcher, Ann; England, Lucinda; Zhang, Lei; Mowery, Paul; Xu, Xin; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Rolle, Italia

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess state coverage and utilization of Medicaid smoking cessation medication benefits among fee-for-service enrollees who smoked cigarettes. Methods We used the linked National Health Interview Survey (survey years 1995, 1997?2005) and the Medicaid Analytic eXtract files (1999?2008) to assess utilization of smoking cessation medication benefits among 5,982 cigarette smokers aged 18?64 years enrolled in Medicaid fee-for-service whose state Medicaid insurance covered at least one...

  17. Altered White Matter Integrity in Smokers Is Associated with Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Peiyu; Shen, Zhujing; Wang, Chao; Qian, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a significant cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Understanding the neural mechanisms of nicotine addiction and smoking cessation may provide effective targets for developing treatment strategies. In the present study, we explored whether smokers have white matter alterations and whether these alterations are related to cessation outcomes and smoking behaviors. Sixty-six smokers and thirty-seven healthy non-smokers were enrolled. The participants underwent magnetic resonance ...

  18. Clinical trials in a remote Aboriginal setting: lessons from the BOABS smoking cessation study

    OpenAIRE

    Marley, Julia V; Kitaura, Tracey; Atkinson, David; Metcalf, Sue; Maguire, Graeme P; Gray, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the best approaches to helping Indigenous Australians to stop smoking. The composite analysis of the only two smoking cessation randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this suggests that one-on-one extra support delivered by and provided to Indigenous Australians in a primary health care setting appears to be more effective than usual care in encouraging smoking cessation. This paper describes the lessons learnt from one of these studie...

  19. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking...... cessation program, initiated during the acute hospitalization period and carried out for six weeks, could reduce the number of complications following emergency surgical treatment of fractures....

  20. Is there a need for a hospital based smoking cessation programme in Malaysia?

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Noorzurani; H, Mohammad Hussain

    2008-01-01

    Smoking cessation programmes have been available for almost 2 decades in Malaysia. However the programmes have mainly focussed on outpatient primary care settings. More attention is needed to address and treat smokers presenting to hospitals with acute and chronic medical illness as hospitals provide good settings to implement smoking cessation intervention. For instance, a tobacco related medical illness may boosts a smoker's motivation to stop, especially when the smoker perceives smoking a...

  1. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K.; Raha, Sandeep; Nicholson, Catherine J.; Holloway, Alison C.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  2. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  3. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial using best-selling smoking-cessation book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, James P; Oh, Anita; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph; Keane, William; Cognetti, David

    2017-07-01

    Our prospective, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the self-help book, The Easy Way to Stop Smoking, by Allen Carr, in promoting smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer. We assessed active smokers for their willingness to read a smoking cessation book. Participants were randomized to either receive the book from our department or recommended to purchase the book. All patients received smoking cessation counseling at recruitment. Phone surveys were conducted at short- and long-term intervals to determine if the patients had purchased and/or read the book and whether they were still smoking. One hundred twelve patients were recruited, 52 of whom completed follow-up surveys. Those who received the book for free were more likely to read the book (p = 0.05). Reading the book did not correlate with successful smoking cessation (p = 0.81). Some 26% of the 27 patients who received the book quit smoking compared with 32% of the 25 patients who were recommended the book (p = 0.76). Patients who indicated motivation to quit smoking were more likely to succeed. In our study, smoking cessation did not appear to be influenced by reading The Easy Way to Stop Smoking. Despite 80.8% of the cohort indicating at least a readiness to quit smoking at recruitment, only 28.8% of patients managed to achieve successful smoking cessation at long-term follow-up. Patient motivation remains an important factor in achieving long-term smoking abstinence. Quitting smoking remains a daunting challenge for patients, with multiple interventions likely needed to achieve cessation.

  4. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  5. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Boudreau, Christian; Allwright, Shane; McNeill, Ann; van den Putte, Bas; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands on quit attempts and quit success. Methods: Nationally representative samples of 2,219 adult smokers were interviewed in three countries as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys. Quit attempts and quit success were compared between period 1 (in which smoke-free legislation was implemented in Ireland and the Netherlands) and period 2 (in which smoke-free legislation was implemented in England). Results: In Ireland, significantly more smokers attempted to quit smoking in period 1 (50.5%) than in period 2 (36.4%) (p legislation in Ireland and England may have had positive effects on quit attempts and quit success respectively. The partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands probably had no effect on quit attempts or quit success. Therefore, it is recommended that countries implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation. PMID:22294778

  6. Multimodal e-Health Services for Smoking Cessation and Public Health: The SmokeFreeBrain Project Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Spachos, Dimitris; Billis, Antonis

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the largest avoidable cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. It causes most of the cases of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and contributes to the development of other lung diseases. SmokeFreeBrain aims to address the effectiveness of a multi-level variety of interventions aiming at smoking cessation in high risk target groups within High Middle Income Countries (HMIC) such as unemployed young adults, COPD and asthma patients, and within the general population in Low-Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The project addresses existing approaches aimed to prevent lung diseases caused by tobacco while developing new treatments and evaluating: (i) Public Service Announcement (PSA) against smoking, (ii) the use of electronic cigarettes, (iii) neurofeedback protocols against smoking addiction, (iv) a specifically developed intervention protocol based on behavioral therapy, social media/mobile apps and short text messages (sms) and (v) pharmacologic interventions. Emphasis in this paper, however, is placed on the e-heath, m-health, open (big) data, mobile game and neuroscientific challenges and developments upon facilitating the aforementioned interventions.

  7. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Hearing Loss: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Nagahama, Satsue; Akter, Shamima; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kashino, Ikuko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-03-14

    We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss. During follow-up, 3532 individuals developed high-frequency hearing loss, and 1575 developed low-frequency hearing loss. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with current smokers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4) for high- and low-frequency hearing loss, respectively, as compared with never smokers. The risk of high- and low-frequency hearing loss increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (both p for trend hearing loss, respectively. The analysis by quitting years showed a decline in risk of hearing loss after quitting smoking, even among those who quitted less than 5 years before baseline. Smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss, especially at the high frequency, in a dose-response manner. The excess risk of hearing loss associated with smoking disappears in a relatively short period after quitting. The prospective association between smoking and hearing loss has not been well studied. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the largest to date investigating the association between smoking and incident hearing loss. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in a dose-response manner. Quitting smoking virtually eliminates the excess risk of hearing loss, even among quitters with short duration of cessation. These results suggest that smoking may be a causal factor for hearing loss, although further research would

  8. Experiences of COPD patients with existing smoking cessation programs and their preferences for improvement - a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aumann, I.; Tedja, L.; von der Schulenburg, J. M. Graf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For current smokers who are diagnosed with COPD, their first treatment option is to stop smoking. Motivation is necessary for long-term smoking cessation; therefore, when designing smoking cessation programs, the patients' needs and preferences should be considered. We focused on COPD patients' experiences with existing smoking cessation programs and evaluated their preferences for the improvement of ...

  9. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women: The WE QUIT Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Wing, Rena R; Kahler, Christopher W; Thompson, J Kevin; Meltzer, Sari; Hecht, Jacki; Minami, Haruka; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W). Using an iterative process, we piloted DT-W with two small groups ( n = 4 and n = 7) of female weight-concerned smokers. Results indicated that we successfully established the feasibility and acceptability of DT-W, which was well-attended and well-received. Biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rates at post-intervention, 1, 3, and 6 months were 64%, 36%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. We are now evaluating DT-W in a randomized controlled trial.

  10. IL-17A and serum amyloid A are elevated in a cigarette smoke cessation model associated with the persistence of pigmented macrophages, neutrophils and activated NK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Hansen

    Full Text Available While global success in cessation advocacy has seen smoking rates fall in many developed countries, persistent lung inflammation in ex-smokers is an increasingly important clinical problem whose mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. In this study, candidate effector mechanisms were assessed in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 4 months following cessation from long term CS exposure. BALF neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and lung innate NK cells remained significantly elevated following smoking cessation. Analysis of neutrophil mobilization markers showed a transition from acute mediators (MIP-2α, KC and G-CSF to sustained drivers of neutrophil and macrophage recruitment and activation (IL-17A and Serum Amyoid A (SAA. Follicle-like lymphoid aggregates formed with CS exposure and persisted with cessation, where they were in close anatomical proximity to pigmented macrophages, whose number actually increased 3-fold following CS cessation. This was associated with the elastolytic protease, MMP-12 (macrophage metallo-elastase which remained significantly elevated post-cessation. Both GM-CSF and CSF-1 were significantly increased in the CS cessation group relative to the control group. In conclusion, we show that smoking cessation mediates a transition to accumulation of pigmented macrophages, which may contribute to the expanded macrophage population observed in COPD. These macrophages together with IL-17A, SAA and innate NK cells are identified here as candidate persistence determinants and, we suggest, may represent specific targets for therapies directed towards the amelioration of chronic airway inflammation.

  11. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  12. Adverse events associated with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT for smoking cessation. A systematic review and meta-analysis of one hundred and twenty studies involving 177,390 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockhart Ian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is the most common form of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and has proven efficacy for the treatment of tobacco dependence. Although expectations of mild adverse effects have been observed to be independent predictors of reduced motivation to use NRT, adverse effects associated with NRT have not been precisely quantified. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify all randomized clinical trials (RCTs of NRT versus inert controls and all observational studies to determine the magnitude of reported adverse effects with NRT. Methods Searches of 10 electronic databases from inception to November 2009 were conducted. Study selection and data extraction were carried out independently in duplicate. RCTs were pooled using a random effects method with Odds Ratio [OR] as the effect measure, while proportions were pooled from observational studies. A meta-regression analysis was applied to examine whether the nicotine patch is associated with different adverse effects from those common to orally administered NRT. Results Ninety-two RCTs involving 32,185 participants and 28 observational studies involving 145, 205 participants were identified. Pooled RCT evidence of varying NRT formulations found an increased risk of heart palpitations and chest pains (OR 2.06, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.51-2.82, P Conclusion The use of NRT is associated with a variety of side effects. In addition to counseling and medical monitoring, clinicians should inform patients of potential side effects which are associated with the use of NRT for the treatment of tobacco dependence.

  13. Do social characteristics influence smoking uptake and cessation during young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Gagné, Thierry; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    This study uses a Bourdieusian approach to assess young adults' resources and examines their association with smoking initiation and cessation. Data were drawn from 1450 young adults participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, a cohort study in Montreal, Canada. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between young adults' income, education, and peer smoking at baseline and smoking onset and cessation. Young adults where most or all of their friends smoked had greater odds of smoking onset. Young adults that had completed pre-university postsecondary education also had higher odds of smoking onset after controlling for social support, employment status, and lacking money to pay for expenses. Income and the sociodemographic variables age and sex were not associated with smoking onset. Young adults where half of their friends smoked or where most to all of their friends smoked had lowers odds of smoking cessation. Men were more likely to cease smoking than women. Education, income and age were not associated with cessation. Interventions focusing on peer smoking may present promising avenues for tobacco prevention in young adults.

  14. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  15. Effect of a short smoking cessation training session on smoking cessation behaviour and its determinants among GP trainees in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Alex; Raupach, Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Inadequate smoking cessation interventions by physicians have been attributed to lack of training, and it is generally thought that additional education will improve patient care. However, interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and practical skills only address one determinant of behaviour (capability). This prospective study assessed how much a teaching session for GP trainees enrolled in Vocational Training Schemes in England also affected two other determinants (motivation and opportunity) specified by the COM-B theory of behaviour. Between October and December 2015, GP trainees were given a 3.5-hour training session in the theory and practice of smoking cessation. Questionnaires addressed motivation, capability and opportunities to provide evidence-based brief advice to smokers at the beginning and end of the session, and three months later. They also looked at recollection of previous teaching as well as knowledge, skills, intervention frequency and perceived barriers against providing interventions. Participants (n=123) remembered little previous training on the subject and self-reported pre-session knowledge was minimal. Motivation was high throughout while capability and opportunity increased considerably during the session. No further change in these parameters was noted at three months. The proportion of participants stating they provided evidence-based brief advice to >50% of smokers increased from 25.2% before the session to 57.7% at follow-up. Lack of time remained a commonly cited barrier. Training elicited an immediate and sustained effect on capability, perceived opportunity and behaviour itself. While perceived barriers referring to capability were greatly reduced, barriers referring to opportunity (e.g. lack of time) persisted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Pilot of a preoperative smoking cessation intervention incorporating post-discharge support from a Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Campbell, Elizabeth; Knight, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The study sought to assess the potential efficacy of a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention for surgical patients. The study employed a modified historical controlled trial design. Participants were recruited from a preoperative clinic of an Australian hospital in 2003. Patients allocated to the experimental group received a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention incorporating preoperative computerised smoking cessation counselling, tailored self-help material, brief advice from preoperative clinical staff, NRT, telephone counselling, and proactive post-discharge telephone support from a Quitline. At the six month follow-up 12% of 66 usual care control group participants and 25% of 52 experimental group participants reported being abstinent (p=0.07). Comprehensive smoking cessation interventions initiated preoperatively and incorporating postdischarge support from a Quitline may be efficacious in increasing smoking abstinence.

  17. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated.

  18. [Design and user-testing of a decision aid comparing medications for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Julian; Cornuz, Jacques; Auer, Reto; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Cardinaux, Regula; Selby, Kevin

    2017-06-07

    Medications for smoking cessation, such as nicotine replacement, bupropion and varenicline have comparable efficacy, but present different advantages and drawbacks, making patient-specific preferences important when choosing a medication for smoking cessation. Through 3 PDCA cycles (Plan-Do-Check-Act), we developed and user-tested a decision aid for use during consultations. It contains the most relevant information for choosing a smoking cessation medication and is freely available online. The methodology used for its development could be employed for other decision aids for preference-sensitive decisions.

  19. Associations of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase genetic polymorphisms with smoking cessation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijie; Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-12-01

    Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A503V (rs1057868) in cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene was reported to influence nicotine metabolism. Considering the importance of nicotine metabolism to smoking cessation, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between POR gene polymorphisms and smoking cessation in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted with 363 successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 345 failed smoking quitters as the controls. Eight tagSNPs which cover the entire gene and four functional SNPs were selected and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between POR SNPs and smoking cessation in codominant, additive, dominant and recessive models. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that POR rs3823884 and rs3898649 were associated with increased possibility of smoking cessation. Meanwhile, POR rs17685 and rs239953 were shown to have negative effect on successful smoking cessation. No significant differences in the distribution of haplotypes between cases and controls were detected. In conclusion, this study reveals that four SNPs in the POR gene (rs3823884, rs3898649, rs239953 and rs17685) may affect the susceptibility of smoking cessation in a Chinese Han population.

  20. Two decades of smoking cessation treatment research on smokers with depression: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M; Morlett, Alejandra; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-06-01

    Adults with depression smoke at higher rates than other adults leaving a large segment of this population, who already incur increased health-related risks, vulnerable to the enormous harmful consequences of smoking. Yet, the impact that depression has on smoking cessation is not clear due to the mixed results of past research. The primary aims of this review were to synthesize the research examining the relationship of depression to smoking cessation outcomes over a 20-year period, to examine the gender and racial composition of these studies, and to identify directions for future research. Potential articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010 were identified through a MEDLINE search of the terms "clinical trial," "depression," and "smoking cessation." 68 studies used all three terms and met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies examined either a past diagnosis of major depression or current depression symptoms. Within the few studies that examined the interaction of gender and depression on smoking cessation, depression had a greater impact on treatment outcomes for women than men. No study reported examining the interactive impact of race and depression on treatment outcomes. Although attention to the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes has increased over the past 20 years, little information exists to inform a treatment approach for smokers with Current Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, and Minor Depression and few studies report gender and racial differences in the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes, thus suggesting major areas for targeted research.

  1. Persistence of oxidant and protease burden in the airways after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haahtela Tari

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke related lung diseases, but longitudinal effects of smoking cessation on oxidant markers in the airways are unknown. Methods This study included 61 smokers; 21 with chronic bronchitis or COPD, 15 asthmatics and 25 asymptomatic smokers followed up for 3 months after smoking cessation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, sputum neutrophil counts, sputum 8-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 were investigated at baseline and 1 and 3 months after smoking cessation. Results After 3 months 15 subjects had succeeded in quitting of smoking and in these subjects symptoms improved significantly. Unexpectedly, however, sputum neutrophils increased (p = 0.046 after smoking cessation in patients with chronic bronchitis/COPD. At baseline, the other markers did not differ between the three groups so these results were combined for further analysis. Sputum 8-isoprostane declined significantly during the follow-up at 3 months (p = 0.035, but levels still remained significantly higher than in non-smokers. The levels of FeNO, nitrotyrosine and MMP-8 did not change significantly during the 3 months after smoking cessation. Conclusion Whilst symptoms improve after smoking cessation, the oxidant and protease burden in the airways continues for months.

  2. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  3. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module.

  4. Spousal Effects in Smoking Cessation: Matching, Learning, or Bargaining?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Anne McGeary

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studying the correlation in smoking behavior between spouses has discounted the role of bargaining or learning. Using the Health and Retirement Study, which contains information on smoking cessation and spouse’s preferences, this paper presents an essential investigation of the impact of spousal bargaining or learning on the decision to cease smoking. We find that, regardless of gender, when one member of a couple ceases smoking this induces the other member to cease smoking...

  5. Budgetary impact analysis on funding smoking-cessation drugs in patients with COPD in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Ruiz CA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz,1 Segismundo Solano-Reina,2 Jaime Signes-Costa,3 Eva de Higes-Martinez,4 José I Granda-Orive,5 José J Lorza-Blasco,6 Juan A Riesco-Miranda,7 Neus Altet-Gomez,8 Miguel Barrueco,9 Itziar Oyagüez,10 Javier Rejas11 On behalf of the SEPAR’s Integrated Tobacco Research Program 1Specialised Tobacco Unit, Community of Madrid, 2Tobacco Unit, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, 5Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 6Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre, 7Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital de San Pedro Alcántara, Cáceres, 8Drassanes Tobacco Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall-d’Hebron-Drassanes, The Jordi Gol University Institute for Research Primary Healthcare, Barcelona, 9Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Biomedical Research Institute, Salamanca, 10Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research Iberia, 11Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Health Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Sociedad Limitada Unificada, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the budgetary impact of funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients in Spain. A hybrid model (cohort and Markov was developed for a 5-year time horizon. Only approved cessation drugs (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy were considered. Irrespective of the drug, the model allowed for an initial cessation attempt, and up to three additional attempts in case of failure or smoking relapse during a 5-year period. Drug effectiveness was based on controlled clinical trials. National Health System perspective was applied; therefore, only medical resources were included. The pharmaceutical costs for

  6. Essential Components for Success: A Smoking Cessation Programme in a Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Carol; Sell, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess long-term quit rates of a comprehensive smoking cessation group programme and identify factors that may influence outcomes. Design: Data from 199 patients who participated in the programme from June 2009 through June 2010 were evaluated regarding smoking history, nicotine dependence and attitudes toward smoking and quitting.…

  7. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  8. The effectiveness of interventions for primary care physicians to assist in smoking cessation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Stoyka

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.

  9. Intervention study for smoking cessation in Spanish college students: pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardavila-Belio, Miren I; García-Vivar, Cristina; Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Canga-Armayor, Ana; Pueyo-Garrigues, Sara; Canga-Armayor, Navidad

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a nurse intervention aimed at helping college student smokers quit smoking. Single-blind, pragmatic randomized controlled trial which compares a multi-component intervention, tailored specifically to college students, with a brief advice session with a 6-month follow-up. This study was conducted at the University of Navarra, Spain. A total of 255 college student smokers (age range = 18-24 years) were randomized to an intervention group (n = 133) or to a control group (n = 122). A multi-component intervention based on the Theory of Triadic Influence of Flay was developed. The intervention consisted of a 50-minute motivational interview conducted by a nurse and online self-help material. The follow-up included a reinforcing e-mail and group therapy. The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence, with biochemical verification at 6 months. The secondary outcomes consisted of the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day, self-reported attempts to quit smoking and stage of change at 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, the smoking cessation incidence was 21.1% in the intervention group compared with 6.6% in the control group (difference = 14.5 confidence interval = 6.1-22.8; relative risk = 3.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.62-7.20). The difference in the mean number of cigarettes at 6 months was significantly different (difference = -2.2, confidence interval = -3.6 to -0.9). A multi-component intervention tailored to college students and managed by a nurse is effective in increasing smoking cessation among college students. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group search strategy was combined with additional searches for any studies that referred to tobacco/smoking cessation, mass media and adults. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a number of electronic databases. The last search was carried out in November 2016. Controlled trials allocating communities, regions or states to intervention or control conditions; interrupted time series.Adults, 25 years or older, who regularly smoke cigarettes. Studies which cover all adults as defined in studies were included.Mass media are defined here as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact. The purpose of the mass media campaign must be primarily to encourage smokers to quit. They could be carried out alone or in conjunction with tobacco control programmes.The primary outcome was change in smoking behaviour. This could be reported as changes in prevalence, changes in cigarette consumption, quit rates, or odds of being a smoker. Two authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion criteria and for study quality (MB, LS, RTM). One author (MB) extracted data, and a second author (LS) checked them.Results were not pooled due to heterogeneity of the included studies and are presented narratively and in table form. Eleven campaigns met the inclusion

  11. Orthosteric and Allosteric Ligands of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnim S. Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine addiction, the result of tobacco use, leads to over six million premature deaths world-wide, a number that is expected to increase by a third within the next two decades. While more than half of smokers want and attempt to quit, only a small percentage of smokers are able to quit without pharmacological interventions. Therefore, over the past decades, researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry have focused their attention on the development of more effective smoking cessation therapies, which is now a growing 1.9 billion dollar market. Because the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR in nicotine addiction is well established, nAChR based therapeutics remain the leading strategy for smoking cessation. However, the development of neuronal nAChR drugs that are selective for a nAChR subpopulation is challenging, and only few neuronal nAChR drugs are clinically available. Among the many neuronal nAChR subtypes that have been identified in the brain, the α4β2 subtype is the most abundant and plays a critical role in nicotine addiction. Here, we review the role of neuronal nAChRs, especially the α4β2 subtype, in the development and treatment of nicotine addiction. We also compare available smoking cessation medications and other nAChR orthosteric and allosteric ligands that have been developed with emphasis on the difficulties faced in the development of clinically useful compounds with high nAChR subtype selectivity.

  12. Smoking Cessation and Electronic Cigarette Use among Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Nicholas; Partington, Erin J; Harrington, Kathleen F; Rosenthal, Eben L; Carroll, William R; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-01-01

    (1) Investigate electronic cigarette (e-cig) use among head and neck (HN) cancer patients; (2) define quit methods, success, motivations, and barriers to smoking cessation; and (3) determine the impact of e-cig use in smoking cessation. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care center. An in-office survey was administered to HN cancer patients ≥ 19 years of age with past/present tobacco use. Patient demographics were collected. Quit methods, success, and motivations/barriers were surveyed. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to correlate alcohol use and cessation. Independent variables associated with cessation were studied with Fisher's exact test and Student's t test. Subgroup analysis was performed for e-cig users. Of 110 eligible patients, 106 (96%) enrolled (83% male, 82% Caucasian), of whom 69 (65%) successfully quit. Age of first tobacco use did not differ between the smoking and cessation groups (P = .14), nor did hazardous drinking (30% smoking vs 14% cessation; P = .072). "Cold turkey" (ie, stopping abruptly without smoking cessation aids) was the most common method attempted (n = 88, 83%) and most successful (n = 65, 94%). There was no statistical difference in age, sex, race, drinking, or socioeconomic status between e-cig users and nonusers. Nonusers achieved higher quit rates as compared with e-cig users (72% vs 39%; P = .0057). E-cig use did not decrease the number of cigarettes smoked (463 cigarettes/month) versus that of nonusers (341 cigarettes/month; P = .2). Seventy percent of e-cig users wore a nicotine patch. HN cancer patients desire smoking cessation. E-cig did not decrease tobacco use, and patients who utilize e-cigs are less likely to achieve smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: 1990 to 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.

  14. Smoking cessation and its predictors: results from a community-based pharmacy tobacco cessation program in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasreen; Anderson, Joe R; Du, Juan; Tinker, Dale; Bachyrycz, Amy M; Namdar, Rocsanna

    2012-09-01

    The New Mexico Pharmaceutical Care Foundation received funding through the Tobacco Use Prevention and Control Program (TUPAC) to provide support for pharmacist-delivered tobacco cessation services. The goal of the program was to increase the availability of tobacco cessation services to residents of New Mexico. Program outcomes are presented, using data from the first 2 fiscal years. To assess tobacco quit rates among smokers who participated in the community pharmacist-based program and identify the predictors of quitting at the end of a 6-month program. Pharmacists, who had received Rx for Change training, provided tobacco cessation services. Patients were scheduled for an initial visit and then were seen at regularly scheduled follow-up visits at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months from the initial visit. Data collected at the initial visit included demographics, smoking history, and readiness for quitting. Smoking status was collected at each of the follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute) and STATA (StataCorp LP) statistical software. Tobacco quit rates were calculated at 1, 3, and 6 months. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of quitting. Standard errors were adjusted for repeated observation. Data were available for 346 participants. The average quit rate at the end of 6 months was 25%. Significant predictors of quitting were high confidence levels in quitting at baseline, individuals who had first cigarettes at least 30 minutes after waking up, first cessation attempt, and nonwhite patients. A smoking cessation program delivered through trained community pharmacists with prescriptive authority is an effective approach to reducing smoking. Further research should be conducted to compare the effectiveness of pharmacists with that of other providers of tobacco cessation services.

  15. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  16. Content Analysis of Smartphone Apps for Smoking Cessation in China: Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xu, Junfang; Su, Chunyan; Fu, Xiaoxing; Bricker, Jonathan

    2017-07-11

    With 360 million smokers, China consumes more cigarettes than any other country in the world. Given that 620 million Chinese own smartphones, smartphone apps for smoking cessation are increasingly used in China to help smokers quit. This study analyzed and evaluated the contents of all smoking cessation apps (iOS and Android) available in China, applying the China Clinical Smoking Cessation Guideline (CCSCG; identical to the US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence) as a framework for analysis. We conducted a content analysis of Chinese Android and iOS smoking cessation apps (N=64) designed to assist users in quitting smoking. Each app was independently coded by two raters for its approach to smoking cessation and adherence to the CCSCG. We also recorded the features of smoking cessation apps (eg, release date, size, frequency of downloads, user ratings, type, quality scores by raters, and designers). Linear regression was used to test predictors of popularity and user-rated quality. Chinese smoking cessation apps have low levels of adherence to guidelines, with an average score of 11.1 for Android and 14.6 for iOS apps on a scale of 0 to 46. There was no significant association between popularity, user rating, and the characteristics of apps. However, there was a positive relationship between popularity, user rating, and adherence score. Chinese apps for smoking cessation have low levels of adherence to standard clinical practice guidelines. New apps need be developed and existing apps be revised following evidence-based principles in China. ©Feng Cheng, Junfang Xu, Chunyan Su, Xiaoxing Fu, Jonathan Bricker. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.

  17. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Ussher, Michael H

    2011-03-16

    Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance of the endocannabinoid system, which can be disrupted by prolonged use of nicotine. They also seeks to address many smokers' reluctance to persist with a quit attempt because of concerns about weight gain. To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers of people stopping smoking To assess their effects on weight change in successful quitters and in those who try to quit but fail. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register for trials, using the terms ('rimonabant' or 'taranabant') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using major MESH terms. We acquired electronic or paper copies of posters of preliminary trial results presented at the American Thoracic Society Meeting in 2005, and at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco European Meeting 2006. We also attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies of rimonabant, and Sanofi Aventis (manufacturers of rimonabant). The most recent search was in January 2011. Types of studies Randomized controlled trialsTypes of participants Adult smokersTypes of interventions Selective CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant and taranabant. Types of outcome measures The primary outcome is smoking status at a minimum of six months after the start of treatment. We preferred sustained cessation rates to point prevalence, and biochemically verified cessation to self-reported quitting. We regarded smokers who drop out or are lost to follow up as continuing smokers. We have noted any adverse effects of treatment.A secondary outcome is weight change associated with the cessation attempt. Two authors checked the abstracts for relevance, and attempted to acquire full trial reports. One author extracted the data, and a second author checked

  18. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  19. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Figueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  20. Influence of psychosocial factors on smoking cessation: longitudinal evidence from the Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Claudia S; Sampaio, Maria Miranda Autran; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the incidence of smoking cessation and its association with psychosocial factors. Data came from three consecutive waves of the Pro-Saude Study, a longitudinal study of non-faculty civil servants working at a university in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Inclusion criteria were having participated in Phases 1 and 3 and being a smoker at baseline (Phase 1--1999). Those who had stopped smoking less than a year before the follow-up (Phase 3--2007) were excluded. The final study population consisted of 661 employees (78% of those eligible). Relative risks (RR) of smoking cessation were evaluated through Poisson regression with robust variance. The cumulative incidence of smoking cessation in eight years of follow-up was 27.7%. Among the psychosocial factors evaluated in the multivariate analysis, only lack of experience of physical violence was associated with higher smoking cessation (RR = 1.67, 95%CI 1.09;2.55). The incidence of smoking cessation was high, and the fact that associations were not found with most factors evaluated suggests that much of the effect found is due to the impact of public policies implemented in Brazil over the past decades. The association between no exposure to violence and higher incidence of smoking cessation draws attention to the importance of this factor in tobacco control policies.

  1. An ecological momentary assessment analysis of pre-quit markers for smoking cessation failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Vivian M.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify correlates of smoking cessation failure, a failure to establish abstinence during a quit smoking attempt. Identifying risk factors for early failure could facilitate the development of tailored interventions to promote cessation. The current study used existing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data to investigate the extent to which pre-quit craving, negative affect, and recent smoking were associated with cessation failure in 374 smokers (189, 50.5% female). Subjects were prompted to complete 4–7 real-time reports of craving, negative affect, and recent smoking daily in the four days prior to quitting. Multilevel models of craving and negative affect (mean level, growth, volatility, and association with smoking) were estimated. Results indicated that recent smoking was associated with significantly lower craving among smokers who failed to quit than those who achieved a full day of cessation, but this held only among smokers who reduced smoking by at least 10% in the days preceding the quit attempt. Smokers who failed to quit on the quit day also experienced slower increases in negative affect in the days preceding the quit attempt than did initial abstainers, but delayed quitters and delayed cessation failures did not differ in negative affect trajectories. These results suggest that successful abstainers and cessation failures can be differentiated by specific dimensions of pre-quit craving and negative affect experiences, but the effects hold only in certain circumstances. PMID:22924702

  2. The impact of repeated spirometry and smoking cessation advice on smokers with mild COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratelis, Georgios; Mölstad, Sigvard; Jakobsson, Per; Zetterström, Olle

    2006-09-01

    Smoking cessation is the most important therapeutic intervention in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and the health benefits are immediate and substantial. Major efforts have been made to develop methods with high smoking cessation rates. To study whether a combination of spirometry and brief smoking cessation advice to smokers with COPD, annually for three years, increased their smoking cessation rate in comparison with groups of smokers with normal lung function. Prospective, randomized study in primary care. Smoking cessation rates were compared between smokers with COPD followed-up yearly over a period of three years and smokers with normal lung function followed-up yearly for three years or followed-up only once after three years. The point-prevalence abstinence rate and prolonged abstinence rate at 6 and 12 months increased yearly and in smokers with COPD at year 3 was 29%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. The abstinence rates were significantly higher in smokers with COPD than in smokers with normal lung function. Smoking cessation rates among smokers with normal lung function did not increase with increasing number of follow-ups. Smokers diagnosed with COPD stopped smoking significantly more often than those with normal lung function.

  3. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  4. The short- and long-run effects of smoking cessation on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukert, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-term effects of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption using the Lung Health Study, a randomized smoking cessation program. The paper estimates the relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption using several self-reported and objective smoking measures, while also implementing a two-stage least squares estimation strategy that utilizes the randomized smoking cessation program assignment as an instrument for smoking. The analysis leads to three salient findings. First, self-reported and clinically verified smoking measures provide mixed evidence on the short-term impact of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption. Second, the long-term impact of smoking on alcohol consumption, measured with the historic 5 years smoking behavior, suggests that those with the highest average cigarette consumption and those with the longest smoking history see the largest increase in alcohol consumption. Specifically, abstaining from smoking or reducing the average cigarette consumption to the mean level lowers alcohol consumption by roughly 25% per week. As a result, these findings present comprehensive evidence that smoking and drinking are complements in the long-term and that the public health and finance benefits in smoking cessations treatments are undervalued.

  5. Anxiety and Depression in Bidirectional Relations Between Pain and Smoking: Implications for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, Emily L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Pain and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that impose considerable burdens on individuals and health care systems. A recently proposed reciprocal model suggests that these conditions interact in a bidirectional manner, resulting in greater pain and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Anxiety and depression are common among smokers in pain and have been identified as central mechanisms of interest. There is emerging evidence that smokers with anxiety/depression may experience more severe pain and functional impairment, greater pain-induced motivation to smoke, and increased sensitivity to pain during periods of smoking abstinence. Based on empirical findings, we hypothesize that these experiences may engender expectations that abstaining from smoking will exacerbate both pain and negative affect, thus eroding self-efficacy for smoking cessation and increasing perceived barriers to quitting. The goal of this narrative review is to examine the role of anxiety/depression in complex pain–smoking relations so as to advance evolving theoretical perspectives and inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:26467214

  6. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking cessa...... cessation program, initiated during the acute hospitalization period and carried out for six weeks, could reduce the number of complications following emergency surgical treatment of fractures.......Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking...

  7. Smoking cessation and characteristics of success and failure among female high-school smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ae; Lee, Chung Yul; Lim, Eun Sun; Kim, Gwang Suk

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation program on female high-school students and to analyze the characteristics of students who quit smoking compared to those of students who failed to quit. This study used a mixed research design, including a pre- and post-experimental design for measuring the effects of the smoking cessation intervention and a qualitative design using a focus group interview to analyze the characteristics of individuals who successfully quit in comparison to those who failed to stop smoking. Data were collected before and after the intervention through a self-report questionnaire, a biochemical index, and a focus group interview. After the intervention, positive changes in stage in the transtheoretical model for smoking-cessation behavior increased significantly (P<0.001), and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P=0.001), dependency on nicotine, expiratory CO levels, and positive frequency of urine nicotine levels decreased significantly (P<0.001). Based on data from the focus group interview, students who stopped smoking showed different intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics compared to students who failed to stop smoking. The results suggest that the smoking-cessation program could be more effective if it were to involve teachers and family members. In addition, a smoking-prohibited community environment could assist in the control of adolescents' smoking behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  8. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of and Interest in Smoking Cessation Strategies among Daily and Nondaily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mendel, Jennifer; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine use of and interest in cessation strategies among nondaily and daily college student smokers. Participants: 800 undergraduate student smokers aged 18 to 25. Methods: The authors examined nondaily versus daily smoking in relation to use of and interest in cessation strategies using an online survey. Results: Nondaily (65.8%)…

  10. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  11. A comparison of the characteristics of iOS and Android users of a smoking cessation app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; van Schayck, Onno C P; West, Robert

    2017-06-01

    iOS and Android smartphone users may differ in ways that affect their use and likelihood of success when using a smoking cessation application (app). If so, it may be necessary to take the device type (iOS and Android) into account when designing smoking cessation apps and in studies evaluating app effectiveness. How do socio-demographic and smoking characteristics, potentially relevant to engagement and cessation outcomes, of the SF28 app users differ between those using the iOS version and those using the Android version? Data were collected between October 2013 and April 2015. The variables measured were age, gender, social grade, time since the most recent quit attempt, choice of medication use (nicotine replacement therapy or varenicline), weekly expenditure on cigarettes, cigarettes smoked per day, reason for using the app and quit date set. The alpha was set to p Android device users were similar in terms of age, social grade, weekly expenditure on cigarettes and cigarettes smoked per day. Compared with Android users, iOS users were more likely to have downloaded the app for a serious quit attempt (74.3 versus 69.6%, p = 0.001), made a quit attempt within the last 12 months (59.6 versus 45.9%, p Android version may influence quit success.

  12. A review of strategies to stimulate dental professionals to integrate smoking cessation interventions into primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of various implementation strategies to stimulate the delivery of smoking cessation advice and support during daily dental care. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Search of online medical and psychological databases, correspondence with authors and

  13. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme compared with other smoking cessation interventions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Fernández, Esteve; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We compared the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programme (a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention commonly used in Denmark) with other face-to-face smoking cessation programmes in Denmark after implementation in real life, and we identified factors associated with successful...... quitting. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A total of 423 smoking cessation clinics from different settings reported data from 2001 to 2013. Participants: In total, 82 515 patients were registered. Smokers ≥15 years old and attending a programme with planned follow-up were included. Smokers who...... did not want further contact, who intentionally were not followed up or who lacked information about the intervention they received were excluded. A total of 46 287 smokers were included. Interventions: Various real-life smoking cessation interventions were identified and compared: The Gold Standard...

  14. Motives for smoking cessation are associated with stage of readiness to quit smoking and sociodemographics among German industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Seidenstücker, Sabine; Janssen, Patricia A; Novak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To test the relationships among particular motives for smoking cessation, stage of readiness to quit (preparation or contemplation), and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study to examine attitudes toward and use of health promotion at the worksite, using a self-administered questionnaire. Two German metal companies. Of 1641 responding employees (response rate 65% in company A and 44% in company B), 360 smokers who intended to quit immediately (n = 105) or in the near future (n = 255) were analyzed. The questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behavior, smoking history, readiness to quit smoking, motives to quit, such as coworkers' complaints and health-related or financial concerns. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Health-related reasons (94%) predominated financial (27%) or image-related (14%) reasons for smoking cessation. Participants in the cessation preparation group were more likely to report an awareness of being addicted (79.6% vs. 58.2%; p motives for smoking cessation, including reduced performance, family's and coworkers' complaints, pregnancy/children, and negative public image, but not health-related and financial concerns, differed significantly by gender, age, marital status, education, and occupational status. Motives for smoking cessation vary according to the individual's level of readiness to quit and sociodemographic background.

  15. Home visiting and perinatal smoking: a mixed-methods exploration of cessation and harm reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Griffis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Home visiting programs represent an important primary prevention strategy for adverse prenatal health behaviors; the various ways in which home visiting programs impact prenatal smoking cessation and reduction behaviors remain understudied. Methods Mixed methods approach using a retrospective cohort of propensity score matched home visiting clients and local-area comparison women with first births between 2008–2014 in a large Northeast state. Multivariable logistic and linear regression estimated third trimester prenatal tobacco smoking cessation and reduction. Additionally, qualitative interviews were conducted with 76 home visiting clients. Results A program effect was seen for smoking cessation such that clients who smoked less than ten cigarettes per day and those who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day during the first trimester were more likely to achieve third trimester cessation than comparison women (p <0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively. Only for heavy smokers (20 or more cigarettes during the first trimester was there a significant reduction in number of cigarettes smoked by the third trimester versus comparison women (p = 0.01. Clients expressed the difficulty of cessation, but addressed several harm-reduction strategies including reducing smoking in the house and wearing a smoking jacket. Clients also described smoking education that empowered them to ask others to not smoke or adopt other harm reducing behaviors when around their children. Conclusions While a significant impact on smoking cessation was seen, this study finds a less-clear impact on smoking reduction among women in home visiting programs. As home visiting programs continue to expand, it will be important to best identify effective ways to support tobacco-related harm reduction within vulnerable families.

  16. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser Sheryl M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. Objective To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Discussion Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Conclusion Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  17. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marion W; Hawk, Cheryl; Strasser, Sheryl M

    2006-10-12

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  18. Acupressure for smoking cessation – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moody Russell C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive. The aim of this pilot project was to determine the feasibility of a study to test acupressure as an adjunct to one anti-smoking treatment currently offered, and to inform the design of the study. Methods An open randomised controlled pilot study was conducted within the six week group programme offered by the Smoking Advice Service in Plymouth, UK. All participants received the usual treatment with NRT and group behavioural therapy, and were randomised into three groups: group A with two auricular acupressure beads, group B with one bead, and group C with no additional therapy. Participants were taught to press the beads when they experienced cravings. Beads were worn in one ear for four weeks, being replaced as necessary. The main outcome measures assessed in the pilot were success at quitting (expired CO ≤ 9 ppm, the dose of NRT used, and the rating of withdrawal symptoms using the Mood and Symptoms Scale. Results From 49 smokers attending four clinics, 24 volunteered to participate, 19 attended at least once after quitting, and seven remained to the final week. Participants who dropped out reported significantly fewer previous quit attempts, but no other significant differences. Participants reported stimulating the beads as expected during the initial days after quitting, but most soon reduced the frequency of stimulation. The discomfort caused by the beads was minor, and there were no significant side effects. There were technical problems with adhesiveness of

  19. Contemplation of smoking cessation and quit attempts in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrir, Shahida; Tindle, Hilary A; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Fiellin, David A; Goulet, Joseph; Akgün, Kathleen M; Gibert, Cynthia L; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Crothers, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    As antiretroviral treatments prolong life in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, smoking cessation is now a top priority. However, studies of HIV-infected smokers have not been conducted with uninfected controls. In this study, researchers determined factors associated with contemplating smoking cessation and making a prior quit attempt among HIV-infected and uninfected smoking veterans. Between 2005 and 2007, 1,027 HIV-infected and 794 uninfected smokers were identified as part of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Stratifying by HIV status, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using logistic regression to identify factors associated with contemplating smoking cessation and making a prior quit attempt. Most participants (66 % of HIV-infected vs. 68 % of uninfected; P = .46) were contemplating cessation, and 56 % of both groups (P = .99) had attempted to quit in the last year. In stratified multivariable analyses, HIV-infected smokers with recent pulmonary disease diagnoses were more likely to have made a quit attempt (AOR = 4.93, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-17.17). Both HIV-infected and uninfected patients with unhealthy alcohol use were less likely to be contemplating cessation (AOR = 0.66, 95 % CI = 0.49-0.90 and 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.50-1.00). HIV-infected smokers who reported unhealthy alcohol use were also less likely to have made a quit attempt in the last year (AOR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.91). Patient-level interest and motivation are not major barriers to smoking cessation among HIV-infected veterans. Targeting HIV-infected smokers with a recent pulmonary disease diagnosis may improve sustained smoking cessation. Unhealthy alcohol use appears to be a key modifiable risk factor. Smoking cessation rates may be improved by combining interventions for smoking and alcohol use for HIV-infected patients.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, Tellervo; Kinnunen, Taru; Quiles, Zandra; Leeman, Robert F; Terwal, Donna Medaglia; Garvey, Arthur J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk beh...

  1. User Experience Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation App in People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Rizo, Javier; Kientz, Julie A; McDonell, Michael G; Ries, Richard K; Sobel, Kiley

    2016-05-01

    Smoking rates among people with serious mental illness are 3 to 4 times higher than the general population, yet currently there are no smoking cessation apps specifically designed to address this need. We report the results of a User Experience (UX) evaluation of a National Cancer Institute smoking cessation app, QuitPal, and provide user centered design data that can be used to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population. Two hundred forty hours of field experience with QuitPal, 10 hours of recorded interviews and task performances, usage logs and a self-reported usability scale, informed the results of our study. Participants were five individuals recruited from a community mental health clinic with a reported serious mental illness history. Performance, self-reports, usage logs and interview data were triangulated to identify critical usability errors and UX themes emerging from this population. Data suggests QuitPal has below average levels of usability, elevated time on task performances and required considerable amounts of guidance. UX themes provided critical information to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population, such as the importance of breaking down "cessation" into smaller steps and use of a reward system. This is the first study to examine the UX of a smoking cessation app among people with serious mental illness. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for this highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for people with serious mental illness, a highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W; Cummings, K Michael; Kasza, Karin A; Borland, Ron; Burris, Jessica L; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada, and Australia (N=795) who: (1) completed two consecutive surveys between 2006 and 2011; (2) initiated a QA at least 1 month before each survey; and (3) provided data for the primary predictor (SCM use during most recent QA), outcome (1-month point prevalence abstinence), and relevant covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Five SCM user classifications were identified: (1) non-users (43.5%); (2) early users (SCM used for initial, but not subsequent QA; 11.4%); (3) later users (SCM used for subsequent, but not initial QA; 18.4%); (4) repeaters (same SCM used for both QAs; 10.7%); and (5) switchers (different SCM used for each QA; 14.2%). Abstinence rates were lower for non-users (15.9%, OR=0.48, p=0.002), early users (16.6%, OR=0.27, p=0.03), and repeaters (12.4%, OR=0.36, p=0.004) relative to switchers (28.5%). Findings suggest smokers will be more successful if they use a SCM in QAs and vary the SCM they use across time. That smokers can increase their odds of quitting by switching SCMs is an important message that could be communicated to smokers. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral

    2016-06-01

    To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation-present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death. Anew treatment in smoking cessation and relapse prevention is nicotine vaccination which is based on active immunization against the nicotine molecule. This article aimed to review the mechanism of action, current status of research and future aspects for the development of vaccines against nicotine. Materials & Method: The literature search of publications indexed was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Google scholar databases. Total 25 animal trials, human trials under various phases of clinical trials, unpublished document and cross-sectional survey were reviewed. Results: This immunization will act on immune system to produce nicotine-specific antibodies that sequester nicotine in the blood stream, after inhaling tobacco products. Nicotine vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections. Efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels which help to optimize the vaccine effect. Nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation trials. Conclusions: Though, nicotine vaccine has considerable therapeutic potential, they do not target the non pharmacological factors that maintain tobacco dependence. So combination of nicotine vaccine with behavioral interventions would be effective mode to motivate abstinence from tobacco use.

  5. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  6. Training Malaysian Pharmacy Undergraduates with Knowledge and Skills on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simansalam, Saraswathi; Brewster, Joan M; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki

    2015-06-25

    To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training. Sixty third-year and 80 fourth-year pharmacy undergraduates (N=140) were given access to an online module, the main intervention in the study. Two linkable questionnaires were administered to assess students' preintervention and postintervention knowledge. For the third-year students, an additional role-play training component was incorporated, and student skills were assessed during week 14 with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Preintervention and postintervention knowledge assessments were completed by 130 (92.8%) students. Sixty-six students scored above 50% for the knowledge component postintervention, compared to 13 at preintervention, demonstrating significant improvement (x2(1, N=130)=32, p=0.003). All third-year students completed the intervention, and 66.7% were able to counsel excellently for smoking cessation, scoring more than 80%. The CSCSP online module developed for practicing professionals was found suitable for equipping pharmacy undergraduates with knowledge on smoking cessation topics. The module, along with role-play training, also equipped students with knowledge and skills to provide smoking cessation counseling.

  7. Smoking Cessation Benefit Utilization: Comparing Methodologies for Measurement using New York State's Medicaid Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Kevin; Proj, Anisa; Battles, Haven; Juster, Theresa; Ortega-Peluso, Christina; Wu, Meng; Juster, Harlan

    2017-11-09

    Pharmacotherapy and counseling for tobacco cessation are evidence based methods that increase successful smoking cessation attempts. Medicaid programs are required to provide coverage for smoking cessation services. Monitoring utilization is desirable for program evaluation and quality improvement. Various methodologies have been used to study utilization. Many factors can influence results, perhaps none more than how smokers are identified. This study evaluated utilization of smoking cessation services using various methods to estimate the number of smokers within New York State's (NYS's) Medicaid program in 2015. Estimates of utilization were generated based on Medicaid claims and encounters and four sources of smoking prevalence: two population surveys, one Medicaid enrollee survey, and diagnosis codes. We compared the percentage of (estimated) smokers utilizing cessation services, and the average number of services used, across fee-for-service and managed care populations, and by cessation service category. Statewide, smoking prevalence estimates ranged from 10.9% to 31.5%. Diagnosis codes identified less than 45% of smokers estimated by surveys. A similar number of cessation counseling (199,106) and pharmacotherapy services (197,728) were used, yet more members utilized counseling (126,839) than pharmacotherapy (91,433). The estimated percentage of smokers who used smoking cessation services ranged from 15.1% to 43.4%, and the estimated average number of cessation services used ranged from 0.31 to 0.90 per smoker. Smoking prevalence estimates obtained through surveys greatly exceed prevalence observed in diagnosis codes in NYS's Medicaid data. Use of diagnosis codes in analysis of smoking cessation benefit utilization may result in overestimates. Selection of a smoking prevalence data source for similar analyses should ultimately be based on completeness of the data and applicability to the population of interest. Evaluation of smoking cessation benefit

  8. Financial benefit of a smoking cessation program prior to elective colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Cameron E; Kling, Catherine E; Varghese, Thomas K; Veenstra, David L; Thirlby, Richard C; Flum, David R; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of postoperative complications nearly 2-fold. Preoperative smoking cessation programs may reduce complications as well as overall postoperative costs. We aim to create an economic evaluation framework to estimate the potential value of preoperative smoking cessation programs for patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. A decision-analytic model from the payer perspective was developed to integrate the costs and incidence of 90-day postoperative complications and readmissions for a cohort of patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery after a smoking cessation program versus usual care. Complication, readmission, and cost data were derived from a cohort of 534 current smokers and recent quitters undergoing elective colorectal resections in Washington State's Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program linked to Washington State's Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Smoking cessation program efficacy was obtained from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for uncertainty. For a cohort of patients, the base case estimates imply that the total direct medical costs for patients who underwent a preoperative smoking cessation program were on average $304 (95% CI: $40-$571) lower per patient than those under usual care during the first 90 days after surgery. The model was most sensitive to the odds of recent quitters developing complications or requiring readmission, and smoking program efficacy. A preoperative smoking cessation program is predicted to be cost-saving over the global postoperative period if the cost of the intervention is below $304 per patient. This framework allows the value of smoking cessation programs of variable cost and effectiveness to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Stent Changes as Determined by Optical Coherence Tomography After Sirolimus Stent Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingtao; Wang, Xuedong; Zou, Yongpeng; Chen, Shuyuan; Zhang, Ruoxi; Li, Lulu; Yu, Bo; Hou, Jingbo

    2017-10-15

    There is debate regarding whether smoking results in microstructural changes after stenting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstructural changes after stenting in patients with different smoking statuses. We retrospectively identified 220 sirolimus-eluting stents in 179 patients who underwent follow-up optical coherence tomography examination 12 months after sirolimus stenting. Subjects were classified as current smokers (CS, n = 31), smoking cessation ≤1 year (n = 36), smoking cessation >1 year (SC > 1Y, n = 27), and never smokers (NS, n = 85). The neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) area was larger in CS than in NS (1.04 ± 0.72 mm 2 vs 0.96 ± 0.68 mm 2 ; p = 0.04). The incidence of lipid-laden neointima was lower in SC > 1Y patients (1.6%) than in all other patients (NS: 3.9%, p = 0.002; CS: 3.0%, p = 0.073; SC1Y: 5.0%, p Smoking cessation level was negatively correlated with NIH (B = -0.154; 95% confidential interval -0.187, -0.121; p smoking cessation patients showed a decreased trend in the incidence of malapposed struts (p = 0.0003). In conclusion, continued smoking increases NIH and the incidence of malapposed struts. However, smoking cessation slows down NIH progression and decreases the incidence of malapposed struts. Smoking cessation promotes vascular healing after stenting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had sm...

  11. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation in a Representative Sample of Korean Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and sex), socioeconomic (education, residence, and household income), and smoking characteristics (age at smoking onset, duration of smoking, and number of cigarettes sm...

  12. Association of intracranial aneurysm rupture with smoking duration, intensity, and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Anil; Castro, Victor M; Ozdemir, Yildirim H; Dagen, Sarajune; Yu, Sheng; Dligach, Dmitriy; Finan, Sean; Gainer, Vivian; Shadick, Nancy A; Murphy, Shawn; Cai, Tianxi; Savova, Guergana; Dammers, Ruben; Weiss, Scott T; Du, Rose

    2017-09-26

    Although smoking is a known risk factor for intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture, the exact relationship between IA rupture and smoking intensity and duration, as well as duration of smoking cessation, remains unknown. In this case-control study, we analyzed 4,701 patients with 6,411 IAs diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016. We divided individuals into patients with ruptured aneurysms and controls with unruptured aneurysms. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the association between smoking status and ruptured IAs at presentation. In a subgroup analysis among former and current smokers, we assessed the association between ruptured aneurysms and number of packs per day, duration of smoking, and duration since smoking cessation. In multivariable analysis, current (odds ratio [OR] 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-2.59) and former smoking status (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.31-1.86) were associated with rupture status at presentation compared with never smokers. In a subgroup analysis among current and former smokers, years smoked (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03) and packs per day (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.70) were significantly associated with ruptured aneurysms at presentation, whereas duration since cessation among former smokers was not significant (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.02). Current cigarette smoking, smoking intensity, and smoking duration are significantly associated with ruptured IAs at presentation. However, the significantly increased risk persists after smoking cessation, and smoking cessation does not confer a reduced risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage beyond that of reducing the cumulative dose. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Medications: A National Prospective Cohort From Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yin Chang

    Full Text Available Relative effectiveness of smoking cessation medications-varenicline, bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT-remains unclear among smokers in real-world settings. Evidence in females and smokers with light/moderate nicotine dependence is particularly insufficient. This study compared the effectiveness of varenicline, bupropion or NRT gum relative to NRT patch, in achieving abstinence among recent quitters.In a national smoking cessation program in Taiwan (2012-2015, a cohort of 11,968 participants received varenicline (n = 5,052, bupropion (n = 823, NRT gum (n = 1944 or NRT patch (n = 4,149. The 7-day, 1-month or 6-month point-prevalence was calculated based on self-reported last smoking event via telephone interview after 6 months. Logistic regression modellings estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for achieving abstinence using different modalities (NRT patch as referent. Models included age, sex, education, marital status, geographic region, smoke-years, nicotine-dependence level, medical institution, number of clinic visits and medication use duration. Analyses were further stratified by sex and dependence severity.Participants were predominantly male (83% with a mean age of 43.7±12.6 years. Varenicline users were more likely than NRT patch users to achieve abstinence, based on 7-day point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.19-1.44, 1-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.36, CI: 1.24-1.50 or 6-month point-prevalence (OR = 1.30, CI: 1.14-1.47. Compared with NRT patch, varenicline was associated with greater odds of being abstinent in women (OR = 1.29, CI: 1.01-1.65, men (OR = 1.31, CI: 1.18-1.46, those with light/moderate dependence (OR = 1.42, CI: 1.24-1.63 or smokers with severe dependence (OR = 1.19, CI: 1.04-1.37, based on 7-day point-prevalence. Differences in effectiveness were not observed between users of bupropion, NRT gum and NRT patch.In smoking cessation clinics in Taiwan, varenicline users reported higher

  14. Effects of an anger management and stress control program on smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Bektas Murat; Unal, Mustafa; Pirdal, Hasan; Karahan, Tevfik Fikret

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented anger management and stress control program on smokers' quit rates. Of 2348 smokers, 350 were randomly allocated into study and control groups (n = 175 each). An individualized therapy cessation technique was selected for each participant (combination of behavioral counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, and/or pharmacotherapy). The participants in the control group attended a standard quit program, whereas the study group also received an additional 5-session (90 minutes each) cognitive behavioral therapy-oriented program aimed at improving their anger and stress coping skills. At the beginning of the study, both groups were asked to complete the Trait Anger Scale (TAS) of the State and Trait Anger Scale and the Self-Confident (SCS) and Hopeless (HS) subscales of the Stress Coping Styles Inventory; pretest smoking status of both groups and their coping skills were compared with each other as soon as the program ended (post-test results) and after 3 and 6 months (first and second follow-up tests). Although there was no difference between pretest scores on the TAS (P = .234), SCS (P = .130), and HS (P = .148) subscales, post-test results indicate that the study groups' TAS and HS scores decreased and SCS scores increased (P .05). The study group had a better quit level after 6 months compared with the control group (44% vs 27.4%; P smoking. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Providing comprehensive smoking cessation care to surgical patients: the case for computers.

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    Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Campbell, Elizabeth; Knight, Jenny; Kerridge, Ross; Spigelman, Allan

    2009-01-01

    The provision of smoking cessation care to surgical patients before admission can reduce post-operative complications and encourage long-term smoking cessation. Our aim was to show how a comprehensive computer-based smoking cessation intervention, developed to enhance smoking cessation care to surgical patients, addresses barriers to care provision. Consultations with preoperative clinic staff and reviews of the scientific literature were conducted and identified the following barriers to the provision of effective smoking cessation care: a lack of organisational support, perceived patient objection, a lack of systems to identify smokers, a lack of staff time and skill, perceived inability to change care practices, a perceived lack of efficacy of cessation care and the cost of providing care. Based on positive findings of a pilot trial, a comprehensive computer-based smoking cessation intervention was implemented in a preoperative clinic. Data from previous evaluations of the intervention were used to assess the extent to which the intervention addressed clinician barriers to care. The computer-based intervention was found to provide a means to accurately and systematically identify smokers; it required little clinical staff time or skill; it was considered an acceptable form of care by staff and patients; it was effective in encouraging patient cessation and it was inexpensive to deliver relative to other surgical costs. Furthermore, the computer-based intervention continues to operate in the preoperative clinic in the absence of ongoing research support. The implementation of such a model of care should be considered by clinical services interested in reducing the smoking related morbidity and mortality of patients.

  16. Design of effective interventions for smoking cessation through financial and non-financial incentives.

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    Balderrama, Fanor; Longo, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Smoking has a tremendous negative impact on the Canadian economy and contributes to growing costs in the healthcare system. Efforts to reduce smoking rates may therefore reduce strain on the healthcare system and free up scarce resources. Academic literature on economic smoking cessation incentives presents a countless variety of interventions that have met with varying degrees of success. This study reviews six different variables used in the design of incentives in smoking cessation interventions: direction, form, magnitude, certainty, recipient grouping, and target demographic. The purpose of this study is to provide analysis and recommendations about the contribution of each variable into the overall effectiveness of smoking cessation programs and help health leaders design better interventions according to their specific needs.

  17. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.