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Sample records for smokers current smokers

  1. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  2. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE NO ) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FE NO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FE NO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FE NO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and the ratio of FEV 1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FE NO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FE NO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FE NO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FE NO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  3. Characteristics of past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Tominaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1989-06-01

    We studied characteristics of past smokers according to the duration of cessation of smoking based on data from a population-based survey. Lifestyle, prevalences of various symptoms and diseases and other factors were compared among current smokers (8507 males and 2012 females), past smokers (4423 males and 684 females) and non-smokers (2431 males and 12,859 females) aged 40 years and over. Compared to current smokers, past smokers consumed more bread, milk, vegetables, fruit and black tea, and less rice, pickles, instant noodles, coffee and alcohol, had lower prevalences of cough, sputum and anorexia, participated more in cancer screening tests, weighed more, included more professional and administrative workers and had more non-smoking spouses. These characteristics resembled those of non-smokers. But past smokers had high prevalences of several cardiovascular and respiratory diseases compared to current smokers. Daily intake of coffee was inversely associated and daily intakes of fruit and milk were positively associated with the duration of abstinence from smoking after adjusting for other factors in both sexes. These results suggest that lifestyle of past smokers may contribute to risk reduction for several diseases.

  4. Increased oxidative stress in asymptomatic current chronic smokers and GOLD stage 0 COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Rytilä, Paula; Rehn, Tiina; Ilumets, Helen; Rouhos, Annamari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. The aim of our study was to assess the importance of these factors in the airways of healthy smokers and symptomatic smokers without airway obstruction, i.e. individuals with GOLD stage 0 COPD. Methods Exhaled NO (FENO) and induced sputum samples were collected from 22 current smokers (13 healthy smokers without any respiratory symptoms and 9 with symptoms i.e. stage...

  5. Flexible emotion-based decision-making behavior varies in current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Zoe; O'Connor, Martin; Jollans, Emily K; O'Halloran, Laura; Dymond, Simon; Whelan, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Suboptimal decision-making is a feature in the initiation and maintenance of substance use, often manifested in choosing for short-term benefits rather than long-term gain, and the failure to display cognitive flexibility, respectively. Studies of nicotine users typically focus on characterizing those who are already addicted; less is known about decision-making in former smokers. Non- (n=21), former daily- (n=23) and current daily smokers (n=24), completed the contingency-shifting variant Iowa Gambling Task (csIGT), in which the reward and punishment contingencies of the decks are systematically varied after 100 trials of the 'standard' IGT. Scores on the standard blocks of the csIGT provided an index of emotion-based decision-making, while the contingency-shifting blocks assessed flexible decision-making. Subjective ratings were also recorded at 20-trial intervals. Both current and former smokers showed significantly impaired performance relative to non-smokers when making decisions during the standard blocks of the csIGT. Both former and non-smokers' awareness of the reward/punishment contingencies was significantly higher than those of current smokers at the end of the standard IGT. Both former and non-smokers had significantly better performance on the contingency shifting blocks, relative to current smokers. The findings indicate that both current and former smokers display a suboptimal pattern of decision-making than non-smokers during the standard IGT. However, with respect to the ability to change behavior following reversed contingencies, former smokers are more similar to non-smokers than to current smokers. Former smokers were also more aware of the contingencies than current smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The motivational salience of cigarette-related stimuli among former, never, and current smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D.; Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffery M.; Cui, Yong; Slapin, Aurelija; Oum, Robert; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    While smokers are known to find smoking-related stimuli to be motivationally salient, the extent to which former smokers do so is largely unknown. In this study, we collected event-related potential (ERP) data from former and never smokers and compared them to a sample of current smokers interested in quitting who completed the same ERP paradigm prior to smoking cessation treatment. All participants (n = 180) attended one laboratory session where we recorded dense-array ERPs in response to cigarette-related, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures, and where we collected valence and arousal ratings of the pictures. We identified three spatial and temporal regions of interest, corresponding to the P1 (120-132 ms), early posterior negativity (EPN; 244-316 ms), and late positive potential (LPP; 384-800 ms) ERP components. We found that all participants produced larger P1 responses to cigarette-related pictures compared to the other picture categories. With the EPN component, we found that, similar to pleasant and unpleasant pictures, cigarette-related pictures attracted early attentional resources, regardless of smoking status. Both former and never smokers produced reduced LPP responses to cigarette-related and pleasant pictures compared to current smokers. Current smokers rated the cigarette-related pictures as being more pleasant and arousing than the former and never smokers. The LPP and picture rating results suggest that former smokers, like never smokers, do not find cigarette-related stimuli to be as motivationally salient as current smokers. PMID:25436840

  7. Classifying a smoker scale in adult daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Romero, Devan R; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-05-01

    Smoker identity, or the strength of beliefs about oneself as a smoker, is a robust marker of smoking behavior. However, many nondaily smokers do not identify as smokers, underestimating their risk for tobacco-related disease and resulting in missed intervention opportunities. Assessing underlying beliefs about characteristics used to classify smokers may help explain the discrepancy between smoking behavior and smoker identity. This study examines the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Classifying a Smoker scale among a racially diverse sample of adult smokers. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American, Latino, and White) across smoking level (nondaily and daily smoking). The Classifying a Smoker scale displayed a single factor structure and excellent internal consistency (α = .91). Classifying a Smoker scores significantly increased at each level of smoking, F(3,2375) = 23.68, p smoker identity, stronger dependence on cigarettes, greater health risk perceptions, more smoking friends, and were more likely to carry cigarettes. Classifying a Smoker scores explained unique variance in smoking variables above and beyond that explained by smoker identity. The present study supports the use of the Classifying a Smoker scale among diverse, experienced smokers. Stronger endorsement of characteristics used to classify a smoker (i.e., stricter criteria) was positively associated with heavier smoking and related characteristics. Prospective studies are needed to inform prevention and treatment efforts.

  8. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  9. Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ryan P; Tsoh, Janice Y; Sung, Hai-Yen; Max, Wendy

    2016-03-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) likely provides additional exposure to nicotine and toxins for smokers, but has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether SHS exposure among smokers yields detectable differences in cotinine levels compared with unexposed smokers at the population level. Using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012, we compared serum cotinine levels of 4547 current adult cigarette smokers stratified by self-reported SHS exposure sources (home and/or work) and smoking intensity. A weighted multivariable linear regression model determined the association between SHS exposure and cotinine levels among smokers. Smokers with SHS exposure at home (43.8%) had higher cotinine levels (β=0.483, p≤0.001) compared with those with no SHS exposure at home after controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and number of days smoked in the previous 5 days, survey year, age, gender and education. Smokers with SHS exposure at work (20.0%) did not have significantly higher cotinine levels after adjustment. The adjusted geometric mean cotinine levels of light smokers (1-9 cigarettes per day) with no SHS exposure, exposure at work only, home only, and both home and work were 52.0, 62.7, 67.2, 74.4 ng/mL, respectively, compared with 219.4, 220.9, 255.2, 250.5 ng/mL among moderate/heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Smokers living in residences where others smoke inside the home had significantly higher cotinine levels than smokers reporting no SHS exposure, regardless of individual smoking intensity. Future research should target the role that SHS exposure may have in nicotine dependence, cessation outcomes and other health impacts among smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Helping adolescents quit smoking:a needs assessment of current and former teen smokers.

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    Pingree, Suzanne; Boberg, Eric; Patten, Christi; Offord, Kenneth; Gaie, Martha; Schensky, Ann; Gustafson, David H; Dornelas, Ellen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the survey responses of 280 current and former adolescent smokers for what they perceived would be helpful (or what had helped) in quitting smoking. The survey was developed from focus groups and was structured using Prochaska and DiClementes Stages of Change health behavior framework. Results showed that former smokers and current smokers in the preparation stage of change shared beliefs about the importance of interpersonal support, those who were contemplating a quit decision worried about obstacles and internal issues, and current smokers not thinking about quitting focused on external rewards. The findings that significant differences exist based on the adolescent smokers Stage of Change imply that this framework can be appropriately applied to this context.

  11. Single versus recurrent depression history: differentiating risk factors among current US smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Cameron, Amy; Feuer, Shelley; Cohn, Amy; Abrantes, Ana M; Brown, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    The strong relationship between persistent tobacco use and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has motivated clinical trials of specialized treatments targeting smokers with a history of MDD. Meta-analyses suggest positive responses to specialized treatments have been observed consistently among smokers with history of recurrent rather than a single episode of MDD. Approximately 15% of current US smokers have a history of recurrent MDD. Little is known about the risk factors that contribute to persistent smoking and differentiate these at-risk smokers, US. The National Comorbidity Survey - Replication (NCS-R) included a survey of 1560 smokers participants aged 18 and older in the United States. Lifetime history of MDD was categorized according to chronicity: no history (No MDD), single episode (MDD-S) and recurrent depression (MDD-R). The relationship between the chronicity of MDD, smoking characteristics, cessation history, nicotine dependence, comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, and current functional impairments were examined. MDD-R smokers reported fewer lifetime cessation efforts, smoked more cigarettes, had higher levels of nicotine dependence, had higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders and greater functional impairment than smokers with No MDD. MDD-S smokers were not consistently distinguished from No MDD smokers on cessation attempts, level of daily smoking, nicotine dependence or functional impairment indices. The study highlights the importance of chronicity when characterizing depression-related risk of persistent smoking behavior. Although, clinical trials suggest MDD-R smokers specifically benefit from specialized behavioral treatments, these services are not widely available and more efforts are needed to engage MDD-R smokers in efficacious treatments. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

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    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  13. Risk Perceptions of Little Cigar and Cigarillo Smoking Among Adult Current Cigarette Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Majeed, Ban A; Nyman, Amy; Eriksen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined the perceptions of risk of little cigar and cigarillo (LCC) smoking among cigarette smokers, which is important for expanding regulatory policies and developing prevention programs. We examined current cigarette smokers' perceived harm of LCC smoking, and determined whether these perceptions were associated with susceptibility and intention to continue smoking LCCs. Data were from the 2014 Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Survey of a probability sample of 5717 US adults. Data were analyzed for a subsample of 1191 current cigarette smokers who were stratified into three groups: (1) dual current cigarette smokers who had ever used LCCs, (2) current smokers susceptible to LCC smoking, and (3) current smokers who were not susceptible to LCC smoking. Overall, 47.2% of participants were dual smokers, 12.7% were susceptible to LCC smoking, and 40.1% were not susceptible. Perceptions of risk of LCCs varied across the groups. Dual smokers were more likely to perceive that daily LCC smoking is "very risky" (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.08, 2.41) while occasional LCC smoking is only "somewhat risky" (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.02, 2.87). Of the dual smokers, 20.7% intended to continue smoking LCCs in the future. Perceptions of addiction and risk of daily LCC smoking significantly predicted intention to continue LCC smoking. Addiction perceptions also significantly predicted susceptibility to initiate LCC smoking. Perceptions about harms from and addiction to LCCs could predict future LCC smoking. Health communication campaigns need to address the harms of LCCs. Our data suggest that perceptions of risk about the addictiveness of LCCs and frequency of use are important determinants of the LCC smoking susceptibility among some cigarette smokers and intended continued use among cigarette smokers with a history of LCC use. Health communication campaigns should address misperceptions related to LCCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  14. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  15. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. METHODS: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women......, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (-0.004 mmol/l [-0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ex-smokers (0.12 mmol/l [0.09, 0.14]). In comparison with never-smokers, 2H-PG was lower (-0.44 mmol/l [-0.52, -0.37]) in current smokers, with no difference for ex-smokers (0.02 mmol/l [-0.06, 0...... as screened by 2H-PG, in comparison with never-smokers. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Across this heterogeneous group of studies, current smokers had a higher HbA1c and lower 2H-PG than never-smokers. This will affect the chances of smokers being diagnosed with diabetes....

  16. Influence of Natural American Spirit advertising on current and former smokers' perceptions and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratale, Stefanie K; Maloney, Erin K; Sangalang, Angeline; Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-10-21

    This study sought to demonstrate causal effects of exposure to Natural American Spirit (NAS) advertising content on misinformed beliefs of current and former smokers, and to empirically establish these beliefs as a mechanism driving intentions to use NAS. Our study employed a randomised experimental design with 1128 adult daily, intermittent and former smokers. We compared participants who were exposed to NAS advertisements or claims made in the advertisements with those in a no-message control group to test the effects of NAS advertising content on inaccurate beliefs about NAS and attitudes and intentions towards the product. One-way analysis of variance revealed that exposure to NAS advertisements produced inaccurate beliefs about the composition of NAS cigarettes among current and former smokers (p<0.05). Planned contrasts indicated a compilation of arguments taken directly from NAS advertisements resulted in significantly greater beliefs that NAS cigarettes are healthier/safer than other cigarettes (for former smokers, t(472)=3.63, p<0.001; for current smokers, t(644)=2.86, p=0.004), demonstrating that suggestive claims used in the brand's marketing have effects on beliefs not directly addressed in the advertisements. Regression and mediation analyses showed that health-related beliefs predict attitudes towards NAS for current and former smokers, and mediate intentions to use NAS. The findings of this study provide causal support for the need for further regulatory action to address the potentially harmful ramifications of claims used in NAS advertising. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces negative affect but not cigarette craving in overnight abstinent smokers

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    Jiansong eXu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS can enhance cognitive control functions including attention and top-down regulation over negative affect and substance craving in both healthy and clinical populations, including early abstinent (~1.5 h smokers. The aim of this study was to assess whether tDCS modulates negative affect, cigarette craving, and attention of overnight abstinent tobacco dependent smokers. In this study, 24 smokers received a real and a sham session of tDCS after overnight abstinence from smoking on two different days. We applied anode to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and cathode to the right supra orbital area for 20min with a current of 2.0mA. We used self-report questionnaires Profile of Mood State (POMS to assess negative affect and Urge to Smoke (UTS Scale to assess craving for cigarette smoking, and a computerized visual target identification task to assess attention immediately before and after each tDCS. Smokers reported significantly greater reductions in POMS scores of total mood disturbance and scores of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, and confusion-bewilderment subscales after real relative to sham tDCS. Furthermore, this reduction in negative affect positively correlated with the level of nicotine dependence as assessed by Fagerström scale. However, reductions in cigarette craving after real vs. sham tDCS did not differ, nor were there differences in reaction time or hit rate change on the visual task. Smokers did not report significant side effects of tDCS. This study demonstrates the safety of tDCS and its promising effect in ameliorating negative affect in overnight abstinent smokers. Its efficacy in treating tobacco dependence deserves further investigation.

  18. Smoke and mirrors: the perceived benefits of continued tobacco use among current smokers

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    Hugh Klein

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite 50+ years of public health efforts to reduce smoking rates in the United States, approximately one-fifth of the adults living in this country continue to smoke cigarettes. Previous studies have examined smokers’ risk perceptions of cigarette smoking, as well as the perceived benefits of quitting smoking. Less research has focused on the perceived benefits of smoking among current cigarette smokers. The latter is the main focus of the present paper. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 485 adult current cigarette smokers recruited from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area between 2004 and 2007. Active and passive recruiting approaches were used, along with a targeted sampling strategy. Results revealed that most current cigarette smokers perceive themselves to experience benefits as a result of their cigarette use, including (among others increased relaxation, diminished nervousness in social situations, enjoyment of the taste of cigarettes when smoking, and greater enjoyment of parties when smoking. Perceiving benefits from cigarette smoking was associated with a variety of tobacco use measures, such as smoking more cigarettes, an increased likelihood of chain smoking, and overall negative attitude toward quitting smoking, among others. Several factors were associated with the extent to which smokers perceived themselves to benefit from their tobacco use, including education attainment, the age of first purchasing cigarettes, the proportion of friends who smoked, hiding smoking from others, being internally-oriented regarding locus of control, and self-esteem.

  19. Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: data from the health information national trends surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Rachel Ann; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-10-01

    Although African-Americans (Blacks) smoke fewer cigarettes per day than European-Americans (Whites), there is ample evidence that Blacks are more susceptible to smoking-related health consequences. A variety of behavioural, social and biological factors have been linked to this increased risk. There has been little research, however, on racial differences in smoking-related knowledge and perceived risk of lung cancer. The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate beliefs and knowledge that contribute to race disparities in lung cancer risk among current smokers. Data from two separate nationally representative surveys (the Health Information National Trends surveys 2003 and 2005) were analysed. Logistic and hierarchical regressions were conducted; gender, age, education level, annual household income and amount of smoking were included as covariates. In both studies, Black smokers were significantly more likely to endorse inaccurate statements than were White smokers, and did not estimate their lung cancer risk to be significantly higher than Whites. Results highlight an important racial disparity in public health knowledge among current smokers.

  20. Initial Smoking Experiences and Current Smoking Behaviors and Perceptions among Current Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We examine early-onset cigarette smoking and how, if at all, it is related to subsequent smoking practices. Methods. From 2004 to 2007, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 485 adult cigarette smokers residing in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Data analysis involved a multivariate analysis to determine whether age of smoking onset was related to current smoking practices when the effects of gender, age, race, marital/relationship status, income, and educational attainment were taken into account. Results. The mean age for smoking onset was 14.8, and more than one-half of all smokers had their first cigarette between the ages of 12 and 16. Most people reported an interval of less than one month between their first and second time using tobacco. Earlier onset cigarette smoking was related to more cigarette use and worse tobacco-related health outcomes in adulthood. Conclusions. Early prevention and intervention are needed to avoid early-onset smoking behaviors. Intervening after initial experimentation but before patterned smoking practices are established will be challenging, as the interval between initial and subsequent use tends to be short.

  1. Comparison of native light daily smokers and light daily smokers who were former heavy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-05-01

    An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Lung Mass in Smokers.

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    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. What factors are associated with current smokers using or stopping e-cigarette use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonavicius, Erikas; McNeill, Ann; Arnott, Deborah; Brose, Leonie S

    2017-04-01

    While some smokers use e-cigarettes and stop smoking, a substantial proportion try e-cigarettes and later discontinue or use them concurrently with smoking (current dual users). The aim was to assess factors associated with ongoing e-cigarette use and discontinuation among smokers. Secondary analysis of data of 1489 currently smoking adults, 18 and above, from a GB population-based online survey conducted in March 2016. A multivariable logistic regression assessed motivation to stop smoking among never e-cigarette users, past triers (reasons for use, age, gender, social grade, heaviness of smoking, and type of first e-cigarette used. Reasons for discontinuing use were assessed. Current dual users were more motivated to stop smoking than past users (AOR=1.95, 95% CI: 1.10-3.46); never users' or past triers' motivation did not differ from past users'. Dual users were less dependent on cigarettes (AOR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.86) and more likely to use e-cigarettes as an aid to reduce smoking (AOR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.59-3.64) and to deal with smoking restrictions (AOR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.22-3.38) than past users. Smokers mostly discontinued e-cigarettes because they did not feel like smoking, did not help with cravings, or respondents had just wanted to try them. Among smokers, ongoing use of e-cigarettes is associated with reasons for reducing smoking and dealing with smoking restrictions, heightened motivation to stop smoking, and lower dependence on smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  5. Sex-effects on smoking cue perception in non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Zanchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRecent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers and ex-smokers. MethodsFirst, we compared 29 females (28.6±5.3 versus 23 males (31.5±6.4 regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post-hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 F, 8M, smokers (10F, 8M and ex-smokers (10F, 7M. Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry (VBM of gray matter, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS of white matter. ResultsFirst, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex. No structural differences were found in grey or white matter.ConclusionThe current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  6. Prevalence, Harm Perceptions, and Reasons for Using Noncombustible Tobacco Products Among Current and Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Xiao, Haijun; Stalgaitis, Carolyn; Vallone, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We provided estimates of noncombustible tobacco product (electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]; snus; chewing tobacco, dip, or snuff; and dissolvables) use among current and former smokers and examined harm perceptions of noncombustible tobacco products and reasons for their use. Methods. We assessed awareness of, prevalence of, purchase of, harm perceptions of, and reasons for using noncombustible tobacco products among 1487 current and former smokers from 8 US designated market areas. We used adjusted logistic regression to identify correlates of noncombustible tobacco product use. Results. Of the sample, 96% were aware of at least 1 noncombustible tobacco product, but only 33% had used and 21% had purchased one. Noncombustible tobacco product use was associated with being male, non-Hispanic White, younger, and more nicotine dependent. Respondents used noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit cigarettes, but only snus was associated with a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt. Users of noncombustible tobacco products, particularly ENDS, were most likely to endorse the product as less harmful than cigarettes. Conclusions. Smokers may use noncombustible tobacco products to cut down or quit smoking. However, noncombustible tobacco product use was not associated with a reduction in cigarettes per day or cessation. PMID:24922154

  7. Effects of wages on smoking decisions of current and past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-08-01

    We used longitudinal data and instrumental variables (IVs) in a prospective design to test for the causal effects of wages on smoking prevalence among current and past smokers. Nationally representative U.S. data were drawn from the 1999-2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our overall sample was restricted to full time employed persons, aged 21-65 years. We excluded part time workers and youths because smoking and wage correlations would be complicated by labor supply decisions. We excluded adult never smokers because people rarely begin smoking after the age of 20 years. IVs were created with state-level minimum wages and unionization rates. We analyzed subsamples of men, women, the less educated, the more educated, quitters, and backsliders. Validity and strength of instruments within the IV analysis were conducted with the Sargan-Hansen J statistic and F tests. We found some evidence that low wages lead to more smoking in the overall sample and substantial evidence for men, persons with high school educations or less (wages lead to 5.5 and 4.6 percentage point decreases in smoking for men and the less educated; they also increased the average chance of quitting among base-year smokers from 17.0% to 20.4%. Statistical tests suggested that IVs were strong and valid in most samples. Subjects' other family income, including spouses' wages, was entered as a control variable. Increases in an individual's wages, independent of other income, decreased the prevalence of smoking among current and past smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of proteomic and transcriptomic profiles in the bronchial airway epithelium of current and never smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Steiling

    Full Text Available Although prior studies have demonstrated a smoking-induced field of molecular injury throughout the lung and airway, the impact of smoking on the airway epithelial proteome and its relationship to smoking-related changes in the airway transcriptome are unclear.Airway epithelial cells were obtained from never (n = 5 and current (n = 5 smokers by brushing the mainstem bronchus. Proteins were separated by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE. After in-gel digestion, tryptic peptides were processed via liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and proteins identified. RNA from the same samples was hybridized to HG-U133A microarrays. Protein detection was compared to RNA expression in the current study and a previously published airway dataset. The functional properties of many of the 197 proteins detected in a majority of never smokers were similar to those observed in the never smoker airway transcriptome. LC-MS/MS identified 23 proteins that differed between never and current smokers. Western blotting confirmed the smoking-related changes of PLUNC, P4HB1, and uteroglobin protein levels. Many of the proteins differentially detected between never and current smokers were also altered at the level of gene expression in this cohort and the prior airway transcriptome study. There was a strong association between protein detection and expression of its corresponding transcript within the same sample, with 86% of the proteins detected by LC-MS/MS having a detectable corresponding probeset by microarray in the same sample. Forty-one proteins identified by LC-MS/MS lacked detectable expression of a corresponding transcript and were detected in

  9. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  10. Knowledge of risk tobacco in smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Determine in a population of non-smokers, smokers and former-smokers, the level of knowledge of the health risks that smoking generate. Material and Methods: An epidemiological, observational, descriptive and cross-sectional research, was conducted in September 2015 in the city of Lima and Callao. Asurvey of over 18 was applied. Participants were divided into three groups, smokers, former-smokers and non-smokers. Results: The study included 2270 subjects, 744 were smokers, 752 former-smokers and 774 non-smokers. The group that mostly associated the tobacco to many diseases was the group of former-smokers, 53.8% of them mentioned to lung cancer as the most common disease related to tobacco. The non-smokers was the group that knows less often the risks of smoking. In all three groups, the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, followed by myocardial infarction, while fertility was little associated. Television was the main means of dissemination about the dangers of smoking, while social networks do not have a leading role. For the former-smokers will hit more information about the risks of smoking (p<0.05. Conclusion: Former-smokers had more information on the risk of smoking. In the three groups the most tobacco-related disease was the lung cancer, and there was very little information about fertility and cigarette consumption. Formersmokers do the impacted more risk information cigarette. Television remains the main instrument to fight against smoking.

  11. Discounting of qualitatively different delayed health outcomes in current and never smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Jonathan E.; DeHart, William B.; Frye, Charles C. J.; Rung, Jillian M.; Odum, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    In delay discounting, temporally remote outcomes have less value. Cigarette smoking is associated with steeper discounting of money and consumable outcomes. It is presently unclear whether smokers discount health outcomes more than non-smokers. We sought to establish the generality of steep discounting for different types of health outcomes in cigarette smokers. Seventy participants (38 smokers and 32 non-smokers) completed four hypothetical outcome delay-discounting tasks: a gain of $500, a loss of $500, a temporary boost in health, and temporary cure from a debilitating disease. Participants reported the duration of each health outcome that would be equivalent to $500; these durations were then used in the respective discounting tasks. Delays ranged from 1 week to 25 years. Smokers’ indifference points for monetary gains, boosts in health, and temporary cures were lower than indifference points from non-smokers. Indifference points of one outcome were correlated with indifference points of other outcomes. Smokers demonstrate steeper discounting across a range of delayed outcomes. How a person discounts one outcome predicts how they will discount other outcomes. These two findings support our assertion that delay discounting is in part a trait. PMID:26691848

  12. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E; Shahzad, Fatima G; Tabassum, Eefa; Cohen, Joanna E; Wise, Robert A; Blaha, Michael J; Holbrook, Janet T; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-09-08

    The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  13. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Sussan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determine demographics, behaviors, perceptions, and motivations underlying use of ECs. Results Our survey respondents were predominantly young, Caucasian males, 74% of whom identified themselves as former smokers, while 20% identified as current smokers and 6% were never smokers. Former smokers reported a longer history of EC use and higher nicotine concentrations than current smokers. For former and current smokers, the primary motivation for EC use was assistance to quit smoking, and nearly half indicated that they plan to reduce their nicotine concentration and eventually quit using ECs. Among former smokers, self-reports on use and measures of dependence were consistent with nicotine replacement as their primary motivation. The majority of former and current smokers also reported that their respiratory health had improved as a result of EC use, although this effect was stronger for former smokers. Never smokers reported less frequent EC use and dependence compared to former and current smokers. Their motivations for use were more commonly for enjoyment and popularity, and they displayed a reduced desire to eventually quit using ECs. Conclusions These responses provide insight into the underlying thoughts and behaviors of smoking and non-smoking EC users and also suggest that never smoking EC users are an emerging demographic with different motivations and perceptions than those of current and former smokers.

  14. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Stephanie K.; Rogers, Brooke G.; Webb Hooper, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and w...

  15. Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Russell P; Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A A; Santorico, Stephanie A; Make, Barry J; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John E; Washko, George R; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J Michael; Hersh, Craig P; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K; van Beek, Edwin J R; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD.

  16. Prediction of Acute Respiratory Disease in Current and Former Smokers With and Without COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Regan, Elizabeth; Williams, André A. A.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Make, Barry J.; Lynch, David A.; Hokanson, John E.; Washko, George R.; Bercz, Peter; Soler, Xavier; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard J.; Ramsdell, Joe; Han, MeiLan K.; Demeo, Dawn; Anzueto, Antonio; Comellas, Alejandro; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark; Wells, J. Michael; Hersh, Craig P.; MacIntyre, Neil; Martinez, Fernando; Nath, Hrudaya P.; Niewoehner, Dennis; Sciurba, Frank; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Silverman, Edwin K.; van Beek, Edwin J. R.; Wilson, Carla; Wendt, Christine; Wise, Robert A.; Curtis, Jeffrey; Kazerooni, Ella; Hanania, Nicola; Alapat, Philip; Bandi, Venkata; Guntupalli, Kalpalatha; Guy, Elizabeth; Lunn, William; Mallampalli, Antara; Trinh, Charles; Atik, Mustafa; DeMeo, Dawn; Hersh, Craig; Jacobson, Francine; Graham Barr, R.; Thomashow, Byron; Austin, John; MacIntyre, Neil; Washington, Lacey; Page McAdams, H.; Rosiello, Richard; Bresnahan, Timothy; McEvoy, Charlene; Tashjian, Joseph; Wise, Robert; Hansel, Nadia; Brown, Robert; Casaburi, Richard; Porszasz, Janos; Fischer, Hans; Budoff, Matt; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Niewoehner, Dennis; Allen, Tadashi; Rice, Kathryn; Foreman, Marilyn; Westney, Gloria; Berkowitz, Eugene; Bowler, Russell; Friedlander, Adam; Meoni, Eleonora; Criner, Gerard; Kim, Victor; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Satti, Aditi; James Mamary, A.; Steiner, Robert; Dass, Chandra; Bailey, William; Dransfield, Mark; Gerald, Lynn; Nath, Hrudaya; Ramsdell, Joe; Ferguson, Paul; Friedman, Paul; McLennan, Geoffrey; van Beek, Edwin JR; Martinez, Fernando; Han, MeiLan; Thompson, Deborah; Kazerooni, Ella; Wendt, Christine; Allen, Tadashi; Sciurba, Frank; Weissfeld, Joel; Fuhrman, Carl; Bon, Jessica; Anzueto, Antonio; Adams, Sandra; Orozco, Carlos; Santiago Restrepo, C.; Mumbower, Amy; Crapo, James; Silverman, Edwin; Make, Barry; Regan, Elizabeth; Samet, Jonathan; Willis, Amy; Stinson, Douglas; Beaty, Terri; Klanderman, Barbara; Laird, Nan; Lange, Christoph; Ionita, Iuliana; Santorico, Stephanie; Silverman, Edwin; Lynch, David; Schroeder, Joyce; Newell, John; Reilly, John; Coxson, Harvey; Judy, Philip; Hoffman, Eric; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George; Leek, Rebecca; Zach, Jordan; Kluiber, Alex; Rodionova, Anastasia; Mann, Tanya; Crapo, Robert; Jensen, Robert; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Murphy, James; Everett, Douglas; Wilson, Carla; Hokanson, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not have COPD are unknown. METHODS: Eight thousand two hundred forty-six non-Hispanic white and black current and former smokers in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort had longitudinal follow-up (LFU) every 6 months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an ED visit, or hospitalization. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the factors associated with acute respiratory episodes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for time to first episode and an acute episode of respiratory disease risk score. RESULTS: At enrollment, 4,442 subjects did not have COPD, 658 had mild COPD, and 3,146 had moderate or worse COPD. Nine thousand three hundred three acute episodes of respiratory disease and 2,707 hospitalizations were reported in LFU (3,044 acute episodes of respiratory disease and 827 hospitalizations in those without COPD). Major predictors included acute episodes of respiratory disease in year prior to enrollment (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.15-1.24 per exacerbation), airflow obstruction (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.96 per 10% change in % predicted FEV1), and poor health-related quality of life (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.08 for each 4-unit increase in St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score). Risks were similar for those with and without COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Although acute episode of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar, and at a population level, there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. PMID:24945159

  17. Lung Cancer Risk and Demographic Characteristics of Current 20-29 Pack-year Smokers: Implications for Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-11-01

    Based on current recommendations, 30+ pack-years of smoking are required for eligibility for low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening; former smokers must have quit within 15 years. We investigated whether current smokers with 20 to 29 pack-years have similar lung cancer risks as eligible former smokers and also whether they have a different demographic profile. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) was a randomly assigned screening trial of subjects age 55 to 74 years with chest radiographs (CXR) used for lung cancer. Subjects completed a baseline questionnaire containing smoking history questions. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and sex, were utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for various smoking history groups. Next, we utilized the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which inquired about smoking history and race/ethnicity, to analyze the demographic profiles of various high-risk smoking history categories. All statistical tests were two-sided. The PLCO cohort included 18 114 former and 12 243 current LDCT-eligible smokers, plus 2283 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers. The hazard ratio for 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers compared with eligible (30+ pack-year) former smokers was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75 to 1.5). Based on the NHIS, 10 million persons in the United States are currently LDCT eligible; an additional 1.6 million (16%, 95% CI = 13.6% to 19.0%) are 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers. The percentage increase in eligibles if 20- to 29-pack-year current smokers were included was substantially greater for women than men (22.2%, 95% CI = 17.9% to 26.7%; vs 12.2%, 95% CI = 9.3% to 15.3%, P non-Hispanic whites (30.0%, 95% CI = 24.2% to 36.0%; vs 14.1%, 95% CI = 11.1% to 17.0%, P smokers should be assessed. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Pulmonary responses in current smokers and ex-smokers following a two hour exposure at rest to clean air and fine ambient air particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility of smokers to ambient PM may potentially promote development of COPD and accelerate already present disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the acute and subacute lung function response and inflammatory effects of controlled chamber exposure t...

  19. The effect of quitting smoking on costs and healthcare utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparison of current smokers versus ex-smokers in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent condition mainly related to smoking, which is associated with a substantial economic burden. The purpose was to compare healthcare resource utilization and costs according to smoking status in patients with COPD in routine clinical practice. A retrospective cohort nested case-control study was designed. The cohort was composed of male and female COPD outpatients, 40 years or older, covered by the Badalona Serveis Assistencials (a health provider) health plan. Cases were current smokers with COPD and controls (two per case) were former smokers with COPD (at least 12 months without smoking), matched for age, sex, duration of COPD, and burden of comorbidity. The index date was the last visit recorded in the database, and the analysis was performed retrospectively on healthcare resource utilization data for the 12 months before the index date. A total of 930 COPD records were analyzed: 310 current and 620 former smokers [mean age 69.4 years (84.6 % male)]. Cases had more exacerbations, physician visits of any type, and drug therapies related to COPD were more common. As a consequence, current smokers had higher average annual healthcare costs: €3,784 (1,888) versus €2,302 (2,451), p use of healthcare resources, mainly COPD drugs and physician visits, compared with former smokers who had abstained for at least 12 months. As a consequence, current smokers had higher healthcare costs to the National Health System in Spain than ex-smokers.

  20. Use of E-Cigarettes Among Current Smokers: Associations Among Reasons for Use, Quit Intentions, and Current Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lila J Finney; Blake, Kelly D; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Grana, Rachel A; Wilson, Patrick M; Ebbert, Jon O; Okamoto, Janet; Leischow, Scott J

    2015-10-01

    Research has documented growing availability and use of e-cigarettes in the United States over the last decade. We conducted a national panel survey of current adult cigarette smokers to assess attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors relating to e-cigarette use in the United States (N = 2,254). Among current cigarette smokers, 20.4% reported current use of e-cigarettes on some days and 3.7% reported daily use. Reported reasons for e-cigarette use included: quit smoking (58.4%), reduce smoking (57.9%), and reduce health risks (51.9%). No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between e-cigarette users and nonusers were observed. Prior quit attempts were reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (82.8%) than nonusers (74.0%). Intention to quit was reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (64.7%) than nonusers (46.8%). Smokers intending to quit were more likely to be e-cigarette users than those not intending to quit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, CI =1.36-2.65). Those who used e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.25-4.05), reduce stress (OR = 3.66, CI = 1.11-12.09), or because they cost less (OR = 3.42, CI = 1.64-7.13) were more likely to report decreases in cigarette smoking than those who did not indicate these reasons. Smokers who reported using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (OR = 16.25, CI = 8.32-31.74) or reduce stress (OR = 4.30, CI = 1.32-14.09) were significantly more likely to report an intention to quit than those who did not indicate those reasons for using e-cigarettes. Nearly a quarter of smokers in our study reported e-cigarettes use, primarily motivated by intentions to quit or reduce smoking. These findings identify a clinical and public health opportunity to re-engage smokers in cessation efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Use of E-Cigarettes Among Current Smokers: Associations Among Reasons for Use, Quit Intentions, and Current Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D.; Agunwamba, Amenah A.; Grana, Rachel A.; Wilson, Patrick M.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Okamoto, Janet; Leischow, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has documented growing availability and use of e-cigarettes in the United States over the last decade. Methods: We conducted a national panel survey of current adult cigarette smokers to assess attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors relating to e-cigarette use in the United States (N = 2,254). Results: Among current cigarette smokers, 20.4% reported current use of e-cigarettes on some days and 3.7% reported daily use. Reported reasons for e-cigarette use included: quit smoking (58.4%), reduce smoking (57.9%), and reduce health risks (51.9%). No significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between e-cigarette users and nonusers were observed. Prior quit attempts were reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (82.8%) than nonusers (74.0%). Intention to quit was reported more frequently among e-cigarette users (64.7%) than nonusers (46.8%). Smokers intending to quit were more likely to be e-cigarette users than those not intending to quit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, CI =1.36–2.65). Those who used e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.25–4.05), reduce stress (OR = 3.66, CI = 1.11–12.09), or because they cost less (OR = 3.42, CI = 1.64–7.13) were more likely to report decreases in cigarette smoking than those who did not indicate these reasons. Smokers who reported using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (OR = 16.25, CI = 8.32–31.74) or reduce stress (OR = 4.30, CI = 1.32–14.09) were significantly more likely to report an intention to quit than those who did not indicate those reasons for using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Nearly a quarter of smokers in our study reported e-cigarettes use, primarily motivated by intentions to quit or reduce smoking. These findings identify a clinical and public health opportunity to re-engage smokers in cessation efforts. PMID:25589678

  2. Impulsiveness and venturesomeness in German smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernow, Nina; Kruck, Bernadette; Pfeifer, Philippe; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior, which is influenced by genetic, demographic, and psychological factors. A large body of research has examined the association of cigarette smoking variables with individual differences in personality traits. The aim of the current study was to replicate the findings of higher self-reported impulsivity in smokers compared with never-smokers in a German sample using Eysenck´s construct of impulsivity. Furthermore, it was intended to further the knowledge about associations between different self-reported impulsivity components and different smoking variables. We used the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7) to measure self-reported impulsiveness and venturesomeness and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure novelty seeking (NS) in a sample of 82 nicotine-dependent smokers and 119 never-smokers. Smokers scored higher on impulsiveness, venturesomeness, and NS than never-smokers independent of age, gender, and years of education. We found a significant association between venturesomeness, impulsiveness and smoking status in daily smokers. In summary, this study provides evidence that impulsiveness and venturesomeness as well as the novelty-seeking subscale extravagance are significantly associated with smoking status in a German sample of female and male smokers compared with never-smokers.

  3. Association between physical activity and major depressive disorder among current or former smokers with pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Kane, Christy; Walker, Jerome F

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between physical activity and major depressive disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of current or former smokers with pulmonary impairments. The analyzed sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 included 536 adults who indicated that they were current or former smokers, had at least mild pulmonary impairment (FEV1/FVCdepression and physical activity data. After controlling for asthma status, pulmonary impairment, age, poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), education, gender, marital status, body mass index (BMI), cotinine, comorbidity index, race-ethnicity, and smoking status, those who met physical activity guidelines had a 59% (odds ratio (OR)=0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.94) lower odds of having MDD. Using multivariate linear regression with depression symptoms as the outcome variable, and after adjustments, physical activity was inversely associated with depression symptoms in a dose-response manner; lowest tertile was the referent group, middle tertile coefficient: -1.06 (95% CI: -1.98 to -0.14), and highest tertile coefficient: -1.10 (95% CI: -1.84 to -0.34). Physical activity inversely associates with MDD in adults with pulmonary impairments, and does so in a dose-response manner. This suggests that individuals with pulmonary impairments should be encouraged to engage in enjoyable, safe forms of physical activity in a progressive manner. © 2013.

  4. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  5. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, E., E-mail: e.pompe@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bartstra, J. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC − University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oudkerk, M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Lammers, J.-W.J. [Department of Pulmonology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  6. Bone density loss on computed tomography at 3-year follow-up in current compared to former male smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, E.; Bartstra, J.; Verhaar, H.J.; Koning, H.J. de; Aalst, C.M. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Jong, P.A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, F.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Cigarette smoking negatively affects bone quality and increases fracture risk. Little is known on the effect of smoking cessation and computed tomography (CT)-derived bone mineral density (BMD) decline in the spine. We evaluated the association of current and former smoking with BMD decline after 3-year follow-up. Methods: Male current and former smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial who underwent baseline and 3-year follow-up CT were included. BMD was measured by manual placement of a region of interest in the first lumbar vertebra and expressed in Hounsfield Unit (HU). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between pack years smoked and smoking status with BMD decline. Results: 408 participants were included with median (25th–75th percentile) age of 59.4 (55.9–63.5) years. At the start of the study, 197 (48.3%) participants were current smokers and 211 (51.7%) were former smokers and had a similar amount of pack years. Current smokers had quit smoking for 6 (4–8) years prior to inclusion. There was no difference in BMD between current and former smokers at baseline (109 ± 34 HU vs. 108 ± 32 HU, p = 0.96). At 3-year follow-up, current smokers had a mean BMD decline of −3 ± 13 HU (p = 0.001), while BMD in former smokers did not change as compared to baseline (1 ± 13 HU, p = 0.34). After adjustment for BMD at baseline and body mass index, current smoking was independently associated with BMD decline (−3.8 HU, p = 0.003). Age, pack years, and the presence of a fracture at baseline did not associate with BMD decline. Conclusions: Current smokers showed a more rapid BMD decline over a 3-year period compared to former smokers. This information might be important to identify subjects at risk for osteoporosis and emphasizes the importance of smoking cessation in light of BMD decline.

  7. Preferred flavors and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use among never, current, and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J

    2016-03-01

    To compare e-cigarette flavors preferred and reasons for use and discontinued use across never, current, and former e-cigarette users and cigarette smokers. We recruited 1567 participants aged 18-34 years through Facebook ads targeting tobacco users and nonusers in August 2014 to complete an online survey. We assessed tobacco use, preferred flavors, and reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use. Our sample was 49 % male, 87 % White; 56 % current cigarette smokers; and 53 % e-cigarette users. Current e-cigarette users used an average of 20.9 days in the past 30 (SD = 11.7) and 55.2 puffs/day (SD = 37.3). Compared to never and current smokers, former smokers used e-cigarettes more frequently (p's reason for e-cigarette use was "they might be less harmful than cigarettes". The most endorsed reason for discontinued e-cigarette use was "using other tobacco products instead". Never, current, and former smokers had distinct reasons for e-cigarette use and discontinued use and differed in flavor preferences. Regulating marketing and flavors may impact e-cigarette uptake by young adults.

  8. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  9. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective....... Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  10. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57–0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02–0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06–0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers. PMID:22156071

  11. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Ling, Pamela M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2012-02-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1-5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6-29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicated that correlates of higher smoking level included having more friends who smoke (β = 0.63, 95% CI 0.57-0.69) and more frequent other tobacco use (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.05), drinking (β = 0.04, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) and binge drinking (β = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.13). Bivariate analyses indicated that daily smokers (versus the subgroups of non-daily smokers) were less likely to smoke for social reasons but more likely to smoke for self-confidence, boredom, and affect regulation. Controlling for sociodemographics, correlates of readiness to quit among current smokers included fewer friends who smoke (P = 0.002), less frequent binge drinking (P = 0.03), being a social smoker (P smoking less for self-confidence (P = 0.04), smoking more for boredom (P = 0.03) and less frequent smoking (P = 0.001). Specific motives for smoking and potential barriers to cessation particularly may be relevant to different groups of college student smokers.

  12. Infrequent and Frequent Nondaily Smokers and Daily Smokers: Their Characteristics and Other Tobacco Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2018-05-03

    The proportion of smokers who do not smoke daily has increased over time, but nondaily smokers are a heterogeneous group. We compare characteristics and other tobacco product use of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily US adult smokers. We analyzed data from the 1998, 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Current smokers were categorized as daily, infrequent nondaily (smoked 1-12 days in the past 30 days), and frequent nondaily (smoked 13-29 days in the past 30 days) smokers. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlates of infrequent nondaily, frequent nondaily, and daily smoking. Among current smokers, 8.3% were infrequent nondaily, 8.1% were frequent nondaily, and 83.6% were daily smokers. The prevalence of infrequent versus daily smoking increased over time, with a smaller increase among non-Hispanic Blacks than non-Hispanic Whites. The adjusted odds of both infrequent and frequent smoking versus daily smoking differed by age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, quit attempts in the past 12 months, and binge drinking. Snuff users (vs. non-snuff users) were 2.4 times as likely to be infrequent than daily smokers. There were also differences in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, quit attempts, and snuff use between infrequent versus frequent smokers. Infrequent smokers differ from both frequent and daily smokers in socio-demographics, quit attempts, and snuff use. The heterogeneity of nondaily smokers should be considered in developing targeted tobacco control and smoking cessation programs. Infrequent and frequent nondaily smokers were found to differ from daily smokers in age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, region, and quit attempts and they were different from each other in race/ethnicity, education, marital status, region, and quit attempts. Binge drinkers were more likely to be infrequent smokers and frequent smokers versus

  13. COPD: recognizing the susceptible smoker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhorst, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is the main cause of COPD, a chronic non-curable lung disease. Not all smokers develop COPD and it is still unclear why COPD is only manifested in a small subset of smokers (15-20%). Probably their genetic background makes the difference. We investigated whether young individuals (18-40

  14. Non‐smokers seeking help for smokers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S‐H; Nguyen, Q B; Cummins, S; Wong, S; Wightman, V

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine the phenomenon of non‐smokers spontaneously taking action to seek help for smokers; to provide profiles of non‐smoking helpers by language and ethnic groups. Setting A large, statewide tobacco quitline (California Smokers' Helpline) in operation since 1992 in California, providing free cessation services in English, Spanish, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Subjects Callers between August 1992 and September 2005 who identified themselves as either white, black, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian (n  =  349 110). A subset of these were “proxies”: callers seeking help for someone else. For more detailed analysis, n  =  2143 non‐smoking proxies calling from October 2004 through September 2005. Main outcome measures Proportions of proxies among all callers in each of seven language/ethnic groups; demographics of proxies; and proxies' relationships to smokers on whose behalf they called. Results Over 22 000 non‐smoking proxies called. Proportions differed dramatically across language/ethnic groups, from mean (±95% confidence interval) 2.7 (0.3)% among English‐speaking American Indians through 9.3 (0.3)% among English‐speaking Hispanics to 35.3 (0.7)% among Asian‐speaking Asians. Beyond the differences in proportion, however, remarkable similarities emerged across all groups. Proxies were primarily women (79.2 (1.7)%), living in the same household as the smokers (65.0 (2.1)%), and having either explicit or implicit understandings with the smokers that calling on their behalf was acceptable (90.0 (1.3)%). Conclusions The willingness of non‐smokers to seek help for smokers holds promise for tobacco cessation and may help address ethnic and language disparities. Non‐smoking women in smokers' households may be the first group to target. PMID:16565458

  15. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of...

  16. Heart Rate Variability and Wavelet-based Studies on ECG Signals from Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Goel, R.; Champaty, B.; Samantray, S.; Tibarewala, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    The current study deals with the heart rate variability (HRV) and wavelet-based ECG signal analysis of smokers and non-smokers. The results of HRV indicated dominance towards the sympathetic nervous system activity in smokers. The heart rate was found to be higher in case of smokers as compared to non-smokers ( p smokers from the non-smokers. The results indicated that when RMSSD, SD1 and RR-mean features were used concurrently a classification efficiency of > 90 % was achieved. The wavelet decomposition of the ECG signal was done using the Daubechies (db 6) wavelet family. No difference was observed between the smokers and non-smokers which apparently suggested that smoking does not affect the conduction pathway of heart.

  17. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  18. Identity change among smokers and ex-smokers: Findings from the ITC Netherlands survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; van Laar, C.; Gebhardt, W.A.; Fokkema, M.; van den Putte, B.; Dijkstra, A.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Successful smoking cessation appears to be facilitated by identity change, that is, when quitting or nonsmoking becomes part of smokers’ and ex-smokers’ self-concepts. The current longitudinal study is the first to examine how identity changes over time among smokers and ex-smokers and whether this

  19. Perceptions of e-cigarettes: a comparison of adult smokers and non-smokers in a Mechanical Turk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhoff, Sebastian; Montero, Adrian; Scharf, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes. Smokers and non-smokers learned about e-cigarettes primarily through the internet and conversations with others. Ever smokers were more likely than never smokers, and female current smokers were more likely than female former smokers, to have learned about e-cigarettes from point of sale advertising (p's smokers quit (ps never users of e-cigarettes, current smokers were more likely than never smokers and former smokers to report that they would try e-cigarettes in the future (ps smokers' top reason for wanting to try e-cigarettes was to quit or reduce smoking (56%), while never and former smokers listed curiosity. In contrast, female current smokers' top reason for not trying e-cigarettes was health and safety concerns (44%) while males were deterred by expense (44%). Adult smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Public health messages regarding e-cigarettes may need to be tailored separately for persons with and without a history of using conventional cigarettes. Tailoring messages by gender within smoker groups may also improve their impact.

  20. Periodontal tissue damage in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutojo Djajakusuma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental plaque is the primary etiological factor in periodontal diseases. However, there are many factors that can modify how an individual periodontal tissue will respond to the accumulation of dental plaque. Among such risk factors, there is increasing evidence that smoking tobacco products alters the expression and rate of progression of periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the loss of periodontal tissue adhesion in smokers by measuring pocket depth using probe, and by measuring alveolar bone damage using Bone Loss Score (BLS radiographic methods on teeth 12, 11, 21, 22, 32, 31, 41, 42. Based on T Test statistical analysis, there were significant differences in pocket depth damage of alveolar bone in smokers and non smokers. In conclusion there were increasing pocket depth and alveolar bone damage in smokers.

  1. The Contribution of Beverages to Intakes of Energy and MyPlate Components by Current, Former, and Never Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizza, Claire A; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Wilkinson Enns, Cecilia; ISIK, Zeynep; Goldman, Joseph D; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2015-12-01

    Although beverage intake patterns have been shown to differ by smoking status, it is unknown whether the contributions of beverages to intakes of energy and MyPlate components also differ. The purpose of this study was to compare beverage intakes and contributions of energy and MyPlate components by source (food alone, beverages alone, and food and beverages together) in diets of adult current, former, and never smokers. Dietary data from 4,823 men and 4,672 women aged ≥20 years who participated in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, were analyzed. Beverage intake and the contributions to energy and MyPlate components by beverages. Regression analyses identified differences in intake among groups. Current smokers consumed more total beverages, coffee, and sugar-sweetened beverages than never and former smokers (Pnever and former smokers, whereas female current and former smokers both consumed more alcoholic beverages than never smokers. Current smokers obtained more energy from beverages than their nonsmoking counterparts, although total energy intake did not differ. Intakes of added sugars, alcohol, and empty calories were higher for current than never smokers, and differences were accounted for by current smokers' beverage choices. This study adds to the body of research on smoking and dietary behavior by showing that not only do smokers consume a higher volume of beverages, but they also have a higher intake of energy provided by beverages, mainly empty calories from added sugars and alcohol. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing beverages' contribution to the total diet. Recognizing the common co-occurrence of smoking and specific beverage choices can help target health promotion and disease prevention efforts for this subpopulation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non‐smokers: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms causing smoking‐induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome‐wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex‐smokers were available from two population‐based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty‐two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis‐expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome‐wide association meta‐analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene expression. PMID:26594007

  3. Selective attention to smoking cues in former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, Anne K; Bey, Katharina; Frommann, Ingo; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P; Bludau, Julia; Block, Verena; Sträter, Birgitta; Schütz, Christian G; Wagner, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Repeated drug use modifies the emotional and cognitive processing of drug-associated cues. These changes are supposed to persist even after prolonged abstinence. Several studies demonstrated that smoking cues selectively attract the attention of smokers, but empirical evidence for such an attentional bias among successful quitters is inconclusive. Here, we investigated whether attentional biases persist after smoking cessation. Thirty-eight former smokers, 34 current smokers, and 29 non-smokers participated in a single experimental session. We used three measures of attentional bias for smoking stimuli: A visual probe task with short (500ms) and long (2000ms) picture stimulus durations, and a modified Stroop task with smoking-related and neutral words. Former smokers and current smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed an attentional bias in visual orienting to smoking pictures in the 500ms condition of the visual probe task. The Stroop interference index of smoking words was negatively related to nicotine dependence in current smokers. Former smokers and mildly dependent smokers, as compared to non-smokers, showed increased interference by smoking words in the Stroop task. Neither current nor former smokers showed an attentional bias in maintained attention (2000ms visual probe task). In conclusion, even after prolonged abstinence smoking cues retain incentive salience in former smokers, who differed from non-smokers on two attentional bias indices. Attentional biases in former smokers operate mainly in early involuntary rather than in controlled processing, and may represent a vulnerability factor for relapse. Therefore, smoking cessation programs should strengthen self-control abilities to prevent relapses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  5. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S.; Siar, C.H.; Ng, K.P.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. Patients and Methods: One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium, candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite candida species. Results: Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candida species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guillermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty-seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and sorsum of tongue. Conclusion: On this series C. albicans is the most common specie found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a prediliection for the ethnic Chinese group. (author)

  6. Oral candidal species among smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, S; Siar, C H; Ng, K P

    2005-11-01

    To determine the various oral Candidal species among healthy Malaysian adults. Case-control study. This study was collaborated between the Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between September 2002 till January 2004. One hundred adults (50 smokers and 50 non-smokers), aged between 40 and 70 years were studied. Swabs and carbohydrate assimilation (Saboraud Dextrose Agar, Corn Meal Agar, API 20C AUX System) were performed. Specimens were collected from dorsum of the tongue, buccal mucosa and commissures (right and left each). Colony forms were established by positive colony forming units, on SDA medium (24-48 hours). Germ tube test for (true/pseudohyphae) growth was done on Corn Meal Agar Medium. Candida biotypes were evaluated by API 20C AUX system, which had a numerical 7 digit profile, added to evaluate a definite Candida species. Thirty-five percent of Malaysian adults harbored Candida intraorally. Candidal species identified among 100 subjects had C. albicans (27) 77%, C. glabrata (3) 8%, C. famata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii (1) 3% each. Thirty-three positive cases comprised of 35 species i.e. two cases had two species each. Fifty seven percent of these were smokers and 43% non-smokers. These included 40% Chinese, 36% Malays and 24% Indians. Species were, however, not specified according to intra-oral sites i.e. buccal, commissural mucosa and dorsum of tongue. On this series C. albicans is the most common species found in the oral cavity of Malaysian adults. It is equally frequent in smokers and non-smokers, but showed a predilection for the ethnic Chinese group.

  7. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  8. Kinetic Tremor: Differences Between Smokers and Non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Elan D.

    2006-01-01

    Tremor is among the acute effects of nicotine exposure. Published studies have focused on smoking-related postural (static) hand tremor rather than kinetic tremor (tremor during hand use), and gender differences in smoking-related tremor have not been examined. In a group of adults who were sampled from a population (mean ± SD = 65.7 ± 11.5 years, range = 18 - 92 years), the investigator assessed whether the severity of postural and kinetic tremors differed in smokers versus non-smokers, and ...

  9. Chronic bronchitis and current smoking are associated with more goblet cells in moderate to severe COPD and smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kim

    Full Text Available Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB, independent of airflow obstruction.We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane.Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19 were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19, current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12 were compared to those without CB (n = 26, the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD.Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD.

  10. Chronic Bronchitis and Current Smoking Are Associated with More Goblet Cells in Moderate to Severe COPD and Smokers without Airflow Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Victor; Oros, Michelle; Durra, Heba; Kelsen, Steven; Aksoy, Mark; Cornwell, William D.; Rogers, Thomas J.; Criner, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Goblet cell hyperplasia is a classic but variable pathologic finding in COPD. Current literature shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis but the relationship of these clinical features to the presence and magnitude of large airway goblet cell hyperplasia has not been well described. We hypothesized that current smokers and chronic bronchitics would have more goblet cells than nonsmokers or those without chronic bronchitis (CB), independent of airflow obstruction. Methods We recruited 15 subjects with moderate to severe COPD, 12 healthy smokers, and 11 healthy nonsmokers. Six endobronchial mucosal biopsies per subject were obtained by bronchoscopy and stained with periodic acid Schiff-Alcian Blue. Goblet cell density (GCD) was quantified as goblet cell number per millimeter of basement membrane. Mucin volume density (MVD) was quantified as volume of mucin per unit area of basement membrane. Results Healthy smokers had a greater GCD and MVD than nonsmokers and COPD subjects. COPD subjects had a greater GCD than nonsmokers. When current smokers (healthy smokers and COPD current smokers, n = 19) were compared with all nonsmokers (nonsmoking controls and COPD ex-smokers, n = 19), current smokers had a greater GCD and MVD. When those with CB (n = 12) were compared to those without CB (n = 26), the CB group had greater GCD. This finding was also seen in those with CB in the COPD group alone. In multivariate analysis, current smoking and CB were significant predictors of GCD using demographics, lung function, and smoking pack years as covariates. All other covariates were not significant predictors of GCD or MVD. Conclusions Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and CB is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD. PMID:25646735

  11. CT screening for lung cancer: Importance of emphysema for never smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Claudia I; Yip, Rowena; Boffetta, Paolo; Markowitz, Steven; Miller, Albert; Hanaoka, Takaomi; Wu, Ning; Zulueta, Javier J; Yankelevitz, David F

    2015-04-01

    To address the prevalence of lung cancer in high and low-risk people according to their smoking history, age, and CT findings of emphysema. We reviewed the baseline low-dose CT scans of 62,124 current, former and never smokers, aged 40-90 to determine the prevalence of lung cancer. We performed logistic regression analysis of the prevalence of lung cancer to determine the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema, conditionally on age, female gender, and ethnicity. The prevalence of lung cancer was 1.4% (95% CI: 1.3-1.6) for current smokers, 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0-1.2) for former smokers, and 0.4% (95% CI: 0.3-0.6) for never smokers. Emphysema was identified in 28.5% (6,684), 20.6% (5,422), and 1.6% (194) of current, former, and never smokers, respectively. The prevalence of lung cancer among current smokers was 1.1% for those without emphysema vs. 2.3% for those with emphysema (odds ratio [OR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.2) and the corresponding difference for former smokers was 0.9% vs. 1.8% (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.2), and for never smokers, it was 0.4% vs. 2.6% (OR: 6.3; 95% CI: 2.4-16.9). Identification of emphysema in low-dose CT scans increases the risk of lung cancer and is important in determining follow-up of current, former, and never smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in emphysema and airway disease in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camp, Pat G; Coxson, Harvey O; Levy, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    -resolution CT (HRCT) scanning in male and female smokers with and without COPD. METHODS: All subjects completed spirometry and answered an epidemiologic respiratory questionnaire. Inspiratory HRCT scans were obtained on 688 smokers enrolled in a family-based study of COPD. Emphysema was assessed by using......-years of smoking, current smoking status, center of enrollment, and FEV(1) percent predicted; p = 0.0006). Women had a smaller SQRTWA and WA% after adjusting for covariates (p smokers have more emphysema than female smokers, but female smokers do not show increased wall thickness...

  13. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  14. Depression among current, former, and never smokers from 2005 to 2013: The hidden role of disparities in depression in the ongoing tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Wall, Melanie M; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J; Dierker, Lisa; Galea, Sandro; Gbedemah, Misato; Weinberger, Andrea H; Williams, Jill M; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-04-01

    After declining sharply for many years, the prevalence of smoking has remained fairly stable over the past decade. One possible explanation is that there has been an increase in the prevalence of barriers to cessation, like depression, among remaining smokers. To estimate changes in the prevalence of depression among current, former and never smokers in the United States (U.S.) population from 2005 to 2013 overall and by age, gender, and income. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons ages 12 and over (N=496,805). The prevalence of past 12-month depression was examined annually among current (past 12-month), former (not past 12-month), and lifetime non-smokers from 2005 to 2013. Data were re-analyzed stratified by age, gender, and household income, and adjusted for demographics. Depression appears to have significantly increased in the United States from 2005 to 2013 among current, former, and never smokers. Depression prevalence increased among current smokers overall, but the increase among former and never smokers was even more prominent. Striking temporal changes emerged by age, gender and income. Specifically, (1) depression increased significantly among current smokers aged 12-17 (from 16% to 22%, p-value=0.0002) and the prevalence was consistently more than twice as high as that of never smokers; (2) depression increased among male smokers (6.19%-7.82%, p-value=0.0099); (3) depression increased significantly among smokers in the highest income group (6.36% to 8.91%, p-value=0.0400). Throughout this period, the prevalence of depression among current smokers was consistently twice as high as among former and never smokers. Public health efforts aimed at decreasing the prevalence of smoking should take depression into account, a common and modifiable barrier whose treatment may help to increase successful smoking cessation. Future work is needed to disentangle the role of smoking and

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in electronic cigarette knowledge, social norms, and risk perceptions among current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2017-04-01

    Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs. Analyses of covariance and multinomial logistic regression tested associations by race/ethnicity. Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, White participants scored significantly higher on e-cigarette knowledge, compared to both Hispanics and African Americans/Blacks. Knowledge was lower among African Americans/Blacks compared to Hispanics. Compared to both Whites and Hispanics, African American/Black participants held lower perceptions regarding e-cigarette health risks and were less likely to view e-cigarettes as addictive. Normative beliefs did not differ by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, e-cigarette knowledge, health risk perceptions, and perceived addictiveness differed by race/ethnicity. The variation in e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs among smokers and former smokers has implications for use, and potentially, dual use. Understanding these relationships in unrepresented populations can inform future research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum Metabolite Biomarkers Discriminate Healthy Smokers from COPD Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuying; Deeb, Ruba S.; Ma, Yuliang; Staudt, Michelle R.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Gross, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is defined by a fixed expiratory airflow obstruction associated with disordered airways and alveolar destruction. COPD is caused by cigarette smoking and is the third greatest cause of mortality in the US. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is the only validated clinical marker of COPD, but it correlates poorly with clinical features and is not sensitive enough to predict the early onset of disease. Using LC/MS global untargeted metabolite profiling of serum samples from a well-defined cohort of healthy smokers (n = 37), COPD smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 37), we sought to discover serum metabolic markers with known and/or unknown molecular identities that are associated with early-onset COPD. A total of 1,181 distinct molecular ions were detected in 95% of sera from all study subjects and 23 were found to be differentially-expressed in COPD-smokers vs. healthy-smokers. These 23 putative biomarkers were differentially-correlated with lung function parameters and used to generate a COPD prediction model possessing 87.8% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. In an independent validation set, this model correctly predicted COPD in 8/10 individuals. These serum biomarkers included myoinositol, glycerophopshoinositol, fumarate, cysteinesulfonic acid, a modified version of fibrinogen peptide B (mFBP), and three doubly-charged peptides with undefined sequence that significantly and positively correlate with mFBP levels. Together, elevated levels of serum mFBP and additional disease-associated biomarkers point to a role for chronic inflammation, thrombosis, and oxidative stress in remodeling of the COPD airways. Serum metabolite biomarkers offer a promising and accessible window for recognition of early-stage COPD. PMID:26674646

  17. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  18. Periodontal Inflammatory Conditions Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Salazar-Lazo, Karem; Yanez-Fontenla, Virginia; Aldosary, Khalid M; Alshehri, Mohammed; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    There is a dearth of studies regarding the influence of cigarette smoking on periodontal inflammatory conditions among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study is to assess periodontal inflammatory conditions among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. One hundred individuals (50 patients with T2DM [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers] and 50 controls [25 smokers and 25 never-smokers]) were included. Information regarding age, sex, duration and daily frequency of smoking, duration and treatment of diabetes, and oral hygiene was recorded using a questionnaire. Periodontal parameters (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing depth [PD], clinical attachment loss [AL], and marginal bone loss [MBL]) were measured. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were also recorded. Mean age, monthly income status, and education levels were comparable among smokers and never-smokers with and without T2DM. Mean HbA1c levels were significantly higher among patients with T2DM (8.2% ± 0.1%) compared with controls (4.4% ± 0.3%) (P Smokers in the control group were smoking significantly greater numbers of cigarettes (15.5 ± 2.5 cigarettes daily) compared with smokers with T2DM (6.2 ± 2.1 cigarettes daily) (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal parameters (PI [P smokers than never-smokers. Never-smokers with T2DM had worse periodontal status than smokers and never-smokers in the control group (P smokers and never-smokers with T2DM. Among controls, periodontal inflammation is worse among smokers than never-smokers.

  19. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  20. Could a scheme for licensing smokers work in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S; Currow, David C

    2013-08-05

    In this article, we evaluate the possible advantages and disadvantages of a licensing scheme that would require adult smokers to verify their right to purchase tobacco products at point of sale using a smart-card licence. A survey of Australian secondary school students conducted in 2011 found that half of 17-2013-old smokers and one-fifth of 12-2013-old smokers believed it was "easy" or "very easy" to purchase cigarettes themselves. Reducing tobacco use by adolescents now is central to the future course of the current epidemic of tobacco-caused disease, since most current adult smokers began to smoke as adolescents--at a time when they were unable to purchase tobacco lawfully. The requirement for cigarette retailers to reconcile all stock purchased from wholesalers against a digital record of retail sales to licensed smokers would create a robust incentive for retailers to comply with laws that prohibit tobacco sales to children. Foreseeable objections to introducing a smokers licence need to be taken into account, but once we move beyond the "shock of the new", it is difficult to identify anything about a smokers licence that is particularly offensive or demeaning. A smoker licensing scheme deserves serious consideration for its potential to dramatically curtail retailers' violation of the law against selling tobacco to minors, to impose stricter accountability for sale of a uniquely harmful drug and to allow intelligent use of information about smokers' purchases to help smokers quit.

  1. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Cough response to citric acid aerosol in occasional smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pounsford, J C; Saunders, K B

    1986-01-01

    Twenty two normal women volunteers underwent a standard cough provocation test by inhaling solutions of citric acid of progressively increasing concentration. Eight were non-smokers, eight moderate smokers, and six occasional smokers. All the non-smokers and moderate smokers coughed. Moderate smokers tended to cough more than non-smokers, but not significantly so. None of the occasional smokers coughed at all (p less than 0.001). Possibly the ability to smoke occasionally with enjoyment is a ...

  3. The relationship of dysthymia, minor depression, and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Pilver, Corey E; Desai, Rani A; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    Although data clearly link major depression and smoking, little is known about the association between dysthymia and minor depression and smoking behavior. The current study examined changes in smoking over 3 years for current and former smokers with and without dysthymia and minor depression. Participants who were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and completed the Wave 2 assessment were included in these analyses (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of current dysthymia, lifetime dysthymia, and minor depression (a single diagnostic category that denoted current and/or lifetime prevalence) on continued smoking for Wave 1 current daily smokers and continued abstinence for Wave 1 former daily smokers. Wave 1 current daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.23, 3.70) or minor depression (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.07, 2.18) were more likely than smokers without the respective diagnosis to report continued smoking at Wave 2. Wave 1 former daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20, 0.96) and lifetime dysthymia (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15, 0.91) were less likely than those without the diagnosis to remain abstinent from smoking at Wave 2. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant, suggesting that the impact of dysthymia and minor depression on smoking behavior is similar among men and women. Current dysthymia and minor depression are associated with a greater likelihood of continued smoking; current and lifetime dysthymia are associated with a decreased likelihood of continued smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior of Lung Health Parameters among Smokers and Secondhand Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ghanem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on a pool of undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers (n=200 was randomly selected from Notre Dame University, Lebanon. The study design is based on a questionnaire about the students’ smoking record exposure, cotinine saliva levels, and ventilatory lung function parameters. Despite the nonsmoking policies that have been recently established by universities, diffused smoking stations in proximity to classes and offices still exist, at least in the MENA region. Such an environment still imposes a remarkable effect on certain lung health parameters of nonsmokers exhibiting similar exhaled air per second (FEV1 to smokers with a P value = 0.558 and normal flow of air (TV with a P value = 0.153. However, the maximum amount of air held in the lungs remained different with respect to sex and smoking status. These results imply a poor performance of nonsmokers mimicking partially the lung health parameters of smokers. It remains a pressing issue to increase awareness concerning the debilitating effects of secondhand smoking.

  5. Lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baias, P. F.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.; Cosma, C.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking may change the morphological and physiological parameters of the lung. Thus the primary objective of the present study was to investigate to what extent these smoke-induced changes can modify deposition, clearance and resulting doses of inhaled radon progeny relative to healthy non-smokers (NSs). Doses to sensitive bronchial target cells were computed for four categories of smokers: (1) Light, short-term (LST) smokers, (2) light, long-term (LLT) smokers, (3) heavy, short-term (HST) smokers and (4) heavy, long-term (HLT) smokers. Because of only small changes of morphological and physiological parameters, doses for the LST smokers hardly differed from those for NSs. For LLT and HST smokers, even a protective effect could be observed, caused by a thicker mucus layer and increased mucus velocities. Only in the case of HLT smokers were doses higher by about a factor of 2 than those for NSs, caused primarily by impaired mucociliary clearance, higher breathing frequency, reduced lung volume and airway obstructions. These higher doses suggest that the contribution of inhaled radon progeny to the risk of lung cancer in smokers may be higher than currently assumed on the basis of NS doses. (authors)

  6. Psychological, pharmacological, and combined smoking cessation interventions for smokers with current depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Secades-Villa

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis (ID: CRD42016051017 of smoking cessation interventions for patients with current depression. We examined the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatments in improving abstinence rates and depressive symptoms. The following electronic databases were used for potentially eligible studies: PUBMED, PSYCINFO, DIALNET and WEB OF KNOWLEDGE. The search terms used were: smoking cessation, depressive disorder, depression, mood, depressive, depressed, smoking, smokers, nicotine, nicotine dependence, and tobacco cigarette smoking. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality assessment tool (EPHPP. Of the 6,584 studies identified, 20 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of studies were 16 randomized controlled trials and 4 secondary studies. Studies included three types of intervention: psychological (6/30%, pharmacological (6/30% or combined (8/40%. Four trials comprised special populations of smokers. Four studies received a strong methodological quality, 7 were scored as moderate and 9 studies received a weak methodological rating. Analyses of effectiveness showed that smoking cessation interventions appear to increase short-term and long-term smoking abstinence in individuals with current depression. Subgroup analyses revealed stronger effects among studies that provided pharmacological treatments than in studies using psychological treatments. However, the evidence is weak due to the small number of studies. Smoking abstinence appears to be associated with an improvement in depressive symptoms. Heterogeneity in protocols in similar types of treatment also prevent firm conclusions being drawn on the effectiveness of any particular treatment model to optimally manage abstinence among depressed smokers. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence base.

  7. Development of a Self-Report Measure of Reward Sensitivity:A Test in Current and Former Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W; Priest, Jeff S; Etter, Jean-Francois; Budney, Alan J; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use or abstinence may increase or decrease reward sensitivity. Most existing measures of reward sensitivity were developed decades ago, and few have undergone extensive psychometric testing. We developed a 58-item survey of the anticipated enjoyment from, wanting for, and frequency of common rewards (the Rewarding Events Inventory-REI). The current analysis focuses on ratings of anticipated enjoyment. The first validation study recruited current and former smokers from Internet sites. The second study recruited smokers who wished to quit and monetarily reinforced them to stay abstinent in a laboratory study and a comparison group of former smokers. In both studies, participants completed the inventory on two occasions, 3-7 days apart. They also completed four anhedonia scales and a behavioral test of reduced reward sensitivity. Half of the enjoyment ratings loaded on four factors: socializing, active hobbies, passive hobbies, and sex/drug use. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were all ≥0.73 for overall mean and factor scores. Test-retest correlations were all ≥0.83. Correlations of the overall and factor scores with frequency of rewards and anhedonia scales were 0.19-0.53, except for the sex/drugs factor. The scores did not correlate with behavioral tests of reward and did not differ between current and former smokers. Lower overall mean enjoyment score predicted a shorter time to relapse. Internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the enjoyment outcomes of the REI are excellent, and construct and predictive validity are modest but promising. The REI is comprehensive and up-to-date, yet is short enough to use on repeated occasions. Replication tests, especially predictive validity tests, are needed. Both use of and abstinence from nicotine appear to increase or decrease how rewarding nondrug rewards are; however, self-report scales to test this have limitations. Our inventory of enjoyment from 58 rewards appears to be reliable and valid as well as

  8. Factors affecting the variability in the observed levels of cadmium in blood and urine among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥ 65years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2012 were used to evaluate factors that affect observed levels of blood cadmium (BCd) and urine cadmium (UCd) among former and current smokers aged 20-64 and ≥65 years. Adjusted levels (AGM) for BCd and UCd were higher among females as compared to males. The order of AGM for BCd by race/ethnicity for 20-64 years old was non-Hispanic white (NHW) non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NHW > NHB for ≥65 years old. The order of AGMs for UCd for 20-64-year-old current smokers was NHW > NHB and NHW > NHB for former smokers. For 20-64-year-old current smokers, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with higher levels of BCd. Levels of both UCd and BCd increased with age, but the rate of increase was as much as seven times higher among ≥65 years old than 20-64 years old. For current smokers, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of BCd. For current smokers aged 20-64 years, the number of cigarettes smoked inside home was positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smoked every day on the days they were smoked was also positively associated with the levels of UCd (p smokers, levels of both UCd and BCd were positively associated (p smoked per day at the time of quitting smoking and negatively associated with the time since smoking was quitted (p < 0.01).

  9. Predictors of neutrophilic airway inflammation in young smokers with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens

    2014-01-01

    by a higher degree of neutrophilic inflammation than in non-smokers. A state of neutrophilic inflammation may lead to increased steroid resistance and an accelerated loss of lung function owing to tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to elucidate predictors of neutrophilic inflammation in young...... asthmatic smokers not on steroid treatment, including analysis of tobacco history and bacterial colonization. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 52 steroid-free, current smokers with asthma were examined with induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), lung function, ACQ6 score, mannitol...... smokers, neutrophilia may be induced when a certain threshold of tobacco consumption is reached....

  10. Nicotine Intake in Pregnant Smokers and a General Population of Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Jacob, Nelly; Heishman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether pregnant smokers have the same nicotine intake from cigarettes as a general population of smokers and whether the known lower daily cigarette consumption among pregnant smokers is associated with higher nicotine intake among pregnant smokers. The study was a cross-sectional comparison of pregnant smokers and a general population of smokers in smoking cessation clinics. Participants were treatment-seeking pregnant (n = 476), nonpregnant female (n = 116), and male (n = 195) smokers who participated in two independent smoking cessation trials. Nicotine intake was measured as saliva cotinine/ cigarette/kg body weight ratio. The mean saliva cotinine (μg/L)/ cigarette/kg body weight (0.21, SD = 0.15) of pregnant smokers was similar to that of nonpregnant female smokers (0.24, SD = 0.14) and higher than that of male smokers (0.18, SD = 0.12, p = .002) despite a substantially lower number of cigarettes per day (pregnant smokers: 12, SD = 6; nonpregnant female smokers: 26.6, SD = 11.7; male smokers: 23.5, SD = 9.5, p smokers, saliva cotinine, as expected, increased in parallel with the number of cigarettes per day, but nicotine intake (cotinine/cigarette/kg body weight) was inversely associated with daily cigarette consumption (p smokers (p = .43). This secondary analysis showed that pregnant smokers' nicotine intake was similar to that of a general population of smokers despite a lower cigarette consumption rate. Among pregnant smokers, lower daily cigarette consumption was associated with higher nicotine intake from cigarettes, suggesting compensatory smoking.

  11. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  12. Comparison of HPRT mutant frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Mary Mohankumar, N.; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutant frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase (HPRT) has been studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six non-smokers and six smokers. The mutant frequency was studied by following a Uniform Operating Protocol (UOP). The mean lymphocyte cloning efficiency of non-smokers and smokers was about 31 %. The mean mutant frequency obtained in smokers showed a marginal increase compared to that of non-smokers, but they were not significantly different (P= 0.1416). This paper discusses the methodology adopted and the results obtained with the preliminary finding. (author)

  13. Comparison of peak expiratory flow rate and lipid profile in asymptomatic smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, F.; Abbasi, M.A.; Jadoon, J.; Sohail, M.; Shah, J.; Afridi, U.; Noor, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), other pulmonary diseases, cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The objective of study was to determine the mean Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and serum lipid profile in apparently healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from 15th December, 2009 to 15th June, 2010. Apparently healthy smokers and non-smokers from population coming to Hospital as attendants of the patients or as employees of the hospital were inducted in the study. PEFR and lipid profile of all the subjects was accessed. Results: There were total of 300 male subjects, 150 smokers and 150 non-smokers. The mean age of study subjects was 26.60 ± 5.5 years. The mean PEFR of smokers was 450.62l/min and that of non-smokers was 494.81 L/min, the difference being statistically significant (p-value <0.05).The mean total cholesterol of smokers is 5.30 ± 0.86 mmol/l and it was 3.84 ± 0.54 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean serum Triacyl Glycerols (TAGs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol of smokers was 2.04 ± 0.38 and 3.5 ± 0.83 mmol/l whereas it was 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.02 ± 0.66 mmol/l in non-smokers. Mean High Density Lipo-protein (HDL) of smokers was 0.86 ± 0.30 mmol/l and of non-smokers is 1.20 ± 0.41 mmo/l. There was statistically significant difference between serum lipid profile of smokers and non-smokers (p<0.05). the mean serum Total Cholesterol (TC), TAGs and LDL were significantly higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers. However HDL was significantly lower in smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference between PEFR of smokers and non-smokers. Higher and significant mean values of TC, TAG and LDL-C was observed in smokers as compared to non-smokers. (author)

  14. Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7%...

  15. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perception of urge-to-cough and dyspnea in healthy smokers with decreased cough reflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Nikkuni, Etsuhiro; Gui, Peijun; Suda, Chihiro; Ebihara, Takae; Yamasaki, Miyako; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms, the perceptional aspects of two symptoms in smokers have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we simultaneously evaluated the cough reflex sensitivity, the cognition of urge-to-cough and perception of dyspnea in both healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods Fourteen male healthy never-smokers and 14 age-matched male healthy current-smokers were recruited via publ...

  17. Downregulation of Checkpoint Protein Kinase 2 in the Urothelium of Healthy Male Tobacco Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Johannes; Denzinger, Stefan; Hartmann, Arndt; Otto, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    With this letter to the editor we present for the first time a study on CHEK2 expression in normal urothelium of healthy male smokers, former smokers and non-smokers. We could show a statistically significant downregulation of this DNA repair gene in current smokers compared to non-smokers, suggesting that smoking downregulates CHEK2 in normal urothelium, probably associated with an early step in carcinogenesis of urothelial bladder carcinoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  19. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  20. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  1. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  2. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  3. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  4. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2014-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR=4.59) and former smokers (OR=1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR=1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR=1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR=1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers. PMID:21340632

  5. Evaluation of Vibration Response Imaging (VRI) Technique and Difference in VRI Indices Among Non-Smokers, Active Smokers, and Passive Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongying; Chen, Jichao; Cao, Jinying; Mu, Lan; Hu, Zhenyu; He, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Vibration response imaging (VRI) is a new technology for lung imaging. Active smokers and non-smokers show differences in VRI findings, but no data are available for passive smokers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of VRI and to assess the differences in VRI findings among non-smokers, active smokers, and passive smokers. Material/Methods Healthy subjects (n=165: 63 non-smokers, 56 active smokers, and 46 passive smokers) with normal lung function were enrolled. Medical history, physical examination, lung function test, and VRI were performed for all subjects. Correlation between smoking index and VRI scores (VRIS) were performed. Results VRI images showed progressive and regressive stages representing the inspiratory and expiratory phases bilaterally in a vertical and synchronized manner in non-smokers. Vibration energy curves with low expiratory phase and plateau were present in 6.35% and 3.17%, respectively, of healthy non-smokers, 41.07% and 28.60% of smokers, and 39.13% and 30.43% of passive smokers, respectively. The massive energy peak in the non-smokers, smokers, and passive-smokers was 1.77±0.27, 1.57±0.29, and 1.66±0.33, respectively (all Psmokers and smokers. VRI revealed that passive smoking can also harm the lungs. VRI could be used to visually persuade smokers to give up smoking. PMID:26212715

  6. Tobacco withdrawal among opioid-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streck, Joanna M; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-dependent individuals is 6-fold that of the general U.S. adult population and their quit rates are notoriously poor. One possible reason for the modest cessation outcomes in opioid-dependent smokers may be that they experience more severe tobacco withdrawal upon quitting. In this secondary analysis, we evaluated tobacco withdrawal in opioid-dependent (OD) smokers versus smokers without co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). Participants were 47 methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained smokers and 25 non-SUD smokers who completed 1 of several 2-week studies involving daily visits for biochemical monitoring, delivery of financial incentives contingent on smoking abstinence, and assessment of withdrawal via the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS). Prior to quitting smoking, OD smokers presented with higher baseline withdrawal scores than non-SUD smokers (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively; F [1, 63] = 7.31, p non-SUD smokers, suggesting that elevated withdrawal severity following quitting may not be a major factor contributing to the poor cessation outcomes consistently observed among OD smokers. Further scientific efforts are needed to improve our understanding of the high smoking rates and modest cessation outcomes in this challenging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Smoking frequency among current college student smokers: distinguishing characteristics and factors related to readiness to quit smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Ling, Pamela M.; Hayes, Rashelle B.; Berg, Erin; Nollen, Nikki; Nehl, Eric; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased prevalence of non-daily smoking and changes in smoking patterns, particularly among young adults, we examined correlates of smoking level, specifically motives for smoking, and readiness to quit smoking among 2682 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Overall, 64.7% (n = 1736) were non-smokers, 11.6% (n = 312) smoked 1–5 days, 10.5% (n = 281) smoked 6–29 days and 13.2% (n = 353) were daily smokers. Ordinal regression analyses modeling smoking level indicat...

  8. Difference in pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline in healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Borgström, L; Wollmer, P

    1991-01-01

    Pathophysiological studies have shown that the alveolocapillary transfer of small solutes is much faster in healthy smokers than in non-smokers. The effects of smoking on the pulmonary absorption of inhaled terbutaline were examined in normal subjects. Nine healthy smokers and 13 healthy non-smokers inhaled nebulised terbutaline and dry terbutaline powder on two study days. Plasma concentrations of terbutaline were measured up to 240 minutes after the inhalation. The plasma concentration of t...

  9. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Devadasan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned. Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. Results The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9 with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6% reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker. Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Conclusions Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go

  10. Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra M; Elias, Maya A; Devadasan, N

    2011-07-14

    Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is very high. Despite many epidemiological studies exploring tobacco use among youth, there is no published data on adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Indian society and its implications on tobacco control. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding. The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates. Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to

  11. Physical and mental health burden in cases of bipolar disorder classified as current, former, or non-tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icick, R; Gard, S; Barde, M; Carminati, M; Desage, A; Guillaume, S; Scott, J; Bellivier, F

    2017-01-15

    Tobacco smoking increases the global burden of bipolar disorder (BD). We examined markers of physical and mental health that are associated with tobacco smoking, controlling for confounders that have not always been considered in previous studies of BD. Over 600 individuals with BD I or II referred to the French Network for bipolar disorder (FACE-BD) who completed standardized assessments, and could be reliably classified as current (CS) or former smokers (FS), were compared with those who were never smokers (NS) on: BD symptom load and psychiatric comorbidities; prevalence of alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUD); medication usage; functioning and physical health parameters. The bivariate and multivariate analyses took into account age and gender. 300 cases (49%) were CS, 78 (13%) FS and 238 (39%) had never smoked. Rates were similar across genders regardless of BD subtype. Compared with NS, CS were more likely to have an ASUD (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.18), BD I (OR 2.09), and lower abdominal obesity (OR 0.97), and FS were more likely to have an ASUD (OR 6.32) and higher abdominal obesity (OR 1.03). The sample comprised of white Europeans; the FS subgroup was relatively small and we did not apply any statistical correction for the bivariate analyses. The increased risk of physical and mental health burden in CS and FS compared to NS represents avoidable morbidity in BD. This study offers support to the argument that individuals with BD should be routinely offered support to prevent or stop tobacco smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cardiovascular risk in Spanish smokers compared to non-smokers: RETRATOS study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; Sanz de Burgoa, Verónica; Garrido Morales, Patricio; López de Sá, Esteban

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the level of cardiovascular risk in smokers seenin Primary Care clinics. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional and multicentre study. Primary Care. Every investigator included 4 consecutive patients (3 smokers, 1 non-smoker) aged 35-50 years, who came to the clinic for any reason. A total of 2,184 patients were included; 2,124 (1,597 smokers; 527 non-smokers) were evaluated and 60 patients were excluded because they did not meet with selection criteria. The 10-year risk of suffering from a fatal cardiovascular disease (CVDR) was calculated according to the SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) model. The 10-year lethal CVR according SCORE model, was classified as: very high (> 15%), high (10-14%), slightly high (5-9%), average (3-4%), low (2%), very low (1%) and negligible (smokers (40±5.3) vs. non-smokers (1.9±2.5) (Pnon-smokers vs. 60.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. 12.6% smokers (P 5%) [10.9% non-smokers vs. 26.7% smokers (Pnon-smokers vs. smokers had less probability of suffering myocardial infarction (OR 0.3; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.1-0.8; P<.0001), peripheral vascular disease (OR 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-1.0; P=.0180) and chronic obstructive lung disease (OR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.1-0.2; P=.0507). Smoking is related to a high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease. Active promotion in Primary Care clinics of measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of the smoking habit would lead to a lowering of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Divergent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation patterns between smokers and non-smokers with lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jeng-Sen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Chih-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Gee-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Smoking status is an important determinant of the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer patients. However, it is unclear whether smoking status could also influence the spectrum of EGFR mutations. We enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma from three medical centers in Taiwan. EGFR mutations were assessed by Sanger direct sequencing. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking status on both the frequency and patterns of EGFR mutations. From 2001 to 2013, a total of 1175 patients with lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled for EGFR mutation analysis. The overall EGFR mutation rate was 59.6%, which was significantly higher in females than males (69.1% vs. 49.8%) and in non-smokers than current/former smokers (73.8% vs. 29.8%) (both Psmokers expressed L858R mutation less frequently (35.2% vs. 50.2%, P=0.005) and exon 19 deletions more frequently (52.8% vs 38.8%, P=0.008) than non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers also had divergent exon 19 deletions subtypes (Del E746-A750 82.5% vs. 57.6%, respectively, Psmokers were associated with a higher rate of complex mutations than non-smokers (34.2% vs. 8.4%, P<0.001). Our results suggested that smoking status could influence not only the frequency but also the spectrum of EGFR mutations. These findings provide a clue for further investigation of EGFR mutagenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Douglas E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with increased morbidity. We estimated Medicaid expenditures for children living with smokers compared to those living with no smokers in the United States. Methods Data were overall and service-specific (i.e., inpatient, ambulatory, emergency department, prescription drug, and dental annual Medicaid expenditures for children 0-11 years old from the 2000-2007 Medical Expenditures Panel Surveys. Smokers' presence in households was determined by adult respondents' self reports. There were 25,835 person-years of observation. We used multivariate analyses to adjust for child, parent, and geographic characteristics. Results Children with Medicaid expenditures were nearly twice as likely to live with a smoker as other children in the U.S. population. Adjusted analyses revealed no detectable differences in children's overall Medicaid expenditures by presence of smokers in the household. Medicaid children who lived with smokers on average had $10 (95% CI $3, $18 higher emergency department expenditures per year than those living with no smokers. Conclusions Living with at least one smoker (a proxy for secondhand smoke exposure is unrelated to children's overall short-term Medicaid expenditures, but has a modest impact on emergency department expenditures. Additional research is necessary to understand the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and long-term health and economic outcomes.

  15. Working memory in cigarette smokers: Comparison to non-smokers and effects of abstinence☆

    OpenAIRE

    Mendrek, Adrianna; Monterosso, John; Simon, Sara L.; Jarvik, Murray; Brody, Arthur; Olmstead, Richard; Domier, Catherine P.; Cohen, Mark S.; Ernst, Monique; London, Edythe D.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoking and withdrawal on working memory. Participants included 15 smokers and 22 matched non-smokers. For both groups the N-Back Task (of working memory) was administered in two test blocks on each of two days. On one day, smokers were tested after ≥13 h abstinence; on the other day, testing began ≤1 h after smoking. Smokers inhaled one cigarette between the blocks on each test day. Results indicated that performance of smoker...

  16. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. METHODS: We recruited...... 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels......-up. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers...

  17. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  18. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  19. Impact of periodontitis on chemokines in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytural, O; Yaman, D; Ural, E C; Kantarci, A; Demirel, Korkud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemokine expression profiles in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and to assess the impact of smoking on local and systemic levels of chemokines. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis (CP; 20 smokers and 10 non-smokers) and 20 periodontally healthy subjects (10 smokers and 10 non-smokers) were recruited. Clinical parameters included the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted chemokine (RANTES) were measured in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum using a multiplex immunoassay. MIP-1α levels were significantly lower (10.15 ± 1.48; p = 0.039) while MIP-1β levels were significantly higher (42.05 ± 8.21; p = 0.005) in sera from non-smoker patients with CP compared to non-smoker healthy subjects. MCP-1 concentration in sera was significantly higher in smoker periodontitis patients (8.89 ± 1.65) compared to non-smoker patients with periodontitis (8.14 ± 0.97; p = 0.004). MIP-1α and RANTES were significantly higher in GCF of the patients with CP (p = 0.001) while there were no statistically significant correlations between the GCF levels of these analytes and the smoking status. Periodontal inflammation increases the chemokine concentrations in the GCF while smoking suppresses chemokine levels in serum suggesting that different local and systemic mechanisms are involved during the response to periodontitis in smokers. Understanding the local and systemic chemokine responses in smokers will enable the development of biologically-based treatment methods for chronic periodontitis.

  20. Subgingival bacterial recolonization after scaling and root planing in smokers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, M; Bernal, Mac; Matarazzo, F; Faveri, M; Duarte, P M; Figueiredo, L C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare subgingival bacterial recolonization patterns after scaling and root planing in current smokers and non-smokers. 15 smokers and 15 non-smokers with chronic periodontitis received scaling and root planing in six visits lasting one hour each, over a period of 21 days. Clinical monitoring was performed at baseline and 180 days, and microbiological monitoring was performed at baseline, immediately after scaling and root planing (Day 0) and at 42, 63 and 180 days post-therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. An improvement in clinical condition was observed for smokers and non-smokers; however, non-smokers showed a greater reduction in mean clinical attachment level in intermediate sites in comparison with smokers (p < 0.05). At Day 0, there was a significant reduction in the mean counts of the three pathogens from the red complex, Eubacterium nodatum and Parvimonas micra only in non-smokers (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the proportion of host-compatible species in non-smokers and smokers from baseline to 180 days post-therapy (p < 0.05). However, a significant decrease in the pathogenic species was observed only in non-smokers. Smokers were more susceptible to the re-establishment of a pathogenic subgingival biofilm than non-smokers. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  1. A Japanese cross-sectional multicentre study of biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease in smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    L?dicke, Frank; Magnette, John; Baker, Gizelle; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre study in Japan to detect the differences in biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular biomarkers between smokers and non-smokers. Several clinically relevant cardiovascular biomarkers differed significantly between smokers and non-smokers, including lipid metabolism (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations ? lower in smokers), inflammation (fibrinogen and white blood cell count ? both higher in smokers), oxidative stress (8-epi-...

  2. Predictors of COPD in symptomatic smokers and ex-smokers seen in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupper, Oliver Djurhuus; Kjeldgaard, Peter; Løkke, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Even in subjects at high risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the diagnosis is often missed due to lack of awareness of symptoms and risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of a diagnosis of COPD in symptomatic current and ex-smokers seen in a primary....... Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age 50-59 years (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.3), 60-69 years (OR 4.1, 95% CI 3.1-5.5), ≥70 years (OR 5.7, 95% CI 4.2-7.8), BMI smoker (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01-1.5), self-reported dyspnoea (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.......4-2.0), wheeze (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.3) and sputum (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) were associated with a significantly higher risk of being diagnosed with COPD. No association was found between gender, cough and recurrent respiratory tract infections and a diagnosis of COPD. Among symptomatic smokers and ex-smokers...

  3. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2018-02-01

    Although tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more than one-fourth of COPD patients are non-smokers. In this cross-sectional study, the differences in COPD phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers in male subjects were investigated and were focused on structural lung changes using a quantitative assessment of computed tomography (CT) images. They divided male participants with COPD, from a Korean cohort near a cement plant, into non-smokers and smokers by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), spirometry results, history of biomass smoke exposure, and CT measurements, were compared between the two groups. Emphysema index (EI) and mean wall area percentage (MWA %) were used to evaluate the structural lung changes on volumetric CT scans. The non-smoker group (n = 49) had younger patients and had a greater BMI than the smoker group (n = 113) (P smokers had emphysema than non-smokers (EI 10.0 vs. 6.5, P smokers than in non-smokers (MWA 69.1 vs. 65.3, P = .03), while EI was not statistically different (EI 7.1 vs. 10.4, P = .52). Non-smoker males with COPD were younger and had a greater BMI than the smokers. Tobacco smoke exposure seemed to be associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while biomass smoke exposure exhibited a significant interaction with tobacco smoking in an airway-predominant phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Smokers and non smokers with rheumatoid arthritis have similar clinical status: data from the multinational QUEST-RA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, A; Toloza, S; Guimaraes da Silveira, I; Lazovskis, J; Hetland, M L; Hamoud, H; Peets, T; Mäkinen, H; Gossec, L; Herborn, G; Skopouli, F N; Rojkovich, B; Aggarwal, A; Minnock, P; Cazzato, M; Yamanaka, H; Oyoo, O; Rexhepi, S; Andersone, D; Baranauskaite, A; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N; Jacobs, J W G; Haugeberg, G; Sierakowski, S; Ionescu, R; Karateew, D; Dimic, A; Henrohn, D; Gogus, F; Badsha, H; Choy, E; Bergman, M; Sokka, T

    2010-01-01

    To analyse clinical severity/activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) according to smoking status. The QUEST-RA multinational database reviews patients for Core Data Set measures including 28 swollen and tender joint count, physician global estimate, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), HAQ-function, pain, and patient global estimate, as well as DAS28, rheumatoid factor (RF), nodules, erosions and number of DMARDs were recorded. Smoking status was assessed by self-report as 'never smoked', 'currently smoking' and 'former smokers'. Patient groups with different smoking status were compared for demographic and RA measures. Among the 7,307 patients with smoking data available, status as 'never smoked,' 'current smoker' and 'former smoker' were reported by 65%, 15% and 20%. Ever smokers were more likely to be RF-positive (OR 1.32;1.17-1.48, p<0.001). Rheumatoid nodules were more frequent in ever smokers (OR 1.41;1.24-1.59, p<0.001). The percentage of patients with erosive arthritis and extra-articular disease was similar in all smoking categories. Mean DAS28 was 4.4 (SD 1.6) in non-smokers vs. 4.0 (SD 1.6) in those who had ever smoked. However, when adjusted by age, sex, disease duration, and country gross domestic product, only ESR remained significantly different among Core Data Set measures (mean 31.7mm in non-smokers vs. 26.8mm in ever smoked category). RA patients who had ever smoked were more likely to have RF and nodules, but values for other clinical status measures were similar in all smoking categories (never smoked, current smokers and former smokers).

  5. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  6. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  7. Electronic cigarette use behaviors and motivations among smokers and non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E. Sussan; Fatima G. Shahzad; Eefa Tabassum; Joanna E. Cohen; Robert A. Wise; Michael J. Blaha; Janet T. Holbrook; Shyam Biswal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of electronic cigarettes (EC) has risen exponentially over the past decade, including among never smokers, and ECs are now the most popular tobacco product among teenagers in the US. While, EC manufacturers utilize numerous marketing strategies to target both smokers and non-smokers, it is unclear how perceptions and behaviors differ between these two groups. Methods We conducted a survey of 320 adults either via online surveys or in Baltimore vape shops to determi...

  8. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia A. Wackowski; Michelle T. Bover Manderski; Cristine D. Delnevo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  9. Unique Relationships between Facets of Mindfulness and Eating Pathology among Female Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Claire E.; McVay, Megan Apperson; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W.; Copeland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study exam...

  10. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  11. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  12. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas Barros

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is defined as "paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally". Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB.

  13. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  14. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comet assay showed increased percentage of abnormalities in smokers (light, medium and heavy) than non-smokers. Conclusion: The frequencies of MN in buccal epithelial and blood lymphocytes are high in smokers; particularly heavy smoker group showed significantly increased results. Among them, the lymphocytic ...

  15. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anticipated motivation for genetic testing among smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers: an exploratory qualitative study of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the public's interest in genetic testing related to cigarette smoking, comparing the public's motivations with researchers' intentions for this technology. Adult nonsmokers (n=463), former smokers (n=163), and current smokers (n=129) completed an online survey. Within a hypothetical scenario, respondents decided whether they desired genetic testing related to smoking and explained their decision making. A non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the interest in genetic testing by smoking history group. Inductive content analysis was used to investigate respondents' explanations for their testing decisions. Most nonsmokers (64%) and former smokers (58%) did not want genetic testing. While most current daily smokers were interested in testing (56%), most current occasional smokers were not (52%). Respondents' decision-making explanations were categorized into 3 major themes: Causality, Relevancy and Utility (e.g. personal benefits or harms). The use of causality, relevancy and utility explanations varied by smoking history. Notable perceived benefits of testing included recreation and altruism. Notable perceived harms included fear of fatalistic thoughts and concern about genetic discrimination. Interest in genetic testing was highest among current daily smokers, despite potential utility in other groups. Although respondents' motivations for testing paralleled researchers' intentions of tailoring smoking cessation therapies and increasing motivation to quit or abstain, respondents also raised alternative motivations and fears that healthcare providers would need to address. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Assessment of Tobacco-Related Approach and Attentional Biases in Smokers, Cravers, Ex-Smokers, and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L.; Maas, Joyce; Wiers, Reinout W.; Becker, Eni S.; Rinck, Mike

    2016-01-01

    According to theories of addictive behaviors, approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues play a crucial role in tobacco dependence. Several studies have investigated these biases by using various paradigms in different sample types. However, this heterogeneity makes it difficult to compare and evaluate the results. The present study aimed to address this problem, via (i) a structural comparison of different measures of approach-avoidance and a measure of smoking-related attentional biases, and (ii) using within one study different representative samples in the context of tobacco dependence. Three measures of approach-avoidance were employed: an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT), a Stimulus Response Compatibility Task (SRC), and a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT). To assess attentional biases, a modified Stroop task including smoking-related words was administered. The study included four groups: n = 58 smokers, n = 57 non-smokers, n = 52 cravers, and n = 54 ex-smokers. We expected to find strong tobacco-related approach biases and attentional biases in smokers and cravers. However, the general pattern of results did not confirm these expectations. Approach responses assessed during the AAT and SRC did not differ between groups. Moreover, the Stroop did not show the expected interference effect. For the ST-IAT, cravers had stronger approach associations toward smoking-related cues, whereas non-smokers showed stronger avoidance associations. However, no such differences in approach-avoidance associations were found in smokers and ex-smokers. To conclude, these data do not provide evidence for a strong role of implicit approach and attentional biases toward smoking-related cues in tobacco dependency. PMID:26955359

  18. Racial Differences in Serum Cotinine Levels of Smokers

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    Lisa B. Signorello

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008 and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52. We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  19. Racial differences in serum cotinine levels of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Tarone, Robert E; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Blot, William J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate black/white differences in cotinine levels for current smokers of both sexes, and to explore the potential contribution of mentholated cigarettes to these differences. Sera from 255 current smokers sampled from Southern Community Cohort Study participants (65 black men, 65 black women, 63 white men, 62 white women) were analyzed for cotinine, and linear regression was used to model the effect of race on cotinine level, adjusting for the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 24 hours, use of menthol vs. non-menthol cigarettes, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and age. Black smokers smoked fewer cigarettes than white smokers, yet had crude mean cotinine levels nearly as high or higher than white smokers. After multivariate adjustment, cotinine levels were an average of 50 ng/ml higher among black than white women (p=0.008) and non-significantly 12 ng/ml higher among black than white men (p=0.52). We observed no increase in cotinine levels associated with menthol cigarette use. We conclude that differences in cotinine levels among smokers suggest racial variation in exposure to and/or metabolism of tobacco smoke constituents, but our findings do not support a role for menthol preference in this disparity.

  20. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in a Dutch sample of daily smokers and ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beem, A. Leo; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2005-01-01

    We explored the performance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a sample of 1378 daily smokers and 1058 ex-smokers who participated in a survey study of the Netherlands Twin Register. FTND scores were higher for smokers than for ex-smokers. Nicotine dependence level was not

  1. No intention to comply with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination : behavioural determinants among smokers and non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans-van den Akker, I; van den Heuvel, P.M.; Verheij, Th J M; van Delden, J J M; van Essen, G A; Hak, E

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking increases the risk for influenza and pneumococcal disease, but vaccination uptake is lower among smokers than non-smokers. We therefore aimed to determine reasons for not complying with vaccination among smokers and non-smokers. METHOD: In 2005 a self-administered questionnaire

  2. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Nondependent Smokers (Tobacco Chippers) in Comparison to Heavy Smokers and Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carim-Todd, Laura; Mitchell, Suzanne H; Oken, Barry S

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco chippers are light smokers with stable patterns of smoking that exhibit lower nicotine dependence severity than heavy smokers. Chippers may provide valuable information about the factors influencing drug dependence. Impulsivity and stress are two factors known to influence smoking. By comparing nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers, n = 25) to dependent smokers (heavy smokers, n = 23) and nonsmokers (n = 25), this study examines the relationship between nicotine dependence, impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity. A total of 73 adult participants completed a study visit that included questionnaires to measure nicotine dependence, chronic stress, personality, affect, withdrawal, and craving. Impulsivity was measured with the delay discounting task and the flanker task. Stress reactivity was assessed by monitoring respiration, heart rate, and salivary cortisol during performance of a titrated Stroop task. Effects of acute stress on affect and craving were examined. Tobacco chippers were as impulsive as heavy smokers on the delay discounting task but no different from nonsmokers on the flanker task. Heavy smokers reported higher perceived stress than chippers and nonsmokers. Perceived stress was a significant predictor of discounting only in heavy smokers. Acute stress induced changes in respiration, heart rate, and heart rate variability. Craving and negative affect increased after stress in both smoking groups, but craving was associated with affect only in chippers. Tobacco chippers do not differ from heavy smokers in impulsivity, but do differ in perceived stress. One's perception and experience of stress might be associated to nicotine dependence resistance and could inform smoking cessation treatments. By examining impulsivity, chronic stress, and stress reactivity in nondependent smokers (tobacco chippers) compared to dependent smokers and nonsmokers, this study contributes to the understanding of nicotine addiction and informs smoking

  3. Health-related quality of life in current smokers with COPD: factors associated with current smoking and new insights into sex differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheruvu VK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinay K Cheruvu,1 Lorriane A Odhiambo,1 Dana S Mowls,2 Melissa D Zullo,1 Abdi T Gudina1 1Department of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 2Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA Abstract: Findings from studies that examined the association between health-related ­quality of life (HRQOL and smoking status among COPD patients have been mixed. Moreover, factors associated with current smoking in COPD patients and differences by sex have not been fully elucidated. Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used in this study. Four HRQOL indicators were examined in this study: general health, physical health, mental health, and activity limitations. General health was dichotomized into two groups: “excellent/very good/good” and “fair/poor”, and the other three HRQOL indicators were dichotomized into <14 (infrequent and ≥14 (frequent unhealthy days in the past 30 days. To examine HRQOL indicators in association with current versus former smoking and identify factors associated with current smoking, logistic regression models were used. Sex differences were explored. In COPD patients, current smokers compared to former smokers had significantly poor HRQOL on all subdomains: “fair/poor” general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1–1.5]; poor physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.1–1.5]; poor mental health (AOR: 1.8 [CI: 1.4–2.2]; and poor activity limitations (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.3–1.9]. HRQOL subdomains affected by current smoking differed by sex except activity limitations. General health (AOR: 1.5 [CI: 1.1–2.0] and activity limitations (AOR: 1.6 [95% CI: 1.2–2.2] in males and physical health (AOR: 1.3 [CI: 1.0–1.6], mental health (AOR: 2.1 [CI: 1.7–2.6], and activity

  4. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; Mara C Ramos, Ercy

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF 25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Why Don't More Smokers Switch to Using E-Cigarettes: The Views of Confirmed Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Dickson, Tiffany

    2017-06-16

    Whilst e-cigarettes have been characterised by Public Health England as being around 95% less harmful than combustible tobacco products, only a minority of current smokers (around 16% within the UK) are using these devices. In this paper we report the results of an online survey of 650 smokers in contact with a smokers' rights group in the UK. A total of 91% of the smokers surveyed were smoking on a daily basis. Fifty nine percent reported having used electronic nicotine delivery systems, the majority of whom reported having used e-cigarettes. Those smokers that had not used these devices principally explained this in terms of the pleasure they derived from smoking. The features smokers' liked most about e-cigarette had to do with the range of settings in which they could be used, the lack of an offensive smell associated with their use, the available flavours and the reduced level of harm. The elements which smokers liked least about e-cigarettes had to do with the vaping experience, the technology, the chemical nature of e-liquids and the complex technology that was associated with these devices. If a greater number of smokers are to be encouraged to take up e-cigarettes, it will be necessary not only to convey accurate information on the relative harm of these devices (compared to combustible tobacco products), but to ensure that they are able to be used in a wider range of settings than those within which smoking can currently occur and that the vaping experience more closely resembles the smoking experience.

  6. Gingival recession in smokers and non-smokers with minimal periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Stadermann, Sabine; Heinecke, Achim

    2002-02-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers. 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed. At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site. Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.

  7. Expression of collagen in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers and non-smokers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Romulo; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Piato, Sebastião; Chade, Milca Cezar; Rios, Adriana Ribeiro Santos; Silva, Maria Antonieta Galvão; Aldrighi, José Mendes

    2015-09-01

    Our study compared the amount of total collagen and type I collagen in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers and non-smokers. The study group consisted of 14 pregnant smokers at 24-36 weeks of gestation; 39 pregnant non-smokers between 24-36 weeks of gestation comprised the control group. The expressions of total collagen and type I collagen were analyzed using two histological sections of the fetal membranes. The assessment of total collagen was performed using the Picro-Cirius red stain, and type I collagen expression was determined by means of immunohistochemistry The Mann-Whitney test was applied to verify possible differences between the groups. The average area covered by total collagen was lower in smokers (20630.45 microm2) as compared to non-smokers (24058.61 microm2), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.454). Comparison involving collagen type I deemed similar results (20001.33 microm2 vs. 25328.29 microm2, p = 0.158). The amount of total collagen and type I collagen was lower in ovular membranes of pregnant smokers as compared to non-smokers, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  8. Cigarette Smokers, Never-Smokers, and Transitions: Implications for Successful Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Hahn, Sarah; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    One of the social identities held by people is defined by whether or not they smoke cigarettes. Although this identity can and does change for many people over the course of their lives, most research has not examined the effects of transitioning from a smoker to a non-smoker. Using a life span perspective, our analyses contrasted the extent to…

  9. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  10. The role of impulse oscillometry in assessment of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher El-Naggar

    2012-10-01

    Conclusion: IOS is an effective, easy to perform, and a non invasive method for the assessment of airway obstruction in obstructive pulmonary disorders. Although, there is no significant difference between impulse oscillometry and spirometry parameters in early detection of airway obstruction in smokers and ex-smokers groups.

  11. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), and the Netherlands (2008). Smokers in France and Germany were asked about smoking rules in their cars, and smokers in the Netherlands were asked about smoking rules in cars carrying children. Results: In France and Germany, 59% and 52% of smokers respectively, allowed smoking in their cars. In the Netherlands, 36% of smokers allowed smoking in cars carrying children. Predictors of allowing smoking in cars included: being a daily vs. non-daily smoker, being younger vs. older age, having no (young) children in the home, being a heavier smoker, and allowing smoking in the home. In the Netherlands, smokers who agreed that TSP is dangerous to non-smokers were less likely to allow smoking in cars carrying children. Conclusion: Overall, a sizeable proportion of smokers allowed smoking in their cars across the three countries. Media campaigns with information about the dangers of TSP may increase the adoption of smoke-free cars. These media campaigns could target smokers who are most likely to allow smoking in cars. PMID:22294780

  12. Depression Among Non-Daily Smokers Compared to Daily Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States: An Emerging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Gbedemah, Misato; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Chaiton, Michael; Goodwin, Renee D

    2017-09-01

    Depression is strongly associated with daily smoking. Yet, little is known about the association between depression and non-daily smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of past-year depression and changes in past-year depression over time among non-daily smokers, compared to daily smokers and never-smokers, overall and stratified by age, gender, income, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes per day. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons aged 12 and over (total study population N = 496 805). The prevalence of past-year depression was examined annually among non-daily smokers, daily smokers, and never-smokers from 2005 to 2013 using linear trend analyses. Past-year depression was common among 10.10% of non-daily smokers, common among 10.78% of daily smokers, and 5.51% of never-smokers in 2013. The prevalence of depression increased from 2005 to 2013 among non-daily smokers (9.06% vs. 10.10%; p = .034) while there was no significant change in depression over time among daily smokers. Increases in depression among non-daily smokers occurred for both men and women and appear most pronounced youth, those smoking fewer cigarettes, and those without nicotine dependence. The prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers was equivalent to daily smokers and nearly twice that among nonsmokers. Depression appears to be increasing over time in non-daily smokers especially among youth, those who smoke less, and those without nicotine dependence. More work on the mental health of non-daily smokers is needed as this is an increasing and understudied group. This is the first study to investigate changes in the prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers over the past decade in a nationally representative sample of the United States. The results suggest an increase in depression among non-daily smokers over time that did not

  13. Reactivity to smoking- and food-related cues in currently dieting and non-dieting young women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Rebecca A; Higgs, Suzanne

    2011-04-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that young women dieters who smoke experience greater cigarette cravings in the presence of food-related related cues. The aim of this experiment was to examine reactivity to both smoking-related and water cues by dieting and non-dieting women smokers in the presence or absence of food cues. Eighteen female undergraduates attended two sessions (food present and food absent). At each session, participants were presented with a cigarette and water cue in a counterbalanced order. Pre- and post-cue measures included the brief version of the Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, heart rate and self-reported mood. All smokers showed enhanced reactivity (increased craving and heart rate) to smoking versus water cues. For dieters there was a larger increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food, whereas for non-dieters there was a smaller increase in cigarette craving and heart rate in response to the smoking-related cues in the presence of food compared with the absence of food. Mood and appetite ratings were not significantly affected by either cue type or session. The results suggest that cue reactivity to smoking-related cues is modulated by the presence of incentive stimuli relevant to the individual.

  14. Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A

    1982-01-01

    Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

  15. Lower hypoxic ventilatory response in smokers compared to non-smokers during abstinence from cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Sauer, Roland; Koehler, Ulrich; Bärtsch, Peter; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2016-11-24

    Carotid body O 2 -chemosensitivity determines the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) as part of crucial regulatory reflex within oxygen homeostasis. Nicotine has been suggested to attenuate HVR in neonates of smoking mothers. However, whether smoking affects HVR in adulthood has remained unclear and probably blurred by acute ventilatory stimulation through cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that HVR is substantially reduced in smokers when studied after an overnight abstinence from cigarettes i.e. after nicotine elimination. We therefore determined the isocapnic HVR of 23 healthy male smokers (age 33.9 ± 2.0 years, BMI 24.2 ± 0.5 kg m -2 , mean ± SEM) with a smoking history of >8 years after 12 h of abstinence and compared it to that of 23 healthy male non-smokers matched for age and BMI. Smokers and non-smokers were comparable with regard to factors known to affect isocapnic HVR such as plasma levels of glucose and thiols as well as intracellular levels of glutathione in blood mononuclear cells. As a new finding, abstinent smokers had a significantly lower isocapnic HVR (0.024 ± 0.002 vs. 0.037 ± 0.003 l min -1 % -1 BMI -1 , P = 0.002) compared to non-smokers. However, upon re-exposure to cigarettes the smokers' HVR increased immediately to the non-smokers' level. This is the first report of a substantial HVR reduction in abstinent adult smokers which appears to be masked by daily smoking routine and may therefore have been previously overlooked. A low HVR may be suggested as a novel link between smoking and aggravated hypoxemia during sleep especially in relevant clinical conditions such as COPD.

  16. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Tang, Hao; Tsoh, Janice Y; Chen, Moon S; Tong, Elisa K

    2017-11-01

    Non-smokers' assertive behaviour towards smokers by asking them not to smoke is important in promoting smoke-free environments. Korean and Chinese Americans come from countries where most women are non-smokers and assertive behaviour may not be prevalent but may increase after migration because of social-ecological factors. This study assessed the extent to which Korean and Chinese American non-smokers ask someone not to smoke and associated factors. The 2003 California Chinese American and Korean American Tobacco Use Surveys were analysed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined factors related to non-smoker self-reports that they asked someone not to smoke within the past year. About 40% reported past-year assertive behaviour against smoking, with higher rates among Koreans than Chinese (60.4% vs. 34.5%), those living with smokers (63.5%), ever exposed with a smoke-free home rule (62.3%), recently exposed at work without a smoke-free work policy (67.6%) and regularly exposed at other locations (52.3%). In combined multivariate analyses of both ethnic groups, assertive behaviour was associated with individual factors (single vs. married; tobacco exposure knowledge), family factors (living with smokers, exposed at home despite a smoke-free rule), community factors (exposed at work with no smoke-free policy, exposed at other locations) and cultural factors (Korean vs. Chinese ethnicity; lower acculturation). Chinese and Korean American non-smokers report assertive behaviour against smoking, which is associated with social-ecological factors. Results help identify target groups and strategies for future intervention, including the need to implement or enforce smoke-free environments and promote empowerment. [Saw A, Tang H, Tsoh JY, Chen MS Jr, Tong EK. Non-smoker assertive behaviour against smoke exposure: Chinese and Korean American non-smokers. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  18. Enhanced prolactin levels in opium smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi-Kashanian, Ghollam-Reza; Esmaeeli, Farzaneh; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2005-12-01

    In Iran, opium is smoked for pleasure or as a medication by some people. It is a complex mixture of 40 different alkaloids, including morphine and codeine along with many impurities. Although it is well established that opioids or tobacco affect many physiological functions in humans, to our knowledge there has been no specific study looking at these effects in opium smokers. To assess that, we investigated the circulating levels of prolactin, TSH, LH, FSH and testosterone in male opium smokers who also smoke cigarettes (n=23, aged 28.4+/- 4.1 years), and comparing this with the corresponding values for nicotine abusers (n=12, 15-25 cigarettes/day) or a healthy control group (n=20) of the same age. Our results showed that 86.96% of the opium-dependent and 41.67 % of the nicotine-dependent group displayed high prolactin values (popium and the plasma prolactin level of opium dependents (p=0.748, popium smokers and 50% of the cigarette smokers (popium smokers was also lower than that of the other two groups (popium and cigarette smoking may synergistically influence pituitary hormone production through the effects on neuropeptides produced either locally or systemic.

  19. Experience of, awareness of and help-seeking for potential cancer symptoms in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walabyeki, Julie; Adamson, Joy; Buckley, Hannah L; Sinclair, Helena; Atkin, Karl; Graham, Hilary; Whitaker, Katriina; Wardle, Jane; Macleod, Una

    2017-01-01

    Presenting to primary care with potential cancer symptoms is contingent on one's ability to recognize potentially serious symptoms. We investigated differences between smokers and non-smokers in symptoms experienced, awareness and consulting of potential respiratory, head and neck cancer symptoms. Smokers and non-smokers aged over 50 from Yorkshire general practice lists were sent a postal questionnaire asking about symptoms, consulting and awareness of cancer symptoms. Data were analysed using STATA14. Response rate after one reminder was 30.5% (1205/3954). Smoking status was associated with experience of cough (pawareness of breathlessness as a potential cancer symptom (p = 0.035) and consulting for cough (p = 0.011) with smokers less likely to consult than never-smokers (OR = 0.37;95% CI[0.17-0.80]). Our findings suggest that current smokers are more likely to experience cough, breathlessness and tiredness, but are less likely to consult for cough than never-smokers. To increase cancer awareness and promote consulting among smokers, innovative interventions improving symptom recognition and empowering smokers to seek help are required.

  20. Relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes, 30-day use, and disease symptoms among current adult cigarette smokers in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yao

    Full Text Available To examine the relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and disease symptoms compared with the relationship between 30-day e-cigarette use and disease symptoms among adult cigarette smokers in the U.S.We analyzed data from the Tobacco and Attitudes Beliefs Survey which included 533 respondents aged 24+ who were current cigarette smokers and e-cigarette ever users. Fifteen self-reported disease symptoms were included as outcome variables. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for each disease symptom with total spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days and with reported 30-day e-cigarette use. All models controlled for cigarettes smoked per day (CPD and sociodemographic characteristics.We found that those who spent more on e-cigarettes were more likely to report chest pain (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52, to notice blood when brushing their teeth (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.49, to have sores or ulcers in their mouth (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.72, and to have more than one cold (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.78 than those with no spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days in an adjusted analysis. After controlling for CPD and other covariates, there were no significant relationships between 30-day e-cigarette use and symptoms. Even after controlling for CPD, e-cigarette expenditures or use was associated with greater odds of wheezing and shortness of breath.E-cigarette expenditures might be a more useful measure of intensity of e-cigarette use. The additional health effect of e-cigarette use or expenditures among smokers independent of the effect of CPD suggests that e-cigarette use adds adverse health effects even among cigarette smokers.

  1. Relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes, 30-day use, and disease symptoms among current adult cigarette smokers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tingting; Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Glantz, Stanton A; Goldberg, Rachel L; Wang, Julie B; Wang, Yingning; Lightwood, James; Cataldo, Janine

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and disease symptoms compared with the relationship between 30-day e-cigarette use and disease symptoms among adult cigarette smokers in the U.S. We analyzed data from the Tobacco and Attitudes Beliefs Survey which included 533 respondents aged 24+ who were current cigarette smokers and e-cigarette ever users. Fifteen self-reported disease symptoms were included as outcome variables. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were estimated for each disease symptom with total spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days and with reported 30-day e-cigarette use. All models controlled for cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and sociodemographic characteristics. We found that those who spent more on e-cigarettes were more likely to report chest pain (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.52), to notice blood when brushing their teeth (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.49), to have sores or ulcers in their mouth (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.08-1.72), and to have more than one cold (AOR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.05-1.78) than those with no spending on e-cigarettes in the past 30 days in an adjusted analysis. After controlling for CPD and other covariates, there were no significant relationships between 30-day e-cigarette use and symptoms. Even after controlling for CPD, e-cigarette expenditures or use was associated with greater odds of wheezing and shortness of breath. E-cigarette expenditures might be a more useful measure of intensity of e-cigarette use. The additional health effect of e-cigarette use or expenditures among smokers independent of the effect of CPD suggests that e-cigarette use adds adverse health effects even among cigarette smokers.

  2. The risk of arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass surgery: do smokers have a paradox effect?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sarraf, Nael

    2010-11-01

    Smoking is reported to increase the risk of arrhythmias. However, there are limited data on its effects on arrhythmias following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This is a retrospective review of a prospective database of all CABG patients over an eight-year period. Our cohort (n=2813) was subdivided into: current (n=1169), former (n=837), and non-smokers (n=807). Predictors of arrhythmias following CABG in relation to smoking status were analysed. Atrial arrhythmias occurred in 942 patients (33%). Ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 48 patients (2%) and high-grade atrioventricular block occurred in five patients (0.2%). Arrhythmias were lower in current smokers than former and non-smokers (29% vs. 40% vs. 39%, respectively P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed 30% arrhythmia risk reduction in smokers compared to non-smokers [odds ratio (OR) 0.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.5-0.8] and this effect persisted after accounting for potential confounders while former smokers had the same risk as non-smokers (OR 1.04, CI 0.9-1.3). There were no significant differences in mortality. Smokers are less prone to develop arrhythmias following CABG. This paradox effect is lost in former smokers. This effect is possibly due to a lower state of hyper adrenergic stimulation observed in smokers than non-smokers following the stress of surgery.

  3. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1.......35 in cigarette smokers and 1.58 in hookah smokers; P smokers and 6.16 in hookah smokers; P

  4. [Wound healing complications in smokers, non-smokers and after abstinence from smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, O; Kapalschinski, N; Skorzinski, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Homann, H H; Muehlberger, T

    2012-07-01

    The pulmonary and cardiovascular ramifications of smoking are well documented and this also applies to increased wound healing complications in smokers. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether preoperatively refraining from smoking would affect the incidence of wound healing disorders. Between 2006 and 2008 a total of 295 patients underwent aesthetic (n = 167) or reconstructive surgery (n = 128). They were divided into three groups: A (n = 98) non-smokers for at least 2 years, B (n = 99) patients who refrained from smoking 6 weeks prior to surgery and C (n = 98) smokers. Smoking abstinence was verified by cotinine tests. Wound healing complications were defined as dehiscent wounds, wound infections, atypical scar formation and adiponecrosis. Smokers developed wound healing complications in 48.2% of cases, non-smokers in 21.0% and patients who had stopped smoking for 6 weeks in 30.8% of cases (p = 0.006). Elective surgery should only be performed on non-smokers and smokers who had refrained from smoking for at least 6 weeks to reduce wound healing complications as far as possible.

  5. The determination of polonium in urine of Filipino non-smokers and smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.

    1976-03-01

    Po 210 , a decay product of Ra 226 , is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life of 138.4 days. It is a natural containment of tobacco and hence a health hazard to smokers. Previous study on Philippine cigarettes revealed that the average Po 210 activity of local brands is 0.0071 pCi/g. while that of foreign brands is 0.0129 pCi/g. Other studies indicate that approximately 0.13% of the total Po 210 in the body is excreted in the urine daily. Po urinalysis can serve as a rough index of the body burden of Po 210 and Ra 226 or anyone of its daughters absorbed in case of exposures. In this study, the Po 210 content in urine of smokers is compared with that of non-smokers. Twenty samples from non-smokers and twenty samples from smokers were analyzed for Po 210 activity. The average Po content of the urine of smokers, 0.2673+-0.1077 pCi/24h appears to be higher than the mean Po activity in urine of non-smokers, 0.1877+-0.1200. The t-value obtained from the comparison of the means was 2.205. This exceeds the t-value at the 0.05 significance level (degrees of freedom equal 19) which is 1.725. Therefore, there exists a significant difference in the Po content in the urine of non-smokers to that of smokers

  6. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palipudi, Krishna M.; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S.; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation. PMID:26378897

  8. The Process of Cessation Among Current Tobacco Smokers: A Cross-Sectional Data Analysis From 21 Countries, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulo, Lazarous; Palipudi, Krishna M; Nelson-Blutcher, Glenda; Murty, Komanduri S; Asma, Samira

    2015-09-17

    We analyzed data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) from 21 countries to categorize smokers by stages of cessation and highlight interventions that could be tailored to each stage. GATS is a nationally representative household survey that measures tobacco use and other key indicators by using a standardized protocol. The distribution of smokers into precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages varied by country. Using the stages of change model, each country can design and implement effective interventions suitable to its cultural, social, and economic situations to help smokers advance successfully through the stages of cessation.

  9. Attitudes towards screening for lung cancer among smokers and their non-smoking counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Gerard A; Nietert, Paul J; Zoller, James; Carter, Cindy; Bradford, David

    2007-02-01

    There has been resurgence of interest in lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography. The implications of directing a screening programme at smokers has been little explored. A nationwide telephone survey was conducted. Demographics, certain clinical characteristics and attitudes about screening for lung cancer were ascertained. Responses of current, former and never smokers were compared. 2001 people from the US were interviewed. Smokers were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely than never smokers to be male, non-white, less educated, and to report poor health status or having had cancer, and less likely to be able to identify a usual source of healthcare. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were less likely to believe that early detection would result in a good chance of survival (p < 0.05). Smokers were less likely to be willing to consider computed tomography screening for lung cancer (71.2% (current smokers) v 87.6% (never smokers) odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.71). More never smokers as opposed to current smokers believed that the risk of disease (88% v 56%) and the accuracy of the test (92% v 71%) were important determinants in deciding whether to be screened (p < 0.05). Only half of the current smokers would opt for surgery for a screen-diagnosed cancer. The findings suggest that there may be substantial obstacles to the successful implementation of a mass-screening programme for lung cancer that will target cigarette smokers.

  10. Prevalence characteristics of COPD in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan M. Bakr

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: This study revealed that never smokers constitute a significant proportion of the Egyptian COPD patients. When dealing with COPD management, clinicians must be oriented with the different risk factors, other than tobacco smoke, that play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of COPD, because despite smoking is the most important risk factor, its absence doesn’t exclude COPD diagnosis.

  11. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  12. Cigarette Mouth Insertion Depths Among Chinese Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Q

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vent blocking - where filter ventilation holes are intentionally or unintentionally, partly or completely covered by smokers’ lips during smoking - is an aspect of smoking behavior which can alter mainstream smoke yields. This study was designed to determine if, and to what extent ventilation holes were blocked by smokers’ lips in two cohorts of Chinese smokers. In this study, two groups of samples were collected. One group (1742 butts was collected randomly from public places in six chosen cities. Another (1037 butts was obtained by collecting the butts from identified smokers in Kunming. In this paper, the mouth insertion depth among Chinese smokers was studied for the first time by a staining method employing ninhydrin in ethanol. The results indicate that Chinese smokers exhibit a mouth insertion depth ranging from 1 to 17 mm with an average value of 7.5 AA± 2 mm. In this study, 95% of the ventilated filters examined showed that the vent zone was neither completely nor partially covered by smokers’ lips.

  13. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  14. Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, phase III study comparing two doses of erlotinib for second-line treatment of current smokers with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (CurrentS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Egbert F; Wu, Yi-Long; Gervais, Radj; Zhou, Caicun; Felip, Enriqueta; Feng, Jifeng; Guclu, Salih Zeki; Hoiczyk, Mathias; Dorokhova, Elena; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Grange, Susan; Perez-Moreno, Pablo Diego; Mitchell, Lada; Reck, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Active smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have increased erlotinib metabolism versus non-smoking patients, which reduces exposure. Therefore, an increased erlotinib dose may be beneficial. The CurrentS study (NCT01183858) assessed efficacy and safety of 300mg erlotinib (E300) as second-line therapy in current smokers with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC versus the standard 150mg dose (E150). Patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC (current smokers who failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy) were randomized to receive E150 or E300 until progression/death/unacceptable toxicity. progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints: overall survival (OS), disease control rate and safety. A total of 342 patients were screened; the intent-to-treat population comprised 159 E300 patients and 154 E150 patients. Median PFS was 7.0 versus 6.9 weeks with E300 versus E150, respectively (unstratified hazard ratio [HR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.33; unstratified log-rank P=0.671). Median OS was 6.8 months in both arms (unstratified HR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.32; unstratified log-rank P=0.846). Overall, 89.2% (E300 arm) and 84.4% (E150 arm) experienced ≥1 adverse event (AE) of any grade (44.3% and 37%, respectively, experienced grade ≥3 AEs); AEs of special interest were reported in 67.7% and 47.4% of patients, respectively. E300 resulted in higher mean plasma concentrations versus E150, however, this did not improve efficacy. Despite the difference in erlotinib exposure, there was no evidence of an incremental efficacy benefit of a higher erlotinib dose versus the standard dose in this population of highly active smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Exercise on Hemorheological Parameters of Young Nigerian Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    AWODU, Omolade Augustina; FAMODU, Ademola Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Regular physical exercise is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the hypothesis that acute submaximal exercise has similar effects on rheological parameters of smokers and non-smokers was tested. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three male university undergraduates comprised of 18 smokers and 15 non-smokers were studied. All the subjects underwent submaximal exercise on cycloergometer for 30 minutes. Blood for hemorheological parameters was collected 30...

  17. Slower nicotine metabolism among postmenopausal Polish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Delijewski, Marcin; Koszowski, Bartosz; Sobczak, Andrzej; Benowitz, Neal L; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2018-06-01

    A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34.6±13.0), we collected spot urine samples and measured trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) and cotinine levels with LC-MS/MS method. We calculated NMR (molar ratio) and analyzed variations in NMR among groups of smokers. In the whole study group, an average NMR was 4.8 (IQR 3.4-7.3). The group of women below 51 years had significantly greater NMR compared to the rest of the population (6.4; IQR 4.1-8.8 vs. 4.3; IQR 2.8-6.4). No differences were found among group ages of male smokers. This is a first study to describe variations in nicotine metabolism among Polish smokers. Our findings indicate that young women metabolize nicotine faster than the rest of population. This finding is consistent with the known effects of estrogen to induce CYP2A6 activity. Young women may require higher doses of NRT or non-nicotine medications for most effective smoking cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Background Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. Methods In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on ca...

  19. Expression of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in human lung from smokers, non-smokers, and ex-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, James H.; Sherman, Mark E.; Curriero, Frank C.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Strickland, Paul T.; Sutter, Thomas R.

    2004-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 are known to bioactivate procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in cigarette smoke and are inducible via an Ah receptor-mediated mechanism. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in samples of lung from smokers (n = 18), non-smokers (n = 7), and ex-smokers (n = 7). Using immunoglobulin preparations of highly specific polyclonal antibodies and immunoblot analysis of microsomes from lung tissues, we determined the specific content for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. For CYP1A1, we found median expression levels of 15.5 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 6.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 19.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels of smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers was statistically significant. For CYP1B1, we found median expression levels of 1.8 pmol/mg microsomal protein in smokers, 1.0 pmol/mg microsomal protein in non-smokers, and 4.4 pmol/mg microsomal protein in ex-smokers. The difference in median expression levels between ex-smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant. These results suggest that levels of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 protein in lung tissues from smokers and ex-smokers are quantitatively greater than in non-smokers. By immunohistochemical analysis, we demonstrated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in normal human alveolar type I and II cells, ciliated columnar epithelial cells lining bronchoalveolar airways, and alveolar macrophages. These results confirm that CYP1A1 is expressed in normal human lung, appears to be induced in smokers, and show interindividual variation; the similar characteristics of CYP1B1 are demonstrated

  20. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung cancer in never-smokers - what are the differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Margarida; Linhas, Rita; Campainha, Sérgio; Conde, Sara; Barroso, Ana

    2017-07-01

    Characteristics of never-smokers with lung cancer are still not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare never-smokers and ever-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) regarding patient and tumor characteristics. All consecutive newly NSCLC patients with known smoking status diagnosed between 2011 and 2015 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Clinical, histological, and molecular characteristics were compared between ever-smokers and never-smokers. Of the 558 included patients, 125 (22.4%) were never-smokers. These patients were more likely to be female (74% vs. 7%, p Never-smokers took longer to seek medical care after the symptoms onset (3 vs. 2 months, p never-smokers: pleural metastases were more frequent (OR: 2.1 [1.1-4.0]), regardless of the histological type and gender. Never-smokers had a higher prevalence of ALK translocations (26% vs. 4%, p Never-smokers with NSCLC present distinct demographic and clinical characteristics. The characteristics of tumor also differ between never-smokers and ever-smokers, which may suggest different carcinogenic pathways.

  2. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  3. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  4. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2011-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current s...

  5. The Effects of 8-Weeks Aerobic Exercise Program on Blood Lipids and Cholesterol Profile of Smokers vs. Non Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taifour, Akef; AL-Shishani, Ahmad; Khasawneh, Aman; AL-Nawaiseh, Ali; Bakeer, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week aerobic exercise program on blood lipids and cholesterol profile of smoker's vs. non-smokers. A total of 34 male subjects (18 non-smokers and 16 smokers) took part in this study. Both groups were pre- and post tested in their blood-lipids and cholesterol profile before and after the 8-week…

  6. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Huijding, Jorg; Jong, Peter

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential. Automatic affective associations were positive in smokers but negative in non-smokers. Only automatic affective associations but not self-reported attitudes were significantly correlated wit...

  7. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  8. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luella Fu

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use.These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook.During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates.The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00, lower transitivity (p = 0.00, and larger diameter (p = 0.00. Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01, less transitivity (p = .04, and fewer isolates (p = .01. Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher

  9. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Luella; Jacobs, Megan A; Brookover, Jody; Valente, Thomas W; Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher when diameter

  10. Prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm among male cigar and pipe smokers: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C. A.; Woodward, M.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Previous studies investigating the effect of cigar or pipe smoking on the occurrence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm have reported prevalences among cigar and pipe smokers lying between those of non-smokers and current cigarette smokers. This study uses data on previous cigarette consumption, current cigar or pipe consumption, and biochemical markers of smoking to provide a detailed analysis of chronic cough and chronic phlegm among cigar and pipe smokers. METHODS--A total of ...

  11. Does tobacco industry marketing of 'light' cigarettes give smokers a rationale for postponing quitting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Emery, Sherry; White, Martha M; Pierce, John P

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine further whether tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is perceived by smokers as a health claim. Smokers might view low tar/nicotine brands of cigarettes as a means to reduce the harm to their health from smoking and postpone quitting. Data were from smokers responding to a large, population-based survey of Californians' smoking behavior, conducted in 1996 (8,582 current smokers). Sixty percent of smokers thought the labels light and ultra-light referred to low tar/nicotine cigarettes, or otherwise implied a health claim. This percentage was higher for smokers of low tar/nicotine brands. Among smokers of regular brands, the more highly addicted, those who were trying unsuccessfully to quit, those who had cut consumption or thought about it, and those with health concerns were more likely to have considered switching. While some of these characteristics also were associated with smokers of low tar/nicotine brands, the associations were not as numerous or as strong. We conclude that some smokers appear to view low tar/nicotine brands as one short-term strategy to reduce the harm to their health from smoking without quitting. By implying reduced tar or nicotine exposure, tobacco industry marketing using the labels light and ultra-light is misleading smokers. The use of such labels should be regulated.

  12. Why Don’t More Smokers Switch to Using E-Cigarettes: The Views of Confirmed Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Dickson, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Whilst e-cigarettes have been characterised by Public Health England as being around 95% less harmful than combustible tobacco products, only a minority of current smokers (around 16% within the UK) are using these devices. In this paper we report the results of an online survey of 650 smokers in contact with a smokers’ rights group in the UK. A total of 91% of the smokers surveyed were smoking on a daily basis. Fifty nine percent reported having used electronic nicotine delivery systems, the majority of whom reported having used e-cigarettes. Those smokers that had not used these devices principally explained this in terms of the pleasure they derived from smoking. The features smokers’ liked most about e-cigarette had to do with the range of settings in which they could be used, the lack of an offensive smell associated with their use, the available flavours and the reduced level of harm. The elements which smokers liked least about e-cigarettes had to do with the vaping experience, the technology, the chemical nature of e-liquids and the complex technology that was associated with these devices. If a greater number of smokers are to be encouraged to take up e-cigarettes, it will be necessary not only to convey accurate information on the relative harm of these devices (compared to combustible tobacco products), but to ensure that they are able to be used in a wider range of settings than those within which smoking can currently occur and that the vaping experience more closely resembles the smoking experience. PMID:28621763

  13. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  14. Association between tobacco industry denormalization beliefs, tobacco control community discontent and smokers' level of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vladyslav; Selby, Peter; Cunningham, John A

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco industry denormalization (TID) informs the public about the tobacco industry's role in the tobacco epidemic and is an important component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. Although TID beliefs have been noted in adult smokers and associated with intent to quit, research has not evaluated whether they are affected by smokers' level of nicotine dependence. The present article sought to concurrently examine how attitudes towards the tobacco industry and tobacco control groups may differ among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. In addition, it evaluated how these attitudes and beliefs may be associated with smokers' intentions to reduce or quit smoking. A random digit dialing telephone survey was conducted of 889 Canadian current daily smokers, 18 years and older. Attitudes towards the tobacco industry were mixed among the entire cohort and differences in beliefs towards the tobacco industry were not found among smokers of varying levels of nicotine dependence. However, smokers that held strong TID beliefs were 5 times more intent to quit smoking than those without such beliefs. Compared to smokers with low level of nicotine dependence, heavy smokers were more likely to report strong overall displeasure with the tobacco control community (OR=1.98, 95% CI=1.23-3.19, p=0.005), however there were no differences with regards to future intent to quit. The absence of strong negative sentiment toward the tobacco industry among smokers as a whole suggests that more targeted anti-industry messages are needed, raising greater awareness of tobacco industry practices within smokers and non-smokers alike. As heavier smokers' discontent with the tobacco control community highlights increasing social disapproval and pressure to quit smoking, future educational and media strategies used for smoking cessation purposes may benefit from emphasizing more of the positive attributes associated with quitting smoking, as opposed to the negative features of

  15. Young Adult Smokers' and Prior-Smokers' Evaluations of Novel Tobacco Warning Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Benjamin; Hoek, Janet

    2016-01-01

    On-pack warning labels represent a very cost-effective means of communicating with smokers, who potentially see warnings each time they retrieve a cigarette. Warning labels have traditionally depicted graphic health consequences of smoking but emerging evidence suggests the distal consequences shown may prove less effective in prompting cessation among young adults. We used a novel micro-survey approach to compare novel and traditional warnings, and provide an empirical foundation for a larger study. We recruited 4649 male and 2993 female participants aged 18-34 from Google Consumer Survey's Australian panel of Android mobile phone users. A screening question resulted in a sample comprising 3183 daily, non-daily, and former smokers. Twenty images corresponding to social and health risks, tobacco industry denormalization, and secondhand smoke (SHS) were tested in paired comparisons where respondents selected the image they thought most likely to prompt cessation. Irrespective of smoking status, respondents rated messages featuring harm to children as most effective and industry denormalization messages and adult SHS warnings as least effective. Within smoker groups, daily smokers rated social concerns more highly; non-daily smokers were more responsive to SHS messages, and former smokers saw intimacy and cosmetic effects warnings as more effective than other groups. While preliminary, the findings support emerging evidence that more diverse warning images may be required to promote cessation among all smoker sub-groups. Warnings depicting harm to vulnerable others appear to hold high potential and merit further investigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Kim, Sungroul; Madsen, Camille; Ma, Jiemin; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-08-01

    In the United States, race/ethnicity is a strong determinant of tobacco use patterns, biomarkers of tobacco smoke components and metabolites, and likelihood of successful cessation. Although Black smokers tend to smoke fewer cigarettes than White smokers, they have higher cotinine levels and disease risk and lower cessation success. We examined racial differences in hair nicotine concentrations among daily tobacco smokers (n = 103) in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants completed a survey, and hair samples were collected and analyzed for nicotine concentration using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. After adjustment, hair nicotine concentrations among Black smokers were more than 5 times higher than among White smokers (95% CI 3.0, 10.5). Smokers reporting hair treatments other than coloring (bleaching, permanent, or straightening) in the past 12 months had 66% lower (95% CI 32%, 83%) hair nicotine concentrations. Smokers reporting smoking their first cigarette within 30 min of waking had twice the hair nicotine concentrations of those whose time to first cigarette was greater than 30 min after waking (95% CI 1.1, 4.2). For every additional cigarette smoked per day up to 20, mean hair nicotine concentration among all smokers increased by 4% (95% CI -1%, 9%). This study demonstrates that Black smokers have substantially higher hair nicotine levels than White smokers, after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day and other exposure sources. Time to first cigarette, cigarettes smoked per day, and use of hair treatments other than coloring were also associated with hair nicotine concentrations among smokers.

  17. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  18. Withdrawal-oriented therapy for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, P

    1989-06-01

    The treatment approach of the Maudsley Hospital Smokers Clinic is described. It stems from the notion that smokers seeking help are dependent on nicotine, and that withdrawal discomfort is a major block to their success in quitting. Accordingly, therapy focuses on helping clients overcome nicotine deprivation. It uses nicotine replacement and a special format of group treatment. Details are given of preparation of clients, use of nicotine chewing gum, use of group-oriented groupwork, use of information about withdrawal, and training in withdrawal-oriented therapy. Data are presented concerning characteristics of the clientele, treatment adherence, and treatment results. A number of controversial issues are addressed, such as the optimal duration of treatment, timing of the quit date, the value of educational input, and the value of individualization of treatment goals.

  19. Black smokers and the Tree of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linich, Michael

    The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

  20. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT findings in healthy smokers' lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Seon; Kwak, Byung Kook; Choi, Chi Hoon; Yang, Keun Mung; Lee, Chang Joon; Joo, Dong Il; Kim, Yang Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lung changes in healthy smokers, as seen on inspiratory and expiratory high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Twenty-seven healthy smokers (light smokers, below 20 pack-years, n=16; heavy smokers, above 20 pack-years, n=11) and 25 nonsmokers underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT. All healthy smokers had normal pulmonary function and chest radiography. Parenchymal and subpleural micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, bronchiectasis and septal line were evaluated on inspiratory scan and by air-trapping on expiratory scan. According to the findings of HRCT, heavy smokers and higher frequency of parenchymal micronodules, ground-glass attenuation, centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema, and air-trapping than nonsmokers and light smokers. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Cell recovery in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in smokers is dependent on cumulative smoking history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karimi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for various lung diseases in which BAL may be used as a part of a clinical investigation. Interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity is however difficult due to high variability, in particular among smokers. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of smoking on BAL cellular components in asymptomatic smokers. The effects of smoking cessation, age and gender were also investigated in groups of smokers and exsmokers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of BAL findings, to our knowledge the largest single center investigation, in our department from 1999 to 2009. One hundred thirty two current smokers (48 males and 84 females and 44 ex-smokers (16 males and 28 females were included. A group of 295 (132 males and 163 females never-smokers served as reference. RESULT: The median [5-95 pctl] total number of cells and cell concentration in current smokers were 63.4 [28.6-132.1]×10(6 and 382.1 [189.7-864.3]×10(6/L respectively and correlated positively to the cumulative smoking history. Macrophages were the predominant cell type (96.7% [90.4-99.0] followed by lymphocytes (2% [0.8-7.7] and neutrophils (0.6% [0-2.9]. The concentration of all inflammatory cells was increased in smokers compared to never smokers and ex-smokers. BAL fluid recovery was negatively correlated with age (p<0.001. Smoking men had a lower BAL fluid recovery than smoking women. CONCLUSION: Smoking has a profound effect on BAL fluid cellularity, which is dependent on smoking history. Our results performed on a large group of current smokers and ex-smokers in a well standardized way, can contribute to better interpretation of BAL fluid cellularity in clinical context.

  2. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  3. Serum telomerase levels in smokers and smokeless tobacco users as Maras powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkuş, Fulsen; Atilla, Nurhan; Şimşek, Seçil; Kurutaş, Ergül; Samur, Anıl; Arpağ, Hüseyin; Kahraman, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no previous study regarding the serum telomerase levels in Maras powder users (MPUs) has been founded. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum telomerase levels in smokers and MPUs. The study was carried out with 98 patients (36 MPUs, 32 smokers and 30 non-smokers). Blood samples were collected, and after having measured the serum telomerase and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the patients, comparison were made between the groups. It has been observed that the serum telomerase and MDA levels of smokers (pnon-smoker control subjects. In addition, the levels of serum telomerase and MDA were observed to be higher in the MPU group compared to those of the smoker group (psmokers. In this context, it may be useful to further measure and assess telomerase activity in such patients in order to better determine the harmful effects associated with these habits.

  4. Multimodal Neuroimaging Differences in Nicotine Abstinent vs. Satiated Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaarani, Bader; Spechler, Philip A; Ivanciu, Alexandra; Snowe, Mitchell; Nickerson, Joshua P; Higgins, Stephen T; Garavan, Hugh

    2018-04-06

    Research on cigarette smokers suggests cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, much remains unclear how the functional neurobiology of smokers is influenced by nicotine state. Therefore, we sought to determine which state, be it acute nicotine abstinence or satiety, would yield the most robust differences compared to non-smokers when assessing neurobiological markers of nicotine dependence. Smokers(N=15) and sociodemographically matched non-smokers(N=15) were scanned twice using a repeated-measures design. Smokers were scanned after a 24-hour nicotine abstinence, and immediately after smoking their usual brand cigarette. The neuroimaging battery included a stop-signal task of response inhibition and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Whole brain voxel-wise ANCOVAs were carried out on stop success and stop fail SST contrasts and CBF maps to assess differences among non-, abstinent and satiated smokers. Cluster-correction was performed using AFNI's 3dClustSim to achieve a significance of pSmokers exhibited higher brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a brain region known to be involved in inhibitory control, during successful response inhibitions relative to non-smokers. This effect was significantly higher during nicotine abstinence relative to satiety. Smokers also exhibited lower CBF in the bilateral IFG than non-smokers. These hypo-perfusions were not different between abstinence and satiety. These findings converge on alterations in smokers in prefrontal circuits known to be critical for inhibitory control. These effects are present, even when smokers are satiated, but the neural activity required to achieve performance equal to controls is increased when smokers are in acute abstinence. Our multi-modal neuroimaging study gives neurobiological insights into the cognitive demands of maintaining abstinence and suggest targets for assessing the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  5. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2013-10-24

    In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people's perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15-22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents' views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents.

  6. Detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens in smokers and never-smokers with chronic periodontitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Mariana R; Rosa, Ecinele F; Lourenção, Daniele S; Inoue, Gislene; Gomes, Elaine F; De Micheli, Giorgio; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Hirata, Rosário D C; Hirata, Mario H; Pannuti, Claudio M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to compare the presence and number of periodontal pathogens in the subgingival microbiota of smokers versus never-smokers with chronic periodontitis and matched probing depths (PDs) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty current smokers and 40 never-smokers, matched for age, sex, and mean PD of sampling site, were included in this investigation. A full-mouth periodontal examination was performed, and a pooled subgingival plaque sample was collected from the deepest site in each quadrant of each participant. To confirm smoking status, expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured with a CO monitor. The presence and quantification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were determined using RT-PCR. Smokers had greater overall mean PD (P = 0.001) and attachment loss (P = 0.006) and fewer bleeding on probing sites (P = 0.001). An association was observed between smoking status and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.001). The counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P <0.001), P. gingivalis (P = 0.042), and T. forsythia (P <0.001) were significantly higher in smokers. Smokers showed significantly greater amounts of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and T. forsythia than never-smokers. There was a significant association between smoking and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  7. Factors Associated with Short-Term Transitions of Nondaily Smokers: Socio-demographic Characteristics and Other Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Aims To examine the transitions in smoking status among nondaily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as nondaily smokers over a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Design Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Setting USA Participants Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were nondaily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13,673 or 14.5% of current smokers). Measurements Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of nondaily-to-daily, stable nondaily, and nondaily-to-former smoking transitions among nondaily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Findings 2.6% of adults in our sample were nondaily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained nondaily smokers (stable nondaily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (nondaily-to-daily smokers), and 11.9% quit smoking (nondaily-to-former smokers) after 12 months. The nondaily-to-daily vs. stable nondaily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (p=0.018), male (pnon-Hispanic Asian (p=0.032), without a college degree, widowed/divorced/separated (p=0.013) or never married (p=0.011), and current users of cigars (p=0.003) compared with the appropriate reference group. Conclusions While over two-thirds of nondaily smokers in the USA remain as such after 12 months, others become daily smokers or quit. The likelihood of remaining stable nondaily smokers and of transition from nondaily-to-daily and nondaily-to-former smokers is associated with socio-demographics factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. PMID:27886652

  8. Maternal bonding styles in smokers and non-smokers: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csala, Iren; Elemery, Monika; Martinovszky, Fruzsina; Dome, Peter; Dome, Balazs; Faludi, Gabor; Sandor, Imola; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Birkas, Emma; Lazary, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Parental bonding has been implicated in smoking behavior, and the quality of maternal bonding (MB) has been associated with poor mental health and substance use. However, little is known about the association of MB and the smoking of the offspring. In our study, 129 smokers and 610 non-smoker medical students completed the parental bonding instrument, which measures MB along two dimensions: care and overprotection. Four categories can be created by high and low scores on care and overprotection: optimal parenting (OP; high care/low overprotection); affectionless control (ALC; low care/high overprotection); affectionate constraint (AC; high care/high overprotection), and neglectful parenting (NP; low care/low overprotection). Nicotine dependence was assessed by the Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test, exhaled CO level, and daily cigarette consumption (CPD). Higher CPD was significantly associated with lower overprotection ( p  = 0.016) and higher care ( p  = 0.023) scores. The odds for being a smoker were significantly higher in the neglectful maternal bonding style compared to the other rearing styles ( p  = 0.022). Besides, smokers showed significantly higher care and lower overprotection scores with the Mann-Whitney U-test than non-smokers, although these associations did not remain significant in multiple regression models. Our results indicate that focusing on early life relationship between patient and mother can be important in psychotherapeutic interventions for smoking. Registration trials retrospectively registered.

  9. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Determination of the polonium-210 content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, N.B.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    Presence of polonium in tobacco poses a health hazard to smokers. Polonium is a pure alpha emitter with an energy of 5.3 MeV decaying with a half-life 138.4 days to a stable isotope of lead. The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of non-smokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003+-0.2988 pCi/24h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313+-0.1664 pCi/24h sample. The efficiency of the procedure employed encourages the use of urinalysis as a measure of the polonium body burden and also as a rough index of the dose absorbed from radium or any of its daughters

  11. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, psmokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:27182363

  12. The forgotten smoker: a qualitative study of attitudes towards smoking, quitting, and tobacco control policies among continuing smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Navneet; Shahab, Lion; Britton, John; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-05-03

    Although research suggests that the majority of smokers want to quit smoking, the uptake of Stop Smoking Services, designed to assist smokers with quitting, remains low. Little is known about continuing smokers who do not access these services, and opportunities to influence their motivation and encourage quit attempts through the uptake of services. Using PRIME theory, this study explored differences between continuing smokers who had varying levels of motivation to quit, in terms of their plans to quit, evaluative beliefs about smoking, cigarette dependence, and attitudes towards tobacco control policies and services. Twenty-two current smokers, recruited from the community, were classified by motivation level to quit using a self-report questionnaire (two groups: high/low). Four focus groups (n=13) and individual interviews (n=9) were conducted with both groups using an interview guide incorporating aspects of PRIME theory. Discussion areas included motives for smoking, attitudes towards smoking and quitting, perceptions of dependence, motives for quitting, barriers to quitting, and attitudes towards existing and impending tobacco control policies and services. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic framework analysis. All participants expressed low motivation to quit during discussions, despite some initially self-classifying as having high explicit levels of motivation to quit. Both groups reported similar attitudes towards smoking and quitting, including a perceived psychological addiction to smoking, positive evaluations about smoking which inhibited plans to quit, and similar suggested methods to increase motivation (simply wanting to, save money, improve health). Most felt that they 'ought' to quit as opposed to 'wanted' to. Little influence was ascribed towards tobacco control policies such as plain packaging and hidden sales displays, and participants felt that price increases of tobacco products needed to be considerable in order to influence

  13. Unhealthy smokers: scopes for prophylactic intervention and clinical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Shikha; Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Cucullo, Luca

    2017-10-04

    Globally, tobacco use causes approximately 6 million deaths per year, and predictions report that with current trends; more than 8 million deaths are expected annually by 2030. Cigarette smokings is currently accountable for more than 480,000 deaths each year in United States (US) and is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. On average, smokers die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers and if smoking continues at its current proportion among adolescents, one in every 13 Americans aged 17 years or younger is expected to die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Even though there has been a marginal smoking decline of around 5% in recent years (2005 vs 2015), smokers still account for 15% of the US adult population. What is also concerning is that 41,000 out of 480,000 deaths results from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Herein, we provide a detailed review of health complications and major pathological mechanisms including mutation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic and plasma protein changes associated with chronic smoking. Further, we discuss prophylactic interventions and associated benefits and provide a rationale for the scope of clinical treatment. Considering these premises, it is evident that much detailed translational and clinical studies are needed. Factors such as the length of smoking cessation for ex-smokers, the level of smoke exposure in case of SHS, pre-established health conditions, genetics (and epigenetics modification caused by chronic smoking) are few of the criteria that need to be evaluated to begin assessing the prophylactic and/or therapeutic impact of treatments aimed at chronic and former smokers (especially early stage ex-smokers) including those frequently subjected to second hand tobacco smoke exposure. Herein, we provide a detailed review of health complications and major pathological mechanisms including mutation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemodynamic and plasma protein changes associated with

  14. Visual cue-specific craving is diminished in stressed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Justinn R; Consedine, Nathan S; Lee, John M J; Pandit, Chinmay; Sollers, John J; Kydd, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Craving among smokers is increased by stress and exposure to smoking-related visual cues. However, few experimental studies have tested both elicitors concurrently and considered how exposures may interact to influence craving. The current study examined craving in response to stress and visual cue exposure, separately and in succession, in order to better understand the relationship between craving elicitation and the elicitor. Thirty-nine smokers (21 males) who forwent smoking for 30 minutes were randomized to complete a stress task and a visual cue task in counterbalanced orders (creating the experimental groups); for the cue task, counterbalanced blocks of neutral, motivational control, and smoking images were presented. Self-reported craving was assessed after each block of visual stimuli and stress task, and after a recovery period following each task. As expected, the stress and smoking images generated greater craving than neutral or motivational control images (p smokers are stressed, visual cues have little additive effect on craving, and different types of visual cues elicit comparable craving. These findings may imply that once stressed, smokers will crave cigarettes comparably notwithstanding whether they are exposed to smoking image cues.

  15. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzikhan, Natalie; Verhamme, Katia M C; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Lahousse, Lies

    2016-08-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial.

  16. Comparative study of smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who have experienced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Diogo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of smoking on in-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients who have experienced acute myocardial infarction and to assess the association between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors and clinical data. METHODS: A prospective cohort study analyzed 121 patients, including 54 smokers, 35 ex-smokers, and 32 nonsmokers. RESULTS: Using the chi-square test (P<0.05, an association between smoking and the risk factors sex, age, and diabetes was documented. Among the morbidity and mortality variables, only acute pulmonary edema showed a statistically significant difference (OR=9.5; 95% CI, which was greater in the ex-smoker group than in the nonsmoker group. CONCLUSION: An association between smoking and some cardiovascular risk factors was observed, but no statistical difference in morbidity and mortality was observed in the groups studied, except for the variable acute pulmonary edema.

  17. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  18. Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Ramos, Roberta Pulcheri; Franceschini, Juliana; Jamnik, Sergio; Fernandes, Ana Luisa Godoy

    2011-01-01

    It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among never-smokers with non-small cell lung cancer. All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285) between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current) were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable), gender (female vs. male), smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker), the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable), histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma), AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging), and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support). Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32%) and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%). Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2). The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis. Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.

  19. Unpacking smokers' beliefs about addiction and nicotine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  1. Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczkowski K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Krzysztof Buczkowski,1 Ludmila Marcinowicz,2 Slawomir Czachowski,1 Elwira Piszczek3 1Department of Family Medicine, Collegium Medicum, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, 2Department of Family Medicine and Community Nursing, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, 3Sociology Institute, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland Background: Smoking cessation plays a crucial role in reducing preventable morbidity and mortality and is a recognized public-health-policy issue in many countries. Two of the most important factors that affect the efficacy of quitting smoking are motivation and the ability to cope with situations causing relapse.Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate former and current smokers’ motivations for smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting.Methods: We arranged four focus groups with 24 participants (twelve current and twelve former smokers and eleven semi-structured interviews (five current and six former smokers with a view to understanding and categorizing their opinions on motivations and the course and process of smoking cessation. The data were next analyzed using descriptive qualitative methods.Results: Three main themes were identified: (1 motivations to quit smoking, (2 reasons why smokers sometimes relapse, and (3 modes of quitting smoking. Within the first theme, the following six subthemes surfaced: (1 a smoking ban at home and at work due to other people’s wishes and rules, (2 the high cost of cigarettes, (3 the unpleasant smell, (4 health concern, (5 pregnancy and breastfeeding, and (6 a variety of other factors. The second theme encompassed the following subthemes: (1 stress and the need to lessen it by smoking a cigarette, (2 the need to experience the pleasure connected with smoking, and (3 the smoking environment both at home and at work. Participants presented different smoking-cessation modes, but mainly they were unplanned attempts.Conclusion: Two

  2. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  3. Diverging effects of nicotine on motor learning performance: Improvement in deprived smokers and attenuation in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, J; Amu, R; Batsikadze, G; Paulus, W; Nitsche, M A

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young smokers and non-smokers on performance of the serial reaction time task (SRTT), a sequential motor learning paradigm. 20 nicotine-deprived smokers and 20 non-smokers participated in the study and were exposed to nicotine or placebo medication. Deprived smokers under placebo medication displayed reduced performance in terms of reaction time and error rates compared to the non-smoking group. After application of nicotine, performance in smokers improved while it deteriorated in non-smokers. These results indicate a restituting effect of nicotine in smokers in terms of cognitive parameters. This sheds further light on the proposed mechanism of nicotine on learning processes, which might be linked to the addictive component of nicotine, the probability of relapse and thus needs also be addressed in cessation treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Lange, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. We recruited 94,079 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study, a prospective cohort study. Among these individuals, 5,691 (6%) had self-reported asthma (2,304 never-smokers, 2,467 former smokers, and 920 current smokers). We examined respiratory symptoms, lung function, and levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers in systemic circulation. Furthermore, we assessed prospectively the risk of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, pneumonias, lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and all-cause mortality during 4.5 years of follow-up. Compared with never-smokers without asthma, individuals with asthma had more respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation and higher levels of inflammatory and allergic biomarkers, which were most pronounced in smokers. Among individuals with asthma compared with never-smokers without asthma, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for asthma exacerbations were 11 (95% confidence interval: 5.8-22) in never-smokers, 13 (6.2-29) in former smokers, and 18 (8.2-39) in current smokers. The corresponding values for other endpoints were, respectively, 8.9 (2.1-38), 23 (8.8-58), and 36 (12-105) for COPD exacerbations; 1.5 (0.9-2.2), 1.6 (1.0-2.4), and 2.4 (1.6-3.7) for pneumonias; 0.6 (0.1-5.1), 4.0 (1.3-12), and 13 (4.3-41) for lung cancer; 1.2 (0.9-1.6), 1.5 (1.2-2.0), and 2.0 (1.4-2.9) for ischemic heart disease; 1.4 (0.9-2.1), 1.2 (0.8-1.9), and 3.0 (1.7-5.3) for ischemic stroke; and 0.9 (0.6-1.3), 1.5 (1.1-2.0), and 2.7 (1.9-3.7) for all-cause mortality. Never-smokers with asthma had an increased risk of asthma and COPD exacerbations, and possibly pneumonias. Importantly, the risks for lung cancer

  5. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  6. Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 as a possible marker of COPD in smokers and ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, Laura Miranda de Oliveira; Ferrari, R; Nogueira, D L; Oliveira, Mrm; Francisqueti, F V; Tanni, S E; Corrêa, C R; Godoy, I

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are higher in smokers and patients with COPD; however, markers that may help differentiate between smokers and patients with COPD have not yet been identified. We hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor (TNFR) and soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) can be indicators of COPD in asymptomatic patients. We evaluated 32 smokers (smoking history >10 pack-years), 32 patients with mild/moderate COPD (smokers and ex-smokers), and 32 never smokers. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, TNFR1 and TNFR2, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the sRAGE were measured in serum. There were higher CRP and AGEs concentrations in smokers and in patients with COPD ( P smokers and patients with COPD. Concentrations of sRAGE, IL-6, and TNFR1 did not differ between study groups. TNFR2 was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in smokers ( P =0.004) and controls ( P =0.004), and the presence of COPD ( P =0.02) and CRP ( P =0.001) showed a positive association with TNFR2. Positive associations for smoking ( P =0.04), CRP ( P =0.03), and IL-6 ( P =0.03) with AGEs were also found. The interaction variable (smoking × COPD) showed a positive association with IL-6. Our data suggest that TNFR2 may be a possible marker of COPD in asymptomatic smokers and ex-smokers. Although smokers and patients with early COPD presented other increased systemic inflammation markers (eg, CRP) and oxidative stress (measured by AGEs), they did not differentiate smokers from COPD.

  7. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhaling habits among smokers of different types of cigarette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wald, N.J.; Idle, M.; Boreham, J.; Bailey, A.

    1980-12-01

    Inhaling habits were studied in 1316 men who freely smoked their usual brands of cigarette. An index of inhaling was calculated for each person by dividing the estimated increase in carboxyhaemoglobin level from a standard number of cigarettes by the carbon monoxide yield of the cigarette smoked. Smokers of ventilated filter cigarettes inhaled 82% more than smokers of plain cigarettes (p less than 0.001) and those who smoked unventilated filter cigarettes inhaled 36% more (p less than 0.001). Cigarette consumption was similar among smokers of each type of cigarette. Assuming that the intake of tar and nicotine is proportional to the inhaling index, the intake in either group of filter cigarette smokers would have been less than that in plain cigarette smokers. Among smokers of unventilated cigarettes, however, the intake would not have been much less.

  9. Virtual Reality Cue Reactivity Assessment: A Comparison of Treatment- vs. Nontreatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kaganoff, Eili; Carter, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The cue-reactivity paradigm has been widely used to assess craving among cigarette smokers. Seeking to replicate and expand on previous virtual reality (VR) nicotine cue-reactivity research on nontreatment-seeking smokers, the current study compared subjective reports of craving for cigarettes when exposed to smoking (proximal and…

  10. Tobacco Use by College Students: A Comparison of Daily and Nondaily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Berg, Carla J.; Champion, Heather; Helme, Donald W.; O'Brien, Mary Claire; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore demographics, contextual factors, and health risk behaviors associated with nondaily smoking by college students. Methods: In fall 2005, a random sample of 4100 students completed an online survey. Results: Of those surveyed, 29% reported current smoking; of that 29%, 70% were nondaily smokers. Compared to daily smokers,…

  11. Tobacco radioactivity and cancer in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent finding that 210 Pb, which also is present in inhaled mainstream smoke, is highly concentrated in a small number of insoluble smoke particles changes the whole complexion of the problem of possible health effects of the inhaled radioactivity in cigarette smoke. Because 210 Pb has a radioactive half-life of 22 years, the body burden of the radioactive 210 Pb and its radioactive daughter products 210 Bi and 210 Po can continue to build up throughout the period of smoking. Alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells surrounding these insoluble radioactive smoke particles may cause cancer and contribute to early atherosclerosis development in cigarette smokers. (U.S.)

  12. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cue...

  13. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  14. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers : cause or consequence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M; Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers,

  15. Quantitative assessment of elemental carbon in the lungs of never smokers, cigarette smokers and coal miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation exposure to particulates such as cigarette smoke and coal dust is known to contribute to the development of chronic lung disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of elemental carbon (EC) deposits from autopsied lung samples from cigarette smokers, ...

  16. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non-smokers: Cause or consequence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.M.; Jansen, R.; Brooks, A.I.; Willemsen, G.; Grootheest, G. van; Geus, E.J.C. de; Smit, J.H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms causing smoking-induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome-wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers,

  17. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  18. Automatic approach bias towards smoking cues is present in smokers but not in ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, C.E.; Kühn, S.; Javadi, A.H.; Korucuoglu, O.; Wiers, R.W.; Walter, H.; Gallinat, J.; Bermpohl, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale :Drug-addicted individuals show automatic approach tendencies towards drug-related cues, i.e., an approach bias (ApB). Nevertheless, little is known about ApB in tobacco smokers and about the presence of ApB after smoking abstinence. Objectives: We investigated ApB to smoking cues in heavy

  19. Impact of smoking on aerobic capacity in young adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelmoniem Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a worldwide public health challenge, ,Cigarette smoking is also a strong risk factor for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disease, It is also well known that low and declining muscle strength is linked to increased smoking .[23]Aims of this study was to examine the chronic effects of smoking on cardiovascular fitness in young and healthy male smokers[13]. This study was carried out in university of hail ,physiotherapy lab, ,30male participant was recruited from university students of hail divided into two group 15 smoker (A ,15 nonsmoker (B .All subjects underwent a sub maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Our study revealed that the resting HR was 5.3 bpm higher in smoker than in non smoker (P:0.0001., data indicated that there was a significant difference found between young smokers and non-smokers regarding their sub-maximal HR values (P:0.0063., where smokers had significantly higher HR values. also there was no difference between both groups regarding to recovery heart rate (P:0.56. Smoking was found to affect young smokers’ increasing HR at rest, slowing of HR increase during exercise, and impairing their ability to reach the age predicted HRmax., Also smoking was associated with an attenuated HR. . also Smokers had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to Non smokers .

  20. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal.

  1. Blunted Striatal Responses to Favorite Food Cues in Smokers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M.; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Balodis, Iris M.; Sherwin, Robert; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although tobacco-smoking is associated with relatively leaner body mass and smoking cessation with weight gain, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. Smokers compared to non-smokers have shown diminished neural responses to non-tobacco rewarding stimuli (e.g., monetary rewards), but brain responses to favorite-food cues have not been investigated relative to smoking status. We hypothesized that smokers would exhibit diminished neural responses compared to non-smokers in response to favorite-food cues in motivation-reward and emotion-regulating regions of the brain. Methods Twenty-three smokers and 23 non-smokers matched based on body mass index (BMI), age, and gender listened to personalized favorite-food-cue, stress, and neutral-relaxing audiotapes during fMRI. Results During favorite-food-cue exposure, smokers versus non-smokers exhibited diminished activations in the caudate, putamen, insula, and thalamus. Neural responses during stress and neutral-relaxing conditions were similar across groups. Subjective food-craving ratings were similar across groups. Conclusions The relatively diminished neural responses to favorite-food cues in smokers may contribute to lower BMI. PMID:25444233

  2. Blunted striatal responses to favorite-food cues in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Balodis, Iris M; Sherwin, Robert; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Although tobacco-smoking is associated with relatively leaner body mass and smoking cessation with weight gain, the brain mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. Smokers compared to non-smokers have shown diminished neural responses to non-tobacco rewarding stimuli (e.g., monetary rewards), but brain responses to favorite-food cues have not been investigated relative to smoking status. We hypothesized that smokers would exhibit diminished neural responses compared to non-smokers in response to favorite-food cues in motivation-reward and emotion-regulating regions of the brain. Twenty-three smokers and 23 non-smokers matched based on body mass index (BMI), age, and gender listened to personalized favorite-food cue, stress, and neutral-relaxing audiotapes during fMRI. During favorite-food cue exposure, smokers versus non-smokers exhibited diminished activations in the caudate, putamen, insula, and thalamus. Neural responses during stress and neutral-relaxing conditions were similar across groups. Subjective food-craving ratings were similar across groups. The relatively diminished neural responses to favorite-food cues in smokers may contribute to lower BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Lopes Santoro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It has been recognized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer who are lifelong never-smokers constitute a distinct clinical entity. The aim of this study was to assess clinical risk factors for survival among neversmokers with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: All consecutive non-small cell lung cancer patients diagnosed (n = 285 between May 2005 and May 2009 were included. The clinical characteristics of never-smokers and ever-smokers (former and current were compared using chi-squared or Student's t tests. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests were used for survival comparisons. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was evaluated by adjusting for age (continuous variable, gender (female vs. male, smoking status (never- vs. ever-smoker, the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (continuous variable, histological type (adenocarcinoma vs. non-adenocarcinoma, AJCC staging (early vs. advanced staging, and treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs. the best treatment support. RESULTS: Of the 285 non-small cell lung cancer patients, 56 patients were never-smokers. Univariate analyses indicated that the never-smoker patients were more likely to be female (68% vs. 32% and have adenocarcinoma (70% vs. 51%. Overall median survival was 15.7 months (95% CI: 13.2 to 18.2. The never-smoker patients had a better survival rate than their counterpart, the ever-smokers. Never-smoker status, higher Karnofsky Performance Status, early staging, and treatment were independent and favorable prognostic factors for survival after adjusting for age, gender, and adenocarcinoma in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiological differences exist between never- and ever-smokers with lung cancer. Overall survival among never-smokers was found to be higher and independent of gender and histological type.

  4. Can you please put it out? Predicting non-smokers' assertiveness intentions at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspropoulos, Eleftherios; Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychosocial predictors of non-smoker employee intentions to ask smokers not to smoke at work. The predictive effects of past behaviour, anticipated regret, social norms, attitudinal, outcome expectancy and behavioural control beliefs were investigated in relation to the Attitudes-Social influence-self-Efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from Greek non-smoker employees (n=137, mean age=33.5, SD=10.5, 54.7% female) in 15 companies. The main outcome measure was assertiveness intention. Data on participants' past smoking, age, gender and on current smoking policy in the company were also collected. The majority of employees (77.4%) reported being annoyed by exposure to passive smoking at work, but only 37% reported having asked a smoker colleague not to smoke in the last 30 days. Regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of non-smokers' assertiveness intentions was how often they believed that other non-smokers were assertive. Perceived control over being assertive, annoyance with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at work and past assertive behaviour also significantly predicted assertiveness intentions. Assertiveness by non-smoker employees seems to be guided mainly by normative and behavioural control beliefs, annoyance with SHS exposure at work, and past behaviour. Interventions to promote assertiveness in non-smokers might benefit from efficacy training combined with conveying the messages that the majority of other non-smokers are frequently annoyed by exposure to SHS, and that nearly half of all non-smokers are assertive towards smokers.

  5. Higher lipid peroxidation in former-smokers vs. never-smokers - study in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Dorota; Stępniak, Jan; Gesing, Adam; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata

    2015-12-01

    One of the most spectacular exogenous prooxidative agents is cigarette smoking, constituting a well documented risk factor for several diseases. In turn it is suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women can contribute to oxidative status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of oxidative damage to membrane lipids in blood serum collected from never-smokers and former-smokers. The study was performed in postmenopausal women, who were or were not HRT users. Ninety (90) female volunteers, aged from 46 to 67 years, were enrolled. Two major groups were considered, i.e. never-smokers (n=44) and formersmokers (n=46), which were additionally subgrouped to HRT users (HRT+) and HRT non-users (HRT-). Anthropometric parameters related to obesity were also calculated. The main groups were well matched at baseline in terms of age. The level of malondialdehyde+4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HDA), as the index of LPO, was measured spectrophotometrically. The level of LPO was higher in former-smokers than in never-smokers, regardless of HRT use. The level of LPO did constitute the only independent factor associated with past smoking in the entire examined group, as well as after stratification to HRT users and HRT non-users. LPO level was not associated with HRT treatment. No positive correlations were found between LPO level and anthropometric parameters. Past smoking is independently associated with the increased damage to membrane lipids regardless of the use of HRT in postmenopausal women. Smoking cessation is not always associated with complete reversion of excessive oxidative damage to all biological macromolecules.

  6. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Milne, David; Antoniou, Katerina M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U.; Hansel, Trevor T.; Hansell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV 1 ; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  7. Trends in Daily Cannabis Use Among Cigarette Smokers: United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Pacek, Lauren R; Copeland, Jan; Moeller, Scott J; Dierker, Lisa; Weinberger, Andrea; Gbedemah, Misato; Zvolensky, Michael J; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2018-01-01

    To estimate changes in the prevalence of daily cannabis use among current, former, and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2014 in the United States. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a nationally representative cross-sectional study conducted annually among persons aged 12 years and older in the United States. Daily cannabis use occurs nearly exclusively among nondaily and daily cigarette smokers compared with former and never smokers (8.03%, 9.01%, 2.79%, 1.05%, respectively). Daily cannabis use increased over the past decade among both nondaily (8.03% [2014] vs 2.85% [2002]; linear trend P smokers (9.01% [2014]; 4.92% [2002]; linear trend P smokers (2.79% [2014] vs 0.98% [2002]; linear trend P smokers in the United States. Daily cannabis use increased among current, former, and never smokers over the past decade, with particularly rapid increases among youth and female cigarette smokers. Future research is needed to monitor the observed increase in daily cannabis use, especially among youths and adults who smoke cigarettes.

  8. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Milne, David [Green Lane Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Antoniou, Katerina M. [University of Crete, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicholson, Andrew G. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansel, Trevor T. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Clinical Trials Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV{sub 1}; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF CPT/rest ), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF CPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  11. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Yang

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n =7) and non-smokers ( n =7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO 2max . AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p vs. 15.6±0.41, p smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected ( r =.739, smokers vs. r =.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO 2max, but not following a run at 80% VO 2max . An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO 2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  12. Association between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay P. Kolte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychological stress is known to be a relevant risk factor for many inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. A few studies have probed the relationship between obesity and periodontal disease. Therefore this cross-sectional study was aimed to examine the relationship between psychological stress and obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Methods. The participants included 90 patients, equally divided into three groups of non-smokers and periodontally healthy, non-smokers and smokers with untreated moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis. Socioeconomic data, psychosocial measurements, physical parameters and clinical findings of PPD, CAL, PI and GI were recorded. Results. The clinical parameters were assessed for three groups in three different anxiety levels of mild, moderate and se-vere. Intra-group comparison of PPD and CAL in the three anxiety levels showed increased periodontal destruction with an increase in anxiety levels, the results being statistically highly significant for PPD differences in smokers (P < 0.0001. The mean differences in PPD and CAL in severe anxiety levels between smokers and non-smokers were 0.68 mm and 0.70 mm and both the findings were statistically significant. The mean PPD and CAL in smoker and non-smoker groups in obese patients was higher as compared to non-obese patients and the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion. The results of our study indicated a positive and strong correlation between anxiety, obesity and periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. Smoking appears to further attenuate this association.

  13. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (? 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI...

  14. Periodontal Status and Whole Salivary Cytokine Profile Among Smokers and Never-Smokers With and Without Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al Amri, Mohammad D; Alshehri, Mohammed; Vohra, Fahim; Al-Askar, Mansour; Malmstrom, Hans; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    Whole salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in smokers and never-smokers with prediabetes remains uninvestigated. The aim of this study is to assess the periodontal status and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels among smokers and never-smokers with and without prediabetes (controls). Ninety-five males (45 with prediabetes and 50 systemically healthy controls) were included. Twenty-seven controls and 29 patients with prediabetes were smokers. Periodontal parameters (plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and marginal bone loss) were measured, and the number of missing teeth were recorded. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) was determined, and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured. P values prediabetes than controls. All patients with prediabetes were hyperglycemic. UWSFR was significantly higher among controls than among patients with prediabetes (P prediabetes. Among controls, periodontal parameters and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were higher among smokers than never-smokers (P prediabetes, periodontal inflammation and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were comparable between smokers and never-smokers.

  15. Intent to quit, quit attempts, and perceived health risk reduction among African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Luo, Xianghua; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-16

    Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts. Smokers were recruited through an online research panel for a cross-sectional survey (n = 2376). Sampling quotas were used to obtain equal numbers of African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers. African American (59.6%) and Latino (54%) nondaily smokers were more likely than White nondaily smokers (45%) to currently limit their cigarettes per day (cpd) as a perceived health risk reduction strategy (p smokers were more likely than Latino and White nondaily smokers (p smokers (15%) were more likely than either Latinos (7.8%) or Whites (8.5%) to intend to quit in the next 30 days (p smokers were more likely than Whites (49%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year (p smokers. Racial and ethnic group differences were more pronounced among nondaily smokers compared to light daily smoker and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Smoking level is an important consideration in understanding racial and ethnic variation in perceived health risk reduction and cessation-related behaviors.

  16. The social support and social network characteristics of smokers in methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, Marcel Alejandro; Stanton, Cassandra A; Caviness, Celeste M; Niaura, Raymond; Stein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.

  17. Survival among Never-Smokers with Lung Cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément-Duchêne, Christelle; Stock, Shannon; Xu, Xiangyan; Chang, Ellen T; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; West, Dee W; Wakelee, Heather A; Gould, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Differences in patient characteristics and outcomes have been observed among current, former, and never-smokers with lung cancer, but most prior studies included few never-smokers and were not prospective. We used data from a large, prospective study of lung cancer care and outcomes in the United States to compare characteristics of never-smokers and smokers with lung cancer and to examine survival among the never-smokers. Smoking status at diagnosis was determined by self-report and survival was determined from medical records and cancer registries, with follow-up through June 2010 or later. Cox regression was used to examine the association between smoking and survival, and to identify predictors of survival among never-smokers. Among 3,410 patients with lung cancer diagnosed between September 1, 2003 and October 14, 2005 who completed a baseline patient survey, there were 274 never-smokers (8%), 1,612 former smokers (47%), 1,496 current smokers or smokers who quit recently (44%), and 28 with missing information about smoking status (Never-smokers appeared more likely than former and current/recent smokers to be female and of Asian or Hispanic race/ethnicity, and to have adenocarcinoma histology, fewer comorbidities, private insurance, and higher income and education. Compared with never-smokers, the adjusted hazard of death from any cause was 29% higher among former smokers (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.55), and 39% higher among current/recent smokers (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.67). Factors predicting worse overall survival among never-smokers included Hispanic ethnicity, severe comorbidity, undifferentiated histology, and regional or distant stage. Never-smoking Hispanics appeared more likely to have regional or advanced disease at diagnosis and less likely to undergo surgical resection, although these differences were not statistically significant. Never-smokers with lung cancer are more likely than ever-smokers

  18. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O’Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Design Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. Setting United States. Participants A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Measurements Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. Findings The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P tax, together with an additional premium of 7–10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07–1.10, P tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30–0.83, P avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. PMID:24861973

  19. Does every US smoker bear the same cigarette tax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Malarcher, Ann; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kruger, Judy

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate state cigarette excise tax pass-through rates for selected price-minimizing strategies. Multivariate regression analysis of current smokers from a stratified, national, dual-frame telephone survey. United States. A total of 16 542 adult current smokers aged 18 years or older. Cigarette per pack prices paid with and without coupons were obtained for pack versus carton purchase, use of generic brands versus premium brands, and purchase from Indian reservations versus outside Indian reservations. The average per pack prices paid differed substantially by price-minimizing strategy. Smokers who used any type of price-minimizing strategies paid substantially less than those who did not use these strategies (P Premium brand users who purchased by pack in places outside Indian reservations paid the entire amount of the excise tax, together with an additional premium of 7-10 cents per pack for every $1 increase in excise tax (pass-through rate of 1.07-1.10, P < 0.05). In contrast, carton purchasers, generic brand users or those who were likely to make their purchases on Indian reservations paid only 30-83 cents per pack for every $1 tax increase (pass-through rate of 0.30-0.83, P < 0.05). Many smokers in the United States are able to avoid the full impact of state excise tax on cost of smoking by buying cartons, using generic brands and buying from Indian reservations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Smokers' Willingness to Protect Children from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Creighton, Stephanie; Vogel, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of a secondhand smoke media campaign on adult smokers' willingness to protect children from secondhand smoke. Methods: Following a series of community awareness ads, a random sample of 390 adult smokers was surveyed via telephone regarding their perceptions of secondhand smoke. Results: Seeing or hearing…

  1. Epidemiological profile of non-daily smokers in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study suggests that as many as 39% of women smokers in Australia could be ND smokers.9 ... of others smoking at work, the presence of others smoking at home, socioeconomic status ..... subject to reporting bias. However, we have used ...

  2. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  3. Tracheobronchial and Alveolar Particle Surface Area Doses in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carmen Fuoco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is the main cause of lung cancer events. Mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS is a direct concern for smokers, but also the secondhand smoke (SHS contributes to the smoker exposure. In addition, smoker exposure is affected by the “free-smoke” particle exposure (B, related to the micro-environments where smokers spend time. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the daily alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited fractions of airborne particles for smokers as the sum of these three contributions: MSS, SHS, and B. Measurements of particle surface area distributions in the MSS were performed through a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, and a Thermo-dilution system on five types of conventional cigarettes. A Monte Carlo method was then applied to evaluate the most probable value of dose received during the inhalation of MSS by smokers. Measurements of particle concentrations in SHS and at the “free-smoke” particle background (B were performed through 24-h monitoring at a personal scale of adult smoker through hand-held devices. This paper found that the total daily deposited dose for typical smokers was 1.03 × 105 mm2·day−1. The main contribution of such a huge daily dose was addressable to the MSS (98% while SHS contributed 1.1%, increasing up to 2% for people smoking only while traveling in a car.

  4. Recruiting Unmotivated Smokers into a Smoking Induction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari Jo; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Goggin, Kathy; Richter, Kimber P.; Patten, Christi; Williams, Karen; Lee, Hyoung S.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Catley, Delwyn

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about effective methods to recruit unmotivated smokers into cessation induction trials, the reasons unmotivated smokers agree to participate, and the impact of those reasons on study outcomes. A mixed-method approach was used to examine recruitment data from a randomized controlled cessation induction trial that enrolled 255 adult…

  5. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  6. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  7. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  8. Recruiting women smokers: the engineering of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A M

    1996-01-01

    A range of social forces contributed to the effective recruitment of women to cigarette smoking in the crucial period between 1900 and 1940. Cigarette advertisers and public relations experts recognized the significance of women's changing roles and the rising culture of consumption, and worked to create specific meanings for the cigarette to make it appeal to women. The cigarette was a flexible symbol, with a remarkably elastic set of meanings; for women, it represented rebellious independence, glamour, seduction, and sexual allure, and served as a symbol for both feminists and flappers. The industry, with the help of advertisers and public relations experts, effectively engineered consent for women as smokers. The "engineering of consent" has a role to play in smoking cessation, since negative meanings for the cigarette can be engineered as well.

  9. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Masticatory Changes as a Result of Oral Disorders in Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rech, Rafaela Soares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For chewing to occur properly, it is necessary that all oral structures are present and of normal standard. Objectives The aim of this study is to verify the presence of oral changes in smokers and the impact of the changes on masticatory function compared with individuals who never smoked. Methods Forty-eight subjects were evaluated, split into two study groups (24 subjects each of current tobacco users and individuals who have never smoked. The variables halitosis, presence of lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems, number of teeth, classification of malocclusions according to angle, standard grinding food, chewing pattern, and speed of chewing were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tooth loss between the groups, but the smokers had more losses manifesting malocclusion. Most smokers had halitosis and lesions suggestive of caries and periodontal problems; the halitosis was associated with the latter variable. Masticatory speed was also reduced significantly in these individuals compared with the control group when associated with occlusal alterations, in addition to grinding food with the tongue. No difference was observed regarding the chewing pattern. The presence of halitosis and periodontal problems were more common in those who smoke more than 20 years. Conclusion There is an association between smoking and dental changes, which cause increased masticatory changes.

  11. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarettes from known users, broadcast media ads (68%), other (print, online) advertisements (71.5%), and/or from the news (60.9%); sources of awareness varied by e-cigarette experience. Most smokers (59.9%) believed e-cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, a belief attributed to "common sense" (76.4%), the news (39.2%) and advertisements (37.2%). However, 79.5% felt e-cigarette safety information was important. Over one-third said they would turn to a doctor first for e-cigarette safety information, though almost a quarter said they would turn to the Internet or product packaging first. Most (59.6%) ranked doctors as the most trustworthy risk source, and 6.8% had asked a health professional about e-cigarettes. Future research should explore the content of e-cigarette information sources, their potential impact, and ways they might be strengthened or changed through regulatory and/or educational efforts.

  12. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  13. Screening of oral premalignant lesions in smokers using toluidine blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Leosari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A smoker is associated with the risk of developing oral premalignant lesions due to the cacinogenic contents in cigarette. Toluidine blue is a basic chromatic dye used in screening the presence of premalignant lesions due to its ability to detect acidic components in cells and tissues. Purpose: This study was purposed to observe the outcomes of toluidine blue staining on oral mucosa of smokers and non smokers and to find out whether quantity and duration of smoking affect the final results of toluidine blue staining. Methods: Forty male subjects, aged 20-60 years old were involved in this study, consisted of 10 heavy smokers, 10 moderate smokers, 10 light smokers and 10 non smokers. Subjects were instructed to rinse their mouths with mineral water for 20 seconds followed by acetic acid 1% for another 20 seconds. Toluidine blue stain was applied in excess and left on site for 1 minute. Subjects were instructed to rinse with acetic acid 1% and sufficient water consecutively for 20 seconds each. The areas of oral mucosa that stained blue were captured with intraoral camera and transferred to the computer unit. The staining procedure was repeated after 14 days. Results: Chi-square test showed that toluidine blue positive staining dominates the smokers group. Regression and correlation test indicate that Toluidine blue staining is more obvious in subjects who consume more cigarettes. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral mucosa of smokers absorbed more toluidine blue than that of non smokers and retention of toluidine blue is affected by quantity and duration of smoking.

  14. Dental health in smokers with and without COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström

    Full Text Available The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and periodontal disease is sparsely studied. The aim was to describe the co-variation of periodontitis and lung function impairment in smokers. The hypothesis was that the destructive processes in the mouth and the lungs are interdependent due to a general individual susceptibility to detrimental effects of tobacco smoke. Smokers with COPD (n = 28 stage II and III according to GOLD guidelines and smokers without COPD (n = 29 and healthy non-smokers (n = 23 participated in the study. The groups of smokers were matched for cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Radiographic, general and dental clinical examination, lung function measurements and quality of life (SF-36 assessment were conducted. The relationship between respiratory and dental outcomes was analyzed. Dental health, assessed by plaque, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocket depth and loss of teeth was impaired in the smokers compared with non-smokers with no major differences between smokers with and without COPD. There was, however, a weak correlation between periodontitis and emphysema/impaired diffusion capacity. Impaired quality of life was associated with smoking and impaired lung function but not influenced by dental status. In conclusion periodontitis was strongly associated with smoking, weakly associated with lung tissue destruction and very weakly or even not at all associated with chronic airflow limitation. The results indicate that, although there was a co-variation between periodontitis and pathologic lung processes in smokers, the risk of developing COPD, as defined by spirometric outcomes, is not associated with the risk of impaired dental health in smokers.

  15. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Lower gray matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared with never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A Eden

    2016-07-01

    Although nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. This study aimed to (1) evaluate gray matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures were related to smoking behavior. We compared structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (gray matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never smokers. Compared with controls, smokers had lower gray matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Gray matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lPFC) and semantic processing/emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain's salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, were also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Lower grey matter density and functional connectivity in the anterior insula in smokers compared to never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Luke E.; Chai, Xiaoqian J.; Zhang, Jiahe; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Rationale While nicotine addiction is characterized by both structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in salience and cognitive control, few studies have integrated these data to understand how these abnormalities may support addiction. Objectives (1) To evaluate grey matter density and functional connectivity of the anterior insula in cigarette smokers and never-smokers and (2) characterize how differences in these measures related to smoking behavior. Methods We compared structural MRI (grey matter density via voxel-based morphometry) and seed-based functional connectivity MRI data in 16 minimally deprived smokers and 16 matched never-smokers. Results Compared to controls, smokers had lower grey matter density in left anterior insula extending into inferior frontal and temporal cortex. Grey matter density in this region was inversely correlated with cigarettes smoked per day. Smokers exhibited negative functional connectivity (anti-correlation) between the anterior insula and regions involved in cognitive control (left lateral prefrontal cortex) and semantic processing / emotion regulation (lateral temporal cortex), whereas controls exhibited positive connectivity between these regions. Conclusions There were differences in the anterior insula, a central region in the brain’s salience network, when comparing both volumetric and functional connectivity data between cigarette smokers and never smokers. Volumetric data, but not the functional connectivity data, was also associated with an aspect of smoking behavior (daily cigarettes smoked). PMID:25990865

  18. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking: Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huijding (Jorg); P.J. de Jong (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic

  19. Automatic associations with the sensory aspects of smoking : Positive in habitual smokers but negative in non-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijding, J; de Jong, PJ

    To test whether pictorial stimuli that focus on the sensory aspects of smoking elicit different automatic affective associations in smokers than in non-smokers, 31 smoking and 33 non-smoking students completed a single target IAT. Explicit attitudes were assessed using a semantic differential.

  20. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  1. "I Smoke but I Am Not a Smoker": Phantom Smokers and the Discrepancy between Self-Identity and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youjin; Choi, Sejung Marina; Rifon, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the development of a new smoking status, the "phantom smokers," who do not view themselves as smokers but report smoking cigarettes. Participants: Students from 2 universities in Michigan (N = 899; October 2005) and Florida (N = 1,517; May 2006) participated in surveys. Methods: Respondents in Michigan…

  2. Smokers and non-smokers talk about regulatory options in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M; Chapman, Simon

    2006-10-01

    Community members are occasionally polled about tobacco control policies, but are rarely given opportunities to elaborate on their views. We examined laypeople's conversations to understand how 11 regulatory options were supported or opposed in interactions. Qualitative design; purposive quota sampling; data collection via focus groups. Three locations in Sydney, Australia. 63 smokers and 75 non-smokers, men and women, from three age groups (18-24, 35-44, 55-64 years), recruited primarily via telephone. Semi-structured question route; data managed in NVivo; responses compared between groups. Laypeople rejected some regulatory proposals and certain arguments about taxation and the cost of cessation treatments. Protecting children and hypothecating tobacco excise for health education and care were highly acceptable. Plain packaging, banning retail displays and youth smoking prevention received qualified support. Bans on political donations from tobacco corporations were popular in principle but considered logistically fraught. Smokers asked for better cessation assistance and were curious about cigarette ingredients. Justice was an important evaluative principle. Support was often conditional and unresolved arguments frequent. We present both sides of these conflicts and the ways in which policies were legitimised or de-legitimised in conversation. Simple measures of agreement used in polls may obscure the complexity of community responses to tobacco policy. Support was frequently present but contested; some arguments that seem self-evident to advocates were not so to participants. The detailed understanding of laypeople's responses provided through qualitative methods may help frame proposals and arguments to meet concerns about justice, effectiveness and feasibility.

  3. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschakelen, J.A.; Scheinbaum, K.; Bogaert, J.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demedts, M.; Lacquet, L.L. [Department of Pneumology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  4. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4±4.4 vs 26.3±3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4±4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg -1 min -1 ) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86±0.11 vs 0.92±0.14 and ATP: 3.20±1.12 vs 3.69±0.76 ml g -1 min -1 ; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78±1.83; non-smokers: 4.03±0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430±1,820 vs 9,236±1,356 beats min -1 mmHg -1 ), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) compared with the non-smokers (0.87±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  5. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  7. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  8. A Comparison of Oral Sensory Effects of Three TRPA1 Agonists in Young Adult Smokers and Non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eva Ø.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Boudreau, Shellie A.

    2017-01-01

    This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum. Throughout a standardized 10 min chewing regime, burning, cooling, and irritation intensities, and location were recorded. In addition, blood pressure, heart rate and intra-oral temperature were assessed before, during, and after chewing. Basal intra-oral temperature was lower in smokers (35.2°C ± 1.58) as compared to non-smokers (35.9°C ± 1.61) [F(1, 52) = 8.5, P = 0.005, post hoc, p = 0.005]. However, the increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in response to chewing menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde gums were similar between smokers and non-smokers. Although smoking status did not influence the intensity of burning, cooling, and irritation, smokers did report nicotine burn more often (92%) than non-smokers (63%) [χ(1, N=55)2 = 6.208, P = 0.013]. Reports of nicotine burn consistently occurred at the back of the throat and cinnamaldehyde burn on the tongue. The cooling sensation of menthol was more widely distributed in the mouth of non-smokers as compared to smokers. Smoking alters thermoregulation, somatosensory, and possibly TRPA1 receptor responsiveness and suggests that accumulated exposure of nicotine by way of cigarette smoke alters oral sensory and vasomotor sensitivity. PMID:28936178

  9. The Effect of Social Anxiety on Urge and Craving among Smokers with and without Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the often social nature of smoking, relatively little research has been conducted on the relationship between smoking and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Method Participants (N = 99) included 34 smokers without current mental health disorders, 37 smokers with SAD, and 28 smokers who met criteria for other anxiety disorder diagnoses (e.g., panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, but not SAD). Nicotine and placebo patches were administered to participants in a counterbalanced manner across two assessment days. Urge and craving were assessed before and after a 5-hour nicotine absorption/deprivation period. Results Compared to smokers without current mental health disorders, smokers with SAD did not report greater nicotine dependence, but did endorse greater motivation to use nicotine to avoid negative outcomes. In addition, after controlling for demographic variables, smoking characteristics, pre-deprivation urge and craving, and other anxiety/depression symptoms, social anxiety symptoms uniquely predicted urge and craving in the placebo patch condition; however, social anxiety had no influence on urge and craving in the nicotine patch condition. Conclusions These findings suggest that one potential reason that smokers with SAD may have worse cessation outcomes is that they may experience higher levels of craving and urge to smoke during quit attempts. Thus, during a quit attempt, particularly in the absence of nicotine replacement therapy, smokers with SAD are likely to benefit from additional treatment aimed at managing or reducing their social anxiety symptoms. PMID:24331637

  10. Tobacco Withdrawal Amongst African American, Hispanic, and White Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the

  11. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  12. Changes in smoking habits of smokers under bombing by rockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Enav, T; Rozentraub, T; Shohat, T

    2011-03-01

    Stress is known to impact smoking. This survey assessed changes in smoking behaviour of smokers in Southern Israel during a military operation (December 2008-January 2009) that exposed several civilian communities to intensive rocket bombing and acute stress. Households with an active land telephone line in Jewish Gaza vicinity communities were sampled. Inclusion criteria were age (18+ years) and being a daily or an occasional smoker. A telephone interview was carried out, focusing on socio-demographic characteristics and change in smoking behaviour during the military operation. Personal, demographic and circumstantial correlates of smoking behaviour were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 425 smokers took part in the survey. Most (85%) reported being daily smokers, and smoked, on average, 10-20 cigarettes/day before the operation. During the operation, 38% of the smokers changed their smoking habits and most (88%) reported higher than usual smoking rates. Correlates significantly associated with higher smoking during the operation were sex (female), education (lower) and not working due to the operation. Exposure to acute stress has an impact on smoking rates, especially in certain subgroups of smokers. Relevant smoking cessation interventions should address the special needs of smokers exposed to stressful circumstances.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities. PMID:27754449

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in antioxidative enzymes are associated to FEV(1) in smokers independently of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, T H; Sigsgaard, Torben; Andersen, Charlotte Brasch

    2012-01-01

    ), GSTT1 (gene copy number), and GSTM1 (gene copy number). We found no associations between these genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. For the 201 subjects identified as current smokers and recruited via random sampling, an association was seen between increasing number of genotypes coding for high...... of genotypes coding for low antioxidative enzyme activity. The present study does not support the hypothesis that asthma is associated with genotypes of these major antioxidative enzymes. However, we speculate that since we see an impact of these genotypes on lung function in young adult smokers, polymorphisms...... in antioxidative enzymes may contribute to the range of susceptibility of smokers have to COPD....

  15. Prostate tissue metal levels and prostate cancer recurrence in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Kandegedara, Ashoka; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Gupta, Nilesh; Rogers, Craig; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Dou, Q Ping; Mitra, Bharati

    2014-02-01

    Although smoking is not associated with prostate cancer risk overall, smoking is associated with prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. Increased cadmium (Cd) exposure from smoking may play a role in progression of the disease. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine Cd, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) levels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic tissue of never- and ever-smokers with prostate cancer. In smokers, metal levels were also evaluated with regard to biochemical and distant recurrence of disease. Smokers (N = 25) had significantly higher Cd (median ppb, p = 0.03) and lower Zn (p = 0.002) in non-neoplastic tissue than never-smokers (N = 21). Metal levels were not significantly different in tumor tissue of smokers and non-smokers. Among smokers, Cd level did not differ by recurrence status. However, the ratio of Cd ppb to Pb ppb was significantly higher in both tumor and adjacent tissue of cases with distant recurrence when compared with cases without distant recurrence (tumor tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.19, p = 0.009, adjacent non-neoplastic tissue Cd/Pb, 6.36 vs. 1.02, p = 0.038). Tissue Zn levels were also higher in smokers with distant recurrence (tumor, p = 0.039 and adjacent non-neoplastic, p = 0.028). These initial findings suggest that prostate tissue metal levels may differ in smokers with and without recurrence. If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, additional work will be needed to determine whether variations in metal levels are drivers of disease progression or are simply passengers of the disease process.

  16. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cigarette craving is associated with blunted reward processing in nicotine-dependent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peechatka, Alyssa L; Whitton, Alexis E; Farmer, Stacey L; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Janes, Amy C

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing leading to the undervaluation of non-drug rewards is hypothesized to play a crucial role in nicotine dependence. However, it is unclear if blunted reward responsivity and the desire to use nicotine are directly linked after a brief period of abstinence. Such an association would suggest that individuals with reduced reward responsivity may be at increased risk to experience nicotine craving. Reward function was evaluated with a probabilistic reward task (PRT), which measures reward responsivity to monetary incentives. To identify whether smoking status influenced reward function, PRT performance was compared between non-depressed, nicotine-dependent smokers and non-smokers. Within smokers, correlations were conducted to determine if blunted reward responsivity on the PRT was associated with increased nicotine craving. Time since last nicotine exposure was standardized to 4h for all smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in reward responsivity on the PRT. However, within smokers, a significant negative correlation was found between reward responsivity and intensity of nicotine craving. The current findings show that, among smokers, the intensity of nicotine craving is linked to lower sensitivity to non-drug rewards. This finding is in line with prior theories that suggest reward dysfunction in some clinical populations (e.g., depressive disorders, schizophrenia) may facilitate nicotine use. The current study expands on such theories by indicating that sub-clinical variations in reward function are related to motivation for nicotine use. Identifying smokers who show blunted sensitivity to non-drug rewards may help guide treatments aimed at mitigating the motivation to smoke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Difference in airflow obstruction between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Akshay; Stidley, Christine A; Picchi, Maria A; Celedón, Juan C; Gilliland, Frank; Crowell, Richard E; Belinsky, Steven A; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2008-10-01

    Smoking-related respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between smoking and respiratory disease has not been well-studied among ethnic minorities in general and among women in particular. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of airflow obstruction and to assess lung function among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) female smokers in a New Mexico cohort. Participants completed a questionnaire detailing smoking history and underwent spirometry testing. Outcomes studied included airflow obstruction, selected lung function parameters, and chronic mucus hyper-secretion. Chi square, logistic, and linear regression techniques were utilized. Of the 1,433 eligible women participants, 248 (17.3%) were Hispanic; and 319 had airflow obstruction (22.3%). Hispanic smokers were more likely to be current smokers, and report lower pack-years of smoking, compared to NHW smokers (p smokers were at a reduced risk of airflow obstruction compared to NHW smokers, with an O.R. of 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.34, 0.78 (p = 0.002) after adjustment for age, BMI, pack-years and duration of smoking, and current smoking status. Following adjustment for covariates, Hispanic smokers also had a higher mean absolute and percent predicted post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio, as well as higher mean percent predicted FEV(1) (p smokers in this New Mexico-based cohort had lower risk of airflow obstruction and better lung function than NHW female smokers. Further, smoking history did not completely explain these associations.

  19. The dynamics of smoking-related disturbed methylation: a two time-point study of methylation change in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory; Wahl, Simone; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Kunze, Sonja; Kretschmer, Anja; Reischl, Eva; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2017-10-18

    The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking. Our results indicate that after quitting smoking the most rapid reversion of altered methylation occurs within the first two decades, with reversion rates related to the initial differences in methylation. For 52 CpG sites, the change in methylation from baseline to follow-up is significantly different for former smokers relative to the change for never smokers (lowest p-value 3.61 x 10 -39 for cg26703534, gene AHRR). Most of these sites' respective regions have been previously implicated in smoking-associated diseases. Despite the early rapid change, dynamism of methylation appears greater in former smokers vs never smokers even four decades after cessation. Furthermore, our study reveals the heterogeneous effect of continued smoking: the methylation levels of some loci further diverge between smokers and non-smokers, while others re-approach. Though intensity of smoking habit appears more significant than duration, results remain inconclusive. This study improves the understanding of the dynamic link between cigarette smoking and methylation, revealing the continued fluctuation of methylation levels decades after smoking cessation and demonstrating that continuing smoking can have an array of effects. The results can facilitate insights into the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-induced disturbed methylation, improving the possibility for development of biomarkers of past smoking behavior and increasing the understanding of

  20. The approach of smokers to the new tobacco law and the change in their behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilla, Nurhan; Köksal, Nurhan; Özer, Ali; Kahraman, Hasan; Ekerbiçer, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study is; to assess the approach of smokers to tobacco law, examine changes in their smoking related behaviors after the new law and determine the factors associated with these changes. Data collected by questionnaire including 30 question. We applied the questionnaire to 1509 current smokers, and ex-smokers who quitted smoking after the law. SPSS packet programme was used for analyses. Participants consisted of 419 (28.0%) female, 1090 (72.0%) male with an average age of 33.6 ± 10.5 years. Although 80% of them knew that passive smoking is harmful to non-smokers, rate of smoking at home and in the car were very high. 869 (58.0%) of participants supported the law. 87 (5.8%) smokers quitted smoking after the law, 316 (20.9%) reduced. While health problems (37.3%) were the most frequent reason for quitting, restriction of smoking area had the most effect to reduce (54.2%). We satisfied that; the new tobacco law encouraged smokers to quit smoking. In addition, the majority of smokers supported the law.

  1. Reasons for smoking among tri-ethnic daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvers, Kim; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Emami, Ashley S; Basora, Brittany; Luo, Xianghua; Khariwala, Samir S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-12-01

    Nondaily smokers experience adverse effects from tobacco use, yet they have been understudied compared to daily smokers. Understanding how reasons for smoking (RS) differ by smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity could inform tailored interventions. A cross-sectional survey was administered through an online panel survey service to 2,376 current smokers who were at least 25 years of age. The sample was stratified to obtain equal numbers of 3 racial/ethnic groups (African American [AA], Latino, and White) across smoking level (native nondaily, converted nondaily, daily light, and daily moderate/heavy). A 7-factor structure of a 20-item Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS) was confirmed (each subscale alpha > 0.80). Each factor of the MRSS varied by smoking level, with nondaily smokers endorsing all RS less frequently than daily smokers (p smoker subgroups incrementally differed from one another (p smokers. Males reported stronger RS on 5 out of 7 reasons (p Whites and AAs on all reasons (p .05). AAs and Whites were comparable on all RS (p > .05). The present study highlights considerable variability across smoking level, gender, and race/ethnicity in strength of RS. Addressing subgroup differences in RS may contribute to more sensitive and effective prevention and treatment efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Unique relationships between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology among female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Claire E; Apperson McVay, Megan; Kinsaul, Jessica; Benitez, Lindsay; Vinci, Christine; Stewart, Diana W; Copeland, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Female smokers often have higher levels of eating disorder symptoms than non-smokers, and concerns about eating and weight might interfere with smoking cessation. Thus, it is critical to identify factors to promote healthier eating and body image in this population. Initial research suggests that specific aspects of trait mindfulness predict lower body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among non-smokers. However, these relationships are unknown among smokers. The current study examined associations between facets of trait mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in 112 college female smokers (83% Caucasian; mean age 20 years, SD=1.69). After controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables, Describing and Nonjudging facets of mindfulness predicted lower bulimic symptoms and body dissatisfaction (psmindfulness facets are related to lower eating disorder symptoms among smokers, whereas other facets are not associated or have a positive relationship with these symptoms. Mindfulness-based interventions focusing on Describing, Nonjudging, and Acting with Awareness may help to reduce eating pathology among female smokers, which could potentially improve smoking cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-time craving differences between black and white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brian L; Paris, Megan M; Lam, Cho Y; Robinson, Jason D; Traylor, Amy C; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Black and White smokers may experience aspects of nicotine dependence, including craving, differently. This study used a naturalistic technique, ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to explore differences in craving, mood, expectancy, and smoking enjoyment between Black and White smokers. Participants carried personal digital assistants (PDAs) programmed to obtain multiple daily assessments. Black smokers reported higher craving after smoking and at random assessment times and higher cigarette enjoyment. No differences were found in mood or expectancy. Racial differences in psychological factors related to smoking are explored in the contexts of genetic, sociological, and psychophysiological distinctions. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-5).

  4. Social influences on smoking in American workers: the role of the presence of smokers in the workplace and in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole K; Holahan, Charles J; Li, Xiaoyin; Jung, Sooin

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence of smokers in the workplace and smokers in the home and current smoking status among employed men and women. Analysis of data from the second wave of the nationally representative Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (2004-2006). Sample of 627 currently employed men and women, aged 34 to 82 (M = 51), who had been regular cigarette smokers at some time. Survey items indexing presence of smokers in the respondents' immediate work area and home and their current smoking status. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, gender, education, race, and job type. Examined together, smokers in the workplace (OR = 2.83) and smokers in the home (OR = 6.09) were uniquely associated with current smoking status. Moreover, smokers in the home reduced the association between smokers in the workplace and current smoking. The presence of smokers in the workplace was associated with a more than fourfold increase in current smoking among respondents with no smokers in the home, but was unrelated to current smoking among respondents with smokers in the home. Failure to consider the presence of smokers in the home significantly limits the potential impact of workplace smoking interventions.

  5. Receipt of evidence-based brief cessation interventions by health professionals and use of cessation assisted treatments among current adult cigarette-only smokers: National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Kruger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helping tobacco smokers to quit during a medical visit is a clinical and public health priority. Research suggests that most health professionals engage their patients in at least some of the ‘5 A’s’ of the brief cessation intervention recommended in the U.S. Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline, but information on the extent to which patients act on this intervention is uncertain. We assessed current cigarette-only smokers’ self-reported receipt of the 5 A’s to determine the odds of using optimal cessation assisted treatments (a combination of counseling and medication. Methods Data came from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS, a nationally representative landline and mobile phone survey of adults aged ≥18 years. Among current cigarette-only smokers who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, we assessed patients’ self-reported receipt of the 5 A’s, use of the combination of counseling and medication for smoking cessation, and use of other cessation treatments. We used logistic regression to examine whether receipt of the 5 A’s during a recent clinic visit was associated with use of cessation treatments (counseling, medication, or a combination of counseling and medication among current cigarette-only smokers. Results In this large sample (N = 10,801 of current cigarette-only smokers who visited a health professional in the past 12 months, 6.3 % reported use of both counseling and medication for smoking cessation within the past year. Other assisted cessation treatments used to quit were: medication (19.6 %; class or program (3.8 %; one-on-one counseling (3.7 %; and telephone quitline (2.6 %. Current cigarette-only smokers who reported receiving all 5 A’s during a recent clinic visit were more likely to use counseling (odds ratio [OR]: 11.2, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 7.1–17.5, medication (OR: 6.2, 95 % CI: 4.3–9.0, or a combination of

  6. Evaluation of salivary catalase, vitamin C, and alpha-amylase in smokers and non-smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-05-01

    Saliva and its defence systems such as antioxidants and minerals are very important in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Cigarette smoking has many destructive effects. Oxidative stresses play an important role in the side effects of smoking. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on salivary levels of catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Hamadan, Iran, on 510 subjects; 259 subjects were smokers (the exposed group) and 251 were non-smokers (the unexposed group). Five microliters of unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting method. Catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase salivary levels were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test using STATA 12. Vitamin C level in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. The salivary catalase levels were lower and α-amylase levels were higher in smokers, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.416 and P = 0.265, respectively). Smokers were younger than non-smokers. Smoking resulted in a change in salivary antioxidant levels. Changes in antioxidant levels can influence the deleterious effects of smoking on oral mucosa; it might also indicate systemic changes and changes in the serum levels of oxidative agents. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and real effects of smoking, to determine the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for treatment and to reduce the dangerous side effects of smoking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Tobacco demand, delay discounting, and smoking topography among smokers with and without psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Abrantes, Ana M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco demand (i.e., relative value attributed to a given reinforcer) and delay discounting (i.e., relative preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards) are two behavioral economic processes that are linked to the progression of problematic substance use. These processes have not been studied among those with psychopathology, a vulnerable group of smokers. The current study examined differences in tobacco demand and delay discounting, and their association with smoking topography among smokers with (n=43) and without (n=64) past-year psychopathology. Adult daily smokers (n=107,M age =43.5; SD=9.7) participated in a study on "smoking behavior." Past-year psychological disorders were assessed via a clinician-administered diagnostic assessment. All subjects participated in an ad libitum smoking trial and then completed an assessment of delay discounting (Monetary Choice Questionnaire) and tobacco demand (Cigarette Purchase Task) approximately 45-60min post-smoking. Smokers with psychopathology, compared to those without, had significantly higher demand intensity and maximum expenditure on tobacco (O max ), but did not differ on other demand indices or delay discounting. Smokers with psychopathology had shorter average inter-puff intervals and shorter time to cigarette completion than smokers without psychopathology. Tobacco demand and delay discounting measures were significantly intercorrelated among smokers with psychopathology, but not those without. Both behavioral economic measures were associated with specific aspects of smoking topography in smokers with psychopathology. The association between tobacco demand and delay discounting is evident among smokers with psychopathology and both measures were most consistently related to smoking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are smokers adequately informed about the health risks of smoking and medicinal nicotine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A; Hastrup, Janice L; Bauer, Joseph E; Bansal, Maansi A

    2004-12-01

    The present study assessed smokers' beliefs about the health risks of smoking and the benefits of smoking filtered and low-tar cigarettes, and their awareness of and interest in trying so-called reduced-risk tobacco products. Results were based on a nationally representative random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adult (aged 18 years or older) current cigarette smokers. Data were gathered on demographic characteristics, tobacco use behaviors, awareness and use of nicotine medications, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, content of smoke and design features of cigarettes, and the safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. In addition, respondents were asked about their interest in and perceived ability to stop smoking and about their desire for more information about the health risks of smoking. Smokers were least knowledgeable about low-tar and filter cigarettes (65% of responses were incorrect or "don't know") and most knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking (39% of responses were incorrect or "don't know"). The smokers' characteristics most commonly associated with misinformation when all six indices were combined into a summary index were as follows: those aged 45 years or older, smokers of ultralight cigarettes, smokers who believe they will stop smoking before they experience a serious health problem caused by smoking, smokers who have never used a stop-smoking medication, and smokers with a lower education level. Those who believed they would stop smoking in the next year were more knowledgeable about smoking. Some 77% of respondents reported a desire for additional information from tobacco companies on the health dangers of smoking. The present findings demonstrate that smokers are misinformed about many aspects of the cigarettes they smoke and stop-smoking medications and that they want more information about ways to reduce their health risks.

  9. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucinska Romana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Methods Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. Results In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76% used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001, mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%. The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%, personal health problems (32% and social reasons (32%. However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3% abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. Conclusion The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is

  10. Patterns of motivations and ways of quitting smoking among Polish smokers: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieminska, Alicja; Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Jassem, Ewa; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Ucinska, Romana; Chelminska, Marta

    2008-08-04

    The majority of Polish smokers declare their will to quit smoking and many of them attempt to quit. Although morbidity and mortality from tobacco-related diseases are among the highest in the world, there is a lack of comprehensive cessation support for smokers. We aimed to investigate how Poles, including the medically ill, cope with quitting cigarettes and what their motivations to quit are. Convenience sampling was used for the purpose of the study. Individuals attending several health care units were screened for a history of quit attempts. Ex-smokers were defined as smoking previously at least one cigarette/day but who have no longer been smoking for at least one month. Attempts at quitting were defined as abstaining from cigarettes for at least one day. Data on socio-demographics, tobacco use, quitting behaviors and reasons to quit from 618 subjects (385 ex- and 233 current smokers) who fulfilled these criteria were collected with the use of a questionnaire. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used. In the entire study population, 77% of smokers attempted to quit smoking on their own and a similar proportion of smokers (76%) used the cold turkey method when quitting. Current smokers were more likely than former smokers to use some form of aid (p = 0.0001), mainly nicotine replacement therapy (68%). The most important reasons for quitting smoking were: general health concern (57%), personal health problems (32%) and social reasons (32%). However, 41% of smokers prompted to quitting by personal health problems related to tobacco smoking did not see the link between the two. A small proportion of ex-smokers (3%) abstaining from cigarettes for longer than a year were not confident about their self-efficacy to sustain abstinence further. The majority of Polish smokers, including patients with tobacco-related diseases, attempt to quit without smoking cessation assistance, thus there is a need for a broader professional help for them. There is

  11. Determination of the /sup 210/Po content in the urine of Filipino smokers and non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, N.B.; Cruz, W.; Ballelos, E.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1975-01-01

    The polonium content in the urine of Filipino smokers was compared with that of nonsmokers. The polonium was recovered from urine by centrifugation and deposition into silver discs. Quantitative results were obtained by counting the silver discs using a silicon surface-barrier detector. The average value obtained for smokers which was 0.5003 +- 0.2988 pCi/24 h sample was significantly higher than the value obtained for non-smokers which was 0.2313 +- 0.1664 pCi/24 h sample.

  12. Lung cancer risks from residential radon among smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enflo, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Primary lung cancer occurs mainly among elderly smokers. Smoking and radon are generally considered to be the main causes of lung cancer. By simply studying the age dependence of all primary lung cancer incidences it seems plausible to suggest that the risk for obtaining lung cancer from domestic radon is low for children. In addition, as there are few non-smoking primary lung cancer cases at older ages, it seems plausible to suggest that most of the radon-induced lung cancer cases are to be found among the smoking population. Reduction of smoking habits would appear to be the most cost effective method to reduce lung cancer cases. (author)

  13. Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation.

  14. Skeletal muscle capillarization and oxidative metabolism in healthy smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wüst, Rob C. I.; Jaspers, Richard T.; van der Laarse, Willem J.; Degens, Hans

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the lower fatigue resistance in smokers than in nonsmokers is caused by a compromised muscle oxidative metabolism. Using calibrated histochemistry, we found no differences in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, myoglobin concentration, or capillarization in sections of

  15. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchman, Sara C.; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy E...

  16. Altered affective response in marijuana smokers: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Staci A; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2009-11-01

    More than 94 million Americans have tried marijuana, and it remains the most widely used illicit drug in the nation. Investigations of the cognitive effects of marijuana report alterations in brain function during tasks requiring executive control, including inhibition and decision-making. Endogenous cannabinoids regulate a variety of emotional responses, including anxiety, mood control, and aggression; nevertheless, little is known about smokers' responses to affective stimuli. The anterior cingulate and amygdala play key roles in the inhibition of impulsive behavior and affective regulation, and studies using PET and fMRI have demonstrated changes within these regions in marijuana smokers. Given alterations in mood and perception often observed in smokers, we hypothesized altered fMRI patterns of response in 15 chronic heavy marijuana smokers relative to 15 non-marijuana smoking control subjects during the viewing of masked happy and fearful faces. Despite no between-group differences on clinical or demographic measures, smokers demonstrated a relative decrease in both anterior cingulate and amygdalar activity during masked affective stimuli compared to controls, who showed relative increases in activation within these regions during the viewing of masked faces. Findings indicate that chronic heavy marijuana smokers demonstrate altered activation of frontal and limbic systems while viewing masked faces, consistent with autoradiographic studies reporting high CB-1 receptor density in these regions. These data suggest differences in affective processing in chronic smokers, even when stimuli are presented below the level of conscious processing, and underscore the likelihood that marijuana smokers process emotional information differently from those who do not smoke, which may result in negative consequences.

  17. Characteristic Comparison of CHD for Active Smoker by Smoking Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Diastutik, Desy

    2016-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is a type of cardiovascular disease that has highest level of morbidity and mortality among non communicable disease group. One of the factor that contribute for coronary heart disease is smoking characteristic. The research was aimed to analyze characteristic comparison of coronary heart disease for active smoker by smoking characteristic. The research was observational study using cross sectional design. Thirty eight active smokers were involved as research samp...

  18. Social relations and smoking abstinence among ever-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels; Boesen, Sidsel Helle

    2013-01-01

    Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers.......Relational strain may be a risk factor for relapse after smoking cessation whereas social support may be protective. This study aimed to assess which aspects of social relations were associated with smoking abstinence among ever-smokers....

  19. Think abstractly, smoke less: a brief construal-level intervention can promote self-control, leading to reduced cigarette consumption among current smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wu, Wen-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Inadequate self-control has been linked to behavioural and impulse-control problems such as overeating, alcohol and drug abuse and smoking. Construal-level theory (CLT) suggests that a high-level construal (highlighting central goals associated with an event), relative to a low-level construal (highlighting means and resources), promotes self-control. Inspired by CLT, we examined whether smokers primed with a high-level (versus low-level) construal mind-set would show reductions in smoking that might be mediated by improved self-control. A single-factor (construal level: high, low, control) between-subjects design was employed. We used a widely employed why/how paradigm to induce high/low construal levels, whereby participants were asked to respond to questions about 'why' or 'how' they would maintain good physical health. Laboratory at Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan. A community sample consisting of 102 daily smokers participated in this experiment. The Stroop task measuring self-control was implemented after the construal-level manipulation. The dependent measure was actual cigarette consumption during an ostensible survey. Participants in a high-level construal mind-set smoked fewer cigarettes [mean = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 1.7] than those in a low-level construal mind-set (mean = 2.6, 95% CI: 2.2, 3.0; P self-control (B = -1.14, 95% CI: -1.65, -0.74, P self-control that leads to reduced cigarette consumption. Thus, reminding smokers to think abstractly about health may be an effective strategy that could help them to smoke fewer cigarettes. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. No difference in striatal dopamine transporter availability between active smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers using (123I)FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, G; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Jensen, PS

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways play important roles in both the rewarding and conditioning effects of drugs. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is of central importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission and in particular in activating the striatal D2-like...... receptors. Molecular imaging studies of the relationship between DAT availability/dopamine synthesis capacity and active cigarette smoking have shown conflicting results. Through the collaboration between 13 SPECT centres located in 10 different European countries, a database of FP-CIT-binding in healthy...... controls was established. We used the database to test the hypothesis that striatal DAT availability is changed in active smokers compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. METHODS: A total of 129 healthy volunteers were included. Subjects were divided into three categories according to past and present...

  1. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Roohafza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451 girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: Cigarette and hookah smokers had significant differences with nonsmokers in two social norms: “Perceived smoking by important characters” [odds ratio (OR = 1.35 in cigarette smokers and 1.58 in hookah smokers; P < 0.001] and “smoking makes gatherings friendly” (OR = 3.62 in cigarette smokers and 6.16 in hookah smokers; P < 0.001. Furthermore, cigarette and hookah smoking were significantly associated with having smoking friends. CONCLUSION: Highlighting the social norms leading to cigarette and hookah smoking may help policy makers develop comprehensive interventions to prevent smoking among adolescents.   Keywords: Cigarette, Hookah, Smoking, Social Norm

  2. Smoking-Cue Induced Brain Activation In Adolescent Light Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L.; Luks, Tracy L.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Dryden, Wendy; Rait, Michelle A.; Simpson, Gregory V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using fMRI, we examined whether or not adolescents with low levels of nicotine exposure (light smokers) display neural activation in areas shown to be involved with addiction in response to smoking-related stimuli. Design/Setting/Participants Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13 to17, smoked 1 to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 non-smokers (ages 13 to 17, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent fMRI scanning. During scanning they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. Smoking cues consisted of pictures of people smoking cigarettes and smoking-related objects such as lighters and ashtrays. Neutral cues consisted of everyday objects and people engaged in everyday activities. Findings For smokers, smoking cues elicited greater activation than neutral cues in the mesolimbic reward circuit (left anterior cingulate (T=7.88, pbrain regions seen in adult and heavy teen smokers suggests that even at low levels of smoking, adolescents exhibit heightened reactivity to smoking cues. This paper adds to the existing literature suggesting that nicotine dependence may begin with exposure to low levels of nicotine, underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers. PMID:21185518

  3. Neural reward and punishment sensitivity in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Geoffrey F; Bloom, Erika L; Evans, David E; Drobes, David J

    2014-11-01

    Nicotine addiction remains a major public health problem but the neural substrates of addictive behavior remain unknown. One characteristic of smoking behavior is impulsive choice, selecting the immediate reward of smoking despite the potential long-term negative consequences. This suggests that drug users, including cigarette smokers, may be more sensitive to rewards and less sensitive to punishment. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to test the hypothesis that smokers are more responsive to reward signals and less responsive to punishment, potentially predisposing them to risky behavior. We conducted two experiments, one using a reward prediction design to elicit a Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN) and one using a reward- and punishment-motivated flanker task to elicit an Error Related Negativity (ERN), ERP components thought to index activity in the cortical projection of the dopaminergic reward system. The smokers had a greater MFN response to unpredicted rewards, and non-smokers, but not smokers, had a larger ERN on punishment motivated trials indicating that smokers are more reward sensitive and less punishment sensitive than nonsmokers, overestimating the appetitive value and underestimating aversive outcomes of stimuli and actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Webb Hooper

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p < 0.001. However, African American/Black ever users were more likely to report plans to continue using e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01. African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites (p = 0.03 and Hispanics (p = 0.48. White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics (p = 0.02. In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Electronic Cigarette Use and Reasons for Use among Current and Former Smokers: Findings from a Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2016-10-14

    The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. African Americans/Blacks were significantly less likely to report ever-use compared to Whites and Hispanics (50% vs. 71% and 71%, respectively; p e-cigarettes compared to Whites and Hispanics (72% vs. 53% and 47%, respectively, p = 0.01). African American/Black participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes as a cessation aid compared to both Whites ( p = 0.03) and Hispanics ( p = 0.48). White participants were more likely to use e-cigarettes to save money compared to Hispanics ( p = 0.02). In conclusion, racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette use, intentions, and reasons for use emerged in our study. African American ever users may be particularly vulnerable to maintaining their use, particularly to try to quit smoking. These findings have implications for cigarette smoking and e-cigarette dual use, continued e-cigarette use, and potentially for smoking-related disparities.

  6. Effects of Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motivation to Quit in Tobacco Smokers: A Randomized, Sham Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Vitor de Souza Brangioni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been shown to reduce cravings in tobacco addiction; however, results have been somewhat mixed. In this study, we hypothesized that motivation to quit smoking is a critical factor of tDCS effects in smokers. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of both tDCS and motivation to quit on cigarette consumption and the relationship between these two factors. DLPFC tDCS was applied once a day for 5 days. Our primary outcome was the amount of cigarettes smoked per day. We collected this information at baseline (d1, at the end of the treatment period (d5, 2 days later (d7 and at the 4-week follow-up (d35. Visual Analog Scale (VAS for motivation to quit was collected at the same time-points. 36 subjects (45 ± 11 years old; 24.2 ± 11.5 cigarettes daily smoked, 21 women were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS. In our multivariate analysis, as to take into account the mediation and moderation effects of motivation to quit, we found a significant main effect of tDCS, showing that tDCS was associated with a significant reduction of cigarettes smoked per day. We also showed a significant interaction effect of motivation to quit and treatment, supporting our hypothesis that tDCS effects were moderated by motivation to quit, indicating that higher levels of motivation were associated with a larger tDCS response. We found that the participants' motivation to quit alone, both at baseline and at follow-up, does not explain the decrease in the average cigarette consumption. Repetitive prefrontal tDCS coupled with high motivation significantly reduced cigarette consumption up to 4-weeks post-intervention.Clinical Trial Registration: http://ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02146014.

  7. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  8. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  9. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers. PMID:27500831

  10. Support for e-cigarette policies:a survey of smokers and ex-smokers in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, Leonie S; Partos, Timea R; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette regulations are the topic of extensive debate. Approaches vary worldwide, and limited evidence is available on public support for specific policies or what influences support. The present study aimed to assess smokers' and ex-smokers' support for 3 e-cigarette policies: (1) equal or higher availability relative to cigarettes, (2) advertising, (3) use in smoke-free places, and to assess changes in support over time and associations with respondent characteristics.METH...

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON LIPID PROFILE AMONG HEALTHY SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish I

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease forms a major non-communicable disease in both developed and developing countries. In western countries, older age groups are affected whereas in our country India, it is common among younger age group. Many risk factors have been evaluated. Cigarette smoking contributes for major risk factor for coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis and peripheral vascular disorders. Mechanism of causing coronary artery disease is multifactorial, it has major adverse effects on lipid profile and homocysteine levels which are again risk factors for coronary artery disease. Hence, this study was undertaken to compare the effects of smoking cigarettes/beedis on lipid profile among smokers and non-smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a case - control study carried out on 50 healthy smokers and 50 healthy age and weight matched non-smokers attending the medicine OPD of Basaveshwara Medical College, Chitradurga from January to April 2017. Subjects in both groups were in the age range of 25-35 yrs., with no history of alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatic impairment, renal disease or history of drug intake which alter the lipid profile. RESULTS The mean serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum LDL- cholesterol & serum VLDL-cholesterol were significantly higher while antiatherogenic serum HDL cholesterol were significantly lower in smokers when compared with non-smokers and it was statistically significant (p<0.001. CONCLUSION Present study shows a statistically significant relationship between cigarette smoking and increased lipid profile. Thus, chronic smokers are at the significant risk of developing Coronary Heart Disease. So, smokers should be counselled and encouraged to quit smoking and adopt a healthier life style.

  12. Adult smokers' receptivity to a television advert for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; Shafer, Paul; Nonnemaker, James; Makarenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine adult smokers' awareness of and receptivity to an electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) television advert, and whether viewing the advert influenced urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. A television advert for ENDS brand blu eCigs was shown to an online convenience sample of 519 Florida adult smokers. We measured current smokers' awareness of and receptivity to the advert, and whether seeing the advert influenced their thoughts about smoking or quitting, urge to smoke and intention to try ENDS. Results were stratified by prior ENDS use. Approximately 62.3% of current smokers were aware of the advert. Smokers found the advert informative (73.8%), attention grabbing (67.5%) and innovative (64.5%), with prior ENDS users rating the advert more favourably than non-users. Seeing the advert elicited an urge to smoke (mean 42.1, SD=1.9) and thoughts about smoking cigarettes (75.8%) as well as quitting (74.6%). Prior END users were significantly more likely than non-users to report thinking about smoking cigarettes after seeing the advert (Padvertising and examine how exposure to ENDS adverts influences smokers' use of ENDS, dual use with cigarettes and cessation behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Not All Smokers Die Young: A Model for Hidden Heterogeneity within the Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Morgan; Crimmins, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The ability of some individuals to reach extreme old age in the presence of clearly high exposure to damaging factors may signal an innate biological advantage. For this study we used data on 4,655 current and never smokers, ages 50 and above, from NHANES III to examine whether long-lived smokers represent a biologically resilient phenotype that could facilitate our understanding of heterogeneity in the aging process. Using a proportional hazards model, our results showed that while smoking significantly increased mortality in most age groups, it did not increase the mortality risk for those who were age 80 and over at baseline. Additionally when comparing the adjusted means of biomarkers between never and current smokers, we found that long-lived smokers (80+) had similar inflammation, HDL, and lung function levels to never smokers. Given that factors which allow some individuals to withstand smoking may also enable others to cope with everyday biological stressors, the investigation of long-lived smokers may eventually allow us to identify molecular and genetic mechanisms which enable longevity extension. PMID:24520332

  14. What Do Smokers Want in A Smartphone-Based Cessation Application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Hallyburton, Matthew B; Pacek, Lauren R; Mitchell, John T; Vilardaga, Roger; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Joseph McClernon, F

    2017-08-03

    Fueled by rapid technological advances over the past decade, there is growing interest in the use of smartphones to aid in smoking cessation. Hundreds of applications have been developed for this purpose, but little is known about how these applications are accessed and used by smokers or what features smokers believe would be most useful. The present study sought to understand the prevalence of smartphone ownership and patterns of use among smokers as well as the perceived utility of various smartphone application features for smoking cessation that are currently in development or already available. Daily cigarette smokers (n = 224) reported on smartphone ownership, their patterns of smartphone usage, and perceived utility of features. Features were ranked according to perceived utility and differences in both perceived utility and general smartphone use patterns were examined as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Most smokers (80.4%) own a smartphone, but experience with smoking cessation applications is extremely rare (6.1%). Ownership and patterns of usage differed as a function of demographic and smoking-related variables. Overall, gain-framed features were rated as most useful, while loss-framed and interpersonal features were rated as least useful. Mobile health interventions have the potential to reach a large number of smokers but are currently underutilized. Additional effort is needed to ensure parity in treatment access. Gain-framed messages may be especially useful for engaging smokers, even if other features ultimately drive treatment effects. This study describes patterns of smartphone usage among smokers and identifies the smartphone application features smokers believe would be most useful during a quit attempt. Findings indicate which subgroups of smokers are most likely to be reached with mobile health interventions and suggests that inclusion of specific features may be helpful for engaging smokers in the smoking cessation

  15. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  16. High-resolution computed tomography of the lung in smokers: Visual and computer-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Leisse, C.; Otto, A.; Berger, F.; Schmitz, E.; Guenther, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: It has been the aim of the study to assess parenchymal changes in the lung with high-resolution CT in healthy heavy, moderate, and non-smokers. Material and methods: We prospectively evaluated CT changes in 42 healthy heavy smokers (gr. (group) 2, ≥30 pack-years), 40 moderate smokers (gr. 1, R , Kontron GmbH, Munich, Germany). Results: Productive cough, dyspnoea and chronic bronchitis were more common in smokers than in non-smokers (p [de

  17. Differences in clinical presentation of non-small cell lung cancer in never-smokers versus smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Young; Na, Im Ii; Jang, Seung-Hun; Hwang, Yong Il; Choe, Du Hwan; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Baek, Heejong

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether or not tumor spread and the diagnostic process in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is different based on smoking history. Associations between smoking status and clinical presentation were evaluated controlling for the effect of histology. Lung cancer with delayed diagnosis (LCDD) and incidental detection (LCID) were determined based on medical records. Of 914 patients, frequency of distant metastases was more common in never-smokers than in smokers (59% and 36%, respectively; Psmokers were more likely to have LCDD than smokers (18% and 11%, respectively; P=0.038), LCDD were not significantly associated with frequency of distant metastases [49% (LCDD) vs. 42% (non-LCDD); P=0.189] as well as tumor [29% (T3-4) vs. 24% (T1-2); P=0.134] and node [43% (N2-3) vs. 44% (N0-1); P=0.838] stage. Interestingly, never-smokers are more likely to have LCID than smokers (31% and 19%, respectively; P=0.010). In survival analysis, LCID (P=0.001; HR, 0.63) remained a prognostic factor, while LCDD did not. This study suggests distinct metastatic pattern and diagnostic processes of never-smokers. The link between survival and incidental detection was also indicated.

  18. Age-distribution, risk factors and mortality in smokers and non-smokers with acute myocardial infarction: a review. TRACE study group. Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, M M; Jørgensen, S; Kjøller, E

    1999-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for acute myocardial infarction; paradoxically, many studies have shown a lower post-infarct mortality among smokers. There are some important differences between smokers and non-smokers, which might explain the observed difference in mortality: smokers have less...... multivessel disease and atherosclerosis but are more thrombogenic; thrombolytic therapy seems to be more effective among smokers; smoking might result in an increased out-of-hospital mortality rate, by being more arrhythmogenic; and smokers are on average a decade younger than non-smokers at the time...... of infarction, and have less concomitant disease. Adjusting for these differences in regression analyses shows that smoking is not an independent risk factor for mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The difference in age and risk factors are responsible for the lower mortality among smokers....

  19. Breathing symptoms in-patient with lung cancer: A comparison of the time of consultation between smoker and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Carlos Eli; Moron Fanny, Emilia; Melendez, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    There is a controversy around the timing of diagnosis of lung cancer and it's relation with smoking habit. Objective, to compare the time with pulmonary indicator symptoms between smokers and non-smokers with lung cancer

  20. Experience of, awareness of and help-seeking for potential cancer symptoms in smokers and non-smokers: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Walabyeki, Julie; Adamson, Joy; Buckley, Hannah L; Sinclair, Helena; Atkin, Karl; Graham, Hilary; Whitaker, Katriina; Wardle, Jane; Macleod, Una

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Presenting to primary care with potential cancer symptoms is contingent on one’s ability to recognize potentially serious symptoms. We investigated differences between smokers and non-smokers in symptoms experienced, awareness and consulting of potential respiratory, head and neck cancer symptoms. Methods: Smokers and non-smokers aged over 50 from Yorkshire general practice lists were sent a postal questionnaire asking about symptoms, consulting and awareness of c...

  1. It's complicated: Examining smokers' relationships with their cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair N; Schmitt, Carol L

    2016-12-01

    Despite increased restrictions and taxes, decreased social acceptability, and widespread awareness of the harms of tobacco use, many in the U.S. continue to smoke cigarettes. Thus, understanding smokers' attitudes and motivations remains an important goal. This study adopts the consumer psychology concept of brand relationship to provide a new lens through which to examine smokers' attitudes about their cigarette use. Twelve focus groups (N = 143) were conducted with adult cigarette smokers from September to November, 2013. Using a semistructured moderator guide and "top of mind" worksheets, the discussion examined participants' attitudes toward (a) their own cigarette brand and (b) tobacco companies in general. Data were coded and analyzed following principles of thematic analysis. Adult smokers reported positive attitudes toward their cigarette brand, as their brand was strongly associated with the positive experience of smoking (e.g., satisfying craving and relief from withdrawal). In contrast, thinking about tobacco companies in general evoked negative reactions, revealing overwhelmingly negative attitudes toward the industry. Findings reveal a complicated relationship between smokers and their cigarette brand: simultaneously embracing their cigarettes and rejecting the industry that makes them. Taken together, these data suggest smokers maintain largely positive brand relationships, diverting negative feelings about smoking toward the tobacco industry. Finally, they highlight the synergy between branding and the subjective smoking experience, whereby positive brand attitudes are reinforced through withdrawal relief. Ultimately, this information could inform a more complete understanding of how smokers interpret and respond to tobacco communications, including marketing from their brand. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  3. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers' perceptions about brand image? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. A 3 (brand types) x 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers' appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations.

  4. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-01-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established

  5. Predictors of cessation pharmacotherapy use among black and non-Hispanic white smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine K; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Alberg, Anthony J; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    Use of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation improves quit rates, but these treatments are underutilized, particularly among Black smokers. Attitudes toward pharmacotherapy may differ between racial/ethnic minorities and Caucasian smokers. It was hypothesized that Black and non-Hispanic White smokers would differ in their attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and that the association between attitudes toward and actual use of pharmacotherapy would differ by race. The study consisted of a single, cross-sectional telephone-based survey of current smokers (N = 697), which examined the relationship between race, attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, and pharmacotherapy usage in a representative bi-racial sample (39% Black). Black smokers were significantly less likely to report ever use of pharmacotherapy (23%) than Caucasians (39%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.33-0.66). Compared with Caucasians, Blacks had significantly less favorable attitudes toward pharmacotherapy, including disbelief about efficacy (p = .03), addiction concerns (p = .03), harmfulness of pharmacotherapy (p = .008), and need for treatment of any kind to quit smoking (p = .004). In a multiple logistic regression, racial group (Caucasian is referent: OR = 0.55, p = .003), addiction concerns (OR = 0.80, p smokers. Regardless of racial group, misconceptions about pharmacotherapy are related to lower rates of use. Efforts to improve understanding about the efficacy and safety of these products are needed to boost utilization and impact cessation rates.

  6. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  7. Radon-induced lung cancer in smokers and non-smokers: risk implications using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Three sets of data (population statistics in non-smokers, data from an investigation of the smoking habits of British doctors and a study of Colorado uranium miners) were used to analyse lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking. One of the aims was to derive implications for radon risk estimates. The data were analysed using a two-mutation radiation carcinogenesis model and a stepwise determination of the model parameters. The basic model parameters for lung cancer were derived from the age dependence fit of the spontaneous lung cancer incidence in non-smokers. The effect of smoking was described by two additional parameters and, subsequently, the effect of radon by three other parameters; these five parameters define the dependence of the two mutation steps on smoking and exposure to radon. Using this approach, a consistent fit and comprehensive description of the three sets of data have been achieved, and the parameters could, at least partly, be related to cellular radiobiological data. The model results explain the different effect of radon on non-smokers and smokers as seen in epidemiological data. Although the analysis was only applied to a limited number of populations, lung cancer incidence as a result of radon exposure is estimated to be about ten times higher for people exposed at the age of about 15 than at about 50, although this effect is masked (especially for smokers) by the high lung cancer incidence from smoking. Using the model to calculate the lung cancer risks from lifetime exposure to radon, as is the case for indoor radon, higher risks were estimated than previously derived from epidemiological studies of the miners' data. The excess absolute risk per unit exposure of radon is about 1.7 times higher for smokers of 30 cigarettes per day than for non-smokers, even though, as a result of the low spontaneous tumour incidence in the non-smokers, the excess relative risk per unit exposure for the smokers is about 20 times

  8. The Association between Cannabis Use and Motivation and Intentions to Quit Tobacco within a Sample of Australian Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J.; Bryant, Jamie; Oldmeadow, C.; Palazzi, K.; Guillaumier, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) describe concurrent and simultaneous tobacco and cannabis use and (ii) investigate the association between cannabis use and motivation and intentions to quit tobacco in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 and 2014 with current tobacco smokers receiving aid from…

  9. A Decade of Never-smokers Among Lung Cancer Patients-Increasing Trend and Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Keong; Ong, Whee-Sze; Lim, Wan-Teck; Tan, Daniel Shao-Weng; Ng, Quan-Sing; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Seow, Wei-Jie; Ang, Mei-Kim; Tan, Eng-Huat

    2018-03-17

    It is not known whether clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and survival of never-smokers among lung cancer incident cases have changed over time. We assessed the trend and overall survival (OS) of these patients within our institution during a 10-year period. We reviewed 2 cohorts of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with a diagnosis from 1999 to 2002 and from 2008 to 2011. The patient characteristics and OS were compared by smoking status within each cohort and between the 2 cohorts over time. Of the 992 patients in the 1999-2002 cohort and the 1318 patients in the 2008-2011 cohort, 902 and 1272 had a known smoking status, respectively. The proportion of never-smokers increased from 31% in 1999-2002 to 48% in 2008-2011 (P never-, former-, and current-smokers have remained largely constant over time. A greater proportion of never-smokers had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 1 and adenocarcinoma. The median OS increased from 15.5 months in 1999-2002 to 24.9 months in 2008-2011 (P = .001) for never-smokers, 12.3 to 15.9 months (P = .150) for former-smokers, and 10.5 to 13.9 months (P = .011) for current-smokers. The larger survival improvement among never-smokers was likely accounted for by the larger increase in never-smokers who were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pemetrexed over time. We found an increasing trend of never-smokers among incident lung cancer cases and improved survival for these patients during a 10-year period. The documentation of smoking status in any national cancer registry is vital to estimate the true incidence of lung cancer among never-smokers over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is impaired by smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanai, Shinobu; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Sumitomo, Kazuhiro; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2018-01-01

    There is limited information about the respiratory function of ever-smokers without lung disorders. We sought to assess the effects of smoking habits on respiratory function in subjects without lung disorders. Subjects were recruited from among patients without any evidence of respiratory disorders who visited rural primary care clinics. Each participant was asked to answer a questionnaire that included questions smoking history. Their forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured. We analyzed 802 subjects (364 men and 438 women). The means of the lambda-mu-sigma method derived z-score of FEV1 (zFEV1) both in current-smokers and ex-smokers were lower than that in never-smokers. The mean zFEV1 in the ever-smokers with more than 30 pack-years of smoking history were lower than that in the ever-smokers with less smoking history. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant negative correlations between pack-years and zFEV1 both in the ex-smokers and current-smokers. There was no significant correlation between the duration of smoking cessation and zFEV1 in the ex-smokers. Our data suggests that respiratory function in healthy ever-smokers is decreased based on smoking habits in a dose-dependent manner. Even after a long period of smoking cessation, the decreased respiratory function seems to be maintained in ex-smokers. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the efficacy of pharmacoinvasive management for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in smokers versus non-smokers (from the Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nigel S; Goodman, Shaun G; Cantor, Warren J; Tan, Mary K; Yan, Raymond T; Bagnall, Alan J; Mehta, Shamir R; Fitchett, David; Strauss, Bradley H; Yan, Andrew T

    2014-10-01

    Compared with non-smokers, cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions derive greater benefit from fibrinolytic therapy. However, it is not known whether the optimal treatment strategy after fibrinolysis differs on the basis of smoking status. The Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TRANSFER-AMI) randomized patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions to a routine early invasive (pharmacoinvasive) versus a standard (early transfer only for rescue percutaneous coronary intervention or delayed angiography) strategy after fibrinolysis. The efficacy of these strategies was compared in 1,051 patients on the basis of their smoking status. Treatment heterogeneity was assessed between smokers and non-smokers, and multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate for an interaction between smoking status and treatment strategy after adjusting for baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score. Smokers (n=448) were younger, had fewer cardiovascular risk factors, and had lower GRACE risk scores. They had a lower rate of the primary composite end point of 30-day mortality, reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, heart failure, or cardiogenic shock and fewer deaths or reinfarctions at 6 months and 1 year. Smoking status was not a significant predictor of either primary or secondary end points in multivariable analysis. Pharmacoinvasive management reduced the primary end point compared with standard therapy in smokers (7.7% vs 13.6%, p=0.04) and non-smokers (13.1% vs 19.7%, p=0.03). Smoking status did not modify treatment effect on any measured outcomes (p>0.10 for all). In conclusion, compared with non-smokers, current smokers receiving either standard or early invasive management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after fibrinolysis have more favorable outcomes, which is likely attributable to their better baseline risk profile. The

  12. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayanju, Olatunde A; Rahamon, Sheu K; Joseph, Ijeboime O; Arinola, Olatunbosun G

    2012-10-26

    To determine the levels of salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis. Sixty-nine individuals were recruited into this study after obtaining informed consent. They were subdivided into three groups that consisted of 20 (aged 46 ± 11 years) cigarette smokers with periodontitis (S+P); 24 (40 ± 12 years) smokers without periodontitis (S-P); and 25 (53 ± 11 years) non-smokers with periodontitis (NS+P). An oral and maxillofacial surgeon used radiographs for periodontal probing for the diagnosis of periodontitis. The smokers included subjects who smoked at least six cigarettes per day and all the periodontitis patients were newly diagnosed. About 5 mL of unstimulated saliva was expectorated by each subject into plain sample bottles. Salivary immunoglobulin levels were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Student's t test was used to determine significant differences between the means. Values of P vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.000) and IgM (644.5 ± 160.0 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.000) were significantly lower in the S+P compared with NS+P group. Salivary IgA (570.4 ± 145.6 ng/mL vs 670.0 ± 110 ng/mL, P = 0.008) and IgM (703.1 ± 169.3 ng/mL vs 791.4 ± 43.7 ng/mL, P = 0.012) levels were significantly lower in the S-P compared with NS+P group. Only one (5%) periodontal patient had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.20 IU/mL). Similarly, only one smoker (4.17%) had detectable levels of salivary IgE (0.04 IU/mL) and two non-smokers (9.52%) had detectable levels of IgE (0.24 IU/mL). Our study suggests that reduced salivary IgA and IgM levels in smokers with periodontitis could enhance increased susceptibility to periodontitis.

  13. Secondhand smoke in outdoor settings: smokers' consumption, non-smokers' perceptions, and attitudes towards smoke-free legislation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; López, María J; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve

    2015-04-08

    To describe where smokers smoke outdoors, where non-smokers are exposed outdoors to secondhand smoke (SHS), and attitudes towards smoke-free outdoor areas after the implementation of national smoke-free legislation. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 (n=1307 participants). Barcelona, Spain. Representative, random sample of the adult (≥16 years) population. Proportion of smoking and prevalence of exposure to SHS in the various settings according to type of enclosure. Percentages of support for outdoor smoke-free policies according to smoking status. Smokers reported smoking outdoors most in bars and restaurants (54.8%), followed by outdoor places at work (46.8%). According to non-smokers, outdoor SHS exposure was highest at home (42.5%) and in bars and restaurants (33.5%). Among non-smoking adult students, 90% claimed exposure to SHS on university campuses. There was great support for banning smoking in the majority of outdoor areas, which was stronger among non-smokers than smokers. Over 70% of participants supported smoke-free playgrounds, school and high school courtyards, and the grounds of healthcare centres. Extending smoking bans to selected outdoor settings should be considered in further tobacco control interventions to protect non-smokers from SHS exposure and to establish a positive model for youth. The majority of public support for some outdoor smoke-free areas suggests that it is feasible to extend smoking bans to additional outdoor settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. An assessment of pulmonary emphysema in smokers using CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Kobayashi, Takuya; Misao, Takahiko

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between PE and smoking in 639 cases (411 males and 228 females with age ranged 21-86 years) who underwent CT scans during the period, from December 1997 to December 1998, under suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in male smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and its severity progresses with advancing age and increasing smoking index. (author)

  15. Adult smokers' responses to "corrective statements" regarding tobacco industry deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy L; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Krugman, Dean M; Berg, Carla J; Hardin, James W

    2014-07-01

    To inform consumers, U.S. Federal Courts have ordered the tobacco industry to disseminate "corrective statements" (CSs) about their deception regarding five topics: smoker health effects, nonsmoker health effects, cigarette addictiveness, design of cigarettes to increase addiction, and relative safety of light cigarettes. To determine how smokers from diverse backgrounds respond to the final, court-mandated wording of these CSs. Data were analyzed from an online consumer panel of 1,404 adult smokers who evaluated one of five CS topics (n=280-281) by reporting novelty, relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the CS. Logistic and linear regression models assessed main and interactive effects of race/ethnicity, gender, education, and CS topic on these responses. Data were collected in January 2013 and analyzed in March 2013. Thirty percent to 54% of participants reported that each CS provided novel information, and novelty was associated with greater relevance, anger at the industry, and motivation to quit because of the message. African Americans and Latinos were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to report that CSs were novel, and they had stronger responses to CSs across all indicators. Compared to men, women reported that CSs were more relevant and motivated them to quit. This study suggests that smokers would value and respond to CSs, particularly smokers from groups that suffer from tobacco-related health disparities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Race, gender, and nicotine metabolism in adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Rait, Michelle A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-07-01

    Differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism between genders and different races have been hypothesized to contribute to disparities in smoking rate, susceptibility to addiction, and ability to quit smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of race and gender on the rate of nicotine metabolism as indicated by the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) in adolescent smokers. One hundred and fifty-nine adolescent smokers aged 13-17 were given 2mg of deuterium-labeled cotinine (cotinine-d4). The NMR was calculated as the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine (ng/ml) to cotinine-d4 (ng/ml) in saliva and is a validated biomarker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. The sample was 67.3% female and racially mixed. On average, Whites had the fastest rates of metabolism compared with both Blacks/African Americans (p smokers, racial variations in rates of nicotine metabolism were similar to those that have been reported in adult smokers. In contrast to findings in adult smokers, the NMR did not vary significantly by gender or self-reported hormone use.

  17. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  18. Characteristics of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers in the general population: results from the CanCOLD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W C; Sin, D D; Bourbeau, J; Hernandez, P; Chapman, K R; Cowie, R; FitzGerald, J M; Marciniuk, D D; Maltais, F; Buist, A S; Road, J; Hogg, J C; Kirby, M; Coxson, H; Hague, C; Leipsic, J; O'Donnell, D E; Aaron, S D

    2015-09-01

    There is limited data on the risk factors and phenotypical characteristics associated with spirometrically confirmed COPD in never-smokers in the general population. To compare the characteristics associated with COPD by gender and by severity of airway obstruction in never-smokers and in ever-smokers. We analysed the data from 5176 adults aged 40 years and older who participated in the initial cross-sectional phase of the population-based, prospective, multisite Canadian Cohort of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Never-smokers were defined as those with a lifetime exposure of never-smokers was 6.4%, constituting 27% of all COPD subjects. The common independent predictors of COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers were older age, self reported asthma and lower education. In never-smokers a history of hospitalisation in childhood for respiratory illness was discriminative, while exposure to passive smoke and biomass fuel for heating were discriminative for women. COPD in never-smokers and ever-smokers was characterised by increased respiratory symptoms, 'respiratory exacerbation' events and increased residual volume/total lung capacity, but only smokers had reduced DLCO/Va and emphysema on chest CT scans. The study confirmed the substantial burden of COPD among never-smokers, defined the common and gender-specific risk factors for COPD in never-smokers and provided early insight into potential phenotypical differences in COPD between lifelong never-smokers and ever-smokers. NCT00920348 (ClinicalTrials.gov); study ID number: IRO-93326. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Acute effects of short term use of e-cigarettes on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in smokers with and without airways obstructive diseases and in healthy non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Palamidas

    2017-03-01

    Short term use of e-cigarette has acute effects on airways physiology and respiratory symptoms in COPD smokers, asthmatic smokers, “healthy” smokers and healthy never smokers. E-cigarette use is associated with health effects in healthy never smokers irrespectively of nicotine concentration. More studies are needed to investigate both short and long term effects of e-cig.

  20. Clinical and genetic features of lung squamous cell cancer in never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Hang; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Difan; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Hu, Haichuan; Cai, Deng; Wang, Shengfei; Zhang, Yawei; Xiang, Jiaqing; Sun, Yihua; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of specific driver mutations to the development and outcome of lung squamous cell cancer (SQCC) in never-smokers, we assessed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of 597 patients who underwent complete resection of SQCCs. In total, 88 (14.7%) never-smokers and 509 (85.3%) ever-smokers were compared. The never-smokers included more females (42.05% vs. 1.57%, P never-smokers were more often poorly differentiated (70.45% vs. 53.24%, P = 0.010) and more often contained oncogenic mutations (21.05% vs 11.05%, P = 0.023), particularly EGFR mutations (13.16% vs 3.40%, P = 0.001). Never-smokers also tended to have poorer OS than smokers. Our results suggest lung SQCCs in never-smokers are a subtype distinct from SQCCs occurring in smokers. PMID:27092882

  1. Clinical and genetic features of lung squamous cell cancer in never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangle; Wang, Rui; Pan, Yunjian; Zhang, Yang; Li, Hang; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Difan; Zheng, Shanbo; Li, Yuan; Shen, Xuxia; Hu, Haichuan; Cai, Deng; Wang, Shengfei; Zhang, Yawei; Xiang, Jiaqing; Sun, Yihua; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-06-14

    To evaluate the importance of specific driver mutations to the development and outcome of lung squamous cell cancer (SQCC) in never-smokers, we assessed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of 597 patients who underwent complete resection of SQCCs. In total, 88 (14.7%) never-smokers and 509 (85.3%) ever-smokers were compared. The never-smokers included more females (42.05% vs. 1.57%, P smokers were more often poorly differentiated (70.45% vs. 53.24%, P = 0.010) and more often contained oncogenic mutations (21.05% vs 11.05%, P = 0.023), particularly EGFR mutations (13.16% vs 3.40%, P = 0.001). Never-smokers also tended to have poorer OS than smokers. Our results suggest lung SQCCs in never-smokers are a subtype distinct from SQCCs occurring in smokers.

  2. Resting-state EEG, impulsiveness, and personality in daily and nondaily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Olga; Ahn, Woo-Young; O'Donnell, Brian F

    2016-01-01

    Resting EEG is sensitive to transient, acute effects of nicotine administration and abstinence, but the chronic effects of smoking on EEG are poorly characterized. This study measures the resting EEG profile of chronic smokers in a non-deprived, non-peak state to test whether differences in smoking behavior and personality traits affect pharmaco-EEG response. Resting EEG, impulsiveness, and personality measures were collected from daily smokers (n=22), nondaily smokers (n=31), and non-smokers (n=30). Daily smokers had reduced resting delta and alpha EEG power and higher impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) compared to nondaily smokers and non-smokers. Both daily and nondaily smokers discounted delayed rewards more steeply, reported lower conscientiousness (NEO-FFI), and reported greater disinhibition and experience seeking (Sensation Seeking Scale) than non-smokers. Nondaily smokers reported greater sensory hedonia than nonsmokers. Altered resting EEG power in daily smokers demonstrates differences in neural signaling that correlated with greater smoking behavior and dependence. Although nondaily smokers share some characteristics with daily smokers that may predict smoking initiation and maintenance, they differ on measures of impulsiveness and resting EEG power. Resting EEG in non-deprived chronic smokers provides a standard for comparison to peak and trough nicotine states and may serve as a biomarker for nicotine dependence, relapse risk, and recovery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of exposure to anti-vaping public service announcements among current smokers and dual users of cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Rees, Vaughan W; Rodgers, Justin; Agudile, Emeka; Sokol, Natasha A; Yie, Kyeungyeun; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2018-05-16

    Anti-vaping public service announcements (PSAs) are intended to discourage vaping or use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). However, vaping portrayals in PSAs may have unintended effects if they increase smoking or vaping urges. This study examined benefits and unintended effects of anti-vaping PSAs with vapor portrayals on smoking and vaping-related outcomes. Young adult smokers (N = 171) and dual users (N = 122) aged 21-30 years were randomly assigned to view: 1) anti-vaping PSAs with vapor; 2) anti-vaping PSAs without vapor; 3) physical activity PSAs; or 4) anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues. Outcomes were changes in vaping and smoking urges before and after viewing PSAs, post-test vaping and smoking intentions in the next hour, and post-test intention to purchase ENDS and traditional cigarettes. Smokers only: Exposure to anti-vaping PSAs with vapor (vs. physical activity) was associated with lower intention to vape and to purchase ENDS (ps vaping PSAs with vapor (vs. PSAs without vapor and vs. anti-smoking PSAs with smoking cues) was associated with lower intention to vape in the next hour (ps vaping PSAs without vapor (vs. physical activity) was associated with lower change in vaping urge (p vaping PSAs without vapor (vs. anti-smoking PSAs) was associated with lower intention to purchase ENDS (p vaping PSAs with vapor was not associated with unintended effects and may have benefits on reducing smoking and vaping-related outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Smokers who report smoking but do not consider themselves smokers: a phenomenon in need of further attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Zablocki, Rong W; Edland, Steven D; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2015-07-01

    Heightened stigma surrounding the action of smoking may decrease the likelihood that individuals who engage in smoking identify with the label 'smoker'. Non-identifying smokers (NIS) may undermine accurate smoking prevalence estimates and can be overlooked by tobacco control efforts. We sought to characterise NIS in a cross-sectional study using a sample representative of the population of adults (>18 years) in California who reported smoking at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, smoking at least some days and at least once in the last 30 days (n=1698). Individuals were considered NIS if they met the above criteria and answered 'no' when asked if they 'considered themselves a smoker'. We estimate that 395 928 (SD=54 126) NIS were living in California in 2011 (a prevalence of 12.3% of all smokers in California). The odds of being NIS were higher among non-daily smokers who were previously daily smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=7.63, 95% CI 2.67 to 21.8) or were never previously daily smokers (AOR=7.14, CI 2.78 to 18.3) compared with daily smokers. The odds of being an NIS were also higher among those who did not believe they were addicted to cigarettes (AOR=3.84, CI 1.68 to 9.22), were older than 65 years (vs less than 45 years) (AOR=3.35, CI 1.16 to 9.75) or were from ethnic minorities including Black and Asian (vs non-Hispanic white) (AOR=3.16, CI 1.19 to 8.49). Smoking surveillance should restructure selection criteria to more accurately account for NIS in areas with high stigma toward smokers. Targeted interventions may be needed for NIS including educating healthcare providers to enquire more deeply into smoking habits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. A preliminary experimental investigation of peer influence on risk-taking among adolescent smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalca, Eleonora; Kong, Grace; Liss, Thomas; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schepis, Ty S; Lejuez, C W; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that peer influence plays a significant role in a variety of adolescent risk-taking behaviors, including tobacco use. We attempted to establish this relationship in a controlled laboratory setting. We modified the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART) task to include a peer component to investigate whether peer influences alter risk-taking behaviors. Thirty-nine adolescents (22 smokers, 17 non-smokers) completed one experimental session during which the standard and peer BART were presented in counterbalanced order, with the dependent measures being adjusted mean number of pumps and explosions. We also examined the relationship of changes in the BART (standard-peer) to personality measures of impulsivity (BIS-11) and resistance to peer influence (RPI). A significant interaction of BART type and smoking status was present (p=.05); specifically smokers had a greater increase in the number of explosions by 2.27 (SD=3.12) compared to an increase of .29 (SD=2.87) by non-smokers. BIS-11 scores were related to peer-influenced BART changes: those who were more impulsive experienced greater changes in risk-taking, but no similar relationships were observed for the RPI. These results suggest that peer influences enhance risk-taking among adolescents, and that smokers may be more susceptible to these influences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct Observations of Parenting and Real-time Negative Affect among Adolescent Smokers and Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Melanie J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and non-smokers. Method Participants were 9th and 10th grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6- and 24-months via ecological momentary assessment. Results Among both smoking and non-smoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for non-smokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  9. Snowball sampling by mail: application to a survey of smokers in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, J F; Perneger, T V

    2000-02-01

    In a series of surveys intended for current and former smokers but sent to a random sample of the general population, we asked never smokers and smokers who did not wish to participate to transmit the questionnaire to any ever smoker they knew. We compared participants who received the questionnaire directly from us (original participants) to participants who received it from an addressee (secondary participants). Questionnaires on smoking were mailed to 3300 residents of Geneva (Switzerland) in 1997, and returned by 1167 people (35%). The final sample consisted of similar numbers of original participants (n = 578, primary response rate = 18% of total sample, or about 46% of ever smokers) and secondary participants (n = 566). Original participants were 1.7 years older than secondary participants (P = 0.03) and were more likely to be men (50% versus 43%, P = 0.009). Proportions of current smokers, stages of change, confidence in ability to quit smoking, cigarettes per day and attempts to quit smoking were similar in the two groups. Secondary participants had lower self-efficacy scores (-0.30 standard deviation (SD) units, P < 0.03), and they derived more pleasure from smoking (+0.25 SD units, P = 0.04). Among ex-smokers, direct participants were less active than secondary participants in coping with the temptation to smoke (-0.58 SD units, P = 0.002). Associations between smoking-related variables were similar in original and secondary participants. Allowing non-eligible addressees to transmit the questionnaire to someone else doubled the response rate, produced moderate bias on some variables only and had no detectable impact on associations between smoking-related variables.

  10. Patient characteristics of smokers undergoing lumbar spine surgery: an analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Anthony L; Devin, Clinton J; McCutcheon, Brandon; Chotai, Silky; Archer, Kristin R; Nian, Hui; Harrell, Frank E; McGirt, Matthew; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Foley, Kevin; Glassman, Steven D; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE In this analysis the authors compare the characteristics of smokers to nonsmokers using demographic, socioeconomic, and comorbidity variables. They also investigate which of these characteristics are most strongly associated with smoking status. Finally, the authors investigate whether the association between known patient risk factors and disability outcome is differentially modified by patient smoking status for those who have undergone surgery for lumbar degeneration. METHODS A total of 7547 patients undergoing degenerative lumbar surgery were entered into a prospective multicenter registry (Quality Outcomes Database [QOD]). A retrospective analysis of the prospectively collected data was conducted. Patients were dichotomized as smokers (current smokers) and nonsmokers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis fitted for patient smoking status and subsequent measurement of variable importance was performed to identify the strongest patient characteristics associated with smoking status. Multivariable linear regression models fitted for 12-month Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores in subsets of smokers and nonsmokers was performed to investigate whether differential effects of risk factors by smoking status might be present. RESULTS In total, 18% (n = 1365) of patients were smokers and 82% (n = 6182) were nonsmokers. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the factors significantly associated with patients' smoking status were sex (p smoker (p = 0.0008), while patients with coronary artery disease had greater odds of being a smoker (p = 0.044). Patients' propensity for smoking was also significantly associated with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (p smokers and nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS Using a large, national, multiinstitutional registry, the authors described the profile of patients who undergo lumbar spine surgery and its association with their smoking status. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were younger, male

  11. [Estimation of mercury in the urine of cigarette smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowska-Karpińska, Elżbieta; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, Małgorzata

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common habits of the modern world. According to a NATPOL PLU study, every third adult Pole is dependent on nicotine. Tobacco smoke contains about 5,000 components, of which over 1,000 are very toxic chemical substances (3,4-benzopyrene, heavy metals, free radicals, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides and N-nitrosamines). Exposure to tobacco smoke is an example of a complex, with a significant number of interactions. To assess the concentration of copper in the urine of smokers. Based on the results, an attempt was made to determine whether smoking can affect the level of copper in the body. The study involved 170 healthy volunteers, 99 smokers and 71 non-smokers (control group). The age of patients in both groups were in the range of 20-60 years. The mean age for men and women was 41 years. The average length of cigarette smoking was 18 years for women and 21 years for men, and the number of cigarettes smoked 1-40 ⁄ 24. The urine concentrations of Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and serum creatinine kinetic method using a set of BIOLAB. Cu concentration in urine was expressed in mg / g creatinine. Smokers were found to have reduced levels of copper in the urine, depending on sex, age and brand of cigarettes. In male smokers, copper concentration in the urine was dependent on age and time of smoking, whereas among women this relationship was not observed. Cigarette smoking significantly influences the level of copper in the urine. Both female and male smokers showed reduced levels of copper in the urine, which may indicate its increased accumulation in the body. Excessive accumulation of copper is very dangerous since it may exhibit toxic effects towards many organs and systems.

  12. Quantifying how smokers value attributes of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice E; Lee, Youn Ok; MacMonegle, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have increased quickly among US adults (3.3% in 2010 to 8.5% in 2013) and youth (4.5% in 2013 to 13.4% in 2014). As state and local governments consider regulatory policies, understanding what smokers believe about e-cigarettes and how they value e-cigarettes is important. Using data from a convenience sample of Florida adult smokers (N=765), we investigated the value smokers place on specific attributes of e-cigarettes (availability of flavours, effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid, healthier alternative to regular cigarettes, ability to use e-cigarettes in public places) by asking smokers how much they would be willing to pay for e-cigarettes with and without each of these attributes. For cigarette-only and dual users, losing the ability to use an e-cigarette as a quit aid and losing the harm reduction of an e-cigarette significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. For cigarette-only users, not being able to use an e-cigarette indoors and losing flavours also significantly reduced the price respondents were willing to pay for an e-cigarette. Our results suggest that smokers value multiple attributes of e-cigarettes. Our valuation measures also appear to align with smokers' beliefs about e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Bosco, Ornella; Goffi, Alberto; Poletto, Cesare; Locatelli, Stefania; Spatola, Tiziana; Cuccurullo, Alessandra; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. We recently showed that TPO enhances platelet activation in unstable angina and sepsis. Aim of this study was to investigate the role of TPO in platelet function abnormalities described in cigarette smokers. In a case-control study we enrolled 20 healthy cigarette smokers and 20 nonsmokers, and measured TPO and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as platelet-leukocyte binding and P-selectin expression. In vitro we evaluated the priming activity of smoker or control plasma on platelet activation, and the role of TPO in this effect. We then studied the effects of acute smoking and smoking cessation on TPO levels and platelet activation indices. Chronic cigarette smokers had higher circulating TPO levels than nonsmoking controls, as well as increased platelet-leukocyte binding, P-selectin expression, and CRP levels. Serum cotinine concentrations correlated with TPO concentrations, platelet-monocyte aggregates and P-selectin expression. In addition, TPO levels significantly correlated with ex vivo platelet-monocyte aggregation and P-selectin expression. In vitro, the plasma from cigarette smokers, but not from nonsmoking controls, primed platelet-monocyte binding, which was reduced when an inhibitor of TPO was used. We also found that acute smoking slightly increased TPO levels, but did not affect platelet-leukocyte binding, whereas smoking cessation induced a significant decrease in both circulating TPO and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Elevated TPO contributes to enhance platelet activation and platelet-monocyte cross-talk in cigarette smokers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Nils; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether smokers with incidental findings of interstitial lung abnormalities have an increased mortality during long-term follow-up, and review the contributing causes of death. METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 1990 participants from the Danish Lung...... in this lung cancer screening population of relatively healthy smokers and were associated with mortality regardless of the interstitial morphological phenotype. The increased mortality was partly due to an association with lung cancer and non-pulmonary malignancies....

  15. Cigarette smoke–induced induction of antioxidant enzyme activities in airway leukocytes is absent in active smokers with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Rosamund E.; Leong-Smith, Pheneatia; Roos-Engstrand, Ester; Pourazar, Jamshid; Shah, Mittal; Behndig, Annelie F.; Mudway, Ian S.; Blomberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative injury to the airway has been proposed as an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). As the extent of oxidant-mediated damage is dependent on the endogenous antioxidant defences within the airways, we examined whether COPD was associated with deficiencies in the antioxidant network within the respiratory tract lining fluids (RTLFs) and resident airway leukocytes. We hypothesised that COPD would be associated with both basal depression of antioxidant defences and impaired adaptive antioxidant responses to cigarette smoke. Methods Low molecular weight and enzymatic antioxidants together with metal-handling proteins were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and airway leukocytes, derived from current (n=9) and ex-smoking COPD patients (n=15), as well as from smokers with normal lung function (n=16) and healthy never smokers (n=13). Results Current cigarette smoking was associated with an increase in ascorbate and glutathione within peripheral RTLFs in both smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and in COPD smokers compared with COPD ex-smokers. In contrast, intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) were only up-regulated in smokers with normal lung function compared with healthy never smokers and not in actively smoking COPD patients relative to COPD ex-smokers. Conclusions We found no evidence of impaired basal antioxidant defences, within either the RTLFs or airway leukocytes in stable ex-smoking COPD patients compared with healthy never smoking controls. Current cigarette smoking induced an up-regulation of low molecular weight antioxidants in the RTLFs of both control subjects with normal lung function and patients with COPD. Importantly, the present data demonstrated a cigarette smoke–induced increase in intra-cellular antioxidant enzyme activities only within the smokers with

  16. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hye Mi [Chonbuk National University, Department of Statistics and Institute of Applied Statistics, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David [National Jewish Health, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  17. Prevalence and progression of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in asymptomatic smokers: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kum Ju; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Yong Seek; Chon, Su Bin; Lee, Young Sun; Kwon, Keun Sang; Choi, Hye Mi; Lynch, David

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) and describe the follow-up CT results of CPFE in asymptomatic smokers. This study was retrospective, and approved by an institutional review board. CT images of 2,016 current or previous male smokers who underwent low-dose chest CT at our healthcare centre were reviewed. Quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extent of emphysema, and two radiologists visually analyzed the extent of fibrosis. Changes in fibrosis (no change, improvement, or progression) were evaluated on follow-up CT imaging (n = 42). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariate logistic regression and its ROC curve were used for survival and progression analysis. The prevalence of CPFE among asymptomatic male smokers was 3.1 % (63/2,016). The median follow-up period was 50.4 months, and 72.7 % (16/22) of continued smoker had progressing fibrosis on follow-up CT. CPFE progressed more rapidly in continuous smokers than in former smokers (p = 0.002). The 3.5-year follow-up period after initial CPFE diagnosis maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity of CPFE progression prediction in continuous smokers. The prevalence of CPFE turned out not to be inconsiderable in asymptomatic male smokers, but serial CT follow-up would be helpful in recognizing disease progression. (orig.)

  18. Is a Price Increase Policy Enough for Adolescent Smokers?: Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Increasing Cigarette Prices Among Korean Adolescent Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Hong-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Do; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Jang, Sung-In; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette pricing policy is one tool for controlling smoking behavior on a national scale. It is unclear, however, what effects such policy has on adolescents and which characteristic subgroups of adolescents are more or less sensitive to cigarette pricing policy. Our data came from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The dependent variable was whether or not a participant was classified as a "persistent smokers," defined as a smoker who would continue smoking despite any price increase. Other variables of interest were smoking days (quantity), previous attempts to stop smoking, and previous education on smoking cessation. The statistical analysis was performed using weighted data and the SURVEYFREQ and SURVEYLOGISTIC procedures in SAS 9.3. Among 7094 adolescent smokers (5349 males and 1745 females), 19.9% of males and 25.1% of females reported as persistent smokers. Compared with light smokers, heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers (male: odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04-2.95, P value policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional cessation policy is needed along with pricing policy for adolescents with heavier smoking behavior in Korea. This study shows that heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers despite the cigarette price increase policy, compared with light smokers in Korean adolescents. Because heavier smokers were less sensitive to pricing policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional tobacco control policies should be evaluated and effective ones implemented in addition to cigarette prices to reduce smoking among regular adolescent smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  19. E-cigarette marketing and older smokers: road to renormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    To describe older smokers' perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking.

  20. A brief measure of Smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Lowenstein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new, brief measure of smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT. Content experts identified key facts smokers should know in making an informed decision about lung cancer screening. Sample questions were drafted and iteratively refined based on feedback from content experts and cognitive testing with ten smokers. The resulting 16-item knowledge measure was completed by 108 heavy smokers in Houston, Texas, recruited from 12/2014 to 09/2015. Item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Group differences based upon education levels and smoking history were explored. Several items were dropped due to ceiling effects or overlapping constructs, resulting in a 12-item knowledge measure. Additional items with high item uncertainty were retained because of their importance in informed decision making about lung cancer screening. Internal consistency reliability of the final scale was acceptable (KR-20 = 0.66 and test-retest reliability of the overall scale was 0.84 (intraclass correlation. Knowledge scores differed across education levels (F = 3.36, p = 0.04, while no differences were observed between current and former smokers (F = 1.43, p = 0.24 or among participants who met or did not meet the 30-pack-year screening eligibility criterion (F = 0.57, p = 0.45. The new measure provides a brief, valid and reliable indicator of smokers' knowledge of key concepts central to making an informed decision about lung cancer screening with LDCT, and can be part of a broader assessment of the quality of smokers' decision making about lung cancer screening.

  1. Smoker awareness of and beliefs about supposedly less-harmful tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael

    2005-08-01

    Cigarette manufacturers in the United States have begun marketing cigarette brands claiming to reduce smokers' exposure to selected toxins in tobacco smoke. Little data exist on smokers' awareness, use, and beliefs about these products. Data from the U.S. arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Four-Country Survey (ITC-4), a telephone survey of 2028 adult current cigarette smokers in the United States conducted between May and September 2003, were analyzed. Respondents were asked to report their awareness, beliefs, and use of products marketed as less harmful than traditional cigarettes and of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. Close to 39% of smokers were aware of "less-harmful" cigarettes, but only 27% of them could name a specific brand of such cigarettes. The brand named most often was Quest (25.7%), followed by Eclipse (7.6%), Winston (5.7%), herbal cigarettes (3.3%), "smoke-free" cigarettes (2.9%), Marlboro Blend #27 (1.9%), and Omni (1.9%). Of those who named a brand, 25% believed such products were less harmful than "ordinary cigarettes." In contrast, 82% of cigarette smokers were aware of SLT products, but only 10.7% of these believed that SLTs were less harmful than ordinary cigarettes. Smokers hold beliefs about the relative safety of supposedly less-harmful tobacco products that are opposite to existing scientific evidence. These results highlight the need to educate smokers about the risks of alternatives to conventional cigarettes, and the need to regulate the advertising and promotion of such alternatives.

  2. In smokers, Sonic hedgehog modulates pulmonary endothelial function through vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henno, Priscilla; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Belle, Emeline; Brollo, Marion; Naline, Emmanuel; Sage, Edouard; Devillier, Philippe; Israël-Biet, Dominique

    2017-05-23

    Tobacco-induced pulmonary vascular disease is partly driven by endothelial dysfunction. The Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is involved in vascular physiology. We sought to establish whether the SHH pathway has a role in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers. The ex vivo endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach) was compared in 34 current or ex-smokers and 8 never-smokers. The results were expressed as a percentage of the contraction with phenylephrine. We tested the effects of SHH inhibitors (GANT61 and cyclopamine), an SHH activator (SAG) and recombinant VEGF on the Ach-induced relaxation. The level of VEGF protein in the pulmonary artery ring was measured in an ELISA. SHH pathway gene expression was quantified in reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Ach-induced relaxation was much less intense in smokers than in never-smokers (respectively 24 ± 6% and 50 ± 7% with 10 -4 M Ach; p = 0.028). All SHH pathway genes were expressed in pulmonary artery rings from smokers. SHH inhibition by GANT61 reduced Ach-induced relaxation and VEGF gene expression in the pulmonary artery ring. Recombinant VEGF restored the ring's endothelial function. VEGF gene and protein expression levels in the pulmonary artery rings were positively correlated with the degree of Ach-induced relaxation and negatively correlated with the number of pack-years. SHH pathway genes and proteins are expressed in pulmonary artery rings from smokers, where they modulate endothelial function through VEGF.

  3. Smoker-free workplace policies: developing a model of public health consequences of workplace policies barring employment to smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, B; Siegel, M

    2009-02-01

    A marked shift in tobacco-related workplace health promotion intervention involves the adoption of policies barring employment to smokers. We discuss the potential public health consequences of these policies on those affected-smokers, their families, the surrounding community and society at large. We find a lack of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of these policies. By developing a model of policy effects, we outline possible unintended consequences. With such large gaps in the evidence base and the potential for deleterious consequences, we argue for increased discussion about the use of smoker-free employment policies as a public health intervention and for increased engagement of employers by the public health community in worksite health promotion.

  4. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  5. The Relationship Between Pulmonary Emphysema and Kidney Function in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Divay; Stamm, Jason A.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Leader, Joseph K.; Fuhrman, Carl R.; Zhang, Yingze; Bon, Jessica; Duncan, Steven R.; Branch, Robert A.; Weissfeld, Joel; Gur, David; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that the prevalence of kidney dysfunction may be increased in patients exposed to tobacco with airflow obstruction. We hypothesized that kidney dysfunction would associate with emphysema rather than with airflow obstruction measured by the FEV1. Methods: Five hundred eight current and former smokers completed a chest CT scan, pulmonary function tests, medical questionnaires, and measurement of serum creatinine. Glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated using the method of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Quantitative determinants of emphysema and airway dimension were measured from multidetector chest CT scans. Results: The mean age was 66 ± 7 years, and mean eGFR was 101 ± 22 mL/min/1.73 m2. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between radiographically measured emphysema and eGFR: Participants with 10% more emphysema had an eGFR that was lower by 4.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P = .01), independent of airflow obstruction (FEV1), age, sex, race, height, BMI, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, patient-reported dyspnea, pack-years of smoking, and current smoking. There was no association between eGFR and either FEV1 or quantitative CT scan measures of airway dimension. Conclusions: More severe emphysema, rather than airflow obstruction, is associated with kidney dysfunction in tobacco smokers, independent of common risk factors for kidney disease. This finding adds to recent observations of associations between emphysema and comorbidities of COPD, including osteoporosis and lung cancer, which are independent of the traditional measure of reduced FEV1. The mechanisms and clinical implications of kidney dysfunction in patients with emphysema need further investigation. PMID:22459775

  6. Support for smoke-free policies among smokers and non-smokers in six cities in China: ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Hyland, A; O'Connor, R; Zhao, G; Du, L; Li, X; Fong, G T

    2010-10-01

    To examine levels of support for comprehensive smoke-free policies in six large Chinese cities. Data from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey (April-August 2006) were analysed. The ITC China Survey employed a multistage sampling design in Beijing, Shenyang, Shanghai, Changsha, Guangzhou and Yinchuan (none of which has comprehensive smoke-free policies in place). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 4815 smokers and 1270 non-smokers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with support for comprehensive smoke-free policies. About one in two Chinese urban smokers and four in five non-smokers believed that secondhand smoke (SHS) causes lung cancer. The majority of respondents supported comprehensive smoke-free policies in hospitals, schools and public transport vehicles while support for smoke-free workplaces, restaurants and bars was lower. Levels of support were generally comparable between smokers and non-smokers. Support for comprehensive smoke-free policies was positively associated with knowledge about the harm of SHS. Respondents who worked in a smoke-free worksite or who frequented smoke-free indoor entertainment places were more likely to support comprehensive smoking restriction in bars and restaurants. Considerable support for smoke-free policies exists in these six large cities in China. Greater public education about the dangers of SHS may further increase support. Experiencing the benefits of smoke-free indoor entertainment places and/or workplaces increases support for these policies and suggests that some initial smoke-free policy implementation may hasten the diffusion of these public health policies.

  7. Support for e-cigarette policies: a survey of smokers and ex-smokers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Partos, Timea R; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette regulations are the topic of extensive debate. Approaches vary worldwide, and limited evidence is available on public support for specific policies or what influences support. The present study aimed to assess smokers' and ex-smokers' support for 3 e-cigarette policies: (1) equal or higher availability relative to cigarettes, (2) advertising, (3) use in smoke-free places, and to assess changes in support over time and associations with respondent characteristics. Smokers and ex-smokers (n=1848) provided 3279 observations over 2 waves (2013 and 2014) of a longitudinal web-based survey in Great Britain. Multivariable logistic regressions fitted using generalised estimating equations assessed change in policy support over time, and associations between support and demographics (age, gender and income), smoking and e-cigarette use status, nicotine knowledge and perceived relative harm. Equal or higher relative availability was supported by 79% in 2013 and 76% in 2014; advertising by 66% and 56%, respectively; neither change was significant in adjusted analyses. Support for use in smoke-free places decreased significantly from 55% to 45%. Compared with ex-smokers, smokers were more likely to support advertising and use in smoke-free places. Respondents using e-cigarettes, those who perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes, and those with more accurate knowledge about nicotine were more likely to support all 3 policies. Less restrictive e-cigarette policies were more likely to be supported by e-cigarette users, and respondents who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes, or knew that nicotine was not a main cause of harm to health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Increased CYP1A1 expression in human exfoliated urothelial cells of cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerrenhaus, Angelika; Roos, Peter H. [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Mueller, Tina [Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); University Dortmund, Department of Statistics, Mathematical Statistics with Applications in Biometrics, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arylamines and nitrosamines, constituents of cigarette smoke, are known inducers of bladder cancer. The biochemical response of the target tissue, the bladder urothelium, following inhalation of cigarette smoke has not been studied so far. We used exfoliated transitional urothelial cells from human urine samples to analyze effects of smoking on induction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1. Samples of 40 subjects, including male and female smokers and non-smokers, were examined. A prerequisite for the immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of the cells was the enrichment of the urothelial cell population. This was achieved by a new method which is based on magnetic cell sorting exploiting specific binding of immobilized Griffonia simplicifolia lectin to the surface of urothelial cells. Immunostaining of the final cell preparation with a monoclonal antibody to CYP1A1 showed that about 6% of the urothelial cells of non-smokers stained positive for CYP1A1. However, this fraction of positive cells was more than 44% of the urothelial cells in samples from cigarette smokers. In spite of the individual variation, the difference was statistically significant. There were no gender-related differences in the portion of CYP1A1 expressing urothelial cells of smokers and non-smokers. In essence, we show for the first time that human urothelial cells respond to cigarette smoking by induction of CYP1A1. The approach opens new fields of mechanistic and biomarker research with respect to the pathogenetic processes of cancer development in the human bladder. (orig.)

  9. Motion and twisting of magnetic particles ingested by alveolar macrophages in non-smokers and smokers: Implementation of viscoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Winfried; Felten, Kathrin; Kohlhaeufl, Martin; Haeussinger, Karl; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.

    2007-01-01

    Ferrimagnetic iron oxide particles were inhaled by 17 healthy volunteers (9 non-smokers, 8 smokers), and the retained particles were magnetized and detected by a SQUID. Stochastic particle transport due to cytoskeletal reorganizations within macrophages (relaxation) and directed particle motion in a weak magnetic twisting field were investigated with respect to viscous and elastic properties of the cytoskeleton. Relaxation and cytoskeletal stiffness were not influenced by cigarette smoking. Relaxation and particle twisting revealed a non-Newtonian viscosity with a pure viscous and a viscoelastic compartment. Viscous and elastic data obtained from relaxation correlated with particle twisting, indicating that the proposed simple model is a reasonable approximation of cytoskeletal mechanical properties

  10. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Attitudes towards passive smoking at restaurants and effects of the provision of information: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers via a web survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Reiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Goto, Rei; Suwa, Kiyomi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our objectives were to conduct a web-based survey using adult participants to investigate 1) differences in attitudes towards smoking in the presence of non-smokers between smokers and non-smokers and 2) the potential impact of knowledge regarding the harmful effects of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) on smoker behavior in a restaurant.Method Japanese smokers and non-smokers aged 20 to 69 were separately sampled and both groups were randomly allocated to either a knowledge group or a control group. The participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire to capture their attitudes and how they think they would behave in a restaurant where it was not clear whether smoking is prohibited or not. Data were analyzed using a t-test for numerical variables and a χ 2 test for categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was also conducted to elucidate the factors influencing the smoking behavior near non-smokers.Results Overall, 2,157 participants were surveyed (smokers, n=1,084; non-smokers, n=1,073). Among smokers who intended to smoke in the restaurant, 24.8% answered that they would ask for permission from nearby persons before lighting up. However, only 2.8% of non-smokers had ever actually been asked for such permission. The percentage of smokers who would smoke in the restaurant was significantly lower in the knowledge group (16.4%) than the control group (22.8%). The most common reason for refraining from smoking was a lack of an ashtray on the table in both groups. Among the non-smokers, 37.4% of the knowledge group and 27.6% of the control group answered that they did not like nearby smoking. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that smoking in restaurants was significantly associated with nicotine dependence, household income, pregnancy, smoking place in the home, age, and SHS knowledge.Conclusion This study suggested that most non-smokers do not inform smokers that they do not like nearby smoking. It was also

  12. Visceral sensitivity, anxiety, and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Norton, Peter J; Smits, Jasper A J; Buckner, Julia D; Garey, Lorra; Manning, Kara

    2017-12-01

    It is widely recognized that smoking is related to abdominal pain and discomfort, as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Research has shown that visceral sensitivity, experiencing anxiety around gastrointestinal sensations, is associated with poorer gastrointestinal health and related health outcomes. Visceral sensitivity also increases anxiety symptoms and mediates the relation with other risk factors, including gastrointestinal distress. No work to date, however, has evaluated visceral sensitivity in the context of smoking despite the strong association between smoking and poor physical and mental health. The current study sought to examine visceral sensitivity as a unique predictor of cigarette dependence, threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), and perceived barriers for cessation via anxiety symptoms. Eighty-four treatment seeking adult daily smokers (M age =45.1years [SD=10.4]; 71.6% male) participated in this study. There was a statistically significant indirect effect of visceral sensitivity via general anxiety symptoms on cigarette dependence (b=0.02, SE=0.01, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.006, 0.05]), smoking abstinence somatic expectancies (b=0.10, SE=0.03, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.19]), smoking abstinence harmful experiences (b=0.13, SE=0.05, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.25]), and barriers to cessation (b=0.05, SE=0.06, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.01, 0.13]). Overall, the present study serves as an initial investigation into the nature of the associations between visceral sensitivity, anxiety symptoms, and clinically significant smoking processes among treatment-seeking smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which anxiety accounts for relations between visceral sensitivity and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of smoking cues in movies on craving among smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Research has shown that smoking-related cues are important triggers for craving. The objective of the present study was to test whether smoking cues in movies also function as triggers to evoke craving. To accomplish this, we conducted a pilot study in which we examined smokers' reactivity to

  14. High cadmium / zinc ratio in cigarette smokers: potential implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoke may be one of the most common sources of cadmium (Cd) in the general population, particularly in the rising population of smokers in developing countries. Although a relationship between both cigarette smoking and environmental Cd contamination with prostate cancer exist, the mechanisms are unclear.

  15. Effects of dissuasive packaging on young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Wong, Christiane; Gendall, Philip; Louviere, Jordan; Cong, Karen

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco industry documents illustrate how packaging promotes smoking experimentation and reinforces existing smokers' behaviour. Plain packaging reduces the perceived attractiveness of smoking and creates an opportunity to introduce larger pictorial warnings that could promote cessation-linked behaviours. However, little is known about the effects such a combined policy measure would have on smokers' behaviour. A 3 (warning size) *4 (branding level) plus control (completely plain pack) best-worst experiment was conducted via face-to-face interviews with 292 young adult smokers from a New Zealand provincial city. The Juster Scale was also used to estimate cessation-linked behaviours among participants. Of the 13 options tested, respondents were significantly less likely to choose those featuring fewer branding elements or larger health warnings. Options that featured more branding elements were still preferred even when they also featured a 50% health warning, but were significantly less likely to be chosen when they featured a 75% warning. Comparison of a control pack representing the status quo (branded with 30% front of pack warning) and a plain pack (with a 75% warning) revealed the latter would be significantly more likely to elicit cessation-related behaviours. Plain packs that feature large graphic health warnings are significantly more likely to promote cessation among young adult smokers than fully or partially branded packs. The findings support the introduction of plain packaging and suggest use of unbranded package space to feature larger health warnings would further promote cessation.

  16. Serum Cotinine Levels and Prehypertension in Never Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omayma Alshaarawy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (n=2027 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Our exposure of interest was the secondhand smoke exposure estimated by serum cotinine level and our outcome was prehypertension (n=734, defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120–139 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 80–89 mmHg. Results. We found that, in never smokers, serum cotinine levels were positively associated with prehypertension. Compared to those with cotinine levels in the lowest quartile (≤0.024 ng/mL, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of prehypertension among those with cotinine levels in the highest quartile (≥0.224 ng/mL was 1.45(1.00, 2.11; P trend =0.0451. In subsequent subgroup analyses, the positive association was found to be stronger among men, non-Whites, and non-obese subjects. Conclusion. Higher secondhand smoke exposure measured objectively by serum cotinine levels was found to be associated with prehypertension in certain subgroups of a representative sample of the US population.

  17. College Student Smokers' Cognitive Appraisal of High-Risk Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Amy L.; Kulesza, Magdalena; Patterson, Scott M.; Terlecki, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Students who smoke are more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as binge drinking and unprotected sex (Schnieder and Morris, "Environ Behav." 1999; 23:575-591). The goals of the present study were to determine whether smokers assess these behaviors as lower risk than nonsmokers, and if smoking rate influences risk…

  18. Use of spirometry in detecting airway obstruction in asymptomatic smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.H.; Zaidi, S.B.H.; Zaidi, S.M.A.; Khan, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To detect spirometric abnormalities in asymptomatic smokers in relation to duration of smoking. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at PNS Shifa from Oct 2006 to June 2007. Subjects and Methods: Hundred individuals were included in this study who fulfilled the required criteria. Spirometry was done after briefing the patient about the procedure. Smokers were divided into two groups. Group I (5 to 9 pack years) and group II (= 10 pack years). All relevant information were recorded on Performa (Annex-A). The data was analyzed through SPSS-10, in terms of Mean +- SD (Standard Deviation) for numeric response variables and independent sample T test was applied to compare significance of proportion for numeric response variables at p < 0.05. Categorical variables were compared by applying Chi-square test at p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Significant statistical difference was found between the mean age in the two groups with p-value of 0.011. This may be due to the longer duration of smoking history in Group II. Strong association was found between number of cigarette smoked and the pattern of airway obstruction as significant statistical difference of airway obstruction and early airflow limitation was found between the two groups of smokers at p value of 0.004. Conclusion: There is strong association between duration of smoking and development of airway obstruction even before the smoker become symptomatic. (author)

  19. Anxiety sensitivity in smokers with indicators of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-09-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of understanding the nature of the associations between anxiety and cardiovascular disease (CVD), although limited research has examined mechanisms that may explain the anxiety-CVD link. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive-affective risk factor implicated in the development of anxiety psychopathology and various behavioral risk factors for CVD, although has not been examined among individuals with CVD. Adult daily smokers (n = 619; 50.9% female; M age  = 44.0, SD = 13.67) completed an online survey that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). The presence of CVD was assessed via the presence of ≥1 of the following: heart attack, heart murmur, positive stress test, heart valve abnormality, angina, and heart failure. Smokers with CVD indicators (n = 66, 10.7%) had significantly higher scores on the ASI-3 (M = 33.5, SD = 22.15), relative to smokers without CVD (M = 22.0, SD = 17.92; Cohen's d = .57). Those with CVD were significantly more likely to have moderate or high anxiety sensitivity (66.7%) relative to those without CVD (49.4%). Physical and social concerns about the meaning of somatic sensations were common among smokers with CVD.

  20. Analysis of FEV1 decline in relatively healthy heavy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Laura H.; Dirksen, Asger; Shaker, Saher B.

    2014-01-01

    analyzed data from 3,218 relatively healthy heavy smokers who participated in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. The influences of age, sex, height, body mass index, smoking, and severity of airflow limitation on FEV1 were analyzed in mixed effects models. In absolute terms those with the best lung...

  1. Tips From Former Smokers – Brett

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    Brett had gum disease—a danger for all smokers. Brett talks about having most of teeth pulled during one long surgery.  Created: 7/7/2014 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  2. Characteristics and outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in never smokers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have never smoked. We tested the hypothesis that, in individuals with COPD, never smokers have different characteristics and less severe outcomes of the disease than smokers do....

  3. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian cigarette smokers: Indication for increased risk of oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olatunde Olayanju

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that there is decreased salivary IgM in smokers. This observation suggests that reduced salivary immunoglobulin level of IgM might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases in cigarette smokers.

  4. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Levels in the Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Smokers with Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumaran Anil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF production by oral fibroblasts is enhanced by various molecules that are induced during inflammatory conditions including periodontitis. HGF plays an important role in the progression of periodontitis, by stimulating intense growth of epithelial cells and preventing regeneration of connective tissue attachments. Smokers have a greater risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. The objective of the study was to estimate the level of HGF in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in smokers with periodontitis and to compare these levels with that of nonsmokers with periodontitis and healthy controls. The HGF levels were found to be significantly high in the saliva and GCF of smokers with periodontitis compared to both never-smokers with periodontitis and the healthy control group. The elevated levels of HGF in the saliva and GCF in the study population could explain the intrinsic mechanism triggering the severity of the periodontitis in smokers. Further studies are necessary to validate the current observations and to establish a sensitive marker to predict periodontal disease activity.

  5. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Steinberg, Marc L; Williams, Jill M

    2015-04-01

    Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related IMB factors in this population. Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n = 35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Commonly known IMB factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). IMB factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). IMB strengths and deficits varied by individual. Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population.

  6. Smoking Cessation for Smokers Not Ready to Quit: Meta-analysis and Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayesha; Kaplan, Cameron M; Derefinko, Karen J; Klesges, Robert C

    2018-06-11

    To provide a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis on smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit, a population that makes up approximately 32% of current smokers. Twenty-two studies on pharmacological, behavioral, and combination smoking-cessation interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit (defined as those who reported they were not ready to quit at the time of the study) published between 2000 and 2017 were analyzed. The effectiveness (measured by the number needed to treat) and cost effectiveness (measured by costs per quit) of interventions were calculated. All data collection and analyses were performed in 2017. Smoking interventions targeting smokers not ready to quit can be as effective as similar interventions for smokers ready to quit; however, costs of intervening on this group may be higher for some intervention types. The most cost-effective interventions identified for this group were those using varenicline and those using behavioral interventions. Updating clinical recommendations to provide cessation interventions for this group is recommended. Further research on development of cost-effective treatments and effective strategies for recruitment and outreach for this group are needed. Additional studies may allow for more nuanced comparisons of treatment types among this group. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining Smoking Cessation Related Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills among Opiate Dependent Smokers in Methadone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Steinberg, Marc L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 80% of people in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes, and existing smoking cessation interventions have been minimally effective. Objective To develop an Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model of behavior change based smoking cessation intervention for methadone maintained smokers, we examined smoking cessation related information, motivation, and behavioral skills in this population. Methods Current or former smokers in methadone treatment (n=35) participated in focus groups. Ten methadone clinic counselors participated in an individual interview. A content analysis was conducted using deductive and inductive approaches. Results Commonly known information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors related to smoking cessation were described. These factors included: the health effects of smoking and treatment options for quitting (information); pregnancy and cost of cigarettes (motivators); and coping with emotions, finding social support, and pharmacotherapy adherence (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills factors specific to methadone maintained smokers were also described. These factors included: the relationship between quitting smoking and drug relapse (information), the belief that smoking is the same as using drugs (motivator); and coping with methadone clinic culture and applying skills used to quit drugs to quitting smoking (behavioral skills). Information, motivation, and behavioral skills strengths and deficits varied by individual. Conclusions Methadone maintained smokers could benefit from research on an IMB Model based smoking cessation intervention that is individualized, addresses IMB factors common among all smokers, and also addresses IMB factors unique to this population. PMID:25559697

  8. Aspergillus sensitisation in bidi smokers with and without chronic obstructive lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ritesh; Bhogal, Sumita; Choudhary, Hansraj; Aggarwal, Ashutosh N; Sehgal, Inderpaul S; Dhooria, Sahajal; Behera, Digambar; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have described fungal sensitisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, no study has evaluated fungal sensitisation specifically in bidi smokers. Herein, we evaluate the prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in bidi smokers. Bidi smokers with and without COPD underwent chest radiography, spirometry, Aspergillus skin test, A. fumigatus precipitins, A. fumigatus-specific IgE and total IgE. Aspergillus sensitisation was defined as the presence of either immediate cutaneous hyperreactivity to Aspergillus antigen or raised A. fumigatus-specific IgE level >0.35 kUA/L. Bidis were obtained from a subset of cases and controls and cultured for the growth of any fungus. Two hundred subjects with COPD and 72 chronic bidi smokers without COPD were included in the study (258 men; mean age, 56.8 years). Aspergillus sensitisation was found to be significantly higher in bidi smokers without COPD (27.8%) compared to the COPD cases (16%). Age, COPD, lung function, severity of smoking and current smoking were not associated with Aspergillus sensitisation, on a multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found a high prevalence of Aspergillus sensitisation in bidi-smoking subjects. More studies are required to confirm the findings of our study. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan; Shahab, Lion; McNeill, Ann

    2014-06-01

    E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers. Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions. Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n=3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n=884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n=1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n=2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n=994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each >80%) and 38% used the brand 'E-lites'. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n=1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.25-1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.38-3.34). There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are

  10. [Attitude toward smoking among smoking and non-smoking officials of the Federal University of Sao Paulo, Brazil: comparative analysis of smokers and non-smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S A; Pérez, D; Jardim, J R

    1999-09-01

    To study the attitudes toward smoking of employees of the Federal University of Sao Paulo as a step toward implanting a consensualized anti-smoking program for the institution. We designed and distributed anonymous, self-completed questionnaires with 51 multiple-choice questions, which were returned by 2,613 (48.6%) employees, professors, medical residents, nurses and students. Four hundred thirty-eight (16.8% of the population) of the respondents were smokers and 456 (17.5%) were non-smokers. For 84% smoking started between the ages of 11 and 20 years. Most smokers were between 31 and 40 years of age, and the prevalence of ex-smokers was highest in respondents over the age of 60. Seventy-eight percent of the smokers smoked at work. Both smokers and non-smokers reported some type of discomfort caused by cigarette smoke, mainly smell in clothes and hair (62.7% of smokers versus 59% of non-smokers, NS). The proportion who opted for a totally smoke-free environment was 37.5% among non-smokers and 10% among smokers (p < 0.05). Restrictions on smoking in specific places, on the other hand, met with the approval of 82.8% of smokers and 59% of non-smokers (p < 0.05). We believe that surveys such as this one should be carried out at all institutions, particularly in health care centers, in order to assure that smoking restriction policies are successful and receive the support of most employees, whether they smoke or not. Our data suggest the advisability of creating restricted-smoking zones in the early phase of an institutional anti-smoking campaign designed to lead to a totally smoke-free workplace environment.

  11. [Systemic inflammatory profile of smokers with and without COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosrane, Y; Bougrida, M; Alloui, A S; Martani, M; Rouabah, L; Bourahli, M K; Mehdioui, H; Ben Saad, H

    2017-09-01

    Studies comparing the systemic inflammatory profiles of smokers with and without COPD present discordant findings. To compare the systemic inflammatory profile of smokers with and without COPD. This is a cross-sectional comparative study. Two groups of active smokers of more than 10 pack-years were included: 56 consecutives stable COPD (postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVCnon-COPD (postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC≥0.70). Smoking and clinical, anthropometric and spirometric data were noted. The following blood biomarkers were identified: leukocytes, hemoglobin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). According to the levels (normal/abnormal) of these markers, two groups of smokers were formed. Quantitative and qualitative data were expressed, respectively, as means±SD and percentages. Compared to the non-COPD group, the COPD group was older (56±12 vs. 65±8 years) and had a higher smoking consumption (30±18 vs. 52±31 pack-years). Compared to the non-COPD group, the COPD group had higher values of CRP (2.06±1.24 vs. 11.32±11.03mg/L), of ESR (9.59±8.29 vs. 15.96±11.56), of IL-6 (9.28±4.69 vs. 20.27±5.31ng/L) and of TNF-α (18.38±7.98ng/L vs. 8.62±3.72ng/L). Compared to the non-COPD group, the COPD group included higher percentages of smokers with elevated CRP (0 % vs. 32 %), with leukocytosis (6 % vs. 16 %), with higher levels of IL-6 (81 % vs. 98 %) or TNF-α (91 % vs. 100 %). Smokers with COPD, compared to smokers free from COPD, have a marked systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  13. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the development of emphysema in smokers assessed by annual computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Dirksen, Asger; Ulrik, Charlotte S

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on disease progression in smokers with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as assessed by annual computed tomography (CT) using lung density (LD) measurements. Two hundred and fifty-four current smokers...... (-54 mL) and placebo (-56 mL) (p = 0.89). Long-term budesonide inhalation shows a non-significant trend towards reducing the progression of emphysema as determined by the CT-derived 15th percentile lung density from annual CT scans in current smokers with moderate to severe COPD....

  14. NNAL exposure by race and menthol cigarette use among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that nicotine and carcinogen exposure as measured by biomarkers such as cotinine and NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol) does not vary with cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) among Black smokers. Researchers have also suggested that nicotine exposure does not differ between menthol and nonmenthol smokers. In this study, we examine NNAL exposure for U.S. smokers by race, CPD, and menthol cigarette use. We analyzed urinary NNAL concentrations for more than 1500 everyday smokers participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007-2010. For purposes of comparison, we also analyzed serum cotinine concentrations for these smokers. We used linear regression analysis to estimate mean biomarker concentrations by CPD and race/ethnicity group and to examine the association between biomarker concentrations and menthol cigarette use by race/ethnicity group, controlling for other demographic and smoking characteristics. Biomarker concentrations increased with CPD for White, Black, and Hispanic smokers although NNAL concentrations leveled off for Black smokers at lower CPD levels compared with other smokers. Mean NNAL concentrations were lower among menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall (β = -0.165, p = .032) and White smokers (β = -0.207, p = .048). We find evidence in national health survey data that nicotine and carcinogen exposure generally increases with CPD across race/ethnicity groups although the pattern of NNAL exposure differs by race/ethnicity group at high CPD levels. We also find evidence of differences in NNAL exposure for menthol smokers compared with nonmenthol smokers among smokers overall and White smokers.

  15. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Ariza, Carles; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-09-01

    A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We formed a cohort at baseline, during the 3 months before the law went into effect, with 431 hospitality workers (222 smokers). From them, 288 were successfully followed-up 12 months after the ban (118 were smokers at baseline). We analyzed the quit rate, the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, changes in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores, and changes in salivary cotinine concentrations in smokers from baseline to 1 year after the ban. Among 118 smokers, six (5.1%) quit smoking. Among the 112 remaining smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked decreased by 8.9% after the ban (from 17.9 to 16.3 cigarettes/day, p 6) was reduced by half after the ban (19.5% vs. 9.7%, p = .03). Salivary cotinine decreased by 4.4% after the ban (geometric mean 104.3 vs. 99.7 ng/ml, p = .02). No meaningful differences were found in quit rates and the FTND scores according to type of regulation. The Spanish smoking law has had beneficial effects (reduction in number of cigarettes smoked, cotinine levels, and FTND score) among hospitality workers who smoke.

  16. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  18. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shemirani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. Materials and Methods: A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient′s information. All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. Results: A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9% and 94 (65.7% nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P < 0.001 and they were less likely to be hypertensive (15.2% vs. 44.7%, P < 0.001, diabetic (17% vs. 36.2%, P < 0.05, and female gender (4.3% vs. 25.5%, P < 0.01. Angiographic and procedural characteristics of both groups were similar. 9 patients died during the first 24-h after PCI (4.3% of smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72. No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77. Conclusion: No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  19. Comparison of no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction between smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemirani, Hassan; Tafti, Faezeh Dehghani; Amirpour, Afshin

    2014-11-01

    No-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is relatively common and has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Cigarette smoking is known as deleterious in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the effect of smoking on no-reflow phenomenon is less investigated. The aim of this study was to compare no-reflow phenomenon after percutneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction, between smokers and non smokers. A total of 141 patients who were admitted to Chamran Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) between March and September, 2012 with a diagnosis of STEMI, enrolled into our Cohort study. Patients were divided into current smoker and nonsmoker groups (based on patient's information). All patients underwent primary PCI or rescue PCI within the first 12-h of chest pain. No-reflow phenomenon, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI) flow, and 24-h complications were assessed in both groups. A total of 47 current smoker cases (32.9%) and 94 (65.7%) nonsmoker cases were evaluated. Smokers in comparison to nonsmokers were younger (53.47 ± 10.59 vs. 61.46 ± 10.55, P vs. 44.7%, P vs. 36.2%, P vs. 25.5%, P smokers and 6.4% of nonsmokers, P: 0.72). No-reflow phenomenon was observed in 29.8% of current smokers and 31.5% of nonsmokers (P = 0.77). No-reflow phenomenon or short-term complications were not significantly different between current smokers and non smokers.

  20. Attitudinal and behavioral differences between cigarette users who do and do not identify as "smokers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Michael B; Lin, Linda; White, Madeleine; Alfonso-Barry, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The current research aimed to understand differences in smoking-related identity among college students and to illustrate the distinct characteristics of nonidentified smokers (NIS). Students from 2 colleges in Massachusetts (N = 538; April 2016). Respondents reported by online survey whether or not they had smoked a cigarette in the past 30 days and if they self-identified as smokers. Nonsmokers (NIS) and identified smokers (IS) were then compared on their smoking attitudes and behavior. NIS made up 12.5% of the sample and 64% of all tobacco users. NIS perceived themselves as less addicted and were more confident in their ability to quit smoking. They also were less likely to smoke alone, buy their own cigarettes, or have friends who smoked. College health officials can best motivate NIS to quit smoking by focusing on peer norms and the potential of long-term addiction.

  1. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality rates similar to non-smokers with mild to moderate atherosclerosis. PMID:23058072

  2. Decreased total antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in passive smoker infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    Smoking has many adverse health effects in infants and adults. The purpose of the study was to study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in passive smoker infants and their mothers and to compare with those of non-smokers. Subjects were randomly chosen from infants aged 8-26 weeks and their mothers aged 20-34 years. Passive smoker infants (n = 29) and their mothers (n = 29) were defined as having other family members who smoked six or more cigarettes per day continually for at least 8 weeks. Non-smokers were defined as infants (n = 30) and their mothers (n = 24) who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma were perused by measuring the total antioxidant capacity. Oxidative status was evaluated by predicating total peroxide level, oxidative stress index, protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of total antioxidant capacity were significantly lower in passive smoker infants and their mothers than non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. However, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress index were remarkably higher in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-passive smoker infants and their mothers. There were significant correlations between the oxidative and antioxidative parameters of the passive smoker infants and their mothers. Oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in passive smoker infants and their mothers than those of non-smokers. Passive smoker infants and their mothers are exposed to potent oxidative stress.

  3. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  4. Stem villous arteries from the placentas of heavy smokers: functional and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helle Vibeke; Jorgensen, J C; Ottesen, B

    1999-01-01

    a significantly greater maximum vasoconstrictive response in stem villous arteries from heavy smokers than in those from nonsmokers (P smokers have altered mechanical properties and a greater vasoconstrictive response to endothelin 1 than do those from nonsmokers....... These changes may compromise fetal placental blood flow and thereby contribute to the lower birth weights seen among infants born to heavy smokers....

  5. A Qualitative Study of Smokers' Responses to Messages Discouraging Dual Tobacco Product Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Kostygina, Ganna; Sheon, Nicolas M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried…

  6. COMPARISON OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENZA INFECTION IN NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS OBTAINED FROM SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have demonstrated that individuals who smoke have greater susceptibility to influenza infections, as well as other respiratory virus infections, than non-smokers, yet the role of airway epithelial cells in this response is not clear. To determine whether in vivo t...

  7. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  8. Comparison of responses of salivary antioxidant markers to exhaustive aerobic exercise in smoker and non-smoker young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Simaei, Esmat; Taati, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Smoking is known as a serious global public health problem, and is also an important risk factor for oral diseases and cause of oxidative stress and cellular damage. Saliva is the first biological medium encountered during inhalation of cigarette smoke. Additionally, previous studies demonstrated that exhaustive aerobic exercise could increase oxidative stress and cellular damage. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare the response of salivary antioxidants (peroxides (POX), uric acid (UA), 1-1dipheny l-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) of exhaustive aerobic exercise between healthy smoker and non-smoker young girls. Ten smokers and 10 non-smokers were enrolled for this study. Subjects performed a progressive cycle ergometer with an initial load of 50 W that was increased 50Wevery 3 minutes at the speed of 60rpm, until exhaustion. Un-stimulated saliva samples were collected before, immediately and 1 hour after exercise. The results showed that POX activity and UA concentration significantly increased immediately after exercise in both groups when compared to the pre exercise values (Pexercise (PAerobic exercise caused a decrease in salivary DPPH activity immediately and 1 h after exercise in both groups (Pexercise (Paerobic exercise was induced oxidative stress in both groups but oxidative stress in smoking females was greater.

  9. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  10. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bold, Krysten W; Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-05-18

    Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Using Facebook's advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ(2)[1,N=272]=13.0, PSocial media advertisements designed to target smokers were cost-effective and

  11. Exploring the Utility of Web-Based Social Media Advertising to Recruit Adult Heavy-Drinking Smokers for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Tess H; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Fucito, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying novel ways to recruit smokers for treatment studies is important. In particular, certain subgroups of adult smokers, such as heavy-drinking smokers, are at increased risk for serious medical problems and are less likely to try quitting smoking, so drawing this hard-to-reach population into treatment is important for improving health outcomes. Objective This study examined the utility of Facebook advertisements to recruit smokers and heavy-drinking smokers for treatment research and evaluated smoking and alcohol use and current treatment goals among those who responded to the Web-based survey. Methods Using Facebook’s advertising program, 3 separate advertisements ran for 2 months targeting smokers who were thinking about quitting. Advertisements were shown to adult (at least 18 years of age), English-speaking Facebook users in the greater New Haven, Connecticut, area. Participants were invited to complete a Web-based survey to determine initial eligibility for a smoking cessation research study. Results Advertisements generated 1781 clicks and 272 valid, completed surveys in 2 months, with one advertisement generating the most interest. Facebook advertising was highly cost-effective, averaging $0.27 per click, $1.76 per completed survey, and $4.37 per participant meeting initial screening eligibility. On average, those who completed the Web-based survey were 36.8 (SD 10.4) years old, and 65.8% (179/272) were female. Advertisements were successful in reaching smokers; all respondents reported daily smoking (mean 16.2 [SD 7.0] cigarettes per day). The majority of smokers (254/272, 93.4%) were interested in changing their smoking behavior immediately. Many smokers (161/272, 59.2%) also reported heavy alcohol consumption at least once a month. Among smokers interested in reducing their alcohol use, more were heavy drinkers (45/56, 80.4%) compared to non-heavy drinkers (11/56, 19.6%; χ2[1,N=272]=13.0, Padvertisements designed to target smokers

  12. Former smokers with non-small-cell lung cancers: a comprehensive investigation of clinicopathologic characteristics, oncogenic drivers, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shanbo; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Yunjian; Cheng, Chao; Zheng, Difan; Sun, Yihua; Chen, Haiquan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this present investigation was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics, oncogenic drivers, and prognosis of former smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to compare them with those of the current and never smokers. This investigation was a single-institution retrospective study of 2289 NSCLC patients, who were classified as former, current, or never smokers. A collection was made of the clinicopathological characteristics, spectra of well-identified driver genes and survival rates. The survival rates were compared using log-rank test, and independent prognostic factors, identified using Cox regression analysis. Of 2289 NSCLC patients, 257 (11.2%) were former smokers; 868 (37.9%), current smokers; and 1164 (50.9%), never smokers. Compared with the current, the former were characterized by older age at diagnosis (64.3y vs. 59.9y; P vs. 39.5%; P = 0.017), fewer solid predominance in adenocarcinomas (16.2% vs. 29.5%; P = 0.005), and more EGFR mutation (33.2% vs. 20.7%; P vs. 11.9%, P = 0.041). No statistically significant survival differences were observed between the former and current. However, the light former smokers presented favorable overall survival when compared with the light current and heavy former or current (the light former vs. the heavy former, P = 0.028; the light former vs. the light current, P = 0.048; and the light former vs. the heavy current, P = 0.048). Our findings suggest that the former smokers with NSCLCs can have distinctive clinicopathologic characteristics, oncogenic drivers, and prognosis, and they, especially the light former, can benefit from smoking cessation. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A six-month crossover chemoprevention clinical trial of tea in smokers and non-smokers: methodological issues in a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemoprevention crossover trials of tea can be more efficient than parallel designs but the attrition and compliance rates with such trials are unknown. Methods Attrition (dropouts) and compliance with treatment were assessed in a 25-week randomized, placebo controlled, crossover, feasibility clinical trial of four tea treatments to investigate the effect of tea on oral cancer biomarkers. Each treatment lasted 4 weeks with 2 weeks of washout in between. Participants were 32 smokers and 33 non-smokers without any evidence of premalignant oral lesions. The interventions consisted of packets of green tea, black tea, caffeinated water, or placebo. Participants were assigned to each treatment for four weeks, and were instructed to drink five packets per day while on the treatment. Dropout from the trial and compliance (consumption of ≥ 85% of the prescribed treatment packets) are the main outcome measures reported. Results There was a high rate of dropout (51%) from the study, and the rates were significantly higher among smokers (64%) than non-smokers (36%). Among participants who completed the study the rate of compliance was 72%. The highest rates of dropouts occurred between the first and second treatment visits in both smokers (38% dropout) and non-smokers (18% dropout). Throughout the study smokers were more likely to dropout than non-smokers. Black tea treatment was associated with the highest rates of dropout among smokers (37%), but was associated with the lowest rate of dropout among non-smokers (4%). Conclusions In a study conducted to test the feasibility of a four-treatment crossover tea trial, a high rate of dropout among smokers and non-smokers was observed. Multi-arm crossover tea trials might pose a higher burden on participants and research is needed to improve adherence and treatment compliance in such trials. Trial registration number ISRCTN70410203 PMID:22800470

  14. Paying the price: a cross-sectional survey of Australian socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' responses to hypothetical cigarette price rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; D'Este, Catherine; Doran, Christopher; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation can lead to reductions in tobacco consumption and prevalence of use across social groups. However, use of price-minimisation strategies to manage current and future tobacco use and the role of financial stress is less understood. This study aimed to measure the effect of cigarette price increases on price-minimisation strategy endorsement and financial stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Community service organisation welfare recipients in NSW, Australia completed a touchscreen survey. Smoking history, financial stress, highest price to quit and responses to hypothetical cigarette price increases were assessed. Participants were 354 smokers (response rate = 79%). Most participants received income from a government pension (95%), earned price rises, significantly more participants endorsed trying to quit in response to the larger increase scenario (P price-minimisation strategies (e.g. switching to cheaper brands/products) were endorsed, but remained constant across hypothetical scenarios; level of financial stress appeared to have little influence. Smokers indicating they would not change their smoking in response to price rises had higher levels of nicotine dependence. Socially disadvantaged smokers endorsed numerous price-minimising strategies to maintain smoking at hypothetically increased costs. Larger cigarette price rises motivated more smokers to consider quitting, while price-resistant smokers appeared to have a more entrenched smoker status. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smokers' sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a light/low tar cigarette and perceptions of harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Quah, Anne C K; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The sensory belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are smoother can also influence the belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are less harmful. However, the 'light' concept is one of several factors influencing beliefs. No studies have examined the impact of the sensory belief about one's own brand of cigarettes on perceptions of harm. The current study examines whether a smoker's sensory belief that their brand is smoother is associated with the belief that their brand is less harmful and whether sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a 'light/low tar' cigarette and relative perceptions of harm among smokers in China. Data are from 5209 smokers who were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling design and participated in Wave 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers and non-smokers in seven cities. Smokers who agreed that their brand of cigarettes was smoother were significantly more likely to say that their brand of cigarettes was less harmful (pmarketing can have in capitalising on the smoker's natural associations between smoother sensations and lowered perceptions of harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Do smokers want to know more about the cigarettes they smoke? Results from the EDUCATE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Maansi A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Bauer, Joseph E; Hastrup, Janice L; Steger, Craig

    2004-12-01

    The present study (a) assessed smokers' receptivity to receiving information about the product features of their cigarette brand, (b) tested whether the use of targeted (personalized), brand-specific information affected participants' attention to the information, and (c) tested whether attention to the targeted information affected participants' beliefs about the product features and their smoking behavior. The study population included current cigarette smokers who called the New York State Smokers' Quit Line seeking assistance to stop smoking in February and March 2003. Subjects were randomized to one of three experimental groups. Group 1 received telephone counseling and the quit line's stop-smoking booklet, which included information on ingredients found in cigarettes. Group 2 received the same intervention as Group 1 plus a basic brochure with a generic cover. Group 3 received the same intervention as Group 2 except that the cover to the brochure was targeted to individual cigarette brand and type. All smokers who called the quit line were receptive to receiving information about their cigarette brand. In a 6-week follow-up interview, 60% of those who received the targeted product information brochure recalled receiving it vs. 51% of those who received the identical guide with the nontargeted cover. Recall of the material discussed in the brochure was slightly higher (not statistically significant) among subjects who received the brochure with the targeted cover compared with the same brochure with a basic cover. Regardless of whether the brochure was targeted, smokers' beliefs about different product features or their smoking behavior were not affected measurably, although those who reported reading some or all of the brochure had higher levels of awareness regarding low-tar, filtered, and no-additive cigarettes. Smokers are receptive to receiving information about their cigarette brand, but either persistent efforts or possibly more potent interventions to

  18. CT-quantified emphysema in male heavy smokers : association with lung function decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A; de Hoop, Bartjan; Zanen, Pieter; Gietema, Hester; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van Ginneken, Bram; Isgum, Ivana; Mol, Christian; van Klaveren, Rob J; Dijkstra, Akkelies E; Groen, Hendricus; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Prokop, Mathias; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    BACKGROUND: Emphysema and small airway disease both contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterised by accelerated decline in lung function. The association between the extent of emphysema in male current and former smokers and lung function decline was

  19. Association between salivary sialic acid and periodontal health status among smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan Ibrahim Jawzali

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Salivary free sialic acid may be used as a diagnostic oxidative stress biomarker for periodontal diseases among young current smokers. Cumulative destructive effect of long duration of smoking on the periodontum can be controlled by smoking cessation, good oral hygiene and diet habit in early old ages.

  20. Educating Youth Against Tobacco Advertising: a Media Literacy Approach for Reducing Indonesia's Replacement Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Astuti, Santi Indra

    2017-01-01

    According to recent data extracted from Global Tobacco Atlas (2015), about 66% Indonesian male aged no less than 15 years old are active smokers. It means 2 among 3 Indonesian male are smokers. The number of young smokers arose significantly. Smokers among 15-19 years old has increased 17 % each year, meanwhile, baby smokers among 5-9 years old has multiplied 400 %. These figures implied the rise of health risk among Indonesians. The tobacco industry tries every year to recruit young people...

  1. Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Ihsan

    Full Text Available Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR, classification and regression tree (CART and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11-2.59,p = 0.01, whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33-0.78,p = 0.002 respectively. In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg or AA (His/His and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33-10.55,p = 0.006, whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15-7.51,p = 0.01. MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His with testing balance accuracy (TBA of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with

  2. FDA cigarette warning labels lower craving and elicit frontoinsular activation in adolescent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kathy T.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an economically and epidemiologically expensive public health concern. Most adult smokers become addicted during adolescence, rendering it a crucial period for prevention and intervention. Although litigation claims have delayed implementation, graphic warning labels proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may be a promising way to achieve this goal. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the labels in reducing in-scanner craving and to characterize the neurobiological responses in adolescent and adult smokers and non-smokers. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, thirty-nine 13- to 18-year-old adolescent and forty-one 25- to 30-year-old adult smokers and non-smokers rated their desire to smoke when presented with emotionally graphic warning labels and comparison non-graphic labels. Compared with adult smokers, adolescent smokers exhibited greater craving reduction in response to the warning labels. Although smokers evinced overall blunted recruitment of insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) relative to non-smokers, an effect that was stronger in adolescent smokers, parametrically increasing activation of these regions was associated with greater craving reduction. Functional connectivity analyses suggest that greater DLPFC regulation of limbic regions predicted cigarette craving. These data underscore a prominent role of frontoinsular circuitry in predicting the efficacy of FDA graphic warning labels in craving reduction in adult and adolescent smokers. PMID:25887154

  3. Proactive and Brief Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smokers at Outdoor Smoking "Hotspots" in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wan, Zoe; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2018-04-01

    Increased outdoor smoking is a common phenomenon after indoor smoking bans were in place. A series of observational studies were conducted to evaluate a novel, proactive, and brief smoking cessation intervention at outdoor smoking "hotspots," i.e., outdoor public areas where ashtrays were available and smokers clustered to smoke. The number of smokers at 26 selected hotspots were observed and counted for two consecutive days. Further observations of the smokers' characteristics and brief smoking cessation intervention were conducted at ten of the hotspots with the greatest number of smokers. Responses of the smokers to the brief intervention, including a leaflet and brief smoking cessation advice using AWAR protocol delivered by trained smoking cessation ambassadors, were assessed. A total of 24,034 smokers were observed within 464 h, which equals 51.8 smokers per hour. Of the 5070 pedestrians observed at the ten hotspots during the intervention sessions, 1228 (24.2 %) were smokers. In the 1228 smokers who were approached during our intervention sessions, about two thirds were willing to receive the self-help leaflet on smoking cessation whereas about half received the brief smoking cessation advice. Recruiting smokers and delivering brief smoking cessation interventions at smoking hotspots are feasible and likely effective to reach large numbers of smokers. Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of using this approach for smoking cessation are warranted.

  4. Cigarette constituent health communications for smokers: impact of chemical, imagery, and source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah; Sheeran, Paschal; Jarman, Kristen L; Ranney, Leah M; Schmidt, Allison M; Noar, Seth M; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-10-03

    Communication campaigns are incorporating tobacco constituent messaging to reach smokers, yet there is a dearth of research on how such messages should be constructed or will be received by smokers. In a 2x2x2 experiment, we manipulated three cigarette constituent message components: (1) the toxic constituent of tobacco (arsenic vs. lead) with a corresponding health effect, (2) the presence or absence of an evocative image, and (3) the source of the message (FDA vs. no source). We recruited smokers (N = 1,669, 55.4% women) via an online platform and randomized them to 1 of the 8 message conditions. Participants viewed the message and rated its believability and perceived effectiveness, the credibility of the message source, and action expectancies (i.e., likelihood of seeking additional information and help with quitting as a result of seeing the message). We found significant main effects of image, constituent, and source on outcomes. The use of arsenic as the constituent, the presence of an evocative image, and the FDA as the source increased the believability, source credibility, and perceived effectiveness of the tobacco constituent health message. Multiple elements of a constituent message, including type of constituent, imagery, and message source, impact their reception among smokers. Specifically, communication campaigns targeting smokers that utilize arsenic as the tobacco constituent, visual imagery, and the FDA logo may be particularly effective in changing key outcomes that are associated with subsequent attitude and behavioral changes. This paper describes how components of communication campaigns about cigarette constituents are perceived. Multiple elements of a tobacco constituent message, including type of constituent, image, and message source may influence the reception of messages among current smokers. Communication campaigns targeting smokers that utilize arsenic as the tobacco constituent, visual imagery, and the FDA logo may be particularly

  5. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poles, Antônio A.; Balcão, Victor M.; Chaud, Marco V.; Vila, Marta M.D.C.; Aranha, Norberto; Yoshida, Valquíria M.H.; Oliveira, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  6. Physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression among U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F; Kane, Christy; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Research demonstrates that nicotine dependence and depression are associated and that physical activity is effective in reducing depression symptoms. However, our understanding of the potential beneficial effects of physical activity on depression in current smokers is more limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether physical activity moderates the association between nicotine dependence and depression in U.S. smokers. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Four hundred forty-one current adult smokers. Participants wore an accelerometer for at least 4 days and completed questionnaires to assess nicotine dependence and depression. Effect modification and statistical interaction models were used. Both models were significant. With regard to the statistical interaction model, and after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, comorbidity index, homocysteine, cotinine, total cholesterol, sedentary behavior, and vitamins C, D, and E, objectively measured physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression (interaction variable: odds ratio = 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-11.51; p = .04). In this national sample of current smokers, physical activity moderated the association between nicotine dependence and depression. These results suggest that those individuals with nicotine dependence and who are less physically active are more likely to be depressed than what would be expected on the basis of the individual effects of nicotine and physical inactivity separately.

  7. Interest in marijuana treatment programs among teenage smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, Amy J; Gorelick, David A; Collins, Charles C; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Heishman, Stephen J; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about adolescents' interest in marijuana treatment programs. This question was evaluated by telephone interview in a convenience sample of 575 adolescents responding to advertisements for tobacco research studies. Eighty-one percent of respondents endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs for adolescents. These adolescents were younger and less likely to smoke tobacco, smoke marijuana, or use alcohol than those not endorsing such a need. Among the 192 marijuana smokers, the 58.8% who endorsed the need for marijuana treatment programs took their first puff of marijuana at a younger age than those who did not endorse the need. Those who were willing to participate in a marijuana treatment program were more likely African American and took their first marijuana puff at a younger age than those not interested in treatment. These findings suggest that most adolescent marijuana smokers endorse the need for and are willing to attend marijuana treatment programs.

  8. [Helping smoking cessation in COPD, asthma, lung cancer, operated smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Dautzenberg, B

    2018-06-01

    Smoking is the cause of addictive behavior. Tobacco addiction is a chronic disease that makes difficult to stop smoking and leads to further use. Smoking is a risk factor for COPD, asthma and lung cancer; it may be the cause of severe perioperative complications. This finding justifies that smokers benefit from advice of stopping smoking and smoking cessation assistance. Helping patients to stop smoking increases the chances of quitting, improves the prognosis of tobacco-related diseases, the effectiveness of their treatments and the quality of life of the patients. This article updates the modalities of smoking cessation assistance in smokers with COPD, asthma and lung cancer in operated patients. The goal of the management must be the complete cessation of tobacco smoke intoxication, which alone reduces tobacco mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  10. Pulmonary Emphysema Subtypes on Computed Tomography in Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin M.; Austin, John H.M.; Newell, John D.; D’Souza, Belinda M.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Hoffman, Eric A.; Ahmed, Firas; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary emphysema is divided into three major subtypes at autopsy: centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema. These subtypes can be defined by visual assessment on computed tomography (CT); however, clinical characteristics of emphysema subtypes on CT are not well-defined. We developed a reliable approach to visual assessment of emphysema subtypes on CT and examined if emphysema subtypes have distinct characteristics. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years with ≥10 pack-years. Participants underwent CT following a standardized protocol. Definitions of centrilobular, paraseptal and panlobular emphysema were obtained by literature review. Six-minute walk distance and pulmonary function were performed following guidelines. Results Twenty-seven percent of 318 smokers had emphysema on CT. Inter-rater reliability of emphysema subtype was substantial (K:0.70). Compared to participants without emphysema, individuals with centrilobular or panlobular emphysema had greater dyspnea, reduced walk distance, greater hyperinflation, and lower diffusing capacity. In contrast, individuals with PSE were similar to controls, except for male predominance. Centrilobular but not panlobular or paraseptal emphysema was associated with greater smoking history (+21 pack-years Pemphysema was associated with reduced body mass index (−5 kg/m2;P=0.01). Other than for dyspnea, these findings were independent of the forced expiratory volume in one second. Seventeen percent of smokers without COPD on spirometry had emphysema, which was independently associated with reduced walk distance. Conclusions Emphysema subtypes on CT are common in smokers with and without COPD. Centrilobular and panlobular emphysema but not paraseptal emphysema have considerable symptomatic and physiological consequences. PMID:24384106

  11. Interest in marijuana treatment programs among teenage smokers and nonsmokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheer, Amy J.; Gorelick, David A.; Collins, Charles C.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Heishman, Stephen