WorldWideScience

Sample records for smoke radiative effects

  1. The effect of γ-radiation on smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on the mutagenicity potential of wood-smoked fish was investigated. Smoked fish were irradiated with radiation doses of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy. The DMSO extracts of non-radiated and irradiated smoked fish were tested for mutagenicity using the Ames plate incorporation assay, host-mediated assay, and the micronucleus test. It was observed that γ-irradiation did not induce any significant increase in the number of revertants of TA98, TA100 and TA104 as compared with the non-radiated smoked fish. Results of the host-mediated assay and the micronucleus test showed no difference in the mutagenic response of non-radiated in irradiated smoked fish. The results indicate thet γ-radiation does not introduce mutagens in smoked fish. (author). 17 refs.; 6 tabs

  2. Effect of ultraviolet radiation, smoking and nutrition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    Similar to the rest of the skin, the hair is exposed to noxious environmental factors. While ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and smoking are well appreciated as major factors contributing to the extrinsic aging of the skin, their effects on the condition of hair have only lately attracted the attention of the medical community. Terrestrial solar UVR ranges from approximately 290 to 400 nm; UV-B (290-315 nm) reaches only the upper dermis, while the penetration of UV-A (315-400 nm) into the dermis increases with wavelength. The two most important chronic effects of UVR on the skin and bald scalp are photocarcinogenesis and solar elastosis; however, the effects of UVR on hair have largely been ignored. As a consequence of increased leisure time and a growing popularity of outdoor activities and holidays in the sun, the awareness of sun protection of the skin has become important and should also apply to the hair. Besides being the single-most preventable cause of significant cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and an important cause of death, the association of tobacco smoking with various adverse effects on the skin and hair has also been recognized. Increasing public awareness of the association between smoking and hair loss seems to offer a good opportunity for the prevention or cessation of smoking, since the appearance of hair plays an important role in the overall physical appearance and self-perception of people. Finally, the quantity and quality of hair are closely related to the nutritional state of an individual. Normal supply, uptake, and transport of proteins, calories, trace elements, and vitamins are of fundamental importance in tissues with high biosynthetic activity, such as the hair follicle. In instances of protein and calorie malnutrition as well as essential amino acid, trace element, and vitamin deficiencies, hair growth and pigmentation may be impaired. Ultimately, important commercial interest lies in the question of whether increasing the

  3. Effects of tobacco-smoke on radiation-induced pneumonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Henriksson, R.; Cai, Y.-Q.; Hellstroem, S.; Bjermer, L.; Hoernqvist Bylunds, S.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in rats, five groups of animals were investigated including controls (C), tobacco smoke exposed (S), irradiated (RNS) and irradiated and tobacco smoke exposed (RS). An additional group (RS/NS) was exposed to tobacco before irradiation but not afterwards. Results indicate that smoking suppresses the radiation-induced inflammation but to a lesser degree affects the radiation-induced increase in membrane permeability as reflected by increased protein levels in BAL. Moreover, the marked effects on the numbers of mast cells and neutrophils in the RS group may indicate that these cells play an important role in the mechanism by which tobacco smoke modulates the effects of irradiation. When exposure to tobacco smoke was terminated immediately after irradiation (RS/NS), the inflammatory response was unaffected. (author)

  4. Effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Zhang Weiguang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific information for the prevention and treatment of the radiation damage by analyzing the effects of smoke and tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation and marrow inhibition. Methods: 7 group mice were exposed to smoke and/or tea and/or radiation respectively. There were also b blank control group and a cyclophosphamide positive control group. The frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to mature erythrocytes (RBC) in marrow, and the count of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte were observed. Results: The frequencies of MPCE in the groups irradiated with γ-rays were significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). The smoke + radiation group's frequency was significantly higher than single radiation group (P<0.05). The ratios of PCE to RBC in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than that in the blank control group (P<0.01). The counts of peripheral blood hemoleukocyte in the groups irradiated were significantly lower than the blank control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation were able to cause marrow cell mutation and induce marrow inhibition. Smoke increases the effect of radiation-induced marrow cell mutation. Tea and smoke could not affect radiation-induced bone marrow inhibition

  5. Effects of smoking cessation on hypoxia and its potential impact on radiation treatment effects in lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Medical Dept., Nordlandssykehuset HF, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Bremnes, R.M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway)

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: smoking cessation is often attempted in the context of a lung cancer diagnosis. If cessation causes slowly continuing changes of total lung capacity and vital capacity, this may have consequences for lung volume, results of dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis and targeting precision, in addition to changes in oxygenation, tumor biology (gene expression) and prognosis. Methods: to address the impact of smoking cessation on radiation treatment of lung cancer, a literature review was performed. Results: smoking cessation is associated with important benefits such as improved lung function and a better general health and performance status. In surgically and radiation treated patients, smoking cessation might lead to longer survival and reduced complications. Early data indicate that hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer should be considered a poor prognostic factor. Yet, specific human data on how hypoxia is influenced by smoking status are not available. The influence of smoking history on the pneumonitis risk is not entirely clear. However, it appears that other factors outweigh the influence of smoking. The short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function do not appear to cause relevant errors in treatment planning or targeting precision. Yet, no prospective study formally addressing this question was identified. Conclusion: smoking cessation appears to be prognostically beneficial. The role of hypoxia in this context requires more detailed evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  7. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET γ-irradiation or α-irradiation from inhaled 239 PuO 2 particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled 239 PuO 2 or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + 239 PuO 2 study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning

  8. The direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe thunderstorm event in the Baltic Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, V.; Männik, A.

    2015-03-01

    On August 8, 2010, a severe derecho type thunderstorm in the Baltic Sea region coincided with smoke from wildfires in Russia. Remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations, with a maximum aerosol optical depth of more than 2 at 550 nm, were observed near the thunderstorm. The impact of the wildfire smoke on the thunderstorm through direct radiative effects was investigated using the Hirlam Aladin Research for Mesoscale Operational Numerical Weather Prediction in Euromed (HARMONIE) model. HARMONIE was successfully able to resolve the dynamics of the thunderstorm, and simulations that considered the influence of the smoke-related aerosols were compared to simulation without aerosols. As simulated by the HARMONIE model, the smoke reduced the shortwave radiation flux at the surface by as much as 300 W/m2 and decreased the near-surface temperature by as much as 3 °C in the vicinity of the thunderstorm and respectively 100 W/m2 and 1 °C in the thunderstorm region. Atmospheric instability decreased through the direct radiative effect of aerosols, and several dynamic features of the simulated thunderstorm appeared slightly weaker.

  9. Effects of ongoing smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in breast cancer and oesophagus cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Bjermer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of smoking on the development of radiation-induced pneumonitis in patients treated for breast and oesophagus cancer. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study on 405 females diagnosed with primary unilateral breast cancer stages 1 and 2 and 201 oesophagus carcinoma patients. The possibilities in Sweden to obtain detailed information from different medical records were used to collect data on smoking habits, radiation treatment and spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Radiation-induced pneumonitis was defined as a combination of roentgenographic infiltrate in the lung field involving an irradiated area on the chest X-ray and clinical symptoms such as non-productive cough and dyspnoea. Results: Six breast cancer patients had spontaneously reported pneumonitis. Five of them were non-smokers (P=0.182) and the other was a former smoker. Eight of the oesophagus cancer patients had spontaneously reported radiation-induced clinical pneumonitis and they were all non-smokers (P=0.022), except one, who was a pipe smoker. None of the patients who were cigarette smokers were recorded as developing clinical pneumonitis after irradiation. Conclusion: These data could support the previous clinical observations and experimental studies that smoking depresses the frequency of radiation-induced pneumonitis. The present study as well as earlier observations could justify further studies concerning the possibility of an interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapeutic failures and reduced adverse effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Modelling derecho dynamics and the direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke upon it with NWP model HARMONIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Männik, Aarne

    2014-05-01

    Convection permitting numerical weather prediction model HARMONIE was used to simulate the dynamics of the derecho that swept over Eastern Europe on August 8, 2010. The storm moved over Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland and the strongest wind gusts (up to 36.5 m/s) were measured in Estonia. The storm path is recorded on the radar images where characteristic bow echo was observed. The model setup was similar to near-future operational, nearly kilometre-scale environments in European national weather services. Hindcast experiments show the ability of the HARMONIE model to predict the severe convective storm and forecast concurrent strong wind gusts. Wind gusts with very similar intensity to observed ones were simulated by the HARMONIE model and 2.5-km horizontal resolution appears sufficient for reliable forecast of the derecho event. The timing of the modelled storm was in good agreement with the observations. The simulated average storm propagation speed was 25 m/s, similar to the radar observations. Hindcast experiments suggest that more precise warning for the storm could have been issued if the HARMONIE model would have been utilised. The derecho event was accompanied by the remarkable smoke aerosol concentrations (maximum total aerosol optical depth more than 4 at 550 nm) originating from the wildfires from Russia. Smoke plume travelled clockwise around Moscow from August 5 to 9. On August 8, 2010, smoke plume was situated on the Eastern border of Estonia. The derecho occurred on the western side of the smoke plume path. HARMONIE experiments were performed to study the direct radiative effect of wildfire smoke on a severe convective storm. The impact of smoke aerosol on the derecho dynamics was investigated. Reduction in the shortwave radiation flux at the surface resulting from aerosol influence simulated by the HARMONIE model is up to 200 W/m2 in the area with the highest aerosol concentrations. This causes near surface cooling of up to 3 º

  11. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  12. Sensitivity of mesoscale modeling of smoke direct radiative effect to the emission inventory: a case study in northern sub-Saharan African region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J; Da Silva, Arlindo; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15°W–42°E, 13°S–17°N) and monthly averages of column PM 2.5 loading, surface PM 2.5 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA. (paper)

  13. Effect Of N-Acetylcysteine On Biochemical And Gene Expression Changes In Guinea Pig Exposed To GAMMA Radiation And Cigarette Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELMAGHRABY, T.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental or silent smoke of tobacco contains a large number of components, and many of them are toxic to the epithelial cells. The environmental smoke contains reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are responsible for 50% of the global mortality, and also 56% of the disease burdens are attributed to tobacco in developing countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of ROS and RNS on antioxidant enzymes and expression of eNOS and iNOS genes that synthesis NO in addition to the gene expression of MUC5AC that synthesis mucin. Moreover, the present study aimed also to evaluate the role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as antioxidant. Male guinea pigs exposed to cigarette smoke and/or gamma radiation were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The study included determination of the activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in lung and heart and expressions of eNOS, iNOS and MUC5AC genes in lung tissue. The results revealed significant increase in Mn-superoxide dismutase, iNOS gene expression and MUC5AC gene expression, and significant decrease in eNOS gene expression in lung of guinea pig exposed to cigarette smoke and/or gamma radiation. The results also revealed that NAC can reduce the effects of cigarette smoke and radiation on antioxidant enzymes and the expression of genes that synthesis NO and MUC5AC that synthesis mucin. It could be concluded that NAC can ameliorate the action of the bad effects of cigarette smoke and gamma radiation.

  14. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  15. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  16. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  17. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium ( 210 Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210 Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g -1 , depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d -1 , and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed. (author)

  18. Mesoscale modeling of smoke radiative feedback over the Sahel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.; Zhang, F.; Yue, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This study employs satellite observations and a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to study the smoke radative feedback on surface energy budget, boundary layer processes, and atmospheric lapse rate in February 2008 over the Sahel region. The smoke emission inventories we use come from various sources, including but not limited to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) developed by NRL and the Fire Energetic and Emissions Research (FEER) developed by NASA GSFC. Model performance is evaluated using numerous satellite and ground-based datasets: MODIS true color images, ground-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements from AERONET, MODIS AOD retrievals, and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) atmospheric backscattering and extinction products. Specification of smoke injection height of 650 m in WRF-Chem yields aerosol vertical profiles that are most consistent with CALIOP observations of aerosol layer height. Statistically, 5% of the CALIPSO valid measurements of aerosols in February 2008 show aerosol layers either above the clouds or between the clouds, reinforcing the importance of the aerosol vertical distribution for quantifying aerosol impact on climate in the Sahel region. The results further show that the smoke radiative feedbacks are sensitive to assumptions of black carbon and organic carbon ratio in the particle emission inventory. Also investigated is the smoke semi-direct effect as a function of cloud fraction.

  19. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  20. Influence of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Hao Enzhu; Ni Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation, and to provide scientific information for prevention and treatment of radiation damage. Methods: There were 8 groups in the factorial experiment design with 3 factors at 2 levels. Mice were randomly divided into each group. There were 8 mice in each group. Mice in seven experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke, green tea, radiation or their mixtures respectively. One group was treated as the blank control group. The frequencies of micrnucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) were scored by single blinded method. The data were analyzed with factorial experiments analysis of variance using SAS 8.0. Results: Analysis of variance showed that radiation, cigarette smoke and green tea were independently significant factors (P<0.01). Interactions between cigarette smoke and radiation or between green tea and radiation were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation and cigarette smoke can cause bone marrow cell mutations independently. There is synergistic effect between cigarette smoke and radiation. Green tea can inhibit radiation-induced cell mutation. (authors)

  1. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    210 Po was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses of polonium were performed using 209 Po as an internal isotopic tracer. Samples were dissolved with acids, polonium plated on a silver disc and measured by alpha spectrometry using silicon surface barrier detectors. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in the cigarettes, on the ashes of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke inhaled by the smoker. 210 Po in the tobacco display concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq/g, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied between 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke from one cigarette varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, about 50 % of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po and 210 Pb in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. The average absorption of 210 Po into the blood taking all pathways into account is 0.39 Bq d -1 . This includes, namely, the ingestion of water and beverages, the ingestion of food, the inhalation of air and cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to this rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood and, after circulating in all organs, gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure of this organ. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoking are discussed. (author)

  2. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.F.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It was shown on the basis of retrospective investigation of 500 workers at a nuclear enterprise (162 cases of lung cancer, 338 persons as matching control) that the interaction of external gamma-irradiation (> 2.0 Gy) and the body - burden of 239 Pu (> 9.3 kBq) at lung cancer is characterized as the multiplicative effect. Combined influence of smoking and radiation factors dependent on smoking index (SI): it changed from additive up to multiplicative and than to antagonistic with the increase of the smoking effect. The received results could be explained on the basis of a two - mutation model of radiation carcinogenesis

  3. Infrared radiation emerging from smoke produced by brush fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Harshvardhan, M.

    1981-01-01

    The IR radiative transport properties of brush fire smoke clouds, computed for a model with finite horizontal dimensions as well as the more common plane-parallel model, are presented. The finite model is a three-dimensional version of the two-stream approximation applied to cubic clouds of steam, carbon, and silicates. Assumptions are made with regard to the shape and size distributions of the smoke particles. It is shown that 11.5-micron radiometry can detect fires beneath smoke clouds if the path integrated mass density of the smoke is less than or equal to 3 g/sq m.

  4. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  5. Effects of smoke on horticulture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krussmann, G

    1963-01-01

    Several researchers are listed who as far back as 1883 had recognized the varying resistance factors of plants and trees to the effects of smoke. The differences, however, were envisioned partly as the reaction of vegetation to soil and climate. Using today's more sophisticated technological advances, a comprehensive study was conducted in 1956-57 in the Ruhr district to determine the adaptability of 151 leafy evergreens and 60 conifers. The forestry service attempted to establish and evaluate the types of trees selected for the study according to the following criteria: 1) not planted, 2) not adaptable to industry (plant dies), 3) poor adaptation (plant does not thrive), 4) tolerably adaptable to industry (plant grows satisfactorily), and 5) very adaptable to industry (plant thrives very well). Constant monitoring so that the adaptability factor was assessed on the basis of resistance to smoke damage and not due to lack of nourishment and parasitism was ensured. The results of the study are described and evaluated.

  6. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  7. Laboratory investigation of fire radiative energy and smoke aerosol emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Ichoku; J. Vanderlei Martins; Yoram J. Kaufman; Martin J. Wooster; Patrick H. Freeborn; Wei Min Hao; Stephen Baker; Cecily A. Ryan; Bryce L. Nordgren

    2008-01-01

    Fuel biomass samples from southern Africa and the United States were burned in a laboratory combustion chamber while measuring the biomass consumption rate, the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate (Rfre), and the smoke concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM). The PM mass emission rate (RPM) was quantified from...

  8. Atmospheric effects of nuclar war aerosols in general circulation model simulations: Influence of smoke optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Covey, C.

    1987-01-01

    A global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is modified to include radiative transfer parameterizations for the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and the absorption of thermal infrared (IR) radiation by smoke aerosols. The solar scattering modifications include a parameterization for diagnosing smoke optical properties as a function of the time- and space-dependent smoke particle radii. The aerosol IR modifications allow for both the ''grey'' absorber approximation and a broadband approximation that resolves the aerosol absorption in four spectral intervals. We examine the sensitivity of some GCM-simulated atmospheric and climatic effects to the optical properties and radiative transfer parameterizations used in studies of massive injections of smoke. Specifically, we test the model response to solar scattering versus nonscattering smoke, variations in prescribed smoke single scattering albedo and IR specific absorption, and interactive versus fixed smoke optical properties. Hypothetical nuclear war created smoke scenarios assume the July injection of 60 or 180 Tg of smoke over portions of the mid-latitude land areas of the northern hemisphere. Atmospheric transport and scavenging of the smoke are included. Nonscattering smoke cases produce roughly 40 Wm/sup -2/ more Earth-atmosphere solar irradiance absorption over the northern hemisphere, when compared to scattering smoke cases having equivalent specific absorption efficiencies. Varying the elemental carbon content of smoke over a plausible range produces a 4 0 --6 0 C change in average mid-latitude land surface temperature, and a variation of about 0.1 in zonally averaged planetary albedo in the northern hemisphere

  9. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  10. Simulation of Optical Properties and Direct and Indirect Radiative Effects of Smoke Aerosols Over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds During Summer 2008 in California With the Regional Climate Model RegCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Solmon, F.; Roblou, L.; Peers, F.; Turquety, S.; Waquet, F.; Jethva, H.; Torres, O.

    2017-10-01

    The regional climate model RegCM has been modified to better account for the climatic effects of biomass-burning particles. Smoke aerosols are represented by new tracers with consistent radiative and hygroscopic properties to simulate the direct radiative forcing (DRF), and a new parameterization has been integrated for relating the droplet number concentration to the aerosol concentration for marine stratocumulus clouds (Sc). RegCM has been tested during the summer of 2008 over California, when extreme concentration of smoke, together with the presence of Sc, is observed. This work indicates that significant aerosol optical depth (AOD) ( 1-2 at 550 nm) is related to the intense 2008 fires. Compared to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, the regional pattern of RegCM AOD is well represented although the magnitude is lower than satellite observations. Comparisons with Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) above-clouds aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) show the ability of RegCM to simulate realistic ACAOD during the transport of smoke above the Pacific Ocean. The simulated single scattering albedo is 0.90 (at 550 nm) near biomass-burning sources, consistent with OMI and POLDER, and smoke leads to shortwave heating rates 1.5-2°K d-1. RegCM is not able to correctly resolve the daily patterns in cloud properties notably due to its coarse horizontal resolutions. However, the changes in the sign of the DRF at top of atmosphere (TOA) (negative to positive) from clear-sky to all-sky conditions is well simulated. Finally, the "aerosol-cloud" parameterization allows simulating an increase of the cloud optical depth for significant concentrations, leading to large perturbations of radiative fluxes at TOA.

  11. Smoke plumes: Emissions and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan O' Neill; Shawn Urbanski; Scott Goodrick; Sim Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Smoke can manifest itself as a towering plume rising against the clear blue sky-or as a vast swath of thick haze, with fingers that settle into valleys overnight. It comes in many forms and colors, from fluffy and white to thick and black. Smoke plumes can rise high into the atmosphere and travel great distances across oceans and continents. Or smoke can remain close...

  12. Effects of smoke on functional circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are converting to digital instrumentation and control systems; however, the effects of abnormal environments such as fire and smoke on such systems are not known. There are no standard tests for smoke, but previous smoke exposure tests at Sandia National Laboratories have shown that digital communications can be temporarily interrupted during a smoke exposure. Another concern is the long-term corrosion of metals exposed to the acidic gases produced by a cable fire. This report documents measurements of basic functional circuits during and up to 1 day after exposure to smoke created by burning cable insulation. Printed wiring boards were exposed to the smoke in an enclosed chamber for 1 hour. For high-resistance circuits, the smoke lowered the resistance of the surface of the board and caused the circuits to short during the exposure. These circuits recovered after the smoke was vented. For low-resistance circuits, the smoke caused their resistance to increase slightly. A polyurethane conformal coating substantially reduced the effects of smoke. A high-speed digital circuit was unaffected. A second experiment on different logic chip technologies showed that the critical shunt resistance that would cause failure was dependent on the chip technology and that the components used in the smoke exposures were some of the most smoke tolerant. The smoke densities in these tests were high enough to cause changes in high impedance (resistance) circuits during exposure, but did not affect most of the other circuits. Conformal coatings and the characteristics of chip technologies should be considered when designing circuitry for nuclear power plant safety systems, which must be highly reliable under a variety of operating and accident conditions. 10 refs., 34 figs., 18 tabs

  13. Ionizing chamber smoke detectors in implementation of radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In 1977 the NEA Steering Committee adopted a series of Recommendations for Ionizing Chamber Smoke Detectors (ICSDs) in Implementation of Radiation Protection Standards. The purpose of these recommendations is to permit adoption of a harmonized policy by the competent national authorities concerning the issue of licenses for the manufacture, import, use and disposal of ICSDs while insuring that individual and collective exposure doses are kept as low as is reasonably achievable [fr

  14. Direct Radiative Impacts of Central American Biomass Burning Smoke Aerosols: Analysis from a Coupled Aerosol-Radiation-Meteorology Model RAMS-AROMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.; Reid, J. S.; Prins, E. M.

    2005-12-01

    Considerable efforts including various field experiments have been carried out in the last decade for studying the regional climatic impact of smoke aerosols produced by biomass burning activities in Africa and South America. In contrast, only few investigations have been conducted for Central American Biomass Burning (CABB) region. Using a coupled aerosol-radiation-meteorology model called RAMS-AROMA together with various ground-based observations, we present a comprehensive analysis of the smoke direct radiative impacts on the surface energy budget, boundary layer evolution, and e precipitation process during the CABB events in Spring 2003. Quantitative estimates are also made regarding the transboundary carbon mass to the U.S. in the form of smoke particles. Buult upon the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model, the RAMS AROMA has several features including Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (AROMA) algorithms. The model simulates smoke transport by using hourly smoke emission inventory from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) geostationary satellite database. It explicitly considers the smoke effects on the radiative transfer at each model time step and model grid, thereby coupling the dynamical processes and aerosol transport. Comparison with ground-based observation show that the simulation realistically captured the smoke transport timeline and distribution from daily to hourly scales. The effects of smoke radiative extinction on the decrease of 2m air temperature (2mT), diurnal temperature range (DTR), and boundary layer height over the land surface are also quantified. Warming due to smoke absorption of solar radiation can be found in the lower troposphere over the ocean, but not near the underlying land surface. The increase of boundary layer stability produces a positive feedback where more smoke particles are trapped in the lower boundary layer. These changes in temperature, surface

  15. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  16. LDRD report: Smoke effects on electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TANAKA, TINA J.; BAYNES, EDWARD E. JR.; NOWLEN, STEVEN P.; BROCKMANN, JOHN E.; GRITZO, LOUIS A.; SHADDIX, Christopher R.

    2000-01-01

    Smoke is known to cause electrical equipment failure, but the likelihood of immediate failure during a fire is unknown. Traditional failure assessment techniques measure the density of ionic contaminants deposited on surfaces to determine the need for cleaning or replacement of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. Such techniques focus on long-term effects, such as corrosion, but do not address the immediate effects of the fire. This document reports the results of tests on the immediate effects of smoke on electronic equipment. Various circuits and components were exposed to smoke from different fields in a static smoke exposure chamber and were monitored throughout the exposure. Electrically, the loss of insulation resistance was the most important change caused by smoke. For direct current circuits, soot collected on high-voltage surfaces sometimes formed semi-conductive soot bridges that shorted the circuit. For high voltage alternating current circuits, the smoke also tended to increase the likelihood of arcing, but did not accumulate on the surfaces. Static random access memory chips failed for high levels of smoke, but hard disk drives did not. High humidity increased the conductive properties of the smoke. The conductivity does not increase linearly with smoke density as first proposed; however, it does increase with quantity. The data can be used to give a rough estimate of the amount of smoke that will cause failures in CMOS memory chips, dc and ac circuits. Comparisons of this data to other fire tests can be made through the optical and mass density measurements of the smoke

  17. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  18. Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations from Earth observing satellites indicate that dark carbonaceous aerosols that absorb solar radiation are widespread in the tropics and subtropics. When these aerosols mix with clouds, there is generally a reduction of cloudiness owing to absorption of solar energy in the aerosol layer. Over the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean, where smoke from savannah burning in southern Africa resides above a persistent deck of marine stratocumulus clouds, radiative heating of the smoke layer leads to a thickening of the cloud layer. Here, satellite observations of the albedo of overcast scenes of 25 km2 size or larger are combined with additional satellite observations of clouds and aerosols to estimate the top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing attributable to presence of dark aerosol above bright cloud, and the negative semi-direct forcing attributable to the thickening of the cloud layer. The average positive direct radiative forcing by smoke over an overcast scene is 9.2±6.6 W m−2 for cases with an unambiguous signal of absorbing aerosol over cloud in passive ultraviolet remote sensing observations. However, cloud liquid water path is enhanced by 16.3±7.7 g m−2 across the range of values for sea surface temperature for cases of smoke over cloud. The negative radiative forcing associated with this semi-direct effect of smoke over clouds is estimated to be −5.9±3.5 W m−2. Therefore, the cooling associated with the semi-direct cloud thickening effect compensates for greater than 60 % of the direct radiative effect. Accounting for the frequency of occurrence of significant absorbing aerosol above overcast scenes leads to an estimate of the average direct forcing of 1.0±0.7 W m−2 contributed by these scenes averaged over the subtropical southeast Atlantic Ocean during austral winter. The regional average of the negative semi-direct forcing is −0.7±0.4 W m−2

  19. Relationship of cigarette smoking and radiation exposure to cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Mason, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure level. Relative risk (RR) models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic (ANH) cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period for this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplicative RR models would suggest for ANH cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive tract cancer other than stomach cancer. Surprisingly, the RR function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for some of these cancer site categories but also may be subadditive. The lung cancer RR function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of ANH cancer mortality: RR functions appeared to be consistent between males and females, though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. The submultiplicative nature of the RR function mentioned above was particularly pronounced among persons who were relatively young (less than or equal to 30 yr of age) at the time of radiation exposure. The RR function for these younger subjects depends strongly on both radiation and cigarette smoke exposure levels. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to human carcinogenesis models. As a byproduct, cancer mortality of several sites is significantly related to radiation exposure in this population, after accommodation for the possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking

  20. When smoke comes to town - effects of biomass burning smoke on air quality down under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keywood, Melita; Cope, Martin; (C. P) Meyer, Mick; Iinuma, Yoshi; Emmerson, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Annually, biomass burning results in the emission of quantities of trace gases and aerosol to the atmosphere. Biomass burning emissions have a significant effect on atmospheric chemistry due to the presence of reactive species. Biomass burning aerosols influence the radiative balance of the earth-atmosphere system directly through the scattering and absorption of radiation, and indirectly through their influence on cloud microphysical processes, and therefore constitute an important forcing in climate models. They also reduce visibility, influence atmospheric photochemistry and can be inhaled into the deepest parts of the lungs, so that they can have a significant effect on human health. Australia experiences bushfires on an annual basis. In most years fires are restricted to the tropical savannah forests of Northern Australia. However in the summer of 2006/2007 (December 2006 - February 2007), South Eastern Australia was affected by the longest recorded fires in its history. During this time the State of Victoria was ravaged by 690 separate bushfires, including the major Great Divide Fire, which devastated 1,048,238 hectares over 69 days. On several occasions, thick smoke haze was transported to the Melbourne central business district and PM10 concentrations at several air quality monitoring stations peaked at over 200 µg m-3 (four times the National Environment Protection Measure PM10 24 hour standard). During this period, a comprehensive suite of air quality measurements was carried out at a location 25 km south of the Melbourne CBD, including detailed aerosol microphysical and chemical composition measurements. Here we examine the chemical and physical properties of the smoke plume as it impacted Melbourne's air shed and discuss its impact on air quality over the city. We estimate the aerosol emission rates of the source fires, the age of the plumes and investigate the transformation of the smoke as it progressed from its source to the Melbourne airshed. We

  1. Effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Flay, Brian; Nichter, Mark; Giovino, Gary

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical studies, encompassing community trials and field experiments, and evaluates government-funded anti-smoking campaigns, ecologic studies of population impact of anti-smoking advertising, and qualitative studies that have examined the effects of anti-smoking advertising on teenagers. We conclude that anti-smoking advertising appears to have more reliable positive effects on those in pre-adolescence or early adolescence by preventing commencement of smoking. It is unclear whether this is due to developmental differences, or is a reflection of smoking experience, or a combination of the two. In addition, it is evident that social group interactions, through family, peer and cultural contexts, can play an important role in reinforcing, denying, or neutralizing potential effects of anti-smoking advertising. Although there is some research to suggest that advertising genres that graphically depict the health effects of smoking, emphasize social norms against smoking, and portray the tobacco industry as manipulative can positively influence teenagers, these findings are far from consistent. Finally, the effects of anti-smoking advertising on youth smoking can be enhanced by the use of other tobacco control strategies, and may be dampened by tobacco advertising and marketing. Overall, the findings of this review indicate that there is no single "recipe" for anti-smoking advertising that leads to reductions in youth smoking. Anti-smoking advertising can influence youth smoking, but whether it does in the context of individual anti-smoking campaigns needs to be the subject of careful evaluation.

  2. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  3. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  4. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Seo, Shinya; Sasaki, Yuichiro.

    1985-01-01

    The chronic effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), and on serum lipids and lipoprotein levels in neurologically normal subjects from 25 to 85 years old were studied. CBF was studied by the 133-Xenon inhalation method and gray matter flow was calculated following the method of Obrist et al. A hundred and twentyfive subjects who had no abnormalities in neurological examinations nor in CT scan, were divided into two groups smokers (48) and non-smokers (77). Those who had a smoking index (Number of cigarettes/day) x (years of smoking history)>200 were designated as smokers. The mean smoking index of smokers was 697. sixty-five of the 77 subjects in the non-smoking group had never smoked, and the mean smoking index of non-smokers was 16. Increased reduction of CBF with advancing age was clearly observed. In the male, CBF was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (mean CBF 15% lower in smokers, p<0.001). Compared to non-smokers, CBF in smokers was found to be significantly lower than the expected age matched value. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol values in smokers were significantly lower, and total cholesterol levels significantly higher than in non-smokers. We concluded that smoking chronically reduced CBF. Age dependent decrease of CBF was deteriorated by chronic smoking. Then, chronic smoking was suggested to be a risk factor for brain aging. Decrease of CBF in smokers was probably due to advanced atherosclerosis which produces vascular narrowing and raised resistance in cerebral blood vessels. (author)

  5. 210Po radiation dose due to cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, Wesley S.; Subha, Vincila R.; Feroz, Khan M.

    2010-01-01

    The level of 210 Po in eight brands of cigarettes and four brands of bidis popular in and around Nagercoil town was determined to evaluate the annual effective dose. The 210 Po activity in a full cigarette ranged from 32.8±3.6 to 68.4±5.9 mBq and from 34.3±3.5 to 62.9±5.8 mBq in a bidi. In tobacco, the highest 210 Po content was recorded in the brand C4 (23.0±1.2 mBq) whereas for bidis it was the highest in the brand B2 (21.1±1.1 mBq). The activity in mainstream varied from 15.2±0.75 to 36.8±2.1 mBq in a cigarette and from 20.7±3.1 to 39.8±4.0 mBq in a bidi. With regard to 210 Po activity concentration, not much specificity was noted with respect to the tobacco brand. The data showed a relatively wide range of activity concentration of 210 Po in the different cigarette/bidi brands and even within the same brand. The bidis showed a higher activity when compared to cigarettes. The popular brands concentrated more activity than the fine brands. Smokers who smoke one pack (10 cigarettes/bidis) per day may inhale about 100-300 mBq d -1 (0.1-0.3 Bq d -1 ) of 210 Po. In this study, radiation dose values in the range of 153.5-372.9 μSv Y - '1 from cigarettes and from 209.2 to 402.7 μSvY -1 from bidis was estimated for the whole body. (author)

  6. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F., E-mail: s_kudo@rea.or.jp [Instituto of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, 1-9-16 Kajicho, Chiyoda-ku, 101-0044 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)

  7. Adjustment for smoking reduces radiation risk: fifth analysis of mortality of nuclear industry workers in Japan, 1999-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, S.; Ishida, J.; Yoshimoto, K.; Mizuno, S.; Ohshima, S.; Kasagi, F.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Many cohort studies among nuclear industry workers have been carried out to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation. In those studies, confounding factors, for example, age was adjusted to exclude the effect of difference of mortality by age to estimate radiation risk. But there are few studies adjusting for smoking that is known as a strong factor which affects mortality. Radiation Effects Association (Rea) initiated a cohort study of nuclear industry workers mortality in 1990. To examine non-radiation factors confounding on the mortality risk among the radiation workers, Rea have performed life-style questionnaire surveys among the part of workers at 1997 and 2003 and found the correlation between radiation dose and smoking rate. Mortality follow-up were made on 75,442 male respondents for an average of 8.3 years during the observation period 1999-2010. Estimates of Excess Relative Risk percent (Err %) per 10 mSv were obtained by using the Poisson regression. The Err for all causes was statistically significant (1.05 (90 % CI 0.31 : 1.80)), but no longer significant after adjusting for smoking (0.45 (-0.24 : 1.13)). The Err for all cancers excluding leukemia was not significant (0.92 (-0.30 : 2.16)), but after adjusting for smoking, it decreased (0.36 (-0.79 : 1.50)). Thus smoking has a large effect to obscure a radiation risk, so adjustment for smoking is important to estimate radiation risk. (Author)

  8. Radiation effects at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanger, P.A.; Danby, G.T.

    1975-01-01

    Shielding, radiation damage, and radiation heating at the planned ISABELLE storage rings were considered. Radiation shielding studies were reviewed and were found to be adequate for present day dosage limits. Radiation damage could be encountered in some extreme cases, but is not expected to limit the performance of the superconducting magnets. Experiments to study the effect of radiation heating on actual magnets are recommended

  9. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  10. Radiation effects and radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.

    1988-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig./MG) With 8 maps in appendix [de

  11. Polonium in mainstream cigarette smoke and associated internal radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Rathod, T.D.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Maity, S.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    210 Po activity concentrations in cigarettes tobacco, mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS), ash and post smoking filter were measured by alpha spectrometry using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. The results of present study indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of 210 Po in cigarette tobacco were 9.77 to 15.34 mBq per cigarette. The combined annual effective doses due to internal exposure of 210 Po and 210 Pb for a smoker (considering on an average 20 cigarette a day and 50% of MCS getting deposited in respiratory tract) were found to be ranging from 0.28 to 0.40 mSv for tested brands of cigarette. (author)

  12. Acute exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke are not related to expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Recent research has shown that 10 min of moderate intensity exercise reduce smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the reductions are related to participant expectation of these effects. Forty-five sedentary participants who had smoked ten or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years reported their expectation of the effects of exercise on smoking withdrawal symptoms. Approximately 1 month later, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups after 11-15 h of overnight smoking abstinence. Each group read either a positive, negative or neutral statement concerning exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms. They rated their expectation again and then completed 10 min of moderate intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Using standardised scales, participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke at 10, 5 and 0 min before exercise, then at 5 and 10 min during exercise and 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Expectation of exercise effects on withdrawal were manipulated in the predicted directions. No significant group main effects were found for any symptom. Significant reductions in symptoms and desire to smoke occurred during and after exercise regardless of participant expectation. Ten minutes of moderate intensity exercise can lead to reductions in desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms, which are not due to the participant's expectation of exercise effects. These findings support the use of short periods of exercise as an aid to smoking cessation.

  13. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  14. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petrušić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the detrimental effect of smoking on the function of the salivary glands. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 patients who were divided into two groups: a test group which included smokers and control group represented by non-smokers. Each group included 30 patients. General information was collected from all the respondents via a questionnaire as well as the data on the duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Saliva was collected by spitting method in a graduated tube and the amount of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was measured and recorded in ml per minute. Stimulated saliva was collected immediately after rinsing the mouth with a 2% aqueous solution of citric acid which is carried salivary stimulation. The presence of pigmentation on the teeth and coated tongue were recorded during clinical examination. The degree of oral hygiene was determined by plaque index. All the obtained data were statistically analyzed with significance level p <0.05. Results: The results showed no significant differences in the amount of saliva between smokers and non-smokers, however, the amount of saliva decreases significantly with the duration of smoking and increasing age of smokers. Also proven was the difference in the quality of saliva: smokers have thick saliva and nonsmokers predominantly serous. In addition, smokers have poorer oral hygiene status than non-smokers, and demonstrated a positive correlation between the level of oral hygiene and length of smoking tobacco. Conclusion: This study has proven that smoking adversely affects salivation: long-term smoking reduces the secretion of saliva and changes its quality.

  15. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  16. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  17. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  18. Effect of smoking scenes in films on immediate smoking: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. 100 cigarette smokers aged 18-25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a 10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR=6.73, 95% CI=1.00, 45.25, comparing the top to bottom 5th percentiles of exposure). Level of nicotine dependence (OR=1.71, 95% CI=1.27, 2.32 per point on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale); contemplation (OR=9.07, 95% CI=1.71, 47.99) and precontemplation (OR=7.30, 95% CI=1.39, 38.36) stages of change; and impulsivity (OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.03, 1.43) were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking of parents and best friend--independent and combined effects on adolescent smoking and intention to initiate and quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Day, Jeffrey R

    2012-09-01

    This study investigates the independent and combined effects of smoking of parents and best friend on smoking and the intention to initiate or quit smoking in adolescents. In this school-based survey, 6,553 Hong Kong students aged 13-18 reported their demographic characteristics, smoking status of themselves, parents, and best friend; and intention to smoke (initiation among never-smokers and reinitiation among ex-smokers) or quit smoking among current smokers. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of student smoking (current/ever) and intention to smoke or quit smoking for parental (paternal/maternal/both parents vs. none) and best friend (yes vs. no) smoking. Parental smoking and having a smoking best friend were associated with adolescent current smoking, ever smoking, and intention to initiate smoking. Having a smoking best friend was also associated with reinitiating and quitting smoking. The AORs (95% CI) of current smoking for having a smoking best friend, in addition to smoking father, mother, or both were 19.14 (14.36-25.51), 20.38 (12.42-33.43), and 24.18 (15.89-36.77). The respective AORs of ever smoking were 8.30 (6.74-10.22), 8.92 (5.63-14.12), and 11.99 (8.05-17.87). Parental smoking and best friend smoking have independent effects on adolescent smoking behaviors. Their combined effects on current and ever smoking were particularly large. Smoking prevention programs should pay special attention to adolescents with both best friend and parents who smoke.

  20. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  1. Quantifying the persistence of pro-smoking media effects on college students' smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setodji, Claude M; Martino, Steven C; Scharf, Deborah M; Shadel, William G

    2014-04-01

    To quantify the persistence of pro-smoking media exposure effects on college students' intentions to smoke and smoking refusal self-efficacy. A total of 134 college students (ages 18-24 years) were enrolled in an ecological momentary assessment study in which they carried handheld data collection devices for 3 weeks and reported their exposures to pro-smoking media as they occurred in the real world. Smoking intentions and smoking refusal self-efficacy were assessed after each exposure to pro-smoking media and at random prompts during each day of the 3-week assessment period. A generalized additive model was used to determine how long the effect of an exposure to pro-smoking media persisted. The effect of pro-smoking media exposures persisted for 7 days. After exposure, smoking intentions immediately increased (.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [.26, .87]) and then steadily decreased (-.12; 95% CI: [-.19, -.05]) each day for 7 days, while smoking refusal self-efficacy immediately decreased (-.42; 95% CI: [-.75, -.10]) and then steadily increased (.09; 95% CI: [.02, .16]) each day for 7 days. Daily changes occurring after 7 days were not statistically significant, suggesting that smoking intentions and refusal self-efficacy had stabilized and were no longer affected by pro-smoking media exposure. Exposures to pro-smoking media may have strong implications for emerging young adults smoking risk as the impact of an individual exposure appears to persist for at least a week. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal smoking effects on infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.; Vio, F.

    2000-01-01

    Maternal smoking is known to have adverse effects on birth weight, duration and volume of breast feeding. It also negatively affects maternal body composition and prolactin concentration at the end of pregnancy. The effect of smoking on longitudinal growth has not been studied thoroughly. Sixteen smoking mothers (S) during pregnancy and lactation (7.1 ± 4.4 cigarettes/day) and 22 non-smoking mothers (NS), were selected at delivery time, in Santiago, Chile. Infants were evaluated monthly and volume of breast milk was measured at one month by dose-to-infant deuterium dilution, as well as cotinine levels. The concentration of zinc, copper and iron in milk was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Zinc, copper and cadmium were also determined in the infant's hair at one and six months and once in the mother (beginning of lactation). Cotinine levels were determined at one and six months by a radio-immuno-analysis standard kit. In monthly visits to the house, additional formula/food intake to breast feeding was determined in a 48 hours questionnaire to the mother, as well as infant's morbidity was registered. At birth, weight and height were not significantly different, although higher in NS infants. Cotinine levels were 30 times higher in S-mothers compared to NS mothers and 12 times higher in their infants. Both S and NS infants grew within normality as defined by the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) in the Z-scores curves (weight/age, height/age and weight/height). Breast milk was similar in a partial group of NS and S groups (730 ± 133 g/d, 736 ± 136 g/d) and there was no difference in the content of zinc, copper and iron in milk or hair, except for cadmium which was higher in infant's hair at one month of age. Significant differences in height and height/age were found from one to six months of age. Weight/height began to be significantly higher in S-infants from three months onward, due to their slower height growth. Another group of

  3. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  4. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  5. Effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in lowering secondhand smoke concentrations in offices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Quan; Hammond, S Katharine; Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Yan; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2008-05-01

    To examine the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure level in Chinese office buildings and to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoke-free policy in reducing SHS exposure. Survey of smoking policies and measurement of SHS level in 14 office buildings from 10 provinces in China. Smoking in the building significantly elevated the SHS concentrations both in offices with at least one smoker and in offices with no smokers. In one building that recently adopted a smoke-free policy, the nicotine concentrations decreased significantly after the policy was enacted. Enactment of a smoking policy was effective in reducing SHS exposure in the buildings. Nonsmoking office workers in China were exposed to significant levels of SHS at work; both the central and local governments should realize the need to legislate against workplace smoking.

  6. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Near, Aimee M.; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M.; Levy, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. Methods: The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus pre...

  7. Is the smoking decision an 'informed choice'? Effect of smoking risk factors on smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, H; Glynn, K; Fleming, R

    1987-06-26

    The argument that people freely choose to smoke assumes that individuals at the point of initiation of smoking (often in adolescence) hold accurate beliefs about smoking. Smoking beliefs and the presence of known smoking risk factors were assessed in interviews with a sample of 895 urban young people. The respondents greatly overestimated the prevalence of adult and peer smoking, negative attitudes of their peers were greatly underestimated, a large proportion believed that they would be less likely than other people to contract a smoking-related illness if they became smokers, and there was a general lack of understanding of the adverse consequences experienced upon smoking cessation. These misperceptions were more common among youngsters who were smokers, who intended to smoke, or who had friends or family members who smoked. Because misinformation among young people is widespread and those at greatest risk for smoking are the most misinformed, the tobacco industry's argument that the decision to smoke reflects an "informed choice" is without merit.

  8. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  9. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The stages of processes leading to radiation damage are studied, as well as, the direct and indirect mechanics of its production. The radiation effects on nucleic acid and protein macro moleculas are treated. The physical and chemical factors that modify radiosensibility are analysed, in particular the oxygen effects, the sensibilization by analogues of nitrogen bases, post-effects, chemical protection and inherent cell factors. Consideration is given to restoration processes by excision of injured fragments, the bloching of the excision restoration processes, the restoration of lesions caused by ionizing radiations and to the restoration by genetic recombination. Referring to somatic effects of radiation, the early ones and the acute syndrome of radiation are discussed. The difference of radiosensibility observed in mammalian cells and main observable alterations in tissues and organs are commented. Referring to delayed radiation effects, carcinogeneses, alterations of life span, effects on growth and development, as well as localized effects, are also discussed [pt

  10. Smoking reduced in urban restaurants: the effect of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Xiurong; Li, Yuqin; Gan, Quan; Liu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation, occurrence of smoking in restaurants was compared before and after the law took effect. A cohort study design was used in a randomly selected sample of 176 restaurants in two districts of Beijing. Undercover visits were paid by investigators to the same restaurants at lunch or dinner time 5 months before the law took effect and 1-month after. The occurrence of smoking and presence of no-smoking signs were observed. Much less smoking was observed (14.8%) in restaurants compared to that before the law took effect (40.3%). The drop in smoking occurrence was more evident in open dining areas (from 32.4% to 5.1%) compared to the men's restrooms of the restaurants (23.8% to 18.8%). No intervention from restaurant staff was observed whenever smoking occurred. Posting of no-smoking signage increased considerably after the law came into effect (from 52.6% to 82.4%), but very few no-smoking signs included the symptom hotline number (38.5%) or the amount of penalty (5.6%). The Beijing Smoking Control Regulation achieved one of its intended goals of reducing smoking occurrences in restaurants, but further effort of strengthening implementation is still needed and should focus on boosting compliance with no-smoking sign requirements, reducing smoking in restrooms of the restaurants and mobilising the restaurant staff to intervene in case of violations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  12. Influence of smoking status on treatment outcomes after post-operative radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Sonia K.A.; Masson-Cote, Laurence; Fortin, Andre; Dagnault, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of post-operative radiotherapy in patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unclear. Modifiable factors, like smoking, may help guide therapy. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of smoking on control in patients undergoing post-operative radiation therapy (PORT) for NSCLC. Materials and methods: Between 1995 and 2007, 152 patients who underwent surgery for NSCLC were analyzed (median follow-up 26 months). Non-smokers were defined as patients who never smoked or who had stopped smoking at the time of initial consultation. Sixty seven percent were non-smokers; 5% never smoked, 40% of the non-smokers had ceased smoking for a year or less, while 55% had stopped for more than a year. Results: On univariate analysis, smokers had worse 5-year local control than non-smokers (70% versus 90%, p = 0.001) and locoregional control (52% versus 77%, p = 0.002). The 5 -year survival rate was 21% for smokers and 31% for non-smokers (p = 0.2). On multivariate analysis, smokers maintained a detrimental effect on locoregional control (HR 3.6, p = 0.0006). Conclusions: Smokers at initial consultation have poorer local and locoregional control after PORT than non-smokers. In patients being considered for PORT for NSCLC, quitting smoking before treatment confers additional treatment advantage.

  13. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  14. Reversal of Smoking Effects on Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-10-01

    Objective To understand whether the impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is reversible after smoking cessation. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Subjects and Methods A total of 103 former-smoker CRS patients and 103 nonsmoker CRS patients were prospectively recruited. The primary outcome measure was sinonasal symptom severity measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), and secondary outcome measures were general health-related quality of life (QOL) measured with the 5-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year. Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since cessation of smoking for former smokers. Results Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 score ( P = .019) and EQ-5D VAS score ( P = .001) and reported using more CRS-related antibiotics ( P = .003) and oral corticosteroids in the past year ( P = .013). In former smokers, every year was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.05; P = .032), EQ-5D VAS score (β = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91; P = .046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (relative risk = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .001). Given the differences in our study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, we estimate that the reversible impacts of smoking on CRS may resolve after 10 to 20 years. Conclusions CRS patients who are former smokers have worse sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related medication usage than nonsmokers. Every year since cessation of smoking is associated improvements in sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use, potentially reaching nonsmoker levels after 10 to 20 years.

  15. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Food Technology in Africa ... Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. ... off odour development, softening of the fish and positively affected personal preference.

  16. Smoking habits among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Kimura, Masafumi

    1992-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation made a research through mailing, the smoking habits among the A-bomb survivors in 1978-79. Statistic analysis was made on the smoking habits and radiation doses. (J.P.N.)

  17. Tobacco smoke exposure suppresses radiation-induced inflammation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Cai, Y.; Nilsson, K.; Hellstroem, S.; Henriksson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies on patients with breast cancer, who received postsurgical irradiation, displayed a markedly suppressed inflammatory response in the lung of smoking patients compared to nonsmokers. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in the rat. Four groups of animals were used: controls (C); those exposed to tobacco smoke (S); those irradiated but not exposed to smoke (RNS); and those irradiated and exposed to tobacco smoke (RS). The rats were exposed to a diluted main stream of cigarette smoke, at a concentration of about 0.4 mgxl -1 , in a nose-only exposure system for 1 hxday -1 , 5 daysxweek -1 for 10 weeks. Exposure to tobacco smoke started 3 weeks before irradiation. The basal one third of both lungs was exposed to a single radiation dose of 28 Gy (6 MeV photons). All animals were killed 7 weeks after irradiation. We compared findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue morphology. The alveolar tissue showed less inflammation in the RS-group than in the RNS-group. Most strikingly, mast cells were increased one hundredfold in the lung interstitium and thirty fold in the peribronchial area in the RNS-group, whereas no increase was found in the RS-group or in the controls. The alveolar septa of the RNS-group were thickened, with occurrence of inflammatory cells and mast cells, whereas the RS-group displayed no difference as compared to the non-irradiated, nonsmoking group (C). There was a marked discrepancy between the findings in BAL and tissue of the alveolar space or lung interstitium. In BAL, neutrophils, and to a lesser extent lymphocytes, were increased both in the RS- and RNS-group; however, with significantly higher numbers in the RNS-group. In contrast, the cells in the alveolar space and interstitium were dominated by mononuclear cells, mainly macrophages. Moreover, a more than twenty fold increase in total cells in the alveolar

  18. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  19. Combined effect of incorporated 90Sr, alcohol, and tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    Combined effect of incorporated 90 Sr, ethanol, tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals is studied. It is shown that chronic intake of strontium 90, ethanol and tobacco smokes suppresses the reproduction of animals. But difficulty of obtained data extrapolation to a human being is not a sufficient ground for revising existing hygienic standards for persons being in contact with ionizing radiation and habitual to alcohol and smoking. Nevertheless, they permit to set a problem on negative effect of such habits

  20. Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Experiment in Brazil (SCAR-B) Data Set Version 5.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCAR_B_G8_FIRE data are Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation Experiment in Brazil, GOES-8 ABBA Diurnal Fire Product (1995 Fire Season) data.Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds...

  1. Radiation-induced increase in hyaluronan and fibronectin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from breast cancer patients is suppressed by smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Nilsson, K.; Haellgren, R.; Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Sandstroem, T.; Saernstrand, B.

    1992-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was analysed from 21 patients with breast cancer, stage T 1 N 0 M 0 , who had undergone tumour resection and postoperative local irradiation (accumulated dose 56 Gy). The lavage was performed two months after radiotherapy, in the anterior part of the lingula (left side) or of the right middle lobe (right side), depending on which side had been exposed to radiation. The patients had significantly increased concentrations of fibronectin (FN) (p<0.001), hyaluronan (HA) (p<0.01) and albumin (p<0.05) in BAL fluid compared with the healthy controls (n=19). However, when the patients were separated, according to smoking history, it was obvious that the inflammatory reaction occurred entirely in the nonsmoking patient group (n=10), whilst no difference could be found between the smoking patients (n=11) and the controls. In the nonsmoking patient group, there was a sevenfold increase in BAL concentrations of FN and a threefold increase in HA. Moreover, four patients had detectable levels of procollagen III peptide in BAL, all were nonsmokers. The smoking habits of the controls had no influence on the BAL measurements. These findings indicate that smoking interferes with the radiation-induced early inflammatory connective tissue reaction of the lung. Finally, the results justify further investigation of interaction of smoking with cancer treatment, both from the view of therapy effectiveness and reduction of adverse effects. (au)

  2. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  3. Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of Diplotaxodon fish species (Ndunduma) from lake Malawi, Malawi. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The fish were washed then weighed and thereafter, smoked in a traditional smoking kiln and sun dried on reed mats.

  4. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  5. The Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Advertising on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising on youth smoking. NRT advertising could decrease smoking by informing smokers that the product can make quitting easier and thus inducing more smokers to try and quit. However, a moral hazard is created because NRT advertising increases the expectation that cessation is relatively easy. NRT advertising could thus induce youth to smoke, to smoke more and/or to delay quit attempts. Data from Nielsen Media Research ...

  6. Radiation effects on polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Takenori; Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Doi, Shuji; Ohnishi, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation on electrical conductivity of polyaniline were investigated. A drastic increase of the conductivity due to radiation-induced doping was observed in combined systems of polyaniline films and halogen-containing polymers. This effect can be applied to measure an integrated radiation dose. (author)

  7. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Effects of the X:IT smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Bast, Lotus Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking....... METHODS: Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline...... covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. RESULTS: At baseline, 4.7% and 6...

  9. The effects of taxes and bans on passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  10. The Effect of Taxes and Bans on Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  11. Short-term effect of changes in smoking behaviour on emphysema quantification by CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Shaker, Saher Burhan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of smoking cessation and smoking relapse on lung density was studied using low-dose CT.......The effect of smoking cessation and smoking relapse on lung density was studied using low-dose CT....

  12. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, R.K., E-mail: dr_rajendra_purohit@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner (India); Bugalia, Saroj [Department of Zoology, S.K. Kalyan College, Sikar (India); Dakshene, Monika [Department of Chemistry, Govt. College, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  13. Radiation effects and radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bugalia, Saroj; Dakshene, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure causes damage to biological systems and these damages are mediated by the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species targeting vital cellular components such as DNA and membranes. DNA repair systems and the endogenous cellular biochemical defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species and antioxidants enzymes like reduced Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase catalase etc. fail upon exposures to higher as well as chronic radiation doses leading to alterations in cell functions, cell death or mutations. Radioprotectors prevent these alterations and protect cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiations. Radioprotectors are of great importance due to their possible and potential application during planned radiation exposures such as radiotherapy, diagnostic scanning, clean up operations in nuclear accidents, space expeditions etc. and Unplanned radiations exposures such as accidents in nuclear industry, nuclear terrorism, natural background radiation etc. Many of the available synthetic radioprotectors are toxic to mammalian system at doses required to be effective as radioprotector. Increasing uses of ionizing radiation have drawn the attention of many radiobiologists towards their undesired side effects produced in various tissues and for modifying them to facilitate the beneficial uses of radiation. Modification of radiation response is obtained by means of chemical substances that can significantly decrease the magnitude of response when present in a biological system during irradiation. Radioprotectors are chemicals that modify a cell's response to radiation. Radioprotectors are drugs that protect normal (non cancerous) cells from the damage caused by radiation therapy. These agents promote the repair of normal cells that are exposed to radiation. Various chemicals, like Cysteamine, MPG , WR-2721 have been tested for the protection against harmful effects of radiation. These radio

  14. Biological effects and hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; Solomon, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risk to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. This risk effects can be at least qualitatively understood by considering the effects of radiation on cell DNA. Whilst exposure to high levels of radiation results in a number of identifiable effects, exposure to low levels of radiation may result in effects which only manifest themselves after many years. Risk estimates for low levels of radiation have been derived on the basis of a number of assumptions. In the case of uranium mine workers a major hazard arises from the inhalation of radon daughters. Whilst the correlation between radon daughter exposure and lung cancer incidence is well established, the numerical value of the risk factor is the subject of controversy. ICRP 50 gives a value of 10 cases per 10 6 person-years at risk per WLM (range 5-15 x 10 -6 PYR -1 WLM -1 ). The effect of smoking on lung cancer incidence rates amongst miners is also controversial. Nevertheless, smoking by miners should be discouraged

  15. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.

    1989-01-01

    The book covers all aspects of biological radiation effects. The physical basis is dealt with in some detail, and the effects at the subcellular and the cellular level are discussed, taking into account modern developments and techniques. The effects on the human organism are reviewed, both from the point of view of applications in medicine as well as with regard to radiation hazards (teratogenic, gonadal and carcinogenic effects)

  17. Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff (naffa) inhalation on BMI, lipid profile, and plasma glucose. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Methods: The study was conducted on 200 healthy male subjects, including, 50 non-smokers aged 40.98±8.07, 50 cigarette smokers aged 41.32±7.39, ...

  18. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive......, medium intensity and less intensive. Follow-up for postoperative complications was 30 days. For smoking cessation it was from the day of surgery to 12 months thereafter. Overall, the interventions significantly reduced the occurrence of complications (pooled risk ratio 0.56 (95 per cent confidence...

  19. [Cost effectiveness of workplace smoking policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Tamara; van den Borne, Inge

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the motivations of companies to set out a policy for controlling smoking, the economic benefits for the company resulting from such a policy and the costs, broken down by European Union countries. The literature on the costs of implementing a policy related to smoking at the workplace is reviewed. The main objective of policies related to smoking at the workplace is that of safeguarding employees from environmental tobacco smoke. Other reasons are cutting costs, improving the company image, and reducing absenteeism, occupational accidents, internal quarrels and extra costs due to cigarette smoking, protection against environmental tobacco smoke does not entail any higher costs for companies, and economic advantages are visible. The benefits are by far greater than the costs involved, particularly on a long-range basis, and seem to be greater when smoking at the workplace is completely prohibited and no smoking areas are set.

  20. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  1. Biophysical radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.

    1982-07-01

    The biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation is based upon the absorption of energy in molecular structures of a cell. Because of the quantum nature of radiation large fluctuations of energy concentration in subcellulare regions has to be considered. In addition both the spatial distribution of a sensitive molecular target and cellulare repair processes has to be taken into consideration for an assessment of radiation action. In radiation protection the difference between the quality factor and the Relative Biological Effectiveness has a fundamental meaning and will be discussed in more detail. The present report includes a short review on some relevant models on radiation action and a short discussion on effects of low dose irradiation. (orig.) [de

  2. The Wage Effects of Personal Smoking History

    OpenAIRE

    GRAFOVA, IRINA B.; STAFFORD, FRANK P.

    2009-01-01

    Why do we observe a wage differential between smokers and non-smokers? Pooling reports of current and prior smoking activity across 15 years from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) allows the reconstruction of individual smoking histories. Dividing the sample into smoking history groups, the four largest of which are: persistent smokers, never smokers, former smokers, and future quitters reveals that there is no observed wage gap between former smokers and those who have never smoked. ...

  3. Radiation effects in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in the studies of radiation effects in gases are discussed. By means of ionization- excitation- and electron-capture yields various applications are characterized: ionization detectors, X-ray detectors, radionuclide battery, and radiation-induced chemical gas-phase reactions. Some new results of basic research in respect to the SO 2 oxidation are discussed. (author)

  4. Effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, G.

    1984-08-01

    After recalling radiation-matter interaction, influence on radiation effects of chemical composition, structure, irradiation atmosphere, dose rate, temperature of organic materials and evolution of electrical, mechanical and physical properties are reviewed. Then behaviour under irradiation of main organic materials: elastomers, thermoplastics, thermosetting plastics, oils and paints are examined. 68 refs [fr

  5. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Termansen; Simon Rask

    2017-01-01

    Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day). This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoki...

  6. Interactive effects between radiation and other factors on cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews RERF cancer studies conducted to examine interactive effects between radiation and epidemiological risk factors, including smoking habits, occupation, dietary habits and OB/GYN history. Special emphasis is placed on a review of studies of interactive effects between cigarette smoking and radiation on lung cancer risk. Comments on these studies are made and proposals for future studies are presented. (author)

  7. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  8. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  9. Transcriptomic epidemiology of smoking: the effect of smoking on gene expression in lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasy Laura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation offers insights into system-wide pathological processes induced in response to cigarette smoke exposure by determining its influences at the gene expression level. Methods We obtained genome-wide quantitative transcriptional profiles from 1,240 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study, including 297 current smokers. Using lymphocyte samples, we identified 20,413 transcripts with significantly detectable expression levels, including both known and predicted genes. Correlation between smoking and gene expression levels was determined using a regression model that allows for residual genetic effects. Results With a conservative false-discovery rate of 5% we identified 323 unique genes (342 transcripts whose expression levels were significantly correlated with smoking behavior. These genes showed significant over-representation within a range of functional categories that correspond well with known smoking-related pathologies, including immune response, cell death, cancer, natural killer cell signaling and xenobiotic metabolism. Conclusions Our results indicate that not only individual genes but entire networks of gene interaction are influenced by cigarette smoking. This is the largest in vivo transcriptomic epidemiological study of smoking to date and reveals the significant and comprehensive influence of cigarette smoke, as an environmental variable, on the expression of genes. The central importance of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the relationships between gene expression and smoking in this exceptionally large cross-sectional data set.

  10. The effects of Smoke Free Work Hours in Danish municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Termansen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2011, 15 Danish municipalities have implemented smoke free work hours, meaning that an employee working for the municipality may not smoke in his or her work time (about 7,5 hours a day. This is a much stricter prevention method, than former strategies preventing smoking mostly at locations and not during working hours. Research concerning the effects of smoke free work hours is non-existing. We therefore wish to look into the specific outcomes of smoke free work hours related to smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place culture through a semi-experimental study. As the decision to implement smoke free work hours is administrative and/or political, we will not be able to randomize the intervention. Instead, we use one or more Danish municipality who are planning to implement smoke free work hours as an intervention-group and similar municipalities as control group. Data will be collected both through questionnaires about employees smoking prevalence, sickness leave and work place community, and through register data about the citizens employed in the municipalities in question. This will primarily be data on socio-economic status and health. In this way we can compare the municipalities implementing smoke free work hours with each other and find similar control municipalities. We hope, that this study can contribute to understanding the specific outcomes of implementing smoke free work hours, focusing both on health outcomes and work place culture.

  11. Where there's smoke : health effects of wood smoke and risk reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, B. [New Brunswick Lung Association, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of a discussion at a former workshop on smoke from both forest fires and wood stoves. Climate change is forecasted to increase the occurrence of forest fires in Canada and climate change mitigation measures may increase the use of wood stoves for home heating, resulting in an increase in respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms in the Canadian population. These health effects of wood smoke include: headaches and allergies; breathing difficulties; reduced lung function; aggravated heart disease; and increased susceptibility to lower respiratory tract infections. This paper also presented information on health effects of wood smoke and research recommendations for improved policies to protect human health. tabs., figs.

  12. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  13. Radiation. Doses, effect, risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapirev, E.; Todorov, P.

    1994-12-01

    This book outlines in a popular form the topic of ionizing radiation impacts on living organisms. It contains data gathered by ICRP for a period of 35 years. The essential dosimetry terms and units are presented. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are described. Possible biological radiation effects and diseases as a consequence of external and internal irradiation at normal and accidental conditions are considered. An assessment of genetic risk for human populations is presented and the concept of 'acceptable risk' is discussed

  14. Cigar burning under different smoking intensities and effects on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Ole; Mueller, Christian; Cahours, Xavier; Colard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    The effect of smoking intensity on cigar smoke emissions was assessed under a range of puff frequencies and puff volumes. In order to potentially reduce emissions variability and to identify patterns as accurately as possible, cigar weights and diameters were measured, and outliers were excluded prior to smoking. Portions corresponding to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the cigar, measured down to the butt length, were smoked under several smoking conditions, to assess nicotine, CO and water yields. The remaining cigar butts were analysed for total alkaloids, nicotine, and moisture. Results showed accumulation effects during the burning process having a significant impact on smoke emission levels. Condensation and evaporation occur and lead to smoke emissions dependent on smoking intensity. Differences were observed for CO on one side as a gas phase compound and nicotine on the other side as a particulate phase compound. For a given intensity, while CO emission increases linearly as the cigar burns, nicotine and water emissions exhibited an exponential increase. Our investigations showed that a complex phenomena occurs during the course of cigar smoking which makes emission data: difficult to interpret, is potentially misleading to the consumer, and inappropriate for exposure assessment. The results indicate that, tobacco content and physical parameters may well be the most robust basis for product characterisation and comparison rather than smoke emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of interactive transport and scavenging of smoke on the calculated temperature change resulting from large amounts of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    Several theoretical studies with numerical models have shown that substantial land-surface cooling can occur if very large amounts (approx. 100 x 10 12 = 100 Tg) of highly absorbing sooty-particles are injected high into the troposphere and spread instantaneously around the hemisphere (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al. 1984; MacCracken, 1983). A preliminary step beyond these initial calculations has been made by interactively coupling the two-layer, three-dimensional Oregon State University general circulation model (GCM) to the three-dimensional GRANTOUR trace species model developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GCM simulation includes treatment of tropospheric dynamics and thermodynamics and the effect of soot on solar radiation. The GRANTOUR simulation includes treatment of particle transport and scavenging by precipitation, although no satisfactory verification of the scavenging algorithm has yet been possible. We have considered the climatic effects of 150 Tg (i.e., the 100 Mt urban war scenario from Turco et al., 1983) and of 15 Tg of smoke from urban fires over North America and Eurasia. Starting with a perpetual July atmospheric situation, calculation of the climatic effects as 150 Tg of smoke are spread slowly by the winds, rather than instantaneously dispersed as in previous calculations, leads to some regions of greater cooling under the denser parts of the smoke plumes and some regions of less severe cooling where smoke arrival is delayed. As for the previous calculations, mid-latitude decreases of land surface air temperature for the 150 Tg injection are greater than 15 0 C after a few weeks. For a 15 Tg injection, however, cooling of more than several degrees centigrade only occurs in limited regions under the dense smoke plumes present in the first few weeks after the injection. 10 references, 9 figures

  17. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  18. Smoking within the Household: Spousal Peer Effects and Children's Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Canta, Chiara; Dubois, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies spousal peer effects on the smoking behaviour and their implication for the health of children through passive smoking. Smoking decisions are modeled as equilibrium strategies of an incomplete information game within the couple. Using data from the French Health Survey 2002-2003, we identify two distinct effects linked to spousal behaviour: a smoking enhancing effect of smoking partners and a smoking deterring effect of non smoking partners. On the one hand, ...

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of the Smoking Prevention Program "I Do Not Smoke, I Exercise" in Elementary and Secondary School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovelonis, Athanasios; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the smoking prevention program "I do not smoke, I exercise" implemented with elementary and secondary school students. "I do not smoke, I exercise" is a theory-based smoking prevention program that promotes exercise as an alternative of smoking. The program consists of eight sessions implemented weekly. Participants were 338 Greek students (135 elementary and 203 secondary students) who were pre- and posttested in smoking, program, and exercise-related measures. The results showed that the program had significant effects on elementary students' attitudes toward smoking, intention to smoke, subjective norms, attitudes toward the application of the program, and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking. For secondary students, significant effects were found on students' perceived behavioral control and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, while very few students reported a smoking experience before and after the intervention. Therefore the program "I do not smoke, I exercise" may have positive effects on variables related with smoking behavior. Differences in the program's impact on elementary and secondary students were identified. All these are discussed with reference to the need of implementing smoking prevention programs in schools contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Effects of Cissus Populnea (Ogbolo) On Mainstream Smoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Cissus Populnea (Ogbolo) On Mainstream Smoked Weaned Rabbit. H A Smith, O Ogunfeibo. Abstract. The effect of Cissus populnae, a medicinal plant commonly used by Nigerian Traditional Medicine practitioners for the treatment of fertility abnormalities especially in males has been investigated in smoking ...

  1. Effects Of Cissus Populnea (Ogbolo) On Mainstream Smoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Cissus Populnea (Ogbolo) On Mainstream Smoked Weaned Rabbit. H A Smith, O Ogunfeibo. Abstract. The effect of Cissus populnea, a medicinal plant commonly used by the Nigerian Traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of tertiary abnormalities especially in male has been investigated in smoking ...

  2. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Handbook of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes-Siedle, A.; Adams, L.

    1993-01-01

    This handbook is intended to serve as a tool for designers of equipment and scientific instruments in cases where they are required to ensure the survival of the equipment in radiation environments. High-technology materials, especially semiconductors and optics, tend to degrade on exposure to radiation in many different ways. Intense high-energy radiation environments are found in nuclear reactors and accelerators, machines for radiation therapy, industrial sterilization, and space. Some engineers have to build equipment which will survive a nuclear explosion from a hostile source. Proper handling of a disaster with radioactive materials requires equipment which depends utterly on semiconductor microelectronics and imaging devices. Thus the technology of radiation-tolerant electronics is an instrument for good social spheres as diverse as disaster planning and the exploration of Mars. In order to design equipment for intense environments like those described above, then degradation from high-energy irradiation must be seen as a basic design parameter. The aim of this handbook is to assist the engineer or student in that thought; to make it possible to write intelligent specifications; to offer some understanding of the complex variety of effects which occur when high-technology components encounter high-energy radiation; and to go thoroughly into the balance of choices of how to alleviate the effects and hence achieve the design aims of the project. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 chapters of this book

  4. The effect of cigarette smoking on cancer treatment-related side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J; Mustian, Karen M; Morrow, Gary R; Dozier, Ann M; Ossip, Deborah J; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; McIntosh, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been implicated in cancer development and survival. However, few studies have investigated the impact of smoking on symptom burden in cancer survivors during treatment and at survivorship stage. This study examines the influence of cigarette smoking on side effects among 947 cancer patients during and 6 months following treatment. Patients diagnosed with cancer and scheduled to receive chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy reported on current smoking status (yes, no) and total symptom burden [the sum of 12 common symptoms (fatigue, hair loss, memory, nausea, depression, sleep, pain, concentration, hot flashes, weight loss, skin problems, and dyspnea) scored on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 = "not present" to 10 = "as bad as you can imagine"] during treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The adjusted mean total symptom burden by smoking status was determined by analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race, education, occupation, treatment, cancer site, and Karnofsky performance score. During treatment, smokers (S) had a significantly higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (NS) (S = 46.3 vs. NS = 41.2; p < 0.05). At 6-month follow-up, smokers continued to report a higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (S = 27.7 vs. NS = 21.9; p < 0.05). Participants who quit smoking before treatment levels had a total symptom burden similar to nonsmokers. Smoking was associated with an increased symptom burden during and following treatments for cancer. Targeted cessation efforts for smokers to decrease symptom burden may limit the likelihood of treatment interruptions and increase quality of life following treatment.

  5. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of exclusive cigarette smoking and in combination with waterpipe smoking on lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, LDL levels increased relative to nonsmokers, consistent with findings in other populations. In addition, among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, current waterpipe smoking might increase adverse lipid profiles associated with adverse coronary effects more than cigarette smoking alone. The direct cause responsible for these observed variations in our study remains unidentified, with the hope that future research will reveal it.

  7. Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatau, B.D.; Garba, N.N.; Yusuf, A.M.; Yamusa, Y. A.; Musa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In earlier studies, researchers aimed a single particle at the nucleus of the cell where DNA is located. Eighty percent of the cells shot through the nucleus survived. This contradicts the belief that if radiation slams through the nucleus, the cell will die. But the bad news is that the surviving cells contained mutations. Cells have a great capacity to repair DNA, but they cannot do it perfectly. The damage left behind in these studies from a single particle of alpha radiation doubled the damage that is already there. This proved, beyond a shadow of doubt, those there biological effects occur as a result of exposure to radiation, Radiation is harmful to living tissue because of its ionizing power in matter. This ionization can damage living cells directly, by breaking the chemical bonds of important biological molecules (particularly DNA), or indirectly, by creating chemical radicals from water molecules in the cells, which can then attack the biological molecules chemically. At some extent these molecules are repaired by natural biological processes, however, the effectiveness of this repair depends on the extent of the damage. The interaction of ionizing with the human body, arising either from external sources outside the body or from internal contamination of the body by radioactive materials, leads to the biological effects which may later show up as a clinical symptoms. Basically, this formed the baseline of this research to serve as a yardstick for creating awareness about radiation and its resulting effects.

  8. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  9. DENTAL PATIENT KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING AND ATTITUDES ABOUT THE ROLE OF DENTISTS IN SMOKING CESSATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Nurul Asyikin; Saub, Roslan; Nor, Mariani Md; Yusoff, Noriah

    2017-03-01

    Dentists can offer their patients who smoke tobacco assistance with smoking cessation. We conducted this study to assess dental patient knowledge about the effects of smoking and perceptions and attitudes regarding the role of dentists in smoking cessation counselling. We conducted this study to inform tobacco cessation programs that could potentially include dentists. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire among 375 patients. The mean age of subjects was 33.4 years; females comprised 51.5%. Participants were divided into 3 groups: those who never smoked (n = 263, 70.7%), smokers (n = 92, 24.7%), and ex-smokers (n = 17, 4.5%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.046) who never smoked (92.9%) knew smoking can cause bad breath than smokers (86.9%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.002) who never smoked (74.8%) knew smoking can cause periodontal disease than smokers (57.6%). Significantly more participants (p smoked (84.5%) knew smoking can cause oral cancer than smokers (66.7%). Significantly more participants (p smoked (86.7%) knew smoking can cause lung cancer than smokers (69.7%). Significantly more participants who never smoked (85.5%) felt dentists should be interested in the smoking status of their patients (p = 0.004) than smokers (72.6%). Significantly more participants (p = 0.08) who never smoked (69.6%) stated dentists should give smoking cessation advice than smokers/ex-smokers (59.0%). Smoker/ ex-smokers had less knowledge about the effects of smoking on oral and general health than non-smokers. Both smokers/ex-smokers and non-smokers felt dentists should provide smoking cessation advice.

  10. Effects of alcoholism severity and smoking on executive neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Adams, Kenneth M; Nigg, Joel T; Puttler, Leon I; Jester, Jennifer M; Zucker, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse of substances other than alcohol. Cigarette smoking occurs at higher rates in alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance, yet the effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism are often ignored. We examined whether chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking have effects on executive function. Alcoholism and smoking were examined in a community-recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (n = 240) using standard neuropsychological and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism was measured as the average level of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 years). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Both alcoholism and smoking were correlated negatively with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was correlated negatively with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was correlated negatively with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism were significant predictors of executive function composite. However, when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer significant. Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism was not independent of IQ, suggesting a generalized effect, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more specific processing speed deficit associated with chronic smoking.

  11. Hemo rheological Changes Associated with Occupational Exposure to Low Doses Radiation from X-Ray Inspection Machines Influenced by Smoking Habits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.A.M.; El-khatib, A.M.; Naim, M.A.; Ali, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of low dose x-ray radiation on some rheological parameters of blood were investigated in 30 male x-ray workers and 20 healthy volunteers not occupationally exposed to any type of radiation and match in age. Each group was classified according to smoking habits. The analysis of the flow curve of all subjects was performed by applying power-law model and Bingham plastic model. The results indicated elevates in whole blood viscosity and yield stress in smoker subjects as compared with non-smoker subjects and also showed that the elevation of blood viscosity of smoker radiation workers are related to work duration in the radiation field.We have observed that cigarette smoking increases the hazardous effects of radiation through the increase of blood viscosity, which excess the risk of cardiovascular disease. So it is recommended to consider blood viscosity measurements to be included in routine medical investigation for occupational workers and rheological

  12. The effect of smoking and timing of smoking cessation on clinical outcome in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, A.J.; Ebben, C.W.; Aben, K.K.H.; Witjes, J.A.; Vrieling, A.; Vermeulen, H.H.; Kiemeney, B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for urinary bladder cancer. The prognostic effect of cigarette smoking on disease recurrence and progression in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), however, is still unclear. We evaluated the effect of smoking

  13. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1980-10-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. (auth)

  14. The late biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-06-15

    surveillance. As far as medical exposure is concerned, current practices involving radiation exposure seems well justified in most of the cases, except some where radiation is used for diagnostic purposes of benign disorders. Cytological, histological and physiological studies were reported on experimental animals, apart from cancer induction, on the effect of neonatal exposure and effects on central nervous system. These provided basic data by which human data can be interpreted and analysed. Several novel approaches were reported for prediction of late effects, e.g. DNA repair capability, and some cytogenetic and physiological parameters which are expected to be of practical merit in future. The dose-effect relationship, by which human risk estimates at low doses are derived by extrapolation, was another topic of lively discussion. Several new models based on theoretical analysis or experimental data were proposed and compared with the available human and animal data. Although the validity of these awaits further research, some shed a new light on the problems of extrapolation. Radiation effects in practice are complicated by other environmental factor;, such chemical pollutants which may be additional causal agents. The importance of theoretical approach for prediction of such combined effects was stressed. Of interest was the combined effect of smoking and radon-222 in lung cancer induction. Lung cancer incidence was significantly elevated by combination of the two in the rat, which was also substantiated by the observation in Hiroshima-Nagasaki study where incidence of lung cancer in the smoking population was shown to be higher than the non-smoking population, suggesting synergistic effects of radiation and smoking. This meeting brought together people with a remarkably wide range of interests including the practicalities of radiological protection, epidemiology, medical practices and theoretical and experimental radiobiology. It was stressed that research co

  15. Effect of anti-smoking advertisements on Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, E; Gokler, M E; Metintas, S; Kalyoncu, C

    2016-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the perception of 10 anti-smoking advertisements in 1434 Turkish adolescents. We used the Effectiveness of the Anti-smoking Advertisements Scale, which included 6 items for each advertisement; each item was assessed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the impact of the advertisements. All the advertisements were more effective for adolescents who had never smoked compared to ex-smokers and current smokers. We also noted that, regardless of age, smoking status decreased the effectiveness of all the advertisements. Previous studies have shown that smokers have a negative attitude towards anti-smoking messages. In the present study, the most effective advertisements among adolescents were those with "Sponge and tar", "Smoking harms in every breath" and "Children want to grow". In conclusion, although anti-smoking campaigns are targeted towards adults, they also have a strong influence on adolescents. The main target population for advertisements should be individuals aged < 15 years who have not yet started smoking.

  16. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  17. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the respondents (87%) acknowledged the harmful effects of direct smoking. ... for local authorities to regulate smoking in public places (78%), for government assistance to fanners for tobacco crop replacement (53%) and for an increase in tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health purposes (50%).

  18. Effect of an antismoking advertisement on cinema patrons' perception of smoking and intention to smoke: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-07-01

    To assess the effect of an antismoking advertisement under real-world conditions. Design Quasi-experimental study. Multiplex cinema in Kiel, Germany; 4073 patrons were surveyed after having viewed a movie. Some 4005 patrons were > or = 10 years old (28.7% between 10 and 17 years). A total of 654 subjects (16.3%) were smokers. In the intervention condition (weeks 1 and 3), a 30-second antismoking advertisement-accentuating long-term health consequences of smoking and promoting cessation-was shown prior to all movies; in the control condition (weeks 2 and 4) no such spot was shown. (i) Awareness of smoking in the movie, (ii) approval of smoking in the movie, (iii) attitude towards smoking, (iv) intention to smoke in the future and (v) desire to smoke among smokers. Findings Patrons who were exposed to the antismoking advertisement were more likely to be female, but did not differ with respect to smoking status. After controlling for gender differences, patrons exposed to the antismoking advertisement had (i) higher awareness of smoking in the movies, (ii) lower levels of approval of smoking in the movies, and (iii) a more negative attitude towards smoking in general compared with those not exposed. Among smokers, smoking in the movies increased urge to smoke, but there was no interaction between smoking in the movies and experimental condition. Study results suggest that placing an antismoking advertisement before movies can affect attitudes towards smoking, bolstering evidence in support of such policies.

  19. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heribanova, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principles and pathways of effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms and cells are outlined. The following topics are covered: effects of radiation on living matter (direct effects, radical or indirect effects, dual radiation action, and molecular biological theories); effects of radiation on cells and tissues (cell depletion, changes in the cytogenetic information, reparation mechanisms), dose-response relationship (deterministic effects, stochastic effects), and the effects of radiation on man (acute radiation sickness, acute local changes, fetus injuries, non-tumorous late injuries, malignant tumors, genetic changes). (P.A.). 3 tabs., 2 figs., 5 refs

  20. Bystander effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Neethu Fathima; Daniel, Nittu

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect is the phenomenon in which unirradiated cells show irradiated effects due to the signals received from nearby irradiated cells. Evidence suggests that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation results in mutation in the nucleus of the hit cells. Cells that are not directly hit by an alpha particle, but are in the vicinity of one that is hit, also contribute to the genotoxic response of the cell population. When cells are irradiated, and the medium is transferred to unirradiated cells, these unirradiated cells show bystander responses when assayed for clonogenic survival and oncogenic transformation. The demonstration of a bystander effect in human tissues and, more recently, in whole organisms have clear implication of the potential relevance of the non-targeted response to human health. This effect may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. The radiation-induced bystander effect represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the radiobiological effects of ionizing radiation, in that extranuclear and extracellular events may also contribute to the final biological consequences of exposure to low doses of radiation. Multiple pathways are involved in the bystander phenomenon, and different cell types respond differently to bystander signalling. Using cDNA microarrays, a number of cellular signalling genes, including cyclooxygenase-2 (CQX-2), have been shown to be casually linked to the bystander phenomenon. The observation that inhibition of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) suppressed the bystander response further confirmed the important role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascade in the bystander process. The cells deficient in mitochondrial DNA showed a significantly reduced response to bystander signalling, suggesting a functional role of mitochondria in the signalling process. (author)

  1. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  2. Smoking and Tobacco Use Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... respiratory infections, middle ear disease, more severe asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth. CANCER Tobacco use increases the risk for many types of cancer, such as lung cancer. More HEART DISEASE Studies show a direct link between cigarette smoking ...

  3. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the most important findings concerning the genetic effects of radiation have been obtained in the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The paper focuses on some of the major discoveries made in the Biology Division and on a new method of research that assesses damage to the skeletons of mice whose fathers were irradiated. The results discussed have considerable influence upon estimates of genetic risk in humans from radiation, and an attempt is made to put the estimated amount of genetic damage caused by projected nuclear power development into its proper perspective

  4. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  5. [Smoking and young people; effectiveness of smoking prevention and cessation programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, K; Onrust, S; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E; Lammers, J

    2017-01-01

    - In this article, we discuss the scientific knowledge on the effects of interventions that help young people to quit smoking and interventions that should prevent young people from starting to smoke.- We also describe the interventions in the Netherlands that, after a quality assessment, have been included in the database of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Centre for Healthy Living.- Interventions have varying degrees of success in helping young people to quit smoking. There are only indications of a modest effect of behavioural interventions.- Preventive interventions mostly occur in a school setting and are making a modest contribution to the reduction of the number of young people that start smoking.- There are preliminary indications of the effectiveness of interventions in a medical setting. However, research into this is rare and there is no insight in long-term effects.- The database of the RIVM Centre for Healthy Living includes mainly preventive interventions in a school setting and only one smoking cessation intervention.

  6. Smoking: the influence of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) on tumor oxygenation and response to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Hill, R.P.; Bush, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of localized x radiation on the transplantable KHT sarcoma was studied in nonanesthetized C3H mice possessing blood carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) levels similar to those observed in heavy smokers. HbCO values of 10 percent were induced in tumor-bearing animals, either acutely just prior to irradiation or chronically during tumor growth and irradiation, by allowing the mice to breathe gas mixtures containing carbon monoxide (CO) in air. Tumors were irradiated either with single doses of 1500, 2000, or 2500 rad or with seven 500 rad fractions given at 24 hr intervals. Tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo lung colony or an in vitro agar colony assay. The results with single doses of radiation indicate that under conditions of both acute and chronic exposure, the presence of 10 percent HbCO in the blood of the mice at the time of irradiation increases the survival of tumor cells in the hypoxic region of the survival curve by a factor of 2. During the fractionated irradiation, tumor cell survival in the presence of a 10 percent blood HbCO level (induced either acutely or chronically) was found to be significantly higher than that observed in air breathing mice. The results indicate that HbCO levels, such as are observed in heavy smokers, result in a larger fraction of hypoxic tumor cells. These findings suggest that heavy smoking prior to treatment may worsen the prognosis of patients undergoing radiotherapy

  7. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mason, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  8. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  9. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  10. Marijuana smoking: effects of varying puff volume and breathhold duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorlosa, J L; Greenwald, M K; Stitzer, M L

    1995-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to quantify biological and behavioral effects resulting from exposure to controlled doses of marijuana smoke. In one study, puff volume (30, 60 and 90 ml) and in a second study, breathhold duration (0, 10 and 20 sec) were systematically varied while holding constant other smoking topography parameters (number of puffs = 10, interpuff interval = 60 sec and inhalation volume = 25% of vital capacity). Each study also varied levels of delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol marijuana cigarette content (1.75% and 3.55%). Regular marijuana users served as subjects (n = 7 in each experiment). Subjects smoked 10 puffs in each of six sessions; a seventh, nonsmoking session (all measures recorded at the same times as in active smoking sessions) served as a control. Variations in puff volume produced significant dose-related changes in postsmoking plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels, carbon monoxide boost and subjective effects (e.g., "high"). In contrast, breathholding for 10 or 20 sec versus 0 sec increased plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels but not CO boost or subjective effects. Task performance measures were not reliably influenced by marijuana smoke exposure within the dosing ranges examined. These findings confirm the utility of the controlled smoking technology, support the notion that cumulative puff volume systematically influences biological exposure and subjective effects, but cast doubt on the common belief that prolonged breathholding of marijuana smoke enhances classical subjective effects associated with its reinforcing value in humans.

  11. Acute effects of smoking on QT dispersion in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD. QT dispersion (QTD is an important predictor of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effect of smoking a single standard cigarette containing 1.7 mg nicotine on QT interval and QTD in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The study sample population consisted of 40 healthy male hospital staff, including 20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers. They were asked to refrain from smoking at least 6 h before attending the study. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG, recorded at paper speed of 50 mm/s, was obtained from all participants before and 10 min after smoking of a single complete cigarette. QT interval, corrected QT interval, QTD, and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD were measured before and after smoking. RESULTS: Smokers and nonsmokers did not have any significant differences in heart rate (HR (before smoking = 67.35 ± 5.14 vs. 67.70 ± 5.07, after smoking = 76.70 ± 6.50 vs. 76.85 ± 6.50, respectively, QTD (before smoking = 37.75 ± 7.16 vs. 39.15 ± 6.55, after smoking = 44.75 ± 11.97 vs. 45.50 ± 9.58, respectively, and QTcD (before smoking = 39.85 ± 7.40 vs. 41.55 ± 6.57, after smoking = 50.70 ± 14.31 vs. 51.50 ± 11.71, respectively. However, after smoking a single cigarette, HR, mean QTD, and QTcD significantly increased (all had P value <0.001 in comparison to the measures before smoking. CONCLUSION: Smoking of a single complete cigarette in both smokers and nonsmokers results in significant QTD increase, which can cause arrhythmia and SCD.   Keywords: Cardiac, Death, Electrocardiography, Smoking, Sudden  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  12. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1981-05-01

    In this review radiation produced by the nuclear industry is placed into context with other sources of radiation in our world. Human health effects of radiation, derivation of standards and risk estimates are reviewed in this document. The implications of exposing the worker and the general population to radiation generated by nuclear power are assessed. Effects of radiation are also reviewed. Finally, gaps in our knowledge concerning radiation are identified and current research on biological effects, on environmental aspects, and on dosimetry of radiation within AECL and Canada is documented in this report. (author)

  13. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  14. Prediction of the effect of indoor smoking on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhm, Radoslav; Holý, Karol; Sedlák, Antonín

    2018-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke leads to hyperproduction of mucus, which acts as a radioprotective layer for the target cells. On the other hand, long-term smoking affects adversely the lungs function, damages the lung tissue and frequently leads to the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: This serious disease results in the accumulation of radon progeny in the lung tissue and hence, in an increased radiation dose to the target cells. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of such changes on the bronchial dose and radon risk for current population. (orig.)

  15. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 MOmega) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  16. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  17. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The last day of March 1978 marked the completion of the first 3 years of operation of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. RERF was established on 1 April 1975 as successor to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission which had been in continuous operation since 1947. This record of the first 3 years of operation consists of selected reports and other documents prepared in the course of conducting the business of RERF and includes a brief history, a late radiation effects that might be conducted at RERF. The wisdom and thought given to the research program and its operation by the Scientific Council and the Board of Directors is reflected in the minutes of their meetings which are included in the Appendix. (Mori, K.)

  18. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  19. Radiation effects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leteurtre Jean.

    1978-01-01

    The current understanding of radiation damage in metals is reviewed, simplifying the actual complexity of the effects by considering some aspects separately. The production of point defects in metals, the primary damage state are first studied. The second part of the lecture is devoted to the evolution of this primary damage state as a function of temperature and dose: the steady state concentration of point defects, the nucleation of secondary defects and their growth are successively considered

  20. The effect of message frame in anti-smoking public service announcements on cognitive response and attitude toward smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lijiang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how message frames in anti-smoking public service announcements (PSAs) affect individuals' cognition and attitude toward smoking. Individuals in a sample of 315 participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental framing conditions: (a) health consequence, (b) secondhand smoke, and (c) industry manipulation. Each participant viewed four PSAs in a random order within a particular message frame. The study found strong evidence for the application effect in framing. The accessibility effect in framing was found to be conditional on message frame. Individuals' cognition on health consequence of smoking and on industry manipulation predicted their attitude toward smoking, but not cognition on secondhand smoke. The three frames also led to different patterns of affective responses that can be a basis for persuasion. Implications for message framing effect and anti-smoking campaigns were discussed.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurement for Global Smoke Emissions Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has steadily gained increasing recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies and applications relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. To establish the scientific integrity of the FRP as a stable quantity that can be measured consistently across a variety of sensors and platforms, with the potential of being utilized to develop a unified long-term climate data record of fire activity and impacts, it needs to be thoroughly evaluated, calibrated, and validated. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to evaluate the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the effects of satellite variable observation geometry and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in diverse scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show recent results of the MODIS FRP uncertainty analysis and error mitigation solutions, and demonstrate

  2. Genetically contextual effects of smoking on genome wide DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of death in the United States. It exerts its effects by increasing susceptibility to a variety of complex disorders among those who smoke, and if pregnant, to their unborn children. In prior efforts to understand the epigenetic mechanisms through which this increased vulnerability is conveyed, a number of investigators have conducted genome wide methylation analyses. Unfortunately, secondary to methodological limitations, these studies were unable to examine methylation in gene regions with significant amounts of genetic variation. Using genome wide genetic and epigenetic data from the Framingham Heart Study, we re-examined the relationship of smoking status to genome wide methylation status. When only methylation status is considered, smoking was significantly associated with differential methylation in 310 genes that map to a variety of biological process and cellular differentiation pathways. However, when SNP effects on the magnitude of smoking associated methylation changes are also considered, cis and trans-interaction effects were noted at a total of 266 and 4353 genes with no marked enrichment for any biological pathways. Furthermore, the SNP variation participating in the significant interaction effects is enriched for loci previously associated with complex medical illnesses. The enlarged scope of the methylome shown to be affected by smoking may better explicate the mediational pathways linking smoking with a myriad of smoking related complex syndromes. Additionally, these results strongly suggest that combined epigenetic and genetic data analyses may be critical for a more complete understanding of the relationship between environmental variables, such as smoking, and pathophysiological outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Effects of Peer Influences and Implicit and Explicit Attitudes on Smoking Initiation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountress, Kaitlin; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Jackson, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    Using participants from an 1-and-1/2-year longitudinal study of smoking socialization (N = 709), we examined peer smoking, and implicit and explicit attitudes on smoking initiation among initial nonsmoking adolescents. We also tested whether implicit and explicit attitudes mediated the effect of peer smoking on smoking initiation, and whether…

  4. Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2013-06-01

    Regular smoking of marijuana by itself causes visible and microscopic injury to the large airways that is consistently associated with an increased likelihood of symptoms of chronic bronchitis that subside after cessation of use. On the other hand, habitual use of marijuana alone does not appear to lead to significant abnormalities in lung function when assessed either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, except for possible increases in lung volumes and modest increases in airway resistance of unclear clinical significance. Therefore, no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been established. Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use. Although regular marijuana smoking leads to bronchial epithelial ciliary loss and impairs the microbicidal function of alveolar macrophages, evidence is inconclusive regarding possible associated risks for lower respiratory tract infection. Several case reports have implicated marijuana smoking as an etiologic factor in pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum and bullous lung disease, although evidence of a possible causal link from epidemiologic studies is lacking. In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco.

  5. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Fujiwara, Takehiko

    1985-01-01

    Brain atrophy during normal aging and its relation to chronic smoking was studied using quantitative volumetric measurements of computed tomography. Study was performed about 159 smokers and 194 non-smokers with no neurological abnormality nor focal abnormality in CT scans. Each pixel of head CT scans was computed and Brain Volume Index (BVI) was calculated. BVI showed a significant decrease in smokers compared to non-smokers in three age groups, 50-to-54, 55-to-59 (p < 0.001, both) and 65-to-69 (p < 0.05). A dose-response study in the male showed that BVI in smokers was significantly lower than that for non smokers. Mean BVI tended to decrease when the smoking index increased but the trend was not significant. The systolic blood pressure and serum triglycrides of smokers were significantly higher than non-smokers (p < 0.002 and p < 0.05). It was suggested that age-related brain atrophy was enhanced by chronic smoking. Previously we showed that cerebral blood flow (CBF) was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers. Then, we suggest the following hypothesis; smoking chronically advances atherosclerosis, both atherosclerosis and high blood pressure reduce CBF, reduced CBF accelerated the lose of neurons which finally renders the brain atrophic. (author)

  6. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking.

  7. Effects of passive smoking on health of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.B. Jr.; Ware, J.H.; Berkey, C.S.; Dockery, D.W.; Spiro, A. III; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of data on the effects of passive smoking obtained in preadolescent children from the Harvard Six-Cities Study demonstrates an exposure-response relationship between the number of smokers in the household and the reporting rates for doctor-diagnosed respiratory illness before age 2, history of bronchitis, wheeze most days and nights apart from colds, and a composite of symptoms defined as the lower respiratory index. Similarly, when only the amount currently smoked by the mother was used, the data indicated a relatively uniform increase in each of the reported diseases and symptoms. FEV/sub 1/ was lower in children with smoking mothers compared to children of nonsmoking mothers. Rate of increases in FEV/sub 1/ after adjusting for normal growth was significantly smaller in children of smoking mothers and was related also to amount smoked. Although children of smoking mothers were shorter on the average than children of nonsmoking mothers, no on-going passive smoking effect on height growth can be ascertained. All these differences are small and their medical significance remains to be defined.

  8. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Gray, W.M.; Watson, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    In five previous papers, the concept of Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) has been presented as a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Simple nomographic and tabular methods for the solution of practical problems in radiotherapy are now described. An essential feature of solving a CRE problem is firstly to present it in a concise and readily appreciated form, and, to do this, nomenclature has been introduced to describe schedules and regimes as compactly as possible. Simple algebraic equations have been derived to describe the CRE achieved by multi-schedule regimes. In these equations, the equivalence conditions existing at the junctions between schedules are not explicit and the equations are based on the CREs of the constituent schedules assessed individually without reference to their context in the regime as a whole. This independent evaluation of CREs for each schedule has resulted in a considerable simplification in the calculation of complex problems. The calculations are further simplified by the use of suitable tables and nomograms, so that the mathematics involved is reduced to simple arithmetical operations which require at the most the use of a slide rule but can be done by hand. The order of procedure in the presentation and calculation of CRE problems can be summarised in an evaluation procedure sheet. The resulting simple methods for solving practical problems of any complexity on the CRE-system are demonstrated by a number of examples. (author)

  10. Radiation effects on microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Applications of radiation-hardened microelectronics in nuclear power systems include (a) light water reactor (LWR) containment building, postaccident instrumentation that can operate through the beta and gamma radiation released in a design basis loss-of-coolant accident; (b) advanced LWR instrumentation and control systems employing distributed digital integrated circuit (IC) technology to achieve a high degree of artificial intelligence and thereby reduce the probability of operator error under accident conditions; (c) instrumentation, command, control and communication systems for space nuclear power applications that must operate during the neutron and gamma-ray core leakage environments as well as the background electron, proton, and heavy charged particle environments of space; and (d) robotics systems designed for the described functions. Advanced microelectronics offer advantages in cost and reliability over alternative approaches to instrumentation and control. No semiconductor technology is hard to all classes of radiation effects phenomena. As the effects have become better understood, however, significant progress has been made in hardening IC technology. Application of hardened microelectronics to nuclear power systems has lagged military applications because of the limited market potential of hardened instruments and numerous institutional impediments

  11. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator

  12. Creating Effective Media Messaging for Rural Smoke-free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Carol A; Butler, Karen M; Ricks, JaNelle M; Record, Rachael A; Begley, Kathy; Anderson, Debra Gay; Hahn, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives were to (1) explore perceived effectiveness of existing smoke-free print advertisements in rural communities and (2) generate message content, characteristics, and media delivery channels that resonate with residents. Qualitative methods design. Thirty-nine rural adults recruited by community partners. Content analysis of findings from individuals in four focus groups who participated in general discussion and reviewed eight print ads related to secondhand smoke (SHS) and smoke-free policy. Six content themes were identified: smoking/SHS dangers, worker health, analogies, economic impact, rights, and nostalgia. Seven message characteristics were recognized: short/to the point, large enough to read, graphic images, poignant stories, statistics/charts/graphs, message sender, and messages targeting different groups. Four media delivery channels were considered most effective: local media, technology, billboard messages, and print materials. Seeking input from key informants is essential to reaching rural residents. Use of analogies in media messaging is a distinct contribution to the literature on effective smoke-free campaigns. Other findings support previous studies of effective messaging and delivery channels. Further research is needed to examine effectiveness of themes related to message content in smoke-free ads and delivery strategies. Effective media messaging can lead to policy change in rural communities to reduce exposure to SHS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radiation effects on polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, M.; Ito, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on four kinds of polyethylenes were studied from the viewpoints of mechanical properties, free radicals and free volumes. The samples were irradiated using a cobalt 60 gamma source to give doses up to 3MGy. The degradation of mechanical strength due to gamma-irradiation was evaluated by the elongation at break and its tensile strength. Radiation induced free radicals were measured by ESR. Free volumes observed by the o-Ps component of the positron annihilation spectrum are normally the large ones located in the amorphous regions and after irradiation these are created in crystalline regions, too. The sizes and the relative numbers of free volumes were evaluated by lifetimes and intensities of a long-lived component of positronium, respectively. Using these data, the properties of polyethylenes before and after irradiation are discussed. (author)

  14. The effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on smoking beliefs, attitudes and intentions of low-educated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Anneke; van den Putte, Bas; Nguyen, Minh-Hao; Zebregs, Simon; Lammers, Jeroen; Neijens, Peter

    2017-07-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of narrative versus informational smoking education on smoking beliefs, attitudes and intentions of low-educated adolescents. A field experiment with three waves of data collection was conducted. Participants (N = 256) were students who attend lower secondary education. At the first and third waves, they completed a questionnaire. At the second wave, 50.8% of the participants read a smoking education booklet in narrative form and 49.2% read a booklet in informational form. After reading, all participants also completed a questionnaire at wave 2. Beliefs about negative consequences of smoking, attitudes towards smoking and intentions to smoke were measured. Repeated measures analyses with time as a within-subjects factor and condition as a between-subjects factor showed that beliefs about smoking were more negative at Wave 2 compared to Wave 1, irrespective of condition. However, attitudes towards smoking were more positive at Wave 3 compared to Wave 1 when participants had read the narrative version. These results show that narrative smoking education is not more effective than informational smoking education for low-educated adolescents and can even have an unintended effect for this target group by making attitudes towards smoking more positive.

  15. Influence of Vitamins C and E on Cigarette Smoke Inhalation Injury in Radiation Exposed Guinea Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Sinna, G.; El Dighidy, E.; Ashry, O.; Azzoz, G.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette Smoke is known to cause oxidative stress and is implicated in the initiation of heart disease. This study was conducted to access the potential synergistic effect of successive doses of cigarette smoke inhalation for 21 days and 8 Gy gamma irradiation, fractionated at 4 doses weekly for 2 weeks. Blood antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), reduced glutathione (GSH) and serum malonaldehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in guinea pigs. creatine kinase (CK), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high and low density cholesterol (HDL and LDL). The potential curative effect of vitamins C and E on the adverse effect of smoke inhalation was also investigated. Administration of vitamins induced a significant drop (P< 0.05) in MDA, CK and LDL. Meanwhile, SOD, GSH and HDL were significantly elevated compared to the control. Animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed significantly elevated LDH and CK enzyme activities as well as MDA conc. Meanwhile, GSH and GSH-px activity were decreased, while no changes were observed in the lipid profile. Vitamins administered to smoke exposed group elevated significantly SOD, GSH-Px, GSH and depressed MDA, LDH, CK and TC compared to the group exposed only to smoke. Irradiation alone or preceded by smoke inhalation induced significant drop in SOD, GSH-Px and GSH as well as elevation in MDA, CK, TG and TC compared to the control. Vitamins intake post-irradiation induced significant elevation in antioxidants and drop in MDA, CK, TG, TC compared to the irradiated group. Vitamins injection to smock irradiated group induced elevation in GSH-Px, GSH and decrease in MDA, CK, TC and LDL compared to irradiated smoke group. The results pointed out the ameliorating effects of vitamins against environment pollutants.

  16. Effect of smoking on reproductive hormones and semen parameters of infertile Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa A Al-Turki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that the effect of smoking is dramatic reduction in the hormonal levels and semen parameters. It is recommended that smoking men undergoing fertility treatment should stop smoking to increase their chances of having offspring.

  17. Age-period-cohort effect of adolescent smoking in Korea: from 2006-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Kang

    2018-03-01

    Efforts to reduce tobacco-use among adolescents appears to be playing a substantial role in reducing current smoking and ever smoking prevalence. Ongoing surveillance for trends in adolescent cigarette smoking is essential to implement effective tobacco control programs.

  18. Biological effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the proceedings of a conference organised jointly by Friends of the Earth (U.K.) and Greenpeace (International). The aim of the conference was to discuss the effects of low level radiation, particularly on man, within the terms of dose/risk relationships. The topics discussed included: sources of radiation, radiation discharges from nuclear establishments, predictive modelling of radiation hazards, radiation effects at Hiroshima, low dose effects and ICRP dose limits, variation in sensitivity to radiation, and the link between childhood cancer and nuclear power. (U.K.)

  19. Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCARB_ER2_MAS data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) NASA ER2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS)...

  20. Prevention of cigarette smoke induced lung cancer by low let ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, Charles L. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, {approx}90% of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of {approx}1 Gy for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by {approx}40% following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of {approx}60% in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of {approx}1 Gy gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of {alpha}-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer.

  1. Prevention of cigarette smoke induced lung cancer by low let ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, ∼90% of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of ∼1 Gy for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by ∼40% following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of ∼60% in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of ∼1 Gy gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of α-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer

  2. Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Particles Distribution and Their Radiative Feedback over Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y.; Wang, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Ellison, L.

    2015-12-01

    Stretching from southern boundary of Sahara to the equator and expanding west to east from Atlantic Ocean coasts to the India Ocean coasts, the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) region has been subject to intense biomass burning. Comprised of savanna, shrub, tropical forest and a number of agricultural crops, the extensive fires burn belt covers central and south of NSSA during dry season (from October to March) contributes to one of the highest biomass burning rate per km2 in the world. Due to smoke particles' absorption effects of solar radiation, they can modify the surface and atmosphere temperature and thus change atmospheric stability, height of the boundary layer, regional atmospheric circulation, evaporation rate, cloud formation, and precipitation. Hence, smoke particles emitted from biomass burning over NSSA region has a significant influence to the air quality, weather and climate variability. In this study, the first version of this Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER.v1) emissions of several smoke constituents including light-absorbing organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) are applied to a state-of-science meteorology-chemistry model as NOAA Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We analyzed WRF-Chem simulations of surface and vertical distribution of various pollutants and their direct radiative effects in conjunction with satellite observation data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar data with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) to strengthen the importance of combining space measured emission products like FEER.v1 emission inventory with mesoscale model over intense biomass burning region, especially in area where ground-based air-quality and radiation-related observations are limited or absent.

  3. The disinfestation of smoked meat Cephalophus monticola (Antelope common) by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'dendje, B.J.; Onyembe, P.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The frequent changes of smoked meat Cephalophus monticola are usually due to the infestation of insect pests during storage or transport. In this work, we have highlighted the insect that affects the quality of this meat: Dermestes maculatus. The study of developmental stages of these insects and their behavior in response to gamma radiation after packaging in bags and mesh opens avenues for improved conservation of the meat. The results show that the reduction of the destructive activity of the insect, larva and imago, depends on the radiation dose received and the type of packaging.

  4. [Quality and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in workplaces sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Eliza

    2008-01-01

    According to the survey carried out by the National Centre for Workplace Health Promotion at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, the level and quality of smoking cessation interventions implemented in Polish enterprises are insufficient. Therefore, the dissemination of good practices in this field is needed. The paper presents (on the basis of the literature review) chosen outcomes of the research focused on the effectiveness of workplace smoking cessation interventions. These are mostly methods influencing the turnout in such programs as well as reduction of smoking in the workplace. According to the papers in question, partnership relationships between the organizers of the program and its participants as well as ensuring the employees in the process of quitting various forms of social support are factors, which may contribute to effective reduction of smoking in the workplace. It seems necessary to increase awareness of this issue among Polish managers.

  5. Effects of smoking history on selective attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Constanze; Hahn, Eric; Dettling, Michael; Güntürkün, Onur; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2012-03-01

    Smoking prevalence is highly elevated in schizophrenia compared to the general population and to other psychiatric populations. Evidence suggests that smoking may lead to improvements of schizophrenia-associated attention deficits; however, large-scale studies on this important issue are scarce. We examined whether sustained, selective, and executive attention processes are differentially modulated by long-term nicotine consumption in 104 schizophrenia patients and 104 carefully matched healthy controls. A significant interaction of 'smoking status' × 'diagnostic group' was obtained for the domain of selective attention. Smoking was significantly associated with a detrimental conflict effect in controls, while the opposite effect was revealed for schizophrenia patients. Likewise, a positive correlation between a cumulative measure of nicotine consumption and conflict effect in controls and a negative correlation in patients were found. These results provide evidence for specific directional effects of smoking on conflict processing that critically dissociate with diagnosis. The data supports the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia and suggests selective attention as a specific cognitive domain targeted by nicotine consumption. A potential mechanistic model explaining these findings is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Passive Smoking on Hearing Impairment: Data from a Population–Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jiwon; Ryou, Namhyung; Jun, Hyung Jin; Hwang, Soon Young; Song, Jae-Jun; Chae, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of both active and passive smoking on the prevalence of the hearing impairment and the hearing thresholds in different age groups through the analysis of data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Study Design Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Methods The KNHANES is an ongoing population study that started in 1998. We included a total of 12,935 participants aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES, from 2010 to 2012, in the present study. Pure-tone audiometric (PTA) testing was conducted and the frequencies tested were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Smoking status was categorized into three groups; current smoking group, passive smoking group and non-smoking group. Results In the current smoking group, the prevalence of speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment was increased in ages of 40−69, and the rate of high frequency bilateral hearing impairment was elevated in ages of 30−79. When we investigated the impact of smoking on hearing thresholds, we found that the current smoking group had significantly increased hearing thresholds compared to the passive smoking group and non-smoking groups, across all ages in both speech-relevant and high frequencies. The passive smoking group did not have an elevated prevalence of either speech-frequency bilateral hearing impairment or high frequency bilateral hearing impairment, except in ages of 40s. However, the passive smoking group had higher hearing thresholds than the non-smoking group in the 30s and 40s age groups. Conclusion Current smoking was associated with hearing impairment in both speech-relevant frequency and high frequency across all ages. However, except in the ages of 40s, passive smoking was not related to hearing impairment in either speech-relevant or high frequencies. PMID:26756932

  7. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koggl, D.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    All nowadays problems of radio biology are considered: types of ionizing radiations, their interaction with material; damage of molecular structures and their reparation; reaction of cells and their recovery from radiation damage; reaction of the whole organism and its separate systems. Particular attention is given to the problems of radiation carcinogenesis and radiation hazard for man

  8. Adverse Effects of Smoking on Outcomes of Orthopaedic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sheung-tung Ho

    2017-01-01

    Smoking has many adverse effects on the musculoskeletal system, particularly on the outcomes after orthopaedic surgery. Smoking is associated with surgical site infection and postoperative wound complications after spine surgery, total joint arthroplasty, and fracture fixation; nonunion after spinal fusion, ankle fusion, osteotomy, and internal fixation and bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion; worse outcomes after lumbar disc prolapse, spinal stenosis, and cervical myelopathy surgery; peripro...

  9. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  10. Cumulative radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.; Cain, O.; Gray, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Cumulative Radiation Effect (CRE) represents a scale of accumulative sub-tolerance radiation damage, with a unique value of the CRE describing a specific level of radiation effect. Computer calculations have been used to simplify the evaluation of problems associated with the applications of the CRE-system in radiotherapy. In a general appraisal of the applications of computers to the CRE-system, the various problems encountered in clinical radiotherapy have been categorised into those involving the evaluation of a CRE at a point in tissue and those involving the calculation of CRE distributions. As a general guide, the computer techniques adopted at the Glasgow Institute of Radiotherapeutics for the solution of CRE problems are presented, and consist basically of a package of three interactive programs for point CRE calculations and a Fortran program which calculates CRE distributions for iso-effect treatment planning. Many examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these programs, and special emphasis has been laid on the problem of treating a point in tissue with different doses per fraction on alternate treatment days. The wide range of possible clinical applications of the CRE-system has been outlined and described under the categories of routine clinical applications, retrospective and prospective surveys of patient treatment, and experimental and theoretical research. Some of these applications such as the results of surveys and studies of time optimisation of treatment schedules could have far-reaching consequences and lead to significant improvements in treatment and cure rates with the minimum damage to normal tissue. (author)

  11. The effects of a non-smoking policy on nursing staff smoking behaviour and attitudes in a psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloor, R N; Meeson, L; Crome, I B

    2006-04-01

    The UK Department of Health required that by April 2001, all NHS bodies would have implemented a smoking policy. It has been suggested that the best demonstration a hospital can make of its commitment to health is to ban smoking on its premises. This paper reports on an evaluation of the effectiveness of a non-smoking policy in a newly opened NHS psychiatric hospital. Questionnaires were sent to all 156 nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital to assess the effectiveness of the policy in terms of staff smoking behaviour, attitudes to the restriction and compliance with the policy. Of the 156 questionnaires distributed, 92 (58%) were returned; smokers, former smokers and those who have never smoked were quite evenly represented at 34.78%, 34.78% and 30.43%, respectively. Of eight critical success factors for the policy, only one, staff not smoking in Trust public areas, had been achieved. A non-smoking policy was generally accepted as necessary by nursing staff working in a mental health setting. Staff felt that the policy was not effective in motivating smoking nurses to stop and that insufficient support was given to these nurses. The study highlights the importance of introducing staff support systems as an integral part of smoking policies and the role of counterintuitive behaviour in the effectiveness of smoking policy introduction in healthcare settings.

  12. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Aimee M; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M; Levy, David T

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  14. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Hirotsugu; Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1975-01-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of 60 Co γ-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed. (auth.)

  15. Radiation effects on vasoproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1975-06-01

    The authors quantitatively examined radiation effects on vascular proliferarion, using the rat transparent chamber technique to observe the living microcirculation. We studied the process of vasoproliferation and revascularization from the surrounding pre-existing vessels into the surgically avascularized area in the chamber, by measuring the vascular lenght photographically. A hyper-vascularized zone, about 0.5 mm in with, was formed on the vascularizing frontier, the significance of which is so far not known. When the chambers were irradiated with various doses of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, a dose dependent inhibition of vasoproliferation was observed.

  16. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. The effects of smoking on steroid metabolism and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Hruškovičová, H; Šimůnková, K; Stárka, L; Pařízek, A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious psychosocial and health problem. A pregnant woman who smokes not only influences the maternal organism, but also passes health risks on to the unborn child. A fetus exposed to maternal smoking is not only directly influenced, but is also endangered by a wide range of diseases up to his or her adult years. The components of tobacco smoke play a significant role in the development of a number of diseases for a large proportion of the smoking population, as well as among those pregnant. This article summarizes findings regarding the impacts on the production of steroid hormones - first describing the smoking-related changes in steroidogenesis in women, and then focusing on the influence of maternal smoking on the fetus's developing steroidogenesis. We assume that if during prenatal development the fetus has already been exposed to the effect of endocrine disruptors at the time fetal steroidogenesis begins fetal programming, this exposure can have serious pathophysiological effects both in the pregnancy as well as later in life. An example of such effects might be a delay in the creation of kidney adrenal androgens, which could also be evident on the level of steroid neuroactive metabolites that may influence the individual's psychological state and lead to later addictions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The effects of smoking and hypertensive disorders on fetal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irgens Lorentz M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that smoking and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH are associated with decreased fetal growth. It has been reported that in preeclampsia the fetal growth deficit attributable to smoking is higher, which has been contradicted in other studies. We therefore evaluated the effects on fetal growth of early- and late onset PIH and chronic hypertension and how cigarette smoking modify these effects. We also quantified the proportion of small for gestational age (SGA cases attributable to PIH, chronic hypertension, and smoking. Methods Population-based study based on record of 215598 singleton pregnancies from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results In severe preeclampsia, mild preeclampsia, transient hypertension, and normotension in term birth, odds ratios (ORs of SGA in smokers compared with non-smokers were 1.4 (95% confidence interval 0.9, 2.2, 1.6 (1.3, 1.9, 2.3 (1.8, 3.1, and 2.0 (1.9, 2.1, respectively. For preterm births, corresponding ORs were 1.3 (0.9, 2.0, 1.8 (1.1, 3.0, 4.1 (1.9, 9.0, and 1.7 (1.4, 2.0, respectively. The effect of early onset PIH was stronger than that in term births, while the effect of smoking was equal in preterm and term newborns. Only in non-smokers who delivered at term, the rates of SGA significantly increased with the severity of PIH (ORs = 1.3 (1.1, 1.5, 1.8 (1.7, 2.0, and 2.5 (2.2, 3.0 for transient hypertension, mild-, and severe preeclampsia, respectively. The combined effects of smoking and hypertension were generally not synergistic. The effect of smoking was not stronger in women who had chronic hypertension. Nor were the effects of chronic hypertension stronger in smokers. PIH explained 21.9 and 2.5% of preterm and term cases of SGA, respectively, while smoking explained 12% of SGA cases. Conclusion The effects of hypertensive disorder and smoking were generally not synergistic, which suggest that they may exert their main actions on separate sites or work through

  19. Women's attitude toward smoking: effect of a community-based intervention on smoking-related social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Gharipour, Mojgan

    2014-12-01

    Smoking has long been discouraged in Iranian women. However, in recent years, more women have started smoking. This study aimed to investigate the role of women's attitude towards smoking on smoking prevalence in women in the context of a community-based intervention program. Participants were samples of the third and fifth evaluation stages of the 'Isfahan Healthy Heart Program', which is a comprehensive community-based intervention program for noncommunicable disease prevention and control. A total of 3112 and 4794 women were investigated in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Intervention and reference groups were assessed for smoking habits and attitude towards smoking. T test and chi-square test were used to compare the parameters between the intervention and the reference groups. Negative attitude towards smoking increased significantly in the intervention and the reference groups from 2004 to 2007 (P = 0.0001). Negative attitude towards smoking in women decreased significantly in the intervention group (P = 0.0001), whereas it increased significantly in the reference group (P = 0.0001). However, smoking prevalence showed a significant decrease in women in the intervention group, from 2.5 to 1% (P smoking for women can be overcome by effective strategies that discourage the population from smoking.

  20. Effect of Viewing Smoking Scenes in Motion Pictures on Subsequent Smoking Desire in Audiences in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Jung, Minsoo

    2017-07-17

    In the modern era of heightened awareness of public health, smoking scenes in movies remain relatively free from public monitoring. The effect of smoking scenes in movies on the promotion of viewers' smoking desire remains unknown. The study aimed to explore whether exposure of adolescent smokers to images of smoking in fılms could stimulate smoking behavior. Data were derived from a national Web-based sample survey of 748 Korean high-school students. Participants aged 16-18 years were randomly assigned to watch three short video clips with or without smoking scenes. After adjusting covariates using propensity score matching, paired sample t test and logistic regression analyses compared the difference in smoking desire before and after exposure of participants to smoking scenes. For male adolescents, cigarette craving was significantly higher in those who watched movies with smoking scenes than in the control group who did not view smoking scenes (t 307.96 =2.066, Pfilms and assigning a smoking-related screening grade to films is warranted. ©Minsung Sohn, Minsoo Jung. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 17.07.2017.

  1. Assessment of smoking patients awareness on the effects of smoking on the incidence of civilization diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Białkowska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is known to affect the body adversely and to contribute significantly to the development of many diseases. It is necessary to carry out education programs, to develop healthy attitudes and to motivate smokers to start the fight against addiction. The aim is to show the patients’ point of view on the effects of tobacco smoking on health. It was also an attempt to assess patients’ knowledge about the effects of smoking and the incidence of civilization diseases. The authors analyze the health behaviours and habits of nicotine-dependent patients from data from patients hospitalized in the rehabilitation and internal diseases wards. Material and methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in patients hospitalized at the University Hospital in Olsztyn and Healthcare Complex in Nidzica. The study included 50 smokers aged 21 to 80 years. The data was used to develop statistical methods: analysis of rho-Spearman correlation to examine relationships between variables, non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney U to detectsignificant differences between the compared groups and one-way analysis of variance to test differences between groups. Results: Prevalence of symptoms of the disease in patients is associated with an increased awareness of the dangers of smoking tobacco. Knowledge of these risks among the respondents is independent of age and education. Educational activities conducted by therapists are indeed important for the patients’ health-related behaviors. Conclusions: Awareness of the dangers of cigarette smoking is fixed and is not determined by the age of the smoker, education or the fact of suffering from a particular disease. Therapists who have frequent contact with the patients are able to affect their health behaviors. In connection with the manifestation of tolerance to the phenomenon of heavy smokers’ nicotine addiction, people from a particular physical neighborhood are more likely to adopt the habit. There are

  2. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejourne, Michele.

    1977-01-01

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man [fr

  3. Radiation effects on clinical examination data in Japanese radiological technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Aoyama, Takashi; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1992-01-01

    Health survey for 1014 radiological technologists was undertaken in 10 districts in Japan. Estimated radiation doses were based on work duration, the status of radiation protection, X-ray equipments to be used, and exposure conditions. Two hundred and eighty-three technologists aged between 45 and 59 were enrolled in this study. Exposure doses ranged from 2 cGy to 337 cGy. According to exposure doses of either 40 cGy, smoking habits, and drinking habits, the subjects were classified into 7 groups. Clinical laboratory data, in addition to systolic and diastolic blood pressures, were analyzed. In comparing the sole effect of irradiation with that of smoking or drinking, the degree of irradiation effect was less than the other two factors. Smoking had a higher synergistic action than irradiation and drinking. (N.K.)

  4. Radiation effects and radiation risks. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Forst, D.; Feist, H.; Pratzel, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    The book presents the facts and the principles of assessment and evaluation of biological radiation effects in general and also with particular reference to the reactor accident of Chernobyl, reviewing the consequences and the environmental situation on the basis of current national and international literature, including research work by the authors. The material compiled in this book is intended especially for physicians, but will also prove useful for persons working in the public health services, in administration, or other services taking care of people. The authors tried to find an easily comprehensible way of presenting and explaining the very complex processes and mechanisms of biological radiation effects and carcinogenesis, displaying the physical primary processes and the mechanisms of the molecular radiation effects up to the effects of low-level radiation, and present results of comparative epidemiologic studies. This section has been given considerable space, in proportion to its significance. It also contains literature references for further reading, offering more insight and knowledge of aspects of special subject fields. The authors also present less known results and data and discuss them against the background of well-known research results and approaches. Apart from the purpose of presenting comprehensive information, the authors intend to give an impact for further thinking about the problems, and helpful tools for independent decisions and action on the basis of improved insight and assessment, and in this context particularly point to the problems induced by the Chernobyl reactor accident. (orig.) With 10 maps in appendix [de

  5. Radiative Properties, Dynamics, and Chemical Evolution of the Smoke from the 1991 Kuwait Oil Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, John Allan

    The oil fields in Kuwait were the scene of a massive conflagration during much of 1991 that was started by Iraqi forces during the Gulf War. At this time, approximately 4 to 5 million barrels of oil were burning each day. The climatic impacts of the fires were limited by the fact that the smoke was generally confined to the lower 6 km of the atmosphere, where its removal by precipitation processes limited its lifetime. The optical properties of the smoke were such that it was an efficient absorber of solar radiation, with a single-scattering albedo of {~ }0.6. This led to rapid warming of the plume during the daytime. Instantaneous heating rates were calculated to be up to {~}90 K day ^{-1}. Because of the vertical distribution of the heating in the plume, the upper part of the plume became unstable and a turbulent mixed-layer developed. Conversely, the lower part of the plume became stably stratified due to the heating. This led to a general decoupling of the lower boundary layer, preventing the heating experienced by the plume from reaching the ground. The general warming of the plume led to mesoscale vertical transport of the plume as a whole. This mode of vertical transport was limited because of the large horizontal extent of the region of buoyant smoke. The mesoscale vertical transport occurred at roughly the same rate as the upward mixing of smoke due to smaller-scale turbulent motions. This vertical transport, however, did not occur rapidly enough to loft the smoke into the upper troposphere before it was dispersed by wind shear and the mixing caused by solar heating of the smoke. The chemical evolution of the plume was generally somewhat slow, due to the lack of ultraviolet radiation to initiate photochemistry within the smoke plume and to the generally low concentrations of nitrogen oxides, which act as catalysts for photochemical chain reactions. Heterogeneous chemical reactions between gases and black carbon particles produced by the fires were also not

  6. Effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.

    2006-01-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  7. Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Young; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Ok-Gyu

    2013-05-01

    Smoking rates among Korean adult males is still high despite multifaceted efforts to reduce it. In Korea, there have been several studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education for inpatients, health check-ups, and smoking cessation clinics. However, there haven't been any studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education conducted outside the hospital. This study investigated effectiveness of brief education on smoking cessation with an expiratory carbon monoxide (CO) measurement outside the hospital among adult male office-workers in Korea. From April 1st to May 10th, 2012, we conducted a controlled trial among 95 adult male office workers over the age of 19 who smoke outside, in a public place in Seoul by cluster sampling. For the education group, we provided smoking cessation education for about 5 to 10 minutes, measured the expiratory CO level, and made the subjects complete questionnaires, while only self-help materials on quitting smoking were given to the control group. After 4 weeks, we evaluated the change in the level of motivation or success to quit smoking in both groups via e-mail or mobile phone. In the education group, the level of motivation to quit smoking was improved significantly. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of improved motivation to quit smoking in the education group was 28.10 times higher than that of the control group. Brief education on smoking cessation with expiratory CO measurement conducted outside the hospital could enhance the level of motivation to quit smoking.

  8. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  9. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  10. Simulations of microphysical, radiative, and dynamical processes in a continental-scale forest fire smoke plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Douglas L.; Toon, Owen B.

    1991-01-01

    The impact of a large forest fire smoke plume on atmospheric processes is studied through a numerical model of meteorology, aerosols, and radiative transfer. The simulated smoke optical depths at 0.63-micron wavelength are in agreement with analyses of satellite data and show values as high as 1.8. The smoke has an albedo of 35 percent, or more than double the clear-sky value, and cools the surface by as much as 5 K. An imaginary refractive index, n sub im, of 0.01 yields results which closely match the observed cooling, single scattering albedo, and the Angstrom wavelength exponent. An n exp im of 0.1, typical of smoke from urban fires, produces 9 K cooling. Coagulation causes the geometric mean radius by number to increase from the initial value of 0.08 micron to a final value of 0.15 micron, while the specific extinction and absorption increase by 40 and 25 percent, respectively.

  11. Seasonality in Smoking Behaviour: Re-evaluating the Effects of the 2005 Public Smoking Ban in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Del Bono; Klaus Grünberger; Daniela Vuri

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the public smoking ban which came into effect in Italy on January 2005 on individual smoking behaviour. Current empirical evidence supports the existence of a negative effect of the Italian ban on smoking prevalence and consumption in the general population. This is in contrast to what has been found in some other European coun- tries. Our analysis shows that the apparent success of the Italian smoking ban is due to the fact that existing results do not t...

  12. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes contains particulate matter (PM, gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  13. Radiation effects on living systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1984-04-01

    This bibliography includes papers and reports by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited scientists concerning radiation effects on living systems. It is divided into three sections: Radiobiology, Radiation Biochemistry and Radiation Chemistry. It is intended that the bibliography will be updated regularly

  14. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of studies on radiation effects in light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, detectors, optical isolators and optical fibers. It is shown that the study of radiation damage in these devices can provide valuable information concerning the nature of the devices themselves, as well as methods of hardening these devices for applications in radiation environments

  15. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1991-12-01

    Ionizing radiation effects on the gem cells, which can result in genetic abnormalities, are described. The basic mechanisms of radiation interactions with chromosomes, or specifically DNA, which can result in radiation induced mutation are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks, and some values for quantitative risk estimates are given. (U.K.). 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Biological effects of particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1988-01-01

    Conventional radiations such as photons, gamma rays or electrons show several physical or biological disadvantages to bring tumors to cure, therefore, more and more attentions is being paid to new modalitie such as fast neutrons, protons, negative pions and heavy ions, which are expected to overcome some of the defects of the conventional radiations. Except for fast neutrons, these particle radiations show excellet physical dose localization in tissue, moreover, in terms of biological effects, they demonstrate several features compared to conventional radiations, namely low oxygen enhancement ratio, high value of relative biological effectiveness, smaller cellular recovery, larger therapeutic gain factor and less cell cycle dependency in radiation sensitivity. In present paper the biological effects of particle radiations are shown comparing to the effects of conventional radiations. (author)

  17. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Predict Smoking Cessation: Moderating Effects of Experienced Failure to Control Smoking and Plans to Quit

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly...

  18. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  19. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  20. The biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards of radiations to man are briefly covered in this paper. The natural background sources of radiations are stated and their resulting doses are compared to those received voluntarily by man. The basis of how radiations cause biological damage is given and the resulting somatic effects are shown for varying magnitude of dose. Risk estimates are given for cancer induction and genetic effects are briefly discussed. Finally four case studies of radiation damage to humans are examined exemplifying the symptoms of large doses of radiations [af

  1. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  2. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with small animals, tissue cultures, and inanimate materials help with understanding the effects of ionizing radiation that occur at the molecular level and cause the gross effects observed in man. Topics covered in this chapter include the following: Radiolysis of Water; Radiolysis of Organic Compounds; Radiolysis in Cells; Radiation Exposure and Dose Units; Dose Response Curves; Radiation Effects in Animals; Factors Affecting Health Risks. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  3. The biologic effects of cigarette smoke on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobus, Samantha L; Warren, Graham W

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is one of the largest preventable risk factors for developing cancer, and continued smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased toxicity, recurrence, risk of second primary cancer, and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of chemicals, including many known carcinogens. The carcinogenic effects of CS are well established, but relatively little work has been done to evaluate the effects of CS on cancer cells. In this review of the literature, the authors demonstrate that CS induces a more malignant tumor phenotype by increasing proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and by activating prosurvival cellular pathways. Significant work is needed to understand the biologic effect of CS on cancer biology, including the development of model systems and the identification of critical biologic mediators of CS-induced changes in cancer cell physiology. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  4. Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe; Fiordelli, Maddalena

    2012-12-01

    To provide evidence on the effects of smoke-free laws on gastronomy revenue in a European setting based on objective data. Damage to gastronomy revenue is a widely used argument against smoke-free legislation. Gastronomy revenue in Ticino is compared with the rest of Switzerland before and after Ticino banned smoking from gastronomy in April 2007, being the first (and at the time of the study only) Swiss canton to do that. The study uses breakdowns by cantons of taxable revenue of gastronomy branches and retailers (for comparison) provided by the Swiss tax authorities for the years 2005-2008. Revenues of restaurants and bars were not damaged by the Ticino smoke-free law. Decreases in Ticino happened before the smoke-free law came into effect. Evidence for night clubs is inconclusive. The absence of detrimental effects on restaurant and bar revenue corroborates the gist of research on the subject from other countries. The argument that the decline of bar and restaurant sales prior to the implementation of the ban might have occurred in anticipation of the new regulation is not considered tenable.

  5. The effect of health shocks on smoking and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundmacher, Leonie

    2012-08-01

    To investigate whether negative changes in their own health (i.e. health shocks) or in that of a smoking or obese household member, lead smokers to quit smoking and obese individuals to lose weight. The study is informed by economic models ('rational addiction' and 'demand for health' models) which offer hypotheses on the relationship between health shocks and health-related behaviour. Each hypothesis was tested applying a discrete-time hazard model with random effects using up to ten waves of the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) and statistics on cigarette, food and beverage prices provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Health shocks had a significant positive impact on the probability that smokers quit during the same year in which they experienced the health shock. Health shocks of a smoking household member between year t-2 and t-1 also motivated smoking cessation, although statistical evidence for this was weaker. Health shocks experienced by obese individuals or their household members had, on the other hand, no significant effect on weight loss, as measured by changes in Body Mass Index (BMI). The results of the study suggest that smokers are aware of the risks associated with tobacco consumption, know about effective strategies to quit smoking, and are willing to quit for health-related reasons. In contrast, there was no evidence for changes in health-related behaviour among obese individuals after a health shock.

  6. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  8. Effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2015-07-01

    While there is increasing support for restricting smoking in restaurant and bar patios, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of this policy. This study examined the effect of smoke-free patio policy of restaurants and bars on adult second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Data were drawn from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (n=89,743), a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth and adult. Regression analysis, a quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effect of provincial smoke-free patio policy on self-reported exposure to SHS. Analyses suggest that exposure to SHS on patios of bars and restaurants declined following the adoption of provincial smoke-free patio policy. Relative to pre-policy SHS exposure, regression results showed a reduction in the probability of SHS exposure of up to 25% in Alberta. Similarly, in Nova Scotia, the probability of SHS exposure declined by up to 21%. Analyses stratified by smoking status found similar significant effect on both smokers and non-smokers. Findings suggest that provincial patio smoking ban on bars and restaurants had the intended effect of protecting non-smokers from SHS exposure. This study is consistent with a large body of evidence showing that a strong smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  10. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. 

  11. Natural radioactivity contents in tobacco and radiation dose induced from smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, H. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the causative factors for cancer-inducing mechanisms in humans is radioactive elements present in tobacco leaves used in the manufacture of cigarettes. Smoking of tobacco and its products increases the internal intake and radiation dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides that are considered to be one of the most significant causes of lung cancer. In this work, different commercial types of cigarettes, cigar and moassel were collected from market. Naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra and 214 Bi ( 238 U series), 228 Ac and 228 Ra ( 232 Th series), 40 K and man-made 137 Cs were measured in tobacco using gamma-ray spectrometer. Results show that the average concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were 4.564, 3.940 and 1289.53 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This reflects their origin from the soil by root uptake and fertilisers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Concentration of 137 Cs was 0.348 Bq kg -1 due to root uptake or deposition onto the leaf foliage. For smokers, the annual effective dose due to inhalation of 238 U varied from 49.35 to 139.40 μSv -1 (average 104.27 μSv y -1 ), while of 232 Th from 23.86 to 111.06 μSv y -1 (average 65.52 μSv y -1 ). The annual effective dose resulting from 137 Cs was varied from 10.96 to 24.01 nSv y -1 (average 19.41 nSv y -1 ). (authors)

  12. Chemical effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philips, G.O.

    1986-01-01

    Ionizing radiations initiate chemical changes in materials because of the high energy of their quanta. In water, highly reactive free radicals are produced which can initiate secondary changes of solutes, and in chemical of biological molecules in contact with the water. Free radicals can also be directly produced in irradiated medical products. Their fate can be identified and the molecular basis of radiation inactivation clarified. Methods have now been developed to protect and minimise such radiation damage. (author)

  13. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M [Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark); Larsen, Poul Bo [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  14. Effects of Smoke Generated by Electrocautery on the Larynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Yavuz; Salturk, Ziya; Kumral, Tolgar Lutfi; Uyar, Yavuz; Cakir, Caglar; Sunnetci, Gurcan; Berkiten, Guler

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of smoke produced by electrocautery on the laryngeal mucosa. We used 16 healthy, adult female Wistar albino rats. We divided the rats into two groups. Eight rats were exposed to smoke for 60 min/d for 4 weeks, and eight rats were not exposed to smoke and served as controls. The experimental group was maintained in a plexiglass cabin during exposure to smoke. At the end of 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed under high-dose ketamine anesthesia. Each vocal fold was removed. An expert pathologist blinded to the experimental group evaluated the tissues for the following: epithelial distribution, inflammation, hyperplasia, and metaplasia. Mucosal cellular activities were assessed by immunohistochemical staining for Ki67. Results taken before and after effect were compared statistically. There was a significant difference in the extent of inflammation between the experimental group and the control group. Squamous metaplasia was detected in each group, but the difference was not significant. None of the larynges in either group developed hyperplasia. We showed increased tissue inflammation due to irritation by the smoke. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a workplace-smoking ban in combination with tax increases on smoking in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Candel, Math J J M; Knibbe, Ronald A; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein

    2011-06-01

    In the Netherlands, between 2003 and 2005, 3 tobacco control measures were implemented: a workplace-smoking ban and 2 tax increases on tobacco products. This study explores how the combination of measures influences the smoking behavior of the general population divided into subpopulations with and without paid work (all aged 16-65 years). Data from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits were used. The total sample consisted of 32,014 respondents (27,150 with paid work and 4,864 without paid work) aged 16-65 years. Analyses were done by linear and logistic regression, controlling for relevant factors. For respondents with paid work, the combination of a smoking ban and 2 tax increases led to a decrease in the number of cigarettes per day and in the prevalence of daily smoking. For respondents without paid work, there was no significant effect on any of the outcome parameters. In both groups, there was no evidence that the effect of the measures on smoking was moderated by the respondent's gender, age, or level of education. The combination of policy measures has influenced the smoking behavior of respondents with paid work in a positive way. Compared with most other studies, the effect of the workplace-smoking ban alone is smaller. However, the effect of the combined interventions is higher than the that of tax increases in other studies. Among respondents without paid work who were exposed to tax increases only, no significant effects were found.

  16. Radiation factors and smoking interaction at lung cancer incidence for workers at a nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarskaya, Z.B.; Khokhryakov, V.T.; Okladnikova, N.D.; Belyaeva, Z.D.; Zhuntova, G.V.; Fleck, C.M.; Schollnberger, H.; Drozhko, E.G.

    1998-01-01

    A study is reported which is a continuation of a previous investigation of lung cancer incidence in workers at a nuclear enterprise and its relation to three basic etiological factors: the body burden due to 239 Pu, chronic external gamma irradiation, and smoking. Whereas previously each of the factors was assessed separately, in the present study the attempt was made to assess the interaction of the factors. A statistical analysis of the data revealed that for the following pairs of factors a superposition effect could be seen: external gamma irradiation and 239 Pu body burden; external gamma irradiation and a medium level of smoking; and 239 Pu body burden and a medium level of smoking. (A.K.)

  17. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  18. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  19. Friends moderate the effects of pro-smoking media on college students’ intentions to smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setodji, Claude M.; Martino, Steven C.; Scharf, Deborah M.; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to pro-smoking media (e.g., smoking in movies, advertising in magazines) contributes to smoking in young people. However, the extent to which the impact of exposure depends on the social context in which those exposures occur has not been investigated. This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine the moderating role of social context in the relationship between college students’ exposure to pro-smoking media and their smoking refusal self-efficacy and intention to smoke. College students (N = 134) carried handheld computers for 21 days, recording their exposure to all forms of pro-smoking media during the assessment period. They also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) each day of the assessment. After each exposure to pro-smoking media and after each control prompt, participants answered questions about smoking refusal self-efficacy and their intentions to smoke; they also indicated whether they were with friends, with family, with a romantic partner, or alone (i.e., their social context). When participants were with friends, pro-smoking media exposures were associated with stronger smoking intentions and lower smoking refusal self-efficacy; these associations were not present when participants were alone. Being with family members or with a romantic partner did not moderate the impact of pro-smoking media exposure on either dependent variable. These results suggest a new role for peers in the development of youth smoking. PMID:22686961

  20. Effect of televised, tobacco company-funded smoking prevention advertising on youth smoking-related beliefs, intentions, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2006-12-01

    To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103,172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company-sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.

  1. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  2. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    distribution of wood smoke particles, essentially all will be contained in the PM2.5 fraction. In Denmark, recent results indicate that about 10,000 tonnes PM2.5 per year, about half of the total particle emission in Denmark, come from residential wood combustion. Based on a few measurement campaigns conducted...... in Denmark in selected residential areas with different kinds of heating, the annual average PM2.5 exposure from wood smoke can be estimated at 0.4–2 mg/m3 as a preliminary estimate for the whole Danish population. Epidemiological studies evaluating adverse health effects from ambient air pollution...

  3. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  4. [Study on smoking attributed death and effects of smoking cessation in residents aged 35-79 years in Tianjin, 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W; Wang, D Z; Zhang, H; Xu, Z L; Xue, X D; Jiang, G H

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the influence of smoking on deaths in residents aged 35-79 years and the effects of smoking cessation in Tianjin. Methods: The data of 39 499 death cases aged 35-79 years in 2016 in Tianjin were collected, the risks for deaths caused by smoking related diseases and excess deaths as well as effects of smoking cessation were analyzed after adjusting 5 year old age group, education level and marital status. Results: Among the 39 499 deaths cases, 1 589 (13.56%) were caused by smoking, the percentage of the excess mortality of lung cancer caused by smoking was highest (47.60%); the risk of death due to lung cancer in smokers was 2.75 times higher than that in non-smokers (95 %CI : 2.47-3.06). Among the female deaths, 183 (7.29%) were caused by smoking, the percentage of the excess mortality of lung cancer was highest (28.90%); and the risk of death of lung cancer in smokers was 4.04 times higher than that in non-smokers (95 %CI : 3.49-4.68). The OR for disease in ex-smokers was 0.80 compared with 1.00 in smokers (95 %CI : 0.72-0.90). The OR in males who had quitted smoking for ≥10 years was lower (0.74, 95 %CI : 0.63-0.86) than that in those who had quitted smoking for 1-9 years (0.85, 95 %CI : 0.74-0.98), but the difference was not significant. Conclusion: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for deaths in residents in Tianjin. Smoking cessation can benefit people's health.

  5. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  6. Measures of association of some air pollutants. Natural ionizing radiation and cigarette smoking with mortality rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, R C; McDonald, G C

    1976-03-01

    Two methods are employed to estimate the association of hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, natural ionizing radiation, and cigarette smoking with some age stratified and disease specific United States mortality rates for white males. The first method is based on a ridge regression technique and the second on a sign constrained least squares analysis. It is concluded that increased concentration of sulfur compounds and increased consumption of cigarettes are associated with increases in the total white male mortality rate. Associations for nitrogen compounds, the hydrogen index, and ionizing radiation are dependent on methodology and data stratification. The estimated elasticities are not directly comparable to those from other studies. Most estimates are fairly close except for the associations of heart disease with sulfur compounds. (JTE)

  7. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Iloh, Gabriel Uche; Collins, Peace Ifeoma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking whether actively or passively is a growing public health problem. Despite the wealth of information on the hazards of active cigarette smoking, awareness of the health effects of passive smoking on human population is often neglected in Nigeria. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes among never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A hospital-b...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  9. The effects of cigarette smoking on intraocular pressure and arterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of cigarette Smoking on intra ocular pressure and arterial blood pressure of normotensive young male adults. Fifty male students (who met the screening conditions and devoid of obvious ocular pathology and systemic diseases and nonsmokers) had their intra ocular ...

  10. The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of obesity, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake on healthcare expenditure in a comprehensive medical scheme. ... South African Medical Journal ... a body mass index (BMI) of 30 - 35 kg/m2 averaged R2 300 (11%) higher annual medical expenditure in the year 2010 than never-smokers with a BMI <30 kg/m2.

  11. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  12. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  13. Sorting into secondary education and peer effects in youth smoking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pertold, Filip

    -, č. 399 (2009), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : peer effects * smoking * youth Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp399.pdf

  14. Effect of Marijuana Smoking on Blood Chemistry and Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of marijuana smoking on blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations in humans was investigated. Eighty Marijuana addicts and twenty non- marijuana smokers were used in the study. Blood chemistry and serum biogenic amines concentrations of the marijuana addicts and controls, were ...

  15. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  16. Effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on microbial stability of smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the antimicrobial effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on smoke-dried catfish stored at ambient temperature (37±20C) for two months. The experimental treatments are the control, 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) Moringa oleifera Marinade (MOM) and 5% Brine (w/v) solutions. Seventy-five fishes of average weight ...

  17. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gendall

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies.Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; p< .05. The estimated attributable fraction due to smoking in movies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18 with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  18. Radiation effect on polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Zhong Xiaoguang; Sun Jiazhen

    1999-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has always been regarded as a typical kind of radiation degradation polymer. But, in fact, PTFE can be induced crosslinking by γ-ray or electron beam at some special conditions (free oxygen and a narrow temperature region at 335 +- 5 degree C). Compared with radiation degradiation PTFE, cosslinking PTFE owns a lot of new properties. Some articles concerning with these have been published, which will be systematically reviewed in this

  19. Effect of continued tobacco smoking during radiotherapy on loco-regional control for carcinoma of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P.; Primdahl, H.; C, A. Kristensen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Tobacco smoking impose a poor prognosis on cancer patients either from reduced treatment response, new primary cancers, or other tobacco-related diseases. The effect of tobacco cessation in smokers commencing radiation treatment for head and neck cancer has only been investigated...... in small, selected cohortes. We evaluated the impact of continuous smoking on local tumor control in a large, national cohort of a classical tobaccorelated laryngeal cancer. Materials and Methods: From our national database, we identified 1,455 patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer between 2000-2010 who...... were all active smokers at the date of diagnosis. Patients treated with primary radiotherapy > 60 Gy were included. No surgery was allowed. Tobacco consumption was recorded weekly during radiotherapy, and two and six weeks after, and any smoking during RT was considered active smoking. Follow-up data...

  20. The potential for collocated AGLP and ERBE data for fire, smoke, and radiation budget studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, S.A.; Chou, J.

    1997-01-01

    One month of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Area Coverage (GAC) Land Pathfinder (AGLP) data from September 1985 are used to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires over four major ecosystems in South America. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner data are used to examine the top of atmosphere (TOA) shortwave and longwave fluxes over smoke generated from biomass burn- ing. The relationship between the AGLP-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the ERBE-estimated clear sky albedos are also examined as a function of the four ecosystems. This study shows that the grassland areas in South America have the highest number of fires for September 1985, and their corresponding NDVI values are smaller than the tropical rainforest region where the number of fires were comparatively small. Clear sky statistics accumulated during the days when smoke was not present show that clear sky albedos derived from ERBE are higher for grassland areas when compared to the tropical rainforest. The results show that the AGLP can be used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of fires along with vegetation characteristics, while ERBE data can provide necessary information on broadband albedos and regional top of atmosphere radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols. Since the AGLP data are available from 1981 to the present day, several climate-related issues can be addressed

  1. Determination of internal radiation dose due to intake of polonium 210 and lead 210 via smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Kharita, M.H.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, 18 kind of cigarettes and five kinds of molasses consumed by Syrians were collected and analyzed for radioactivity in order to estimate the internal radiation dose caused by 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Polonium 210 and lead 210 concentrations varied between 4 and 16.4 m Bq/cigarette, while 210 Po distribution ratios in different parts of consumed cigarette were %12, %73, %1.6 in ash, smoke and filter, respectively. In addition, annual intake of 210 Po by a main smoker was varied between 4.4 and 18 Bq/year assuming that the main smoker breathes about 15% of the total 210 Po present in tobacco. Using the values of the annual intake, annual equivalent radiation dose caused by smoking has reached 178 μSv/year. Moreover, mean concentration of 210 Po in nonsmokers and smokers bloods has reached 130 and 97 mBq/l, respectively, while the mean value of 210 Po concentration was relatively higher and reached 176 and 155 mBq/l in smokers and non smoker bloods, respectively (Authors)

  2. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of x radiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the manifold influence of radiation-induced membrane phenomenon on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (author)

  3. Radiation effects in optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Wiczer, J.J.

    1984-05-01

    Purpose of this report is to provide not only a summary of radiation damage studies at Sandia National Laboratories, but also of those in the literature on the components of optoelectronic systems: light emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes, photodetectors, optical fibers, and optical isolators. This review of radiation damage in optoelectronic components is structured according to device type. In each section, a brief discussion of those device properties relevant to radiation effects is given

  4. The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim

    2009-11-01

    Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. There was a significant condition x time interaction for desire to smoke, F((1,18)) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta(2) = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes.

  5. Effect of Exposure to Smoking in Movies on Young Adult Smoking in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Glantz, Stanton

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising has been prohibited in New Zealand since 1990, and the government has set a goal of becoming a smokefree nation by 2025. However, tobacco marketing persists indirectly through smoking in motion pictures, and there is strong evidence that exposure to onscreen smoking causes young people to start smoking. We investigated the relationship between exposure to smoking in movies and youth smoking initiation among New Zealand young adults. Data from an online survey of 419 smokers and non-smokers aged 18 to 25 were used to estimate respondents' exposure to smoking occurrences in 50 randomly-selected movies from the 423 US top box office movies released between 2008 and 2012. Analyses involved calculating movie smoking exposure (MSE) for each respondent, using logistic regression to analyse the relationship between MSE and current smoking behaviour, and estimating the attributable fraction due to smoking in movies. Exposure to smoking occurrences in movies was associated with current smoking status. After allowing for the influence of family, friends and co-workers, age and rebelliousness, respondents' likelihood of smoking increased by 11% for every 100-incident increase in exposure to smoking incidents, (aOR1.11; pmovies was 54%; this risk could be substantially reduced by eliminating smoking from movies currently rated as appropriate for youth. We conclude that exposure to smoking in movies remains a potent risk factor associated with smoking among young adults, even in a progressive tobacco control setting such as New Zealand. Harmonising the age of legal tobacco purchase (18) with the age at which it is legal to view smoking in movies would support New Zealand's smokefree 2025 goal.

  6. Red Wine Prevents the Acute Negative Vascular Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adve...

  8. Implicit and explicit attitudes predict smoking cessation: moderating effects of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C; Sherman, Steven J; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jonathan T

    2010-12-01

    The current study tested implicit and explicit attitudes as prospective predictors of smoking cessation in a Midwestern community sample of smokers. Results showed that the effects of attitudes significantly varied with levels of experienced failure to control smoking and plans to quit. Explicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with low (but not high or average) levels of experienced failure to control smoking. Conversely, however, implicit attitudes significantly predicted later cessation among those with high levels of experienced failure to control smoking, but only if they had a plan to quit. Because smoking cessation involves both controlled and automatic processes, interventions may need to consider attitude change interventions that focus on both implicit and explicit attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Left-digit price effects on smoking cessation motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Amlung, Michael T; Blackburn, Ashley; Murphy, James G; Carrigan, Maureen; Carpenter, Matthew J; Chaloupka, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Cigarette price increases have been associated with increases in smoking cessation, but relatively little is known about this relationship at the level of individual smokers. To address this and to inform tax policy, the goal of this study was to apply a behavioural economic approach to the relationship between the price of cigarettes and the probability of attempting smoking cessation. Adult daily smokers (n=1074; ie, 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education) completed in-person descriptive survey assessments. Assessments included estimated probability of making a smoking cessation attempt across a range of cigarette prices, demographics and nicotine dependence. As price increases, probability of making a smoking cessation attempt exhibited an orderly increase, with the form of the relationship being similar to an inverted demand curve. The largest effect size increases in motivation to make a quit attempt were in the form of 'left-digit effects,' (ie, maximal sensitivity across pack price whole-number changes; eg, US$5.80-6/pack). Significant differences were also observed among the left-digit effects, suggesting the most substantial effects were for price changes that were most market relevant. Severity of nicotine dependence was significantly associated with price sensitivity, but not for all indices. These data reveal the clear and robust relationship between the price of cigarettes and an individual's motivation to attempt smoking cessation. Furthermore, the current study indicates the importance of left-digit price transitions in this relationship, suggesting policymakers should consider relative price positions in the context of tax changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Effect of smoking on survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, Philippe; Knöpfli, Marina; Dufour, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity and physical activity have gained interest in the field of hepatocellular carcinoma. These factors play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies revealed the impact of tobacco consumption on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and its synergistic effects with viral etiologies (hepatitis B and C). The effects of smoking on survival in patients with a diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma have not yet been investigated in a Western cohort where hepatitis C infection is a major risk factor. Using data from a prospective cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were followed at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, survival was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis in smokers and nonsmokers, and multivariate Cox regression was applied to control for confounding variables. Of 238 eligible hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 64 were smokers at the time of inclusion and 174 were nonsmokers. Smokers had a significant worse overall survival than nonsmokers (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.58, P=.003). Analysis of patients according to their underlying liver disease, revealed that smoking, and not nonsmoking, affected survival of hepatitis B virus and C virus-infected patients only. In this subgroup, smoking was an independent predictor for survival (hazard ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.23, Phepatocellular carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  12. Effects of radiation; Effets des radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    The medical consequences of a whole-body irradiation come from the destruction of cells and inflammatory reactions it provokes. The most sensitive organs are the tissues that actively split. The embryo is particularly sensitive, from 200 mSv for the effects on the brain development. The reproduction functions are reached for man from 2000 mSv, the ovary sensitivity is less, the oocytes do not split after the fetus life. For adult the bone marrow outrage leads to the disappearing of blood cells (4000 mSv). The doses from 6000 to 10000 mSv lead the failure of the digestive system and lung. for the upper doses every tissue is reached, particularly by the effects on cells of blood vessels. Important brain dysfunctions appear beyond 10000 mSv. As regards the delayed effects of overexposures the epidemiology brings to light sanitary consequences of the exposure of the population to the ionizing radiations and requires that all the possible factors associated for that purpose are considered. About hereditary effects, it appears that moderate acute radiation exposures of even a relatively large human population must have little impact, in spite of the rate of spontaneous congenital deformations is of the order of 6 %. For the induction of cancers, it is not observed excess for doses lower than 200 mSv for adults and 100 mSv for children (the populations studied are survival people of hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients treated by irradiation, uranium miners, children exposed to radioactive iodine after Chernobylsk accident). To simplify an expression of the risk has been fixed to 5% of induced cancer by Sv for population and 4% by Sv for workers, the different being explained by the demography and the sensitivity of the youngest age groups. As regards the low doses of radiations, a bundle of convergent epidemiological observations notices the absence of effects of the low doses rates. Biological mechanisms, notably of repair are approached, then certain accidents (Goiania

  13. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  14. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of ionising radiation on germ cells with resulting genetic abnormalities in subsequent generations, are considered. Having examined a simple model to explain the interaction of ionising radiation with genetic material and discussed its limitations, the methods whereby mutations are transmitted are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks and the results of such studies are examined. (U.K.)

  15. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Naggar, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Data generated during the last three decades provide evidence of Epigenetic Effects that ave-induced by ionizing radiation, particularly those of high LET values, and low level dose exposures. Epigenesist is defined as the stepwise process by which genetic information, as modified by environmental influences, is translated into the substance and behavior of cells, tissues, organism.The epigenetic effects cited in the literature are essentially classified into fine types depending on the type and nature of the effect induced.The most accepted postulation, for the occurrence of these epigenetic effects, is a radiation induced bio electric disturbances in the environment of the non-irradiated cellular volume. This will trigger signals that will induce effects in the unirradiated cells.The epigenetic effects referenced in the literature up to date are five types; namely, Genomic Instability, Bystander. Effects, Clastogenic Plasma Factors,, Abscopal Effects, and Tran generational Effects.The demonstration of Epigenetic Effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation indicates the need to re- examine the concept of radiation dose and target size. Also an improved understanding of qualifiring and quantifying radiation risk estimates may be attained. Also, a more logical means to understand the underlying mechanisms of radiation induced carcinogenic transformation of cells

  17. Effects of active non-smoking programmes on smoking behaviour in oral precancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, O; Hepburn, S; Thomson, P J

    2007-08-01

    Smoking is the commonest risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The objective of this study was to characterize smoking behaviour and attitude in a cohort of oral precancer patients in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, and to determine changes in behaviour during diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Twenty-seven consecutive, smoking patients with dysplastic oral lesions were recruited to the study and a detailed smoking history obtained, quantifying types and numbers of cigarettes smoked, length of smoking history, and changes in smoking behaviour during treatment episodes and long-term follow-up. All patients underwent an interventional management protocol comprising risk-factor education, histopathological diagnosis by incisional biopsy and laser excision of lesions. Patients were followed up for 5 years. Whilst there was a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked at patients' most recent follow-up compared with initial presentation (p<0.001), 74% continued to smoke. Patients received advice from a smoking cessation adviser on support available to them from the local NHS (National Health Service) Stop Smoking services. Six out of 10 patients who set a 'quit date' and attended a programme had quit at the 4-week follow-up but only 5 remained non-smokers. Smoking remains a considerable problem in oral precancer patients even after interventional treatment, with the risk of further precancerous lesions and malignant transformation.

  18. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Age and smoking habit influence on the spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies of the micronucleus in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human population that have been exposed at work or in the environment to genotoxic agents, particularly to ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for evaluating radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. A research to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the MN spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies was carried out in order to define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 health donors aged between 4 and 60 years. Based on the smoking habits, they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ-rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed, and a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was also obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence significantly MN variability, but there was a greater dispersion in the results obtained from female donors, when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to the data from non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Radiation hazards and biological effects of ionising radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Mechanism of damage: direct action of radiation, indirect action of radiation. Classification of effects: somatic effect, induction of cancer, factors, affecting somatic effects, genetic effect, inherited abnormalities, induced effects, early effects, late effects, deterministic effect, stochastic effect. Effect of specific group: development abnormality, childhood Cancer, fertile women, risk and uncertainty, comparison of risk

  1. Radiation and radiation effects; Strahlung und Strahlenwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumaier, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Strahlenschutz; Janssen, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Ionisierende Strahlung

    2006-12-15

    The average dose incurred by the German population is about 4 millisievert p.a., about half of which results from natural radiation sources. The second half is caused nearly completely by medical applications. Only a very small fraction of the annual dose results from technical applications. This special issue of PTB focuses on the measuring problems relating to natural radiation sources and technical applications of ionizing radiation. The current contribution also outlines some important aspects of radiation exposure from medical applications. (orig.)

  2. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008.Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE. In total there are 54,333 respondents from 2003-2008. Logit and linear regression models were used to examine the effect of the legislation on smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily among continuing smokers which took the underlying trend into account. Our finding suggest that smoking prevalence (current smoker decreased from 25% in 2003 to 21% in 2008 (AOR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P<0.01 and the mean number of cigarettes consumed daily by smokers decreased from 14.1 in 2003 to 13.1 in 2008 (coefficient for time trend = -0.28±0.06 SE cig/day per year, P<0.01. After adjusting for these trends the introduction of smoke-free legislation was not associated with additional reductions in smoking prevalence (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.11, P = 0.596 or daily cigarette use in smokers (0.42±0.28 SE; P = 0.142. The percentage of respondents reporting smoking 'at work' and 'inside pubs or bars' decreased significantly from 14% to 2% (p<0.001 and from 34% to 2% (p<0.001, respectively, after the legislation. The percentage reporting smoking 'inside restaurants, cafes, or canteens' decreased significantly from 9% to 1% (p<0.001 and 'inside their home' decreased significantly from 65% to 55% (p<0.01.There is widespread compliance with the smoke-free legislation in England, which has led to large drops in indoor smoking in all venues, including at home. Declines in smoking prevalence and consumption continued along existing trends; they did not accelerate during the 18 months

  3. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,

  4. Health effects of smoke from planned burns: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O’Keeffe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large populations are exposed to smoke from bushfires and planned burns. Studies investigating the association between bushfire smoke and health have typically used hospital or ambulance data and been done retrospectively on large populations. The present study is designed to prospectively assess the association between individual level health outcomes and exposure to smoke from planned burns. Methods/design A prospective cohort study will be conducted during a planned burn season in three locations in Victoria (Australia involving 50 adult participants who undergo three rounds of cardiorespiratory medical tests, including measurements for lung inflammation, endothelial function, heart rate variability and markers of inflammation. In addition daily symptoms and twice daily lung function are recorded. Outdoor particulate air pollution is continuously measured during the study period in these locations. The data will be analysed using mixed effect models adjusting for confounders. Discussion Planned burns depend on weather conditions and dryness of ‘fuels’ (i.e. forest. It is potentially possible that no favourable conditions occur during the study period. To reduce the risk of this occurring, three separate locations have been identified as having a high likelihood of planned burn smoke exposure during the study period, with the full study being rolled out in two of these three locations. A limitation of this study is exposure misclassification as outdoor measurements will be conducted as a measure for personal exposures. However this misclassification will be reduced as participants are only eligible if they live in close proximity to the monitors.

  5. Effect of opium smoking cessation on the nasopharyngeal microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Ali; Shabani, Ziba; Mokhtaree, Mohammad R; Sayadi, Ahmad R; Faezi, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. This cross-sectional study was performed in the Psychiatry, and Ear, Nose, and Throat Departments, Moradi Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran from June to November 2008. Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before, and 2-3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Patients were not advised to change their number of cigarettes, and we used methadone for the substitution of opium. Eight potential pathogens were isolated from nasopharyngeal cultures obtained from 43 individuals before opium smoking cessation, and 4 were recovered from 33 individuals after cessation (p=0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus alpha hemolytic, and Staphylococcus aureus were not found in the second culture. The most sensitivity to antibiotics was for ceftriaxone (84%), ciprofloxacin (74%), and cloxacillin (72%), and the most resistance for amoxicillin (26%) and the least resistance for chloramphenicol. Some potential pathogens decrease or are even absent after opium cessation. Opium smoking affects the nasopharyngeal flora.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of a smoking warning label on raising patient awareness of smoking and bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B; Abouassaly, R; Ghiculete, D; Stewart, R J

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the knowledge of patients with regard to the association between smoking and bladder cancer, and examined the impact of a novel smoking warning label on raising awareness of this issue. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study involving patients who presented to urology and family practice clinics. A questionnaire was used to assess knowledge regarding the association between smoking and various diseases. Participants were also asked to evaluate a novel smoking warning label for bladder cancer. A total of 291 (97%) patients responded to the questionnaire including 143 (95.3%) at urology clinics and 148 (98.7%) at family practice clinics. Overall only 45.2% of respondents were aware of the association between smoking and bladder cancer compared to 97.4% who knew that there was an association between smoking and lung cancer. There were no significant differences in knowledge between those at urology and family practice clinics. After viewing the warning label, 58.1% of respondents stated that it had changed their opinion on smoking and bladder cancer, and 74.8% felt that this label would be an effective tool to raise awareness of the issue. Patients who changed their opinion had statistically significantly less initial knowledge about the association between smoking and bladder cancer (36.7% vs 57.5% for those who did not change their opinion, p Awareness of the link between smoking and bladder cancer remains low. The use of a smoking warning label may help raise awareness of this important public health issue. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes on childrens' views of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Ilknur; Bektas, Murat; Selekoğlu, Yasemin; Kudubes, Aslı Akdeniz; Altan, Sema Sal; Ayar, Dijle

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of determining how students' perceived smoking-cancer relationship and cardiovascular health attitudes affect childrens' views of smoking. The sample of this descriptive-cross sectional study comprised 574 subjects between the ages of 11-15. The data were collected using the Children's Cardiovascular Health Promotion Attitude Scale and the Children's Decisional Balance Measure for Assessing and Predicting Smoking Status. Correlation and logistic regression were used for analysis. It was determined that a statistically significant relationship exists between the attitudes of children towards smoking and their ideas about the relationship of smoking with cancer, which is negative and low (r=-0.223). There was also a statistically significant relationship between their attitudes towards cardiovascular health and their attitudes towards smoking, again at a low level (r=0.257). It was determined that children with ideas about smoking and cancer were 9.4 times less likely to have positive/negative attitudes towards smoking, while positive attitudes towards cardiovascular health made negative attitudes towards smoking 3.9 times less likely. It was determined that the attitudes of students towards cardiovascular health and their perceptions of smoking and cancer reduced the positive perceptions towards smoking.

  8. Radiation effects on structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the effect radiation has on thermonuclear reactor materials: Atomic Displacements; Microstructure Evolution; Materials Engineering, Mechanics, and Design; Research on Low-Activation Steels; and Research Motivated by Grant Support

  9. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo; Perez, Maria R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been emphasised the importance of DNA as the main target for ionizing radiation, that can induce damage by its direct action on this molecule or by an indirect effect mediated by free-radicals generated by water radiolysis. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are influenced not only by the dose but also by the dose-rate and the radiation quality. Radiation induced damage, mainly DNA single and double strand breaks, is detected by molecular sensors which in turn trigger signalling cascades leading to cell cycle arrest to allow DNA repair or programmed cell death (apoptosis). Those effects related with cell death, named deterministic, exhibits a dose-threshold below which they are not observed. Acute radiation syndrome and radiological burns are examples of this kind of effects. Other radiation induced effects, called stochastic, are the consequence of cell transformation and do not exhibit a dose-threshold. This is the case of cancer induction and hereditary effects. The aim of this presentation is briefly describe the main aspects of deterministic and stochastic effects from the point of view of radiobiology and radio pathology. (author)

  10. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-02-01

    To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels-having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

  11. Effects after prenatal radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian organism is highly radiosensitive during all prenatal developmental periods. For most effects a dose relationship with a threshold is observed. These threshold doses are generally above the exposures from medical diagnostic procedures. The quality and extent of radiation effects are very much dependent on the developmental stage during which an exposure takes place and on the radiation dose. An exposure during the preimplantation period will cause lethality. Malformations are usually induced after exposures during the major organogenesis. Growth retardation is also possible during the late organogenesis and foetal periods. The lower limits of threshold doses for these effects are in the range of 100 mGy. A radiation exposure during the early foetal period can lead to severe mental retardation and impairment of intelligence. There are very serious effects with radiation doses above 0.3 Gy. Carcinogenesis can apparently occur after radiation exposures during the total prenatal development period. The radiation risk factor up to now has not been clear, but it seems that it is in the range of risk factors for cancer that are observed after exposures during childhood. For radiation doses that are used in radiological diagnostics the risk is zero or very low. A termination of pregnancy after doses below 100 mGy should not be considered. (author)

  12. Effects of radiation on erythropoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, E B

    1971-04-01

    Since the pioneer work of Heineke (1903; 1905) many workers have studied the effect of radiation on haemopoiesis. Their work has been reviewed by Bloom (1948), by Jacobson (1954) and more recently by Bond et al. (1965). The subject continues to stimulate much interest but is now more concerned with the effects of radiation on the multipotential stem cell pool than on radiation damage to the erythropoietic cells themselves. Death from haemopoietic failure following an LD{sub 50/30} dose of radiation is probably not attributable to failure of erythropoiesis; while damage to the erythropoietic system certainly plays a part in the syndrome, it is not a major factor contributing to the death of the animal. Although the severity and time course of the response vary with the species studied, the general effects of radiation on erythropoiesis are similar in all mammalian bone marrow studied to date. Likewise, though the severity of the reaction varies somewhat with the energy of the radiation and has been used to compare the relative biological effectiveness of different types of radiation (Sinclair et al., 1962; Sztanyik, 1967), the response is different only in degree and not in its fundamental pattern. The initial syndrome of depression and recovery will therefore be described largely by reference to work performed on the response of the rat to single acute exposures of either whole-body or partial-body irradiation with conventional X-rays.

  13. Aerosol effects in radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binenko, V.I.; Harshvardhan, H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative properties and effects of aerosols are assessed for the following aerosol sources: relatively clean background aerosol, dust storms and dust outbreaks, anthropogenic pollution, and polluted cloud layers. Studies show it is the submicron aerosol fraction that plays a dominant radiative role in the atmosphere. The radiative effect of the aerosol depends not only on its loading but also on the underlying surface albedo and on solar zenith angle. It is only with highly reflecting surfaces such as Arctic ice that aerosols have a warming effect. Radiometric, microphysical, mineral composition, and refractive index measurements are presented for dust and in particular for the Saharan aerosol layer (SAL). Short-wave radiative heating of the atmosphere is caused by the SAL and is due mainly to absorption. However, the SAL does not contribute significantly to the long-wave thermal radiation budget. Field program studies of the radiative effects of aerosols are described. Anthropogenic aerosols deplete the incoming solar radiation. A case field study for a regional Ukrainian center is discussed. The urban aerosol causes a cooling of metropolitan centers, compared with outlying areas, during the day, which is followed by a warming trend at night. In another study, an increase in turbidity by a factor of 3 due to increased industrialization for Mexico City is noted, together with a drop in atmospheric transmission by 10% over a 50-year period. Numerous studies are cited that demonstrate that anthropogenic aerosols affect both the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds, which in turn affect regional climate. Particles acting as cloud nuclei are considered to have the greatest indirect effect on cloud absorptivity of short-wave radiation. Satellite observations show that low-level stratus clouds contaminated by ship exhaust at sea lead to an increase in cloud albedo

  14. Radiative and Thermal Impacts of Smoke Aerosol Longwave Absorption during Fires in the Moscow Region in Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakova, I. A.; Mokhov, I. I.; Anikin, P. P.; Emilenko, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The aerosol longwave radiative forcing of the atmosphere and heating rate of the near-surface aerosol layer are estimated for the extreme smoke conditions in the Moscow region in summer 2010. Thermal radiation fluxes in the atmosphere are determined using the integral transmission function and semiempirical aerosol model developed on the basis of standard aerosol models and measurements at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The aerosol radiative forcing reached 33 W/m2 at the lower atmospheric boundary and ranged between-1.0 and 1.0 W/m2 at the upper atmospheric boundary. The heating rate of the 10-m atmospheric layer near surface was up to 0.2 K/h during the maximum smoke conditions on August 7-9. The sensitivity of the aerosol longwave radiative forcing to the changes in the aerosol absorption coefficient and aerosol optical thickness are estimated.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea in a non-smoking woman after radiation therapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwa, Naoki; Yamada, Kouzou; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Noda, Kazumasa [Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (Japan); Kameda, Youichi; Maehara, Takamitsu

    2000-04-01

    Few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea have been reported in non-smoking women. We report one case which was probably due to radiation therapy. A 50-year-old non-smoking woman was referred to our hospital because wheezing and dyspnea had been aggravated for 3 months. She had received radiation therapy ({sup 60}Cobalt) after standard radical mastectomy for right breast cancer 13 years previously. Bronchoscopic findings and chest CT scan showed tracheal stenosis due to the tumor. Sleeve resection of the trachea was performed, and the tumor was histologically diagnosed as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. We may consider this case to be radiation-induced cancer compatible with the most strict criteria of radiation induced malignancy. (author)

  16. Smoking effects on milk's micronutrient content and infant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Rodriguez, G.; Berlanga, R.; Garcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy negatively affects birth weight and during breast-feeding alters volume and duration of lactation. As consequence of both effects, breast fed infants of smoking mothers have lower growth rates, compared to those of non-smoking mothers. In smoking mothers, at the end of pregnancy, there is an inverse association between cadmium content in maternal plasma and zinc content in fetal blood, while their newborns exhibited increased copper and diminished iron concentrations. No information exists on micronutrient content of breast milk of smoking mothers, associated to longitudinal growth. Ten smoking mothers (mean of cigarettes: 7.1) and 22 non-smoker controls and their infants, have been recruited within one month after delivery, at a Public Hospital in Santiago, Chile. Infant's weight, height, tricipital skinfold, arm and head circumferences and mother's weight were registered. Milk volume has been assessed by deuterium dilution and cotinine concentrations by radio-immuno-assay (RIA). No significant differences existed in age and nutritional status, between mothers. Cotinine levels were 50 times higher in smoking mothers (2576±2341 mU/L vs 54±25) and 12 times higher in their infants compared with those of non smokers (121±99 mU/L vs 10±5 mU/L). Birth weight was significantly different (3290±327 g vs 3558±432 g, p=0.01) but not so at 3 months of age (6026±550 g vs 6099±510 g, p=0.8). Infants' height was significantly smaller in smokers' infants at birth and 3 months of age (50±1 cm vs 51±1 cm and 59±1 cm vs 61±2 cm). The evidence so far indicates that infant's height is compromised which could be related to an altered transference of essential micronutrients, due to a lesser amount of breast-milk and micronutrient concentrations. These objectives will be proved in the second year of the Coordinated Research Project. (author)

  17. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  18. Health Effects of Hexachloroethane (HC) Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    stomach. Ingestion can also cause corrosive gastritis and liver necrosis (Hill et al., 1978). Concentrations of 225-450 mg of zinc salts are emetic and...et. al, (1983) and noted that the histological effects seen by Marrs et al, were more pronounced, suggesting the differences were due to the 10 times

  19. Combined effect of smoking and occupational exposure to noise on hearing loss in steel factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoue, T; Miyamoto, T; Shimizu, T

    2003-01-01

    Background: Evidence has accumulated concerning the adverse effects of smoking on hearing acuity, but it is not clear whether smoking modifies the association between exposure to noise and hearing loss.

  20. Effects of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function during dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function in young adult smokers during dynamic exercise. Fourteen healthy young smokers (21.4 ± 3.4 years) performed peak and submaximal exercise protocols under control and smoking conditions. Resting and submaximal beat-to-beat R-R series were recorded and spectrally decomposed using the fast Fourier transformation. Smoking resulted in a significant decrease in work time, VO(2peak) and peak O(2) pulse (P exercise after smoking (P smoking, both at rest and during exercise (P smoking (P smoking, but only at rest (P smoking is accompanied by acute changes in heart rate spectral components both at rest and during exercise. Therefore, the cardiac autonomic control is altered by smoking not only at rest, but also during exercise, resulting in reduced vagal modulation and increased sympathetic dominance.

  1. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Healing and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-14

    1~] conc;lucted a literature review on the effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal surgical interventions and found all but one study showed...a patient should be treated with the same concern as alcoholism, heroin addiction or other undiagnosed and/or untreated chronic iilnesses. They all...exists which shows tobacco use increases medical costs both in the near term and chronic care. The burden of education .for chronic illnesses, long

  2. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  3. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-01-01

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed

  4. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Szklo, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66%) relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000) deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million) deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%), and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million) out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce smoking and save

  5. ADA genetic polymorphism and the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Magrini, A; Cozzoli, E; Bergamaschi, A; Bottini, E

    2008-11-01

    Genetic variability of metabolic enzymes may influence the effect of cigarette smoking on intrauterine development and on early neonatal events. To investigate the role of adenosine deaminase genetic polymorphism on the effect of smoking on neonatal bilirubinemia and developmental parameters. Analysis of association between adenosine deaminase phenotypes and neonatal developmental parameters. Prospective study of serum bilirubin level in relation to adenosine deaminase phenotype. We have studied 360 consecutive newborn infants from the Caucasian population of Rome. Serum bilirubin concentration was determined at birth and every 24 h for the first five days. Overall maternal smoking is associated with a slight decrease in the incidence of phototherapy (13.4% in non smoking vs 11.7% in smoking mothers) and with a reduction of birth weight (3374 g in non smoking mothers vs 3133 g in smoking mothers). There is a significant interaction between smoke and adenosine deaminase. While in non smoking mothers the incidence of phototherapy in carriers of ADA 2 allele is higher than in ADA 1 phenotype, in infants from smoking mothers the pattern is reversed and the incidence of phototherapy in carriers of ADA 2 allele is lower than in infants with ADA 1 phenotype. Other neonatal bilirubin parameters follow a similar pattern of interaction between smoking and ADA. The negative effect of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in infant with ADA 1 phenotype than in those carrying the ADA 2 allele. The data suggest that ADA phenotype modifies the effect of smoking on developmental and bilirubin parameters.

  6. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  7. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seoung, Youl Hun [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit.

  8. Effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoung, Youl Hun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of study was to analysis on the effects of radiation-counselling convergence education on radiation awareness. The survey objects were students of radiation-counselling convergence education from 12th May to 22th June in 2016. The questionnaires were education satisfactions and radiation awareness (risk, benefit, control) by Likert-type 5 scales. The analysis results revealed that education satisfactions of men students showed a significant higher female students and correlation coefficient of education satisfactions were the best high in the benefit and control of radiation. Finally radiation-counselling convergence education had a significant effect on radiation benefit. This convergence education influenced positive recognition on radiation benefit and it was indicated that radiation-counselors could treat clients on the basis of radiation benefit

  9. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Martine; Feenstra, Talitha L.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen P. M. H.

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation interventions in

  10. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hoogendoorn (Martine); T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term (cost-) effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A systematic review was performed of randomised controlled trials on smoking cessation

  11. Radiation, chemicals and combined effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    A brief background has been provided on current carcinogenic risks from ionizing radiation and their magnitude in background circumstances. The magnitude of the risks from possibly carcinogenic chemicals at background levels in air, water and food are surprisingly similar. The exception is, perhaps, for the single source of radon which, while variable, on the average stands out above all other sources. Some basic principles concerning the interaction of combined radiation and chemicals and some practical examples where the two interact synergistically to enhance radiation effects has also been provided. Areas for human research in the future are discussed. (Author)

  12. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  13. Radiation effects in optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebele, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses components of high performance optical devices may be exposed to high energy radiation environments during their lifetime. The effect of these adverse environments depends upon a large number of parameters associated with the radiation (nature, energy, dose, dose rate, etc.) or the system (temperature, optical performance requirements, optical wavelength, optical power, path length, etc.), as well as the intrinsic susceptibility of the optical component itself to degradation

  14. Environmental dosimetry and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specific assessment of the potential effects on wild organisms of increased radiation exposure arising from the authorized disposal of radioactive wastes to the environment requires two interrelated sets of information. First, an estimate is required of the incremental radiation exposure; and second, dose rate-response relationships are necessary to predict the potential impact of the estimated incremental exposure. Each of these aspects will be discussed in detail. (author)

  15. The effect of smoking on early chorionic villous vascularisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oppenraaij, R. H. F.; Koning, A. H. J.; van den Hoff, M. J. B.; van der Spek, P. J.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Exalto, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim aim of the study was to investigate whether first trimester chorionic villous vascularisation is different in women who smoked cigarettes before and during pregnancy in comparison with women who did not smoke. Placentas of smoking (>10 cigarettes/day, n = 13) and non-smoking women (n = 13),

  16. Radiation effects at the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilchriese, M.G.D. [ed.] [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1988-06-01

    This report contains a preliminary study of the effects of the radiation levels expected at the SSC on potential detector components and a subset of materials to be used in the SSC accelerators. The report does not contain a discussion of radiation damage to electronics components that may be used at the SSC. We have investigated many of the effects of radiation on silicon detectors, on wire chambers, on scintillating materials and the associated readout, on optical fibers for data transmission and on structural or other materials to be used in detector or accelerator components. In the SSC accelerator complex, in particular the storage rings, radiation damage will not present significant problems different than those now faced by existing high energy accelerators. We find that the effects of radiation damage on SSC detector components will be significant at the design luminosity of the ssc and will limit, or determine, many of the options for different detector components. In this regard the reader should keep in mind that, in the absence of a specific detector design, it is not possible to form definitive conclusions regarding the viability of the detector components. Since the radiation levels in experiments at the SSC will depend on the geometry and composition of the apparatus, simple yes /no generalizations about the feasibility of a detector component are not possible.

  17. N-acetyl Cysteine Reduced Oxidative Damages in Guinea Pigs Exposed to Cigarette Smoke and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.; Abd-EL Aziz, N.; El-Deghidy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supplementation on oxidative cigarette smoke induced-oxidative damage in irradiated guinea pigs. N-acetyl cysteine was injected (i.p) to guinea pigs at a dose of 150 mg/kg b. w/day pre-exposure to cigarette smoke for one hour daily for 30 successive days. Animals were submitted to fractionate whole body gamma radiation (2 Gy installment every two weeks up to 4 Gy total dose started on the 2nd week of the experiment). Animals were sacrificed during the first hours from the last treatment of cigarette smoke. The results obtained showed significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content associated with decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in cardiac and pulmonary tissues as compared with their equivalent in control animals. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST), concentration of nitric oxide (NO), total cholesterol, Triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol were significant increased in plasma associated with significant decreased HDL-cholesterol. The administration of NAC has significantly attenuated the cigarette smoke and/or irradiation-induced changes in all the studied parameters. It could be concluded that NAC reduced cigarette smoke and radiation hazards via neutralized their capability to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in the biological systems

  18. Mortality pattern and life span in case of combined effect of incorporated radioisotopes, smoking and ethanol in the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanova, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    It is established that life span and mortality pattern of animals subjected to chronic intake of 90 Sr, to the effect of ethanol, and smoking depend on the intensity of radiation and radiation doses, character of harmful factors, age and sex dependences. The mean life span of animals subjected to the combined effect of 90 Sr(10 -3 LD50/30) of ethanol and smoking was by 18-22 % lower in comparison with intact animals. Alongside with the mean life span decrease latent period of carcinogenesis is shortened. A high tendency to metastases formation was noted in case of combined action of these factors than in comparison with isolated effect of them. 3 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Effects of cigarette smoking on human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherek, D R

    1984-01-01

    Nicotine administered by smoking experimental cigarettes produced decreases in two types of aggressive responses elicited by low and high frequency subtractions of money which were attributed to another "person". The suppressing effects of smoking different doses of nicotine on aggressive responses was dose-dependent, in that smoking the high dose of nicotine produced more suppression than smoking the low dose. The ostensible subtraction of money from another "person", the more aggressive response option available to research subjects, was generally more sensitive to the suppressing effects of nicotine than aggressive noise delivery responses. Although this effect could be attributed to another constituent of tobacco, the dose-dependent effect observed with these cigarettes which contained the same amount of tar suggest the effects are due to nicotine. The relatively selective suppression of aggressive behavior observed in humans in the present study is highly consistent with the effects of nicotine observed in a number of infrahuman species. Nicotine has been found to suppress aggressive behavior in ants (Kostowski 1968), rats (Silverman 1971), and cats (Berntson et. al. 1976). In addition, nicotine has been observed to suppress shock elicited fighting in rats (Driscoll, Baettig 1981; Rodgers 1979; Waldbillig 1980) as well as shock elicited biting in monkeys (Hutchinson, Emley 1973). The importance of determining specificity of drug action on aggressive behavior has been repeatedly emphasized in the field of behavioral pharmacology (Sidman 1959; Cook, Kelleher 1963; Thompson, Boren 1977; Miczek, Krsiak 1979). One method employed to evaluate drug specificity and identify a general non-specific excitatory or depressant drug effect is to determine the drug effect on more than one response option which is available to the subject (Sidman 1959). In this study, the same doses of nicotine which suppressed aggressive responding increased nonaggressive monetary

  20. Health effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Human and animal studies have shown an increased incidence of cancer and malformation due to radioactive materials and external radiation. The biological effects of radiation on tissues are the occurrence of morphological and functional changes in the body. The critical parts of the body are those tissues or organs which when irradiated, are likely to influence the health of the individual or its offspring. The probability of these changes depends on the radiation dose. There are two main types of damage due to radiation dose. Radiation Sickness with well-defined symptoms like cancer and inherited disorders which can appear after several years. A second type of damage, namely Acute Radiation Sickness results after exposure of the whole or parts of the body to high doses of radiation greater than 1 Gy. There are safety standards for the amount of dose equivalent that is taken as acceptable. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has given norms in which natural and medical causes were not included. These are given as recommended values (1966) and proposed values (2000), both in mSv/yr: population at large: 1.7 and 0.4; members of the public: 5 and 2; and radiologic workers: 50 and 20, respectively. Taking into account the increased number of reactor accidents, the question is how safe is our safety standards? Even when one is able to connect a quantitative risk with a radiation dose, there are three fundamental principles which we should obey in dealing with risks from radiation. These are: (1) Avoid any risk. (2) The risk should be related to the possible benefit. (3) Any dose below the politically agreed limits is acceptable

  1. Harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Tanning for cosmetic purposes by sunbathing or by using artificial tanning devices is widespread. The hazards associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation are of concern to the medical profession. Depending on the amount and form of the radiation, as well as on the skin type of the individual exposed, ultraviolet radiation causes erythema, sunburn, photodamage (photoaging), photocarcinogenesis, damage to the eyes, alteration of the immune system of the skin, and chemical hypersensitivity. Skin cancers most commonly produced by ultraviolet radiation are basal and squamous cell carcinomas. There also is much circumstantial evidence that the increase in the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma during the past half century is related to increased sun exposure, but this has not been proved. Effective and cosmetically acceptable sunscreen preparations have been developed that can do much to prevent or reduce most harmful effects to ultraviolet radiation if they are applied properly and consistently. Other safety measures include (1) minimizing exposure to ultraviolet radiation, (2) being aware of reflective surfaces while in the sun, (3) wearing protective clothing, (4) avoiding use of artificial tanning devices, and (5) protecting infants and children

  2. Effectiveness of a Pregnancy Smoking Intervention: The Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of pregnancy smoking, rates remain high, especially in the rural, Southern United States. Interventions are effective, but few have been developed and tested in regions with high rates of pregnancy smoking, a culture that normalizes smoking, and a hard-to-reach prenatal population. The goals were to describe a smoking…

  3. Potential health effects of tobacco smoking in Uganda and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper rigourolys analyses literature on tobacco smoking and provides a historical perspective of tobacco smoking and the prevalence of smoking in different parts of the world. The dangerous chemical ingredients in cigarettes and their associated health effects are indentified and rigouroulsy analysed. Later, this paper ...

  4. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking...

  5. The effects of smoke hand grenades on human lung cells and bacteria for toxicity screening purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M. van; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Langenberg, J.P.; Tuinman, I.L.; Alblas, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to signaling smoke is almost impossible to avoid, and may have adverse health effects. Hand grenades with signaling smoke are used during training and/or military operations. To obtain the most realistic results when estimating the toxicity of the smoke, not only the smoke–forming

  6. The effectiveness of interventions for primary care physicians to assist in smoking cessation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Stoyka

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.

  7. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  8. Radiation Effects in Carbon Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D. Cress

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate the effects of Co-60 irradiation on the electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube and graphene field-effect transistors. We observe significant differences in the radiation response of devices depending on their irradiation environment, and confirm that, under controlled conditions, standard dielectric hardening approaches are applicable to carbon nanoelectronics devices.

  9. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  10. Gender differences in adolescent smoking: mediator and moderator effects of self-generated expected smoking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Anderson, Cheryl B; Pollak, Kathryn I; Wetter, David W

    2006-01-01

    To examine relations among gender, self-generated smoking-outcome expectancies, and smoking in adolescents. Students from one all-girls' (n=350; 53%) and one all-boys' (n=315; 47%) Catholic high school participated. Analyses included binary and ordinal logistic regression. For boys, smoking behavior was associated with buzz (odds radio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-2.83, p exercise/sport impairment (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.68-4.81, p gender-smoking relationship. Moderators included negative social (beta = -0.45, p = .021) and enhance self-esteem (beta = -1.07, p = .024). Interventions might benefit from tailoring on gender differences in smoking-outcome expectancies.

  11. Effect of graphic cigarette warnings on smoking intentions in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Blanton

    Full Text Available Graphic warnings (GWs on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance. One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions.Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18-24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers were assessed before and after message exposure.GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes, and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes. Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers. No evidence of defensive "boomerang effects" on intention was observed in any subgroup.Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults.

  12. Effects of cigarette smoking on lexical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, C R; Gentry, M V; Meliska, C J

    1999-02-01

    10 habitual smokers, aged 19-25 yr., were randomly assigned to smoke either a very low nicotine "Placebo" cigarette (.05-mg nicotine delivery as estimated by the FTC method) or a Nicotine cigarette (.7-mg estimated nicotine delivery). Each participant was asked to abstain from smoking for 4 to 7 hr. prior to testing. After completing a presmoking test of lexical decision-making, participants smoked either a Nicotine or Placebo cigarette and were then retested for reaction times and accuracy on the lexical decision test. When presented the most difficult lexical decisions, participants responded significantly faster after smoking a Nicotine cigarette than they did before smoking; smoking a Placebo cigarette did not affect reaction times. Response accuracy was unaffected by smoking either kind of cigarette. These results suggest that smoking a nicotine cigarette may improve attention or memory retrieval after several hours of smoking abstinence.

  13. Kinetic theory of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    To help achieve the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of these processes, the kinetic theory of radiation effects has been developed in the DOE basic energy sciences radiation effects and fusion reactor materials programs, as well as in corresponding efforts in other countries. This discipline grapples with a very wide range of phenomena and draws on numerous sub-fields of theory such as defect physics, diffusion, elasticity, chemical reaction rates, phase transformations and thermodynamics. The theory is cast in a mathematical framework of continuum dynamics. Issues particularly relevant to the present inquiry can be viewed from the standpoints of applications of the theory and areas requiring further progress

  14. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Health, Safety and Waste Disposal, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    To establish the maximum permissible radiation doses for occupational and other kinds of radiation exposure, it is necessary to know those biological effects which can be produced by very small radiation doses. This particular field of radiation biology has not yet been sufficiently explored. This holds true for possible delayed damage after occupational radiation exposure over a period of many years as well as for acute reactions of the organism to single low level exposures. We know that irradiation of less than 25 Roentgen units (r) is unlikely to produce symptoms of radiation sickness. We have, however, found indications that even smaller doses may produce certain instantaneous reactions which must not be neglected

  15. Effect of water pipe tobacco smoking on plasma high sensitivity C reactive protein level and endothelial function compared to cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Ali Diab; Elzahraa Mohamed Abdelrahim; Mohamed Esmail

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, however, little is known regarding water pipe (WP) smoking. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) are well recognized methods to assess cardiovascular risks. Objectives: To study the effect of WP smoking on hs-CRP level and endothelial function compared to cigarette smoking. Methods: The study included 77 male subjects (30 WP smokers, 30 cigarette smokers, and ...

  16. The effects and control of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; ionising radiation (alpha and beta particles, gamma- and X-radiation, neutrons, half-life, sources of radiation); biological effects; risk estimates (somatic) (early effects, delayed effects); risk estimates (hereditary); control of radiation; risk estimates (accidents). (U.K.)

  17. Effect of Graphic Cigarette Warnings on Smoking Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Snyder, Leslie B.; Strauts, Erin; Larson, Joy G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Graphic warnings (GWs) on cigarette packs are widely used internationally and perhaps will be in the US but their impact is not well understood. This study tested support for competing hypotheses in different subgroups of young adults defined by their history of cigarette smoking and individual difference variables (e.g., psychological reactance). One hypothesis predicted adaptive responding (GWs would lower smoking-related intentions) and another predicted defensive responding (GWs would raise smoking-related intentions). Methods Participants were an online sample of 1,169 Americans ages 18–24, who were randomly assigned either to view nine GWs designed by the FDA or to a no-label control. Both the intention to smoke in the future and the intention to quit smoking (among smokers) were assessed before and after message exposure. Results GWs lowered intention to smoke in the future among those with a moderate lifetime smoking history (between 1 and 100 cigarettes), and they increased intention to quit smoking among those with a heavy lifetime smoking history (more than 100 cigarettes). Both effects were limited to individuals who had smoked in some but not all of the prior 30 days (i.e., occasional smokers). No evidence of defensive “boomerang effects” on intention was observed in any subgroup. Conclusion Graphic warnings can reduce interest in smoking among occasional smokers, a finding that supports the adaptive-change hypothesis. GWs that target occasional smokers might be more effective at reducing cigarette smoking in young adults. PMID:24806481

  18. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This presentation is restricted to the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. In general, these cumulative exposures are well below 100 rem, or about 50 times background or less. The two effects of interest in this dose range are genetic mutations and cancer production. The genetic effects will not be discussed in detail. The chief reason for the rise in risk estimates for cancer is the longer follow-up of exposed populations

  19. Effects of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements on the Attitudes of Korean College Students toward Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jakyoung; Ryu, Ji-Hye; Kim, Soo Jeong

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39.1% and 19.8%, respectively, whereas those with negative messages showed a greater proportion of changes in the beliefs (59.7%) and attitudes (40.3%). After adjusting for sex and change in belief, the message types and smoking status were identified as factors affecting the change in the participants attitudes. A negative message resulted in a greater change in attitudes (odds ratio [OR], 3.047; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.847-5.053). Ever-smokers including current smokers showed a greater positive change in attitude than never-smokers (OR, 6.965; 95% CI, 4.107-11.812). This study found that positive anti-smoking public service announcements were more effective on attitude change than negative messages. Additionally these announcements were more effective among viewers who were current smokers or had a prior smoking experience.

  20. Physiological Effects of Smoke Exposure on Deciduous and Conifer Tree Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, W.J.; Lifferth, G.; Clair, S.B.S.; Moritz, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Smoke from forest fires can persist in the environment for weeks and while there is a substantial amount of literature examining the effects of smoke exposure on seed germination, the effects of smoke on leaf function are nearly un investigated. The objective of this study was to compare growth and primary and secondary metabolic responses of deciduous angiosperm and evergreen conifer tree species to short smoke exposure. Twenty minutes of smoke exposure resulted in a greater than 50% reduction in photosynthetic capacity in five of the six species we examined. Impairment of photosynthesis in response to smoke was a function of reductions in stomatal conductance and biochemical limitations. In general, deciduous angiosperm species showed a greater sensitivity than evergreen conifers. While there were significant decreases in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, smoke had no significant effect on growth or secondary defense compound production in any of the tree species examined.

  1. Physiological Effects of Smoke Exposure on Deciduous and Conifer Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. John Calder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoke from forest fires can persist in the environment for weeks and while there is a substantial amount of literature examining the effects of smoke exposure on seed germination, the effects of smoke on leaf function are nearly uninvestigated. The objective of this study was to compare growth and primary and secondary metabolic responses of deciduous angiosperm and evergreen conifer tree species to short smoke exposure. Twenty minutes of smoke exposure resulted in a greater than 50% reduction in photosynthetic capacity in five of the six species we examined. Impairment of photosynthesis in response to smoke was a function of reductions in stomatal conductance and biochemical limitations. In general, deciduous angiosperm species showed a greater sensitivity than evergreen conifers. While there were significant decreases in photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, smoke had no significant effect on growth or secondary defense compound production in any of the tree species examined.

  2. The Effect of Central American Smoke Aerosols on the Air Quality and Climate over the Southeastern United States: First Results from RAMS-AROMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Christopher, S. A.; Nair, U. S.; Reid, J.; Prins, E. M.; Szykman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Observation shows that smoke aerosols from biomass burning activities in Central America can be transported to the Southeastern United States (SEUS). In this study, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System - Assimilation and Radiation Online Modeling of Aerosols (RAMS-AROMA) is used to investigate the effect of transported smoke aerosols on climate and air quality over the SEUS. AROMA is an aerosol transport model with capabilities of online integration of aerosol radiation effects and online assimilation of satellite-derived aerosol and emission products. It is assembled within the RAMS, so two-way interactions between aerosol fields and other meteorology fields are achieved simultaneously during each model time step. RAMS-AROMA is a unique tool that can be used to examine the aerosol radiative impacts on the surface energy budget and atmospheric heating rate and to investigate how atmospheric thermal and dynamical processes respond to such impacts and consequently affect the aerosol distribution (so called feedbacks). First results regarding air quality effects and radiative forcing of transported smoke aerosols will be presented from RAMS-AROMA based on assimilation of smoke emission products from the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) project and aerosol optical thickness data derived from the MODIS instrument on the Terra and Aqua satellites. Comparisons with PM2.5 data collected from the EPA observation network and the aerosol optical thickness data from the DOE Atmosphere Radiation Measurements in the Southern Great Plains (ARM SGP) showed that RAMS-AROMA can predict the timing and spatial distribution of smoke events very well, with an accuracy useful for air quality forecasts. The smoke radiative effects on the surface temperature and atmospheric heating rate as well as their feedbacks will also be discussed.

  3. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Radiation effects on video imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented

  5. Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna for an event organised by the chemical physical society, the Austrian biochemical society and the Austrian biophysical society in December 1972. In this paper Broda analyses the question of biopositive effects of ionizing radiation. (nowak)

  6. Effect of smoking on global cognitive function in nondemented elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, A; Andersen, K; Dewey, M E

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to early case-control studies that suggested smoking protects against Alzheimer disease (AD), recent prospective studies have shown that elderly who smoke may be at increased risk for dementia....

  7. Real-life effectiveness of smoking-cessation treatments in general practice clinics in Denmark. The Escape Smoke project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Spillemose, Heidi; Nielsen, Gerda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The smoking prevalence has not decreased in the last years in Denmark. General practice (GP) offers smoking cessation (SC) treatment. Studies of real-life effectiveness of daily practice SC-activities from the GP-setting opposed to efficacy results from randomized clinical trials...... are few. The study aim was to evaluate the real-life effectiveness of SC-treatments for daily smokers among Danish GP-clinics. METHODS: In a multi-centre-based observational study design Danish GP-clinics with prior SC-activity recruited daily smokers motivated for quitting. As per usual clinical practice...

  8. Effects of ambient air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health of non-smoking women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Hu, Z G; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J; Peters, J

    1999-10-01

    Two-thirds of complaints received by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in 1988 were related to poor air quality. In July 1990 legislation was implemented to reduce fuel sulphur levels. The intervention led to a reduction in respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of primary school children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in respiratory health between non-smoking women living in the more polluted district (Kwai Tsing) and those living in the less polluted district (Southern); to assess the impact of the government air quality intervention; and to study the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health in non-smoking women in both districts. A total of 3405 non-smoking women, aged 36.5 years (standard deviation = 3.0), from two districts with good and poor air quality respectively before the intervention were followed yearly from 1989 to 1991. Binary latent variable modelling was used to summarize the six respiratory symptoms and to estimate the effects of risk factors. In 1989, living in the polluted district was associated with poor respiratory health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17, P 0.241) in the more polluted compared with the less polluted district for poor respiratory health. In 1989, the effects on poor respiratory health for exposure to two or more categories of smokers relative to none in the home (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83, P living in polluted relative to less polluted district (95% CI of the two effects overlapping each other). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution had independent adverse effects on respiratory health of non-smoking women and improvement in air quality had produced some but non-significant benefits.

  9. Modification of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from studies on the tissue distribution of 239 Pu and 241 Am in mice and beagle dogs and the effectiveness of various therapeutic treatments for decorporation. In dogs injected with monomeric Pu the value of a regimen of early and prolonged treatment with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) for minimizing the Pu burden in the soft tissues and skeleton was demonstrated. These results have immediate implication for DTPA treatment in man. New studies in mice verified the action of pyran copolymer antiviral agents in enhancing the effectiveness of DTPA for removal of polymeric Pu from the liver. Recent application of autoradiographic procedures for quantitatively comparing short- and long-term localization of monomeric and polymeric 239 Pu in dog liver showed that there is no net translocation of monomeric Pu within the liver between 6 and 90 days following injection. One of the molecular studies presently underway aims at synthesis of a variety of DTPA esters. The diethyl ester has already been prepared and tested for toxicity in mice. These compounds are designed to bring DTPA into contact with plutonium deposits unavailable to the action of ionic DTPA. (U.S.)

  10. Effects of exercise on the desire to smoke and physiological responses to temporary smoking abstinence: a crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vaughan; Gant, Nicholas; Sollers, John J; Bullen, Chris; Jiang, Yannan; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    Exercise has been shown to attenuate cigarette cravings during temporary smoking abstinence; however, the mechanisms of action are not clearly understood. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of three exercise intensities on desire to smoke and explore potential neurobiological mediators of desire to smoke. Following overnight abstinence, 40 participants (25 males, 18-59 years) completed three 15 min sessions of light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer in a randomized crossover design. Ratings of desire to smoke were self-reported pre- and post-exercise and heart rate variability was measured throughout. Saliva and blood were analyzed for cortisol and noradrenaline in a sub-sample. Exercise influenced desire to smoke (F [2, 91] = 7.94, p exercise. There were also significant time x exercise intensity interaction effects for heart rate variability and plasma noradrenaline (F [8, 72] = 2.23, p = 0.03), with a bias in noradrenaline occurring between light and vigorous conditions (adjusted mean difference [SE] = 2850 ng/ml [592], p exercise. There was no interaction of time x exercise intensity for plasma and salivary cortisol levels. These findings support the use of vigorous exercise to reduce cigarette cravings, showing potential alterations in a noradrenergic marker.

  11. Radiation effects on eye components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durchschlag, H.; Fochler, C.; Abraham, K.; Kulawik, B.

    1999-08-01

    The most important water-soluble components of the vertebrate eye (lens proteins, aqueous humor, vitreous, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid) have been investigated in aqueous solution, after preceding X- or UV-irradiation. Spectroscopic, chromatographic, electrophoretic, hydrodynamic and analytic techniques have been applied, to monitor several radiation damages such as destruction of aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids, aggregation, crosslinking, dissociation, fragmentation, and partial unfolding. Various substances were found which were able to protect eye components effectively against radiation, some of them being also of medical relevance.

  12. The effect of smoking on changes in functional attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking of cheeses significantly modifies not only sensory attributes, but also determines the form of their further utilisation, packaging method and shelf life. The aim of thIS study was to evaluate functional characteristics of smoked and unsmoked Mozzarella cheeses subjected to 4-week storage. It was found that smoked ...

  13. Effects of smoking on fatty acids composition of croaker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smoked croakers analysed without skin (skinless).The relationship of PUFA to SFA for fresh and smoked croakers were greater than 0.4 and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios of both the fresh and smoked croaker were far less than one (1) thus constituting an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and a highly healthy food.

  14. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  15. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijula, Jere; Johnsson, Tom; Kaleva, Simo; Tuomi, Tapani; Reijula, Kari

    2013-10-01

    To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m(3) to 0.1 μg/m(3). The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m(3) to 0.1 μg/m(3). Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  16. Radiation Effects in Paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutwasi, O.

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging has evolved from single technique to a field which we have a choice from many modalities. Some without radiation. Radiation producing modalities include plain films (low dose), Fluoroscopy (mid range dose), Computed tomography (high dose). Radiography dose can significantly be influenced in plain radiography by varying speed of screens, cassette construction and type of radiography. E.g. digital or computed. In computed or digital radiography we are no longer able to tell h igh dose b y the quality of images. The final image is by great extend a product of post processing algorithms. It's for this reasons that the basic understanding of the sensitivity and specifying of various types of examinations and of specifically radiation effects is mandatory for a paediatric imager

  17. Effects of emotion regulation strategies on smoking craving, attentional bias, and task persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Paul Lucian; Szentagotai, Aurora; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different strategies for regulating emotions associated with smoking on subjective, cognitive, and behavioral correlates of smoking. Emotion regulation was manipulated by instructing participants to reappraise (n = 32), accept (n = 31), or suppress (n = 31) their emotions associated with smoking. The dependent measures included subjective reports of craving, negative affect, and attentional biases, as measured by a modified dot-probe task, and persistence during a task to measure distress tolerance. Individuals who were encouraged to reappraise the consequences of smoking showed diminished craving, lower negative affect, had reduced attentional biases for smoking-related cues, and exhibited greater task persistence than those who were instructed to accept and suppress their urge to smoke. These findings suggest that reappraisal techniques are more effective than acceptance or suppression strategies for targeting smoking-related problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  19. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  20. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to a complex mix of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different frequencies that permeate our environment. Exposures to these EMF are increasing significantly as technology advances unabated and new applications are found. Technological progress in the broadest sense of the word has always been associated with various hazards and risks, both perceived and real. The industrial, commercial and household application on EMF is no exception. Throughout the world, the general public is concerned that exposure to EMF from such sources as high voltage power lines, broadcasting networks, mobile telephones and their base stations could lead to adverse health consequences, especially in children. As a result, the construction of new power lines and broadcasting and mobile telephone network has met with considerable opposition in many countries. Public exposure to EMF is regulated by a variety of voluntary and legal limits, together with various national safety standards. Guidelines are designed to avoid all identified hazards, from short and long term exposure, recommended limits. The aim of this paper is to report the summary of the actual scientific knowledge about the potential health effects and hazards due to man made EMF and the new tendencies of the social and political choices [it

  1. Effects of smoking cues and argument strength of antismoking advertisements on former smokers' self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyoung; Cappella, Joseph N; Lerman, Caryn; Strasser, Andrew A

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the impact of smoking cues employed in antismoking advertisements on former smokers. Previous findings indicate that visual smoking cues in antismoking advertisements with weak antismoking arguments can elicit smoking urges in smokers and undermine message effectiveness. This study extends these observations to former smokers asking whether smoking cues in antismoking advertisements influence former smokers' self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention to refrain from smoking, along with smoking urges and perceived message effectiveness. The study was a mixed 2 (smoking cues; present vs. absent) × 2 (argument strength [AS]; high vs. low) design where smoking cue was a between-subject factor and AS was a within-subject factor. Potential participants recruited via online ads were screened in a phone interview for their eligibility. A total of 105 former smokers (aged 21-65) participated in the study, which was conducted in a laboratory setting. Repeated measure ANOVA and MANOVA were used for the analyses. The results showed that the presence of smoking cues in antismoking ads undermines former smokers' behavioral self-efficacy, attitude, and intention about smoking abstinence, which increased as AS for the ads increased. Former smokers' reports of smoking urge were not affected by smoking cues or AS. However, consistent with previous findings for smokers, the presence of cues weakened perceived message effectiveness of antismoking ads rated by former smokers. The effect of smoking cues on former smokers' self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking is problematic. Inclusion of smoking cues in antismoking ads should be undertaken only when accompanied by strong arguments.

  2. Effects of Smoking Cues and Argument Strength of Antismoking Advertisements on Former Smokers’ Self-efficacy, Attitude, and Intention to Refrain From Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyoung

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study examines the impact of smoking cues employed in antismoking advertisements on former smokers. Previous findings indicate that visual smoking cues in antismoking advertisements with weak antismoking arguments can elicit smoking urges in smokers and undermine message effectiveness. This study extends these observations to former smokers asking whether smoking cues in antismoking advertisements influence former smokers’ self-efficacy, attitudes, and intention to refrain from smoking, along with smoking urges and perceived message effectiveness. Methods: The study was a mixed 2 (smoking cues; present vs. absent) × 2 (argument strength [AS]; high vs. low) design where smoking cue was a between-subject factor and AS was a within-subject factor. Potential participants recruited via online ads were screened in a phone interview for their eligibility. A total of 105 former smokers (aged 21–65) participated in the study, which was conducted in a laboratory setting. Repeated measure ANOVA and MANOVA were used for the analyses. Results: The results showed that the presence of smoking cues in antismoking ads undermines former smokers’ behavioral self-efficacy, attitude, and intention about smoking abstinence, which increased as AS for the ads increased. Former smokers’ reports of smoking urge were not affected by smoking cues or AS. However, consistent with previous findings for smokers, the presence of cues weakened perceived message effectiveness of antismoking ads rated by former smokers. Conclusions: The effect of smoking cues on former smokers’ self-efficacy, attitude, and intention to refrain from smoking is problematic. Inclusion of smoking cues in antismoking ads should be undertaken only when accompanied by strong arguments. PMID:22949578

  3. Economic effect of restaurant smoking restrictions on restaurant business in Massachusetts, 1992 to 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosch, W; Pope, G

    2002-01-01

    Design: Analysis used a pre/post-quasi-experimental design that compared town meals tax receipts before and after the imposition of highly restrictive restaurant smoking policies in adopting versus non-adopting communities. The effect of restaurant smoking policies was estimated using a fixed effects regression model, entering a panel of 84 months of data for the 239 towns in the study. A separate model estimated the effect of restaurant smoking policies on establishments that served alcohol.

  4. Effects of aerosol from biomass burning on the global radiation budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Joyce E.; Dickinson, Robert E.; O'Neill, Christine A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the likely contribution of smoke particles from biomass burning to the global radiation balance. These particles act to reflect solar radiation directly; they also can act as cloud condensation nuclei, increasing the reflectivity of clouds. Together these effects, although uncertain, may add up globally to a cooling effect as large as 2 watts per square meter, comparable to the estimated contribution to sulfate aerosols. Anthropogenic increases of smoke emission thus may have helped weaken the net greenhouse warming from anthropogenic trace gases.

  5. The effect of workplace smoking bans on heart rate variability and pulse wave velocity of non-smoking hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Moeller, Alexander; Röösli, Martin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a change in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), this study utilized a quasi-experimental setting when a smoking ban was introduced. HRV, a quantitative marker of autonomic activity of the nervous system, and PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness, were measured in 55 non-smoking hospitality workers before and 3-12 months after a smoking ban and compared to a control group that did not experience an exposure change. SHS exposure was determined with a nicotine-specific badge and expressed as inhaled cigarette equivalents per day (CE/d). PWV and HRV parameters significantly changed in a dose-dependent manner in the intervention group as compared to the control group. A one CE/d decrease was associated with a 2.3% (95% CI 0.2-4.4; p = 0.031) higher root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a 5.7% (95% CI 0.9-10.2; p = 0.02) higher high-frequency component and a 0.72% (95% CI 0.40-1.05; p < 0.001) lower PWV. PWV and HRV significantly improved after introducing smoke-free workplaces indicating a decreased cardiovascular risk.

  6. Effects of Opium Addiction and Cigarette Smoking on Hematological Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad; Nabati, Saeideh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of opium addiction and cigarette smoking on the complete blood count (CBC). Eighty-six male subjects, including 31 opium-addicted cigarette smokers (OACS), 19 opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (OANCS), 17 non-opium-addicted cigarette smokers (NOACS), and 19 non-opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (NOANCS) participated in this study. The CBC test was measured in all individuals. The OACS had significantly higher white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and red blood cell (RBC) count but lower in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to NOANCS. The OANCS had significantly higher lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. Our results demonstrated that the number of WBC, lymphocytes, and RBC were significantly higher, while, MCV was lower in OANCS subjects when compared to NOACS. The OACS had significantly higher level of lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. The mean number of lymphocyte in OANCS was found significantly higher than NOACS. The smokers were shown to have significantly higher levels of WBC compared to NOANCS. Our results showed that opium-addiction, especially when associated with cigarette smoking, has intensive effects on hematological factors and these alteration might leads to greater risk for developing atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and imbalance in immune system.

  7. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70-80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. A randomized controlled trial was planned among male prisoners in Central Jail, Bangalore city. There were 1600 convicted prisoners. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the prisoners to assess their smoking behavior by which prevalence of tobacco smoking was found. Exactly 1352 tobacco users were studied. Among them, there were 1252 smokers. Based on inclusion criteria and informed consent given by the prisoners, a sample of 600 was chosen for the study by systematic random sampling. Among the 600 prisoners, 300 were randomly selected for the study group and 300 for the control group. Prevalence of tobacco smoking among the prisoners was 92.60%. In the present study, after smoking cessation intervention, 17% showed no change in smoking, 21.66% reduced smoking, 16% stopped smoking, and 45.33% relapsed (P prison even if the living conditions are not favorable. Relatively high rate of relapse in our study indicates that some policies should be adopted to improve smokers' information on consequences of tobacco on health and motivational intervention should be added to prisoners.

  8. Genomic instability and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Streffer

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital

  9. Peer Effects and Youth Smoking in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaj Silda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of peer smoking on individual smoking among youths in 10 countries that participated in the European Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. I control for endogeneity in school selection and unobserved school-level characteristics through the use of school fixed-effects. I use instrumental variables to address the simultaneity in peer and individual behaviours. Identification arises by comparing students in different classes within the same school. On average, an increase in the share of classmates who smoke by 10 percentage points increases the probability that an individual in that class will smoke by 3 to 6.9 percentage points. The results imply that any policy intervention such as anti-smoking messages, smoking bans, or higher cigarette prices will be even more cost-effective because of the social multiplier effect of peers – policies affecting some individuals in a group will generate spillovers to others through the peer effect.

  10. Notes on radiation effects on materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of radiation from nuclear reactions on various classes of materials are examined in an introductory textbook for students of nuclear engineering. Topics discussed include the units and general scale of radiation damage, fundamental interactions of neutrons and gamma rays with materials, transient radiation effects on electrical components, radiation effects on organic materials and on steels, nuclear fission effects, surface effects of nuclear radiations, radiation effects on biological material, and neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry. Graphs, diagrams, tables of numerical data, and problems for each chapter are provided. 122 references

  11. Radioactivity of 210Pb in Japanese cigarettes and radiation dose from smoking inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, A.; Fukao, K.; Kawabe, A.; Kataoka, T.; Hanamoto, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette tobaccos contain naturally occurring radioactive nuclides such as 210 Pb and 210 Po. In many countries, the radioactivity of tobaccos has been measured to estimate the effective dose from smoking inhalation. The present study covered 24 cigarette brands including the top 20 of sales in Japan between April 2008 and March 2009. The activity concentrations of 210 Pb were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry, and then those of its progeny ( 210 Po) were evaluated assuming the radioactive equilibrium between the two nuclides. Their concentrations were in the range of 2-14 mBq cigarette -1 with an arithmetic mean of 8±3 mBq cigarette -1 . The annual committed effective doses were also calculated, based on the scenario that a smoker consumes 20 cigarettes a day. The average doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po inhalations were 22±9 and 68±27 uμSv y -1 , respectively. (authors)

  12. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1985-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The csub(p) of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation. (author)

  13. Radiation effects in silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Howitt, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The study of radiation effects in complex silicate glasses has received renewed attention because of their use in special applications such as high level nuclear waste immobilization and fiber optics. Radiation changes the properties of these glasses by altering their electronic and atomic configurations. These alterations or defects may cause dilatations or microscopic phase changes along with absorption centers that limit the optical application of the glasses. Atomic displacements induced in the already disordered structure of the glasses may affect their use where heavy irradiating particles such as alpha particles, alpha recoils, fission fragments, or accelerated ions are present. Large changes (up to 1%) in density may result. In some cases the radiation damage may be severe enough to affect the durability of the glass in aqueous solutions. In the paper, the authors review the literature concerning radiation effects on density, durability, stored energy, microstructure and optical properties of silicate glasses. Both simple glasses and complex glasses used for immobilization of nuclear waste are considered

  14. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-01-01

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation

  15. Health effects of radiation and the implications for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this Paper two elements of a multiphase analysis of radiation exposures in the living environment - the human health effects of ionizing radiation and the implications for radiation safety policy and practices - are presented. Part 1 draws together the current state of scientific knowledge and insight about the human health effects of radiation, describing these in terms of known cause-related deterministic effects and of the estimated incidence of stochastic effects as defined by biostatistics and biological models. The 1988 UNSCEAR report provides an authoritative basis for such an examination. Part 2 explores some of the major implications that the state-of-the-art of radiation biology has - or should have - for radiation safety policy and practices. (author)

  16. Effects of an anti-smoking program to prevent lung cancer among urban aboriginals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Huang, Sheu-Jen; Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Wang, Pao-Yu; Lin, Li-Hui; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people who leave their hometowns and move to the city to earn a living became urban aboriginals. During the process of adapting to urban living situations, they may use various coping strategies such as smoking to overcome their stress. Therefore, it is crucial to provide health education including smoking prevention, increasing knowledge regarding of tobacco hazard, self-efficacy of anti-smoking, and adjusting smoking behavior so as to empower their anti-smoking motivation to prevent lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an anti-smoking program on urban aboriginals in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental study design with purposeful sampling was employed. A total of 125 aboriginal subjects were recruited from two local churches at Shu Lin area in northern Taiwan. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (n =64 ) and a control group (n = 61). Both took pre-tests in order to set baseline values, and only the experimental group participated for 3-weeks in the anti-smoking program classes. Both groups took post-tests immediately after the intervention in order to evaluate the immediate effects of the teaching program, and a follow-up test was conducted four weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANCOVA, and repeat measure ANCOVA. After controlling for confounding variables, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the self-efficacy of anti-smoking and smoking behavior between experimental and control groups in the immediately post-test and the follow-up test (p smoking at eiter time point. The findings of this study revealed that the anti-smoking program effectively improved self-efficacy of anti-smoking, and decreased the smoking behavior in urban aboriginals. They provide useful information as a reference regarding of aboriginal health promotion to health providers. It is imperative that anti-smoking be reinforced for those regular

  17. Research on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki

    2007-01-01

    Researches on radiation effect and radiation protection at JAEA have been carried out in different sections. In recent years, the organizations were rearranged to attain better research circumstances, and new research programs started. At present, radiation effect studies focus on radiation effect mechanisms at atomic, molecular and cellular levels including simulation studies, and protection studies focus on dosimetry for conditions difficult to cover with currently used methods and data as well as the related basic studies. The outlines of the whole studies and also some descriptions on selected subjects will be given in this paper. (author)

  18. Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsophon, Thaniya; Thaveeratitham, Premtip; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2017-09-06

    Exercise is one choice of additional treatment for smoking cessation by relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving. The possible mechanism of the effect of exercise on relieving nicotine withdrawal symptoms and smoking craving is including affect, biological, and cognitive hypotheses. Evidence suggests that different types of exercise have different effects on these mechanisms. Therefore, type of exercise might have effect on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study is to systematically review randomized controlled trials to gain insight into which types of exercise are effective for smoking cessation. Publications were systemically searched up to November 2016 in several databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, PEDro, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library), using the following keywords: "physical activity", "exercise", "smoking", "tobacco" and "cigarette". The methodological quality was assessed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the type of exercise on smoking cessation. The quality of the evidence was assessed and rated according to the GRADE approach. 20 articles on 19 studies were judged to meet the selection criteria (seven low-risk of bias RCTs and 12 high-risk of bias RCTs). The findings revealed low quality evidence for the effectiveness of yoga for smoking cessation at the end of the treatment. The evidence found for no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, and a combined aerobic and resisted exercise program on smoking cessation was of low to moderate quality. Furthermore, very low to low quality evidence was found for no effect of physical activity on smoking cessation. There was no effect of aerobic exercise, resisted exercise, physical activity and combined aerobic and resisted exercise on smoking cessation. There was a positive effect on smoking cessation at the end of treatment in the program where yoga plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was used. However, which

  19. Allelopathic Effects of Plant-Derived Aerosol Smoke on Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennacchio, M.; Jefferson, L.V.; Havens, K.

    2007-01-01

    The role that plant-derived smoke plays in promoting seed germination is well documented, but little is known about its ability to inhibit seed germination. To better understand this phenomenon, we tested the effects of eight aerosol smoke treatments on the Columbia-3 ecotype of non dormant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. seeds. Our results revealed that aerosol smoke significantly inhibits germination when seeds were exposed to prolonged periods of aerosol smoke. Short durations of smoke treatments significantly promoted the rate of germination of A. thaliana seed. We briefly discuss this dual regulation of smoke and its possible impact on conservation and restoration practices. We also propose that plant-derived smoke may be another vehicle by which allelo chemicals can be introduced into the environment.

  20. The Yazd People’s Point of View about Effect of Visual Media on Smoking Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2013-10-01

    Results: Based on participants' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants. Conclusion: The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.

  1. Potentiation of cigarette smoking and radiation: evidence from a sputum cytology survey among uranium miners and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, P.; Feldstein, M.; Saccomanno, G.; Watson, L.; King, G.

    1980-01-01

    To assess the effect of cigarette smoking and of exposure to radon daughters, a prospective survey consisting of periodic sputum cytology evaluation was initiated among 249 underground uranium miners and 123 male controls. Sputum cytology specimens showing moderate atypia, marked atypia, or cancer cells were classified as abnormal. As compared to control smokers, miners who smoke had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal cytology (P = 0.025). For miner smokers, the observed frequencies of abnormal cytology were linearly related to cumulative exposure to radon daughters and to the number of years of uranium mining. A statistical model relating the probability of abnormal cytology to the risk factors was investigated using a binary logistic regression. The estimated frequency of abnormal cytology was significantly dependent, for controls, on the duration of cigarette smoking, and for miners, on the duration of cigarette smoking and of uranium mining

  2. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  3. [Effect of school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.

  4. Social Networks and Smoking: Exploring the Effects of Influence and Smoker Popularity through Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, David R.; adams, jimi; Haas, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw upon recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention strategies targeted toward micro-level processes. Our approach begins by estimating a stochastic actor-based model using data from one school in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The model provides estimates of several factors predicting friendship ties and smoking behavior. We then use estimated model parameters to simulate the co-evolution of friendship and smoking behavior under potential intervention scenarios. Namely, we manipulate the strength of peer influence on smoking and the popularity of smokers relative to nonsmokers. We measure how these manipulations affect smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Results indicate that both peer influence and smoking-based popularity affect smoking behavior, and that their joint effects are nonlinear. This study demonstrates how a simulation-based approach can be used to explore alternative scenarios that may be achievable through intervention efforts and offers new hypotheses about the association between friendship and smoking. PMID:24084397

  5. Social networks and smoking: exploring the effects of peer influence and smoker popularity through simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, David R; Adams, Jimi; Haas, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent smoking and friendship networks are related in many ways that can amplify smoking prevalence. Understanding and developing interventions within such a complex system requires new analytic approaches. We draw on recent advances in dynamic network modeling to develop a technique that explores the implications of various intervention strategies targeted toward micro-level processes. Our approach begins by estimating a stochastic actor-based model using data from one school in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The model provides estimates of several factors predicting friendship ties and smoking behavior. We then use estimated model parameters to simulate the coevolution of friendship and smoking behavior under potential intervention scenarios. Namely, we manipulate the strength of peer influence on smoking and the popularity of smokers relative to nonsmokers. We measure how these manipulations affect smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Results indicate that both peer influence and smoking-based popularity affect smoking behavior and that their joint effects are nonlinear. This study demonstrates how a simulation-based approach can be used to explore alternative scenarios that may be achievable through intervention efforts and offers new hypotheses about the association between friendship and smoking.

  6. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  7. Pre-LBA Smoke, Clouds, and Radiation - Brazil (SCAR-B) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains meteorological data, reanalysis data, remote sensing images, and data on atmospheric composition collected during the Smoke, Clouds,...

  8. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  9. Obstetric and perinatal effects of active and/or passive smoking during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura,Mary Uchiyama; Alexandre,Sandra Maria; Santos,Jorge Francisco Kuhn dos; Souza,Eduardo de; Sass,Nelson; Beck,Anna Paula Auritscher; Trayna,Evelyn; Andrade,Carla Maria de Araújo; Barroso,Teresa; Kulay Júnior,Luiz

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: Cigarette smoke, whether inhaled voluntarily or not, causes damage to the mother-infant pair. The antenatal period may present the best opportunity for performing effective anti-smoking campaigns. OBJECTIVE: To study the obstetric and perinatal effects of smoking on pregnancy and the infant. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study, interviewing pregnant women who were randomly selected at the maternity hospital as they were being discharged after giving birth. SETTING: Hospital Municipal Ve...

  10. Health effects of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasimova, K; Azizova, F; Mehdieva, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : A summary of the nature of radiactive contamination would be incomplete without some mention of the human health effects relatied to radioactivity and radioactive materials. Several excellent reviews at the variety of levels of detail have been written and should be consulted by the reader. Internal exposures of alpha and beta particles are important for ingested and inhaled radionuclides. Dosimetry models are used to estimate the dose from internally deposited radioactive particles. As mentioned above weighting parameters that take into account the radiation type, the biological half-life and the tissue or organ at risk are used to convert the physically absorbed dose in units of gray (or red) to the biologically significant committed equivalent dose and effective dose, measured in units of Sv (or rem). There is considerable controversy over the shape of the dose-response curve at the chronic low dose levels important for enviromental contamination. Proposed models include linear models, non-linear models and threshold models. Because risks at low dose must be extrapolated from available date at high doses, the shape of the dose-response curve has important implications for the environmental regulations used to protect the general public. The health effect of radiation damage depends on a combination of events of on the cellular, tissue and systemic levels. These lead to mutations and cellular of the irradiated parent cell. The dose level at which significant damage occurs depends on the cell type. Cells that reproduce rapidily, such as those found in bone marrow or the gastrointestinal tract, will be more sensitive to radiation than those that are longer lived, such as striated muscle or nerve cells. The effects of high radiation doses on an organ depends on the various cell types it contains

  11. The effect of smoking by family members and friends on the incidence of smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Soltaneefa, Atefeh; Ghaznavi, Mahsoomeh; Bakhshandeh, Tahereh; Saberi, Soheila

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of death. According to the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) presented by WHO, 25% of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10; hence, it is of great importance to investigate the effect of smoking of family members and friends on smoking incidence of adolescents. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of GYTS questionnaire. The studied population consisted of 3000 high school students who were selected randomly. Data was collected by applying the questionnaires which were fulfilled by students anonymously without supervision of school authorities. The results were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 software employing chi-square test. The studied population included 1842 boys (61.4%) and 1158 girls (38.6%) with the mean age of 16.1 years. In terms of smoking habit, 827 students (27.6%) were occasional smokers, 122 students (4.2%) were regular smokers, 518 students (17.3%) used another type of tobacco, and 1533 students (51.1%) were non-smokers. In terms of gender, 77.6% of occasional smokers were males and 22.4% of them were females. At the same time, males and females made up 80.3% and 19.7% of regular smokers, respectively. Also, males and females made up 71.1% and 28.9% of students using another type of tobacco, respectively. In terms of smoker family members and friends, 1860 students (85.6%) of non-smoker students had no smoker in their families and only 313 (14.4%) had at least one smoker in family, while 61.5% of smoker students had at least one smoker family member (p pocket money. This study showed that the incidence of smoking among high school students significantly correlated with the incidence of smoking among their friendsandfamilymembers (p pocket money) has little orno effect on the incidence of smoking among high school students (p value: 0.863).

  12. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children’s Secondhand Smoke (SHS Exposure in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children’s SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%, did not smoke at home at all (37%, did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%, or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57% were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49% and in the car (22% were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children’s SHS exposure.

  14. Genetic and somatic effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the ninth substantive report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) to the General Assembly. This report contains reviews on three special topics in the field of biological effects of ionizing radiation that are among those presently under consideration by the Committee: genetic effects of radiation, dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer and biological effects of pre-natal irradiation

  15. Effects of the X:IT smoking intervention: a school-based cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikker; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Due, Pernille

    2015-12-01

    Uptake of smoking in adolescence is still of major public health concern. Evaluations of school-based programmes for smoking prevention show mixed results. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of X:IT, a multi-component school-based programme to prevent adolescent smoking. Data from a Danish cluster randomized trial included 4041 year-7 students (mean age: 12.5) from 51 intervention and 43 control schools. Outcome measure 'current smoking' was dichotomized into smoking daily, weekly, monthly or more seldom vs do not smoke. Analyses were adjusted for baseline covariates: sex, family socioeconomic position (SEP), best friend's smoking and parental smoking. We performed multilevel, logistic regression analyses of available cases and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, replacing missing outcome values by multiple imputation. At baseline, 4.7% and 6.8% of the students at the intervention and the control schools smoked, respectively. After 1 year of the intervention, the prevalence was 7.9% and 10.7%, respectively. At follow-up, 553 students (13.7%) did not answer the question on smoking. Available case analyses: crude odds ratios (OR) for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.65 (0.48-0.88) and adjusted: 0.70 (0.47-1.04). ITT analyses: crude OR for smoking at intervention schools compared with control schools: 0.67 (0.50-0.89) and adjusted: 0.61 (0.45-0.82). Students at intervention schools had a lower risk of smoking after a year of intervention in year 7. This multi-component intervention involving educational, parental and context-related intervention components seems to be efficient in lowering or postponing smoking uptake in Danish adolescents. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Industry sponsored anti-smoking ads and adolescent reactance: test of a boomerang effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, L; Dauphinee, A L; Wang, Y; Fortmann, S P

    2006-02-01

    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to youth smoking prevention ads sponsored by tobacco companies promotes intentions to smoke, curiosity about smoking, and positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry. A randomised controlled experiment compared adolescents' responses to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a tobacco company (Philip Morris or Lorillard), or to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a non-profit organisation (the American Legacy Foundation), or to five ads about preventing drunk driving. A large public high school in California's central valley. A convenience sample of 9th and 10th graders (n = 832) ages 14-17 years. Perceptions of ad effectiveness, intention to smoke, and attitudes toward tobacco companies measured immediately after exposure. As predicted, adolescents rated Philip Morris and Lorillard ads less favourably than the other youth smoking prevention ads. Adolescents' intention to smoke did not differ as a function of ad exposure. However, exposure to Philip Morris and Lorillard ads engendered more favourable attitudes toward tobacco companies. This study demonstrates that industry sponsored anti-smoking ads do more to promote corporate image than to prevent youth smoking. By cultivating public opinion that is more sympathetic toward tobacco companies, the effect of such advertising is likely to be more harmful than helpful to youth.

  17. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students' lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%-75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%-75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%-75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%-75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to

  18. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases.......Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  19. Effect Of Smoking On Thyroid Status In Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Jalaj Saxena; P N Singh; Uma Srivastavaq; A Q Siddiqui

    1997-01-01

    Research Problem: Whal is Ihe impact of smoking cigarettes on thyroid functions in depression patients. Objective: To estimate T3, T4 and TSH in depressed smokers. Study Design:   Hospital   based clinical  study. Setting: Psychiatry out - door patients. Participants: Depression patients with or without history of smoking. Sample Size:     Twenty five  patients  of depression. Study Variables: Smoking, Non - smoking, T3 , T4 , TSH Statistical Analysis: Student t- test. Result: The patients of...

  20. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  1. The Possible Role of Smoking and Mild Inflammation on Iron, Copper Ions and Related Metalloproteins in Male Volunteers Working in Radiation Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.; El Daly, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress implies that cells have intact pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems that continuously generate and detoxify oxidants during normal aerobic metabolism. When additional oxidative events occur, the pro-oxidant systems out balance the anti-oxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids ultimately leading to cell death in severe oxidative stress. A disturbance in pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems results from a myriad of different oxidative challenges, including radiation, metabolism of environmental pollutants and administered drugs and immune system response to disease or infection. Forty male volunteers have participated in this study to evaluate the effect of smoking and mild infection on ferric and copper ions, related metalloproteins and glutathione peroxidase in males working in the radiation fields. The results denoted that those two stress ors added further imbalance in the pro oxidant-antioxidant status

  2. Cue reactivity in non-daily smokers: effects on craving and on smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S; Kirchner, Thomas R; Li, Xiaoxue; Tindle, Hilary A; Anderson, Stewart J; Scholl, Sarah M; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2013-03-01

    Non-daily, or intermittent smokers (ITS), are increasingly prevalent. Their smoking may be more situational than that of daily smokers (DS), and thus is hypothesized to be more influenced by cues. To assess ITS' response to cues, and compare it to that of DS. Samples of 239 ITS and 207 DS (previously reported in Shiffman et al. 2012a) were studied in 2,586 laboratory cue-reactivity sessions. Craving (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and smoking (probability, latency, puff parameters, and carbon monoxide increases) in response to cues was assessed following exposure to neutral cues and cues related to smoking, alcohol, negative affect, positive affect, and smoking prohibitions. Mixed effects models, generalized estimating equations and random-effects survival analyses were used to assess response to cues and differences between DS and ITS. ITS' craving increased following exposure to smoking and alcohol cues and decreased following positive affect cues, but cues had little effect on smoking behaviors. Cue reactivity was similar in ITS and DS. Among ITS, craving intensity predicted smoking probability, latency, and intensity, and the effects on latency were stronger among ITS than DS. Contrary to hypotheses, ITS were not more responsive to laboratory cues than DS. Results show that ITS do experience craving and craving increases that are then associated with smoking.

  3. Ionising radiation - physical and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holter, Oe.; Ingebretsen, F.; Parr, H.

    1979-01-01

    The physics of ionising radiation is briefly presented. The effects of ionising radiation on biological cells, cell repair and radiosensitivity are briefly treated, where after the effects on man and mammals are discussed and related to radiation doses. Dose limits are briefly discussed. The genetic effects are discussed separately. Radioecology is also briefly treated and a table of radionuclides deriving from reactors, and their radiation is given. (JIW)

  4. Radiation effects on microelectronics in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space

  5. Effect of Using the Lemongrass (Cimbopogon Citratus) to Smoked Eel (Monopterus Albus) Processing Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Satria, Viki Buana; Buchari, Dewita; ', Sumarto

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of using the lemongrass on organoleptic quality of smoked eel. 4 kg of fresh eel and lemongrass obtained from one of market in Pekanbaru processed into smoked eel. The treatment of this study was using the different concentration of lemongrass (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) from fresh eel to determine the quality of smoked eel. The result showed that the lemongrass with concentration 30% was the best treatment and most favorable by consumer with appearance...

  6. Effect of smoking and periodontal treatment on the subgingival microflora : A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U; Varoufaki, A; Hutter, JW; Xu, L; Timmerman, MF; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Loos, BG

    Background: The effect of smoking on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens after periodontal treatment is still not clear. Some studies found no effect of the smoking status on the prevalence of periodontal pathogens after therapy, whereas others did. The aim of this retrospective study was to

  7. The Effects of Schooling and Cognitive Ability on Smoking and Marijuana Use by Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, William

    1998-01-01

    Estimates effects of schooling, cognitive ability, and time preference on the probability that young adults smoke cigarettes or use marijuana, using data from the "High School and Beyond 1980 Study." Results show that all three variables affect the likelihood of smoking. Schooling and time preference have modest effects on using marijuana when…

  8. Effect of radiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Fujibuchi, Toshio; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained for the deterministic effect, secondary cancer formation and case reports of accidental exposure at radiotherapy. For the deterministic effect, the dose-effect relationship is sigmoidal in normal and cancer tissues, and the more separated are their curves, the more favorable is the radiotherapy. TD 5/5 is the tolerable dose to yield <5% of irreversible radiation injury to the normal tissue within 5 years after the therapy and is generally dose-limiting. The curves are of various shapes depending on the tissue composition that its functional subunit (FSU) is parallel like lobules of the liver, or in series like neuron. Symptoms appear complicated on these factors. Recent development of CT-based therapeutic planning has made it possible to analyze the partial tissue volume to be irradiated and its absorbed dose by the relationship (dose volume histogram, DVH) between the electron density vs CT value regardless to anatomy. The normal tissue complication probability is a model composed from the physical DVH and biological factors of FSU composition and cellular radiation susceptibility, and is a measure of the irreversible late effect manifested in normal tissues. Epidemiology has shown the increased risk of secondary cancer formation by radiotherapy. Children are highly susceptible to this, and in adults undergoing the therapy of a certain cancer, it is known that the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is increased in the particular tissue. There are presented such case reports of accidental excessive exposure at radiotherapy as caused by an inappropriate use of detector, partial loss of data in a therapeutic planning device, reading of reversed MRI image, and too much repeated use of the old-type electric portal imaging device. (T.T.)

  9. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger; Faurschou, Annesofie; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2018-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect on postprandial glucose metabolism and, thus, potentially constitute a link between smoking and the development of type 2 diabetes. We subjected 11 male heavy smokers to two identical 4-h liquid mixed-meal tests: one with concomitant cigarette smoking (immediately before and after meal intake) and one without smoking. Twelve age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonsmokers underwent an identical meal test without smoking. The smokers were characterized by higher fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon compared with the nonsmokers. Among smokers, cigarette smoking before and after the meal significantly reduced postprandial plasma glucose excursions. There were no differences in gut or pancreatic hormone concentrations between the test days in the smoking group, and the responses were similar to those in the control group. Our results suggest that smoking in association with meal intake decreases the postprandial plasma glucose concentrations, possibly through decreased gastric emptying, and that elevated fasting glucagon concentrations rather than smoking-induced alterations in postprandial glucose and hormone responses may be associated with the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in chronic smokers. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to outstanding physicochemical properties, ceramics are key engineering materials in many industrial domains. The evaluation of the damage created in ceramics employed in radiative media is a challenging problem for electronic, space, and nuclear industries. In this latter field, ceramics can be used as immobilization forms for radioactive wastes, inert fuel matrices for actinide transmutation, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors, and structural components for fusion reactors. Information on the radiation stability of nuclear materials may be obtained by simulating the different types of interactions involved during the slowing down of energetic particles with ion beams delivered by various types of accelerators. This paper presents a review of the radiation effects occurring in nuclear ceramics, with an emphasis on recent results concerning the damage accumulation processes. Energetic ions in the KeV-GeV range are used to explore the nuclear collision (at low energy and electronic excitation (at high energy regimes. The recovery by electronic excitation of the damage created by ballistic collisions (SHIBIEC process is also addressed.

  11. The effect of a short anti-smoking awareness programme on the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Oyeyemi, A S; Upadhyay, R P

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of a short school-based anti-smoking program on the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among students in secondary schools in Lagos State. A non-randomized, controlled intervention study was done among respondents selected using multi-stage sampling. Baseline data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. An anti-smoking awareness programme was carried out among students in the intervention group using health talks, information leaflets and posters. Post-intervention data collection took place three months later. There were significant increments in the mean knowledge and attitude scores after the intervention. There was however no statistically significant change in the current smoking habits of respondents (4% vs. 3%; p=0.41)in the intervention group. Nevertheless, in the intervention group, the number of never- smokers who reported that they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking within the next year significantly reduced. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of current smokers who desired to quit smoking. Even brief anti-smoking programs of this nature are effective at improving the knowledge and modifying the attitude of the respondents but do not improve smoking habits. It however motivated the desire to quit among current smokers. Health education sessions and periodic anti-smoking programmes should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum. More intensive approaches may be needed to influence the smoking behaviour of adolescent smokers.

  12. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  13. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  14. Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population's smoking status, their knowledge of the health ... the highest smoking rates are the Northern Cape (55%), ... expense of tobacco products and because of a medical ... tobacco excise tax if the money is used for health .... Although not shown in ... (35%) and cost of tobacco products (17%). ..... International tourist.

  15. Effect of Smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Manage. Vol. 22 (2) 293 - 297. February 2018. Full-text Available Online at ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias ... inferred that the smoking process generally increased the mean total PAH levels in the fish .... with 5 g of anhydrous sodium sulphate in a laboratory.

  16. The effects of a three-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Erkki; Pennanen, Marjaana; Haukkala, Ari; Dijk, Froukje; Lehtovuori, Riku; De Vries, Hein

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a 3-year smoking prevention programme in secondary schools in Helsinki. The study is part of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA), in which Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK participated. A total of 27 secondary schools in Finland participated in the programme (n = 1821). Schools were randomised into experimental (13) and control groups (14). The programme included 14 information lessons about smoking and refusal skills training. The 3-year smoking prevention programme was also integrated into the standard curriculum. The community-element of the programme included parents, parish confirmation camps and dentists. The schools in the experimental group received the prevention programme and the schools in the control group received the standard health education curriculum. Among baseline never smokers (60.8%), the programme had a significant effect on the onset of weekly smoking in the experimental group [OR = 0.63 (0.45-0.90) P = 0.009] when compared with the control group. Being female, doing poorly at school, having parents and best friends who smoke and more pocket money to spend compared with others were associated with an increased likelihood of daily and weekly smoking onset. These predictors did not have an interaction effect with the experimental condition. This study shows that a school- and community-based smoking prevention programme can prevent smoking onset among adolescents.

  17. Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W; Cummings, K Michael; Kasza, Karin A; Borland, Ron; Burris, Jessica L; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada, and Australia (N=795) who: (1) completed two consecutive surveys between 2006 and 2011; (2) initiated a QA at least 1 month before each survey; and (3) provided data for the primary predictor (SCM use during most recent QA), outcome (1-month point prevalence abstinence), and relevant covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Five SCM user classifications were identified: (1) non-users (43.5%); (2) early users (SCM used for initial, but not subsequent QA; 11.4%); (3) later users (SCM used for subsequent, but not initial QA; 18.4%); (4) repeaters (same SCM used for both QAs; 10.7%); and (5) switchers (different SCM used for each QA; 14.2%). Abstinence rates were lower for non-users (15.9%, OR=0.48, p=0.002), early users (16.6%, OR=0.27, p=0.03), and repeaters (12.4%, OR=0.36, p=0.004) relative to switchers (28.5%). Findings suggest smokers will be more successful if they use a SCM in QAs and vary the SCM they use across time. That smokers can increase their odds of quitting by switching SCMs is an important message that could be communicated to smokers. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterizing the solar reflection from wildfire smoke plumes using airborne multiangle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Varnai, T.; Gautam, R.; Poudyal, R.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    To help better understand forest fire smoke plumes, this study examines sunlight reflected from plumes that were observed over Canada during the ARCTAS campaign in summer 2008. In particular, the study analyzes multiangle and multispectral measurements of smoke scattering by the airborne Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). In combination with other in-situ and remote sensing information and radiation modeling, CAR data is used for characterizing the radiative properties and radiative impact of smoke particles—which inherently depend on smoke particle properties that influence air quality. In addition to estimating the amount of reflected and absorbed sunlight, the work includes using CAR data to create spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere angular distribution models (ADMs) of solar radiation reflected by smoke plumes, and examining the sensitivity of such angular models to scene parameters. Overall, the results help better understand the radiative properties and radiative effects of smoke particles, and are anticipated to help better interpret satellite data on smoke plumes.

  19. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries. (orig.)

  20. Radiation effects on cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeteles, G.J.

    1982-11-01

    The recent developments in the field of membrane biology of eukaryotic cells result in revival of relevant radiobiological studies. The spatial relations and chemical nature of membrane components provide rather sensitive targets. Experimental data are presented concerning the effects of relatively low doses of X-irradiation and low concentration of tritiated water (HTO) on various receptor functions - concanavalin A, cationized ferritin, poliovirus - of plasma membranes of animal and human cells which point to early and temporary disturbances of the composite structures and functions of membranes. References are given to the multifold roles of radiationinduced membrane phenomena on the development and regeneration of radiation injuries.

  1. Effect of radiation on food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofyan, R [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1983-07-01

    Research reports on the effect on radiation on food are reviewed. Irradiation processing inhibits the sprouting of vegetables, delays ripening, reduces the number of microorganisms that spoil food, controls patrogenic organisms and parasites found in food, disinfests food of insects, and disinfects spices of microbes. So far there has been no evidence that food irradiaton introduces nutritional or microbiological problems. The FAO/WHO/IAEA expert committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food recommend the acceptability from a toxicological stand-point of any food commodity irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kilograys.

  2. Effect of radiation on food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofyan, Rochestri

    1983-01-01

    Research reports on the effect on radiation on food are reviewed. Irradiation processing inhibits the sprouting of vegetables, delays ripening, reduces the number of microorganisms that spoil food, controls patrogenic organisms and parasites found in food, disinfests food of insects, and disinfects spices of microbes. So far there has been no evidence that food irradiaton introduces nutritional or microbiological problems. The FAO/WHO/IAEA expert committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food recommend the acceptability from a toxicological stand-point of any food commodity irradiated up to an overall average dose of 10 kilograys. (RUW)

  3. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: Control + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (psausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality. PMID:27499674

  4. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  5. Effects of radiation upon gastrointestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary F Otterson

    2007-01-01

    Whether due to therapeutic or belligerent exposure, the gastrointestinal effects of irradiation produce symptoms dreaded by a majority of the population. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramping are hallmarks of the prodromal phase of radiation sickness, occurring hours to days following radiation exposure. The prodromal phase is distinct from acute radiation sickness in that the absorptive, secretory and anatomic changes associated with radiation damage are not easily identifiable. It is during this phase of radiation sickness that gastrointestinal motility significantly changes. In addition, there is evidence that motor activity of the gut contributes to some of the acute and chronic effects of radiation.

  6. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H{sup -}, H{sup o}, and H{sup +} beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 {mu}s to 500 {mu}s length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 {sigma}) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  7. The Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Snead, C.L.; Ward, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) Radiation Effects Facility (REF), funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (AFWL), has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Operation started in October 1986. The facility is capable of delivering pulsed H - , H/sup o/, and H + beams of 100 to 200 MeV energy up to 30 mA peak current. Pulses can be adjusted from 5 μs to 500 μs length at a repetition rate of 5 pps. The beam spot on target is adjustable from 3 to 100 cm diameter (2 σ) resulting in a maximum dose of about 10 MRads (Si) per pulse (small beam spot). Experimental use of the REF is being primarily supported by the SDI lethality (LTH-4) program. The program has addressed ionization effects in electronics, both dose rate and total dose dependence, radiation-sensitive components, and dE/dx effects in energetic materials including propellants and high explosives (HE). This paper describes the facility, its capabilities and potential, and the experiments that have been carried out to date or are being planned. 2 refs., 10 figs

  8. Effects of radiation on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braddock, M.

    1985-07-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH radical) is the most damaging radical produced by the effect of ionizing radiation in water. The rate of reaction of the OH radical with purified, native and isodisperse DNA has been determined as compared with calf thymus DNA. This has been achieved by direct observation of the rate of formation of the DNA-OH radical adduct, and by competition with SCN - . Results obtained from direct observation are consistent with calculations which have been performed using the encounter frequency model of Braams and Ebert. However, results obtained for OH radical with DNA derived from competition plots suggest a rate constant somewhat lower than that obtained from direct observation. The relative merits of both techniques are discussed. In order to study the effect of energy deposited directly in the DNA, dry films of purified plasmid DNA have been irradiated in a system where the indirect effects of radical interaction have been minimized. The present results indicate that with different molecular lengths of plasmid DNA, non-random breakage may occur, and that additional damage may be brought about at sites of previously existing damage. Differences in the sensitivity of plasmid DNA molecules of varying lengths to radiation induced double strand breaks have been demonstrated. (author)

  9. Water pipe (Shisha, Hookah, Arghile) Smoking and Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Effects on CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 Phenotypes as Measured by Caffeine Urine Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Llerena, Adrián; De Andrés, Fernando; Karakaş, Ümit; Gündoğar, Hasan; Erciyas, Kamile; Kimyon, Sabit; Mete, Alper; Güngör, Kıvanç; Özdemir, Vural

    2017-03-01

    Public policies to stop or reduce cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and associated diseases have yielded successful results over the past decade. Yet, the growing worldwide popularity of another form of tobacco consumption, water pipe smoking, has received relatively less attention. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the effects of water pipe smoking on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities and drug interaction potential in humans, whereas only limited information is available on the impact of secondhand smoke on drug metabolism. In a sample of 99 healthy volunteers (28 water pipe smokers, 30 secondhand tobacco smoke exposed persons, and 41 controls), we systematically compared CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 enzyme activities in vivo using caffeine urine test. The median self-reported duration of water pipe smoking was 7.5 h/week and 3 years of exposure in total. The secondhand smoke group had a median of 14 h of self-reported weekly exposure to tobacco smoke indoor where a minimum of five cigarettes were smoked/hour for a total of 3.5 years (median). Analysis of variance did not find a significant difference in CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities among the three study groups (p > 0.05). Nor was there a significant association between the extent of water pipe or secondhand smoke exposure and the CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities (p > 0.05). Further analysis in a subsample with smoke exposure more than the median values also did not reveal a significant difference from the controls. Although we do not rule out an appreciable possible impact of water pipe smoke and secondhand smoke on in vivo activities of these two drug metabolism pathways, variability in smoke constituents from different tobacco consumption methods (e.g., water pipe) might affect drug metabolism in ways that might differ from that of cigarette smoke. Further studies in larger prospective samples are recommended to evaluate water pipe and secondhand tobacco smoke effects

  10. The effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrannia, T.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men. Two hundred fourteen infertile men who had been smoking cigarette and one hundred thirty infertile non smokers men participated in this study. Seminal volume, sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology were examined. The quality of spermatozoa obtained from smokers were much lower than non-smokers (P<0.01). The sperm concentration, viability and forward progression were negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (P<0.01). Smoking does affect the semen quality of infertile men. (author)

  11. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: Results after 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisca Rosa, Ecinele; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were.......05). CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation promoted additional benefits on NSPT in chronic periodontitis subjects....... extended, resulting in 116 eligible among the 286 screened subjects. They received NSPT and concurrent smoking cessation interventions. Periodontal maintenance was performed every three months. A calibrated examined, blinded to smoking status, performed full-mouth periodontal examination in six sites per...

  12. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2006-01-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect

  13. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  14. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yelena Bird,1 Hugo Staines-Orozco2 1School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada; 2Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Anillo Envolvente del PRONAF y Calle Estocolmo, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico Background: Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS exposure on their respiratory system.  Objective: To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%] and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1 nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2 nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3 smokers. Results: The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%, females (54%, who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%. Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49% and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%. The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55 than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65 and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vitamins are known to be sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation. Since most foods contain a large proportion of water, the most probable reaction of the ionizing radiation would be with water; and as vitamins are present in very small amounts compared with other substances in the food they will be affected indirectly by the radiation. This chapter discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins. (author)

  16. Radiation effects of high and low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The extensive proliferation of the uses and applications of atomic and nuclear energy resulted in possible repercussions on human health. The prominent features of the health hazards that may be incurred after exposure to high and low radiation doses are discussed. The physical and biological factors involved in the sequential development of radiation health effects and the different cellular responses to radiation injury are considered. The main criteria and features of radiation effects of high and low doses are comprehensively outlined

  17. Medical response to effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, W.A.; Gittus, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on 'Medical Response to Effects of Ionising Radiation' in 1989 in the form of nineteen papers published as a book. Topics discussed include radiation accidents at nuclear facilities, the medical management of radiation casualties, the responsibilities, plans and resources for coping with a nuclear accident and finally the long term effects of radiation, including leukaemia epidemiology studies. All papers were selected and indexed separately. (UK)

  18. What limits the effectiveness of school-based anti-smoking programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubá, Drahoslava; Zaloudíková, Iva

    2012-03-01

    It is generally accepted that living in families where there are smokers, children are stressed not only by the harmful physical exposure to second-hand and third-hand tobacco smoke, but also by the negative models of the adult relatives' behaviour, as relatives who smoke can inspire children to imitate this behaviour, influencing attitudes towards, and early experiments with smoking. In this paper, some of the most important results about influence of family smoking on the effects of the anti-smoking educational programme "Non-smoking Is Normal" are described. The school-based programme was created by medical and educational specialists and targets children at the first level of primary schools (aged from 6 to 11 years). The data about interesting outcomes of the programme (knowledge, attitudes, behaviour) were collected by anonymous questionnaire, administered twice in each school year: one month before the complex of 5 lectures (pre-tests) and 4-5 months after the last lecture (post-tests). The sample of participants (860-910) was divided into four groups, according to the intervention and family backrounds: (1) programme children from smoking families "P-S"; (2) control children from smoking families "C-S"; (3) programme children from non-smoking families "P-NS"; (4) control children from non-smoking families "C-NS". The differences in the frequency of children's answers were analysed using the tests in statistic Epi Info software, version 6.04a (chi-square, Mantel Haenszel, Yates, Fisher). In the programme group, the number of children with smoking relatives was significantly higher than in the control group (80.1% vs. 73.0%, p non-smoking families, the frequency of critics of adults smoking was significantly higher all the time of the study (p non-smoking parents only at the end of the study (p < 0.05). Despite of the effort to initiate parental participation on the primary prevention of smoking, we have confirmed that smoking in families decreased the

  19. Interaction Effects of Happiness and Physical Activity on Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchyan, Armen A; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz A; Aleid, Yazeed S; Nagshbandi, Ahmed A; Almousa, Fahad; Papikyan, Satenik L; Gosadi, Ibrahim M

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Of the 406 students surveyed (208 boys, 198 girls), 86 (21.1%) had initiated smoking. We found an interaction between physical activity (PA) and happiness on smoking initiation (p-interaction = .012). Among boys with low levels of PA, lower levels of happiness were associated with a greater likelihood of smoking initiation (OR = 5.8, 95%CI = 1.9 - 17.5). Also, high levels of PA increased the chance of smoking initiation among male students with high levels of happiness (OR = 5.6, 95%CI = 2.1 - 14.5). Our results suggest that young men with low levels of happiness and low levels of PA, as well as high levels of PA and high levels of happiness, may be targeted as a priority population in tobacco control intervention programs.

  20. Immediate Effects of Smoking on Cardiorespiratory Responses During Dynamic Exercise: Arm Vs. Leg Ergometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Tang, Jing-Shia; Li, Ping-Chia; Chou, Pi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the immediate effects of smoking on cardiorespiratory responses to dynamic arm and leg exercises. This randomized crossover study recruited 14 college students. Each participant underwent two sets of arm-cranking (AC) and leg-cycling (LC) exercise tests. The testing sequences of the control trial (participants refrained from smoking for 8 h before testing) and the experimental trial (participants smoked two cigarettes immediately before testing) were randomly chosen. We observed immediate changes in pulmonary function and heart rate variability after smoking and before the exercise test. The participants then underwent graded exercise tests of their arms and legs until reaching exhaustion. We compared the peak work achieved and time to exhaustion during the exercise tests with various cardiorespiratory indices [i.e., heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), minute ventilation (VE)]. The differences between the smoking and control trials were calculated using paired t-tests. For the exercise test periods, VO2, heart rate, and VE values were calculated at every 10% increment of the maximal effort time. The main effects of the time and trial, as well as their trial-by-time (4 × 10) interaction effects on the outcome measures, were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA with trend analysis. 5 min after smoking, the participants exhibited reduced forced vital capacities and forced expiratory volumes in the first second (P exercise test periods, smoking reduced the time to exhaustion (P = 0.005) and the ventilatory threshold (P exercise test (all P exercise response of the smoking trial than in those of the control LC trials, whereas no discernable inter-trial difference was observed in the AC trials. Moreover, the differences in heart rate and VE response between the LC and AC exercises were significantly smaller after the participants smoked. This study verified that smoking significantly decreased performance and cardiorespiratory responses to leg

  1. Impact of maternal smoking on birth size: effect of parity and sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Anastasia A; Asimakopoulou, Aspasia; Beratis, Nicholas G

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay of intrauterine growth. To examine the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth in relationship to maternal parity, age and number of cigarettes smoked/day, and offspring's gender. We studied 2,108 term newborns (1,102 male, 1,006 female) delivered at the General University Hospital of Patras from 1994 to 2004. The 1,443 were born to mothers who did not smoke and 665 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Birth weight, length and head circumference were measured prospectively in all newborns. Also, maternal smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day, age, and parity were recorded. For the analysis, t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman rank correlation, and factorial MANOVA with covariates were used. With increasing parity, in the neonates of nonsmoking mothers there was a gradual increase of growth, whereas in neonates of smoking mothers there was a gradual decrease of growth. This effect was more pronounced in males. A significant negative main effect on growth resulted from the interaction of smoking with parity (p = 0.013), and with gender and parity (p = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between number of cigarettes smoked per day and growth, the strength of which increased with parity, mainly in males. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay in fetal growth, which is greater in male offspring, an effect that is enhanced with parity but is independent of maternal age. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan W Bruijnzeel

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has

  3. Effect of smoking on early complications after elective orthopaedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Pedersen, Tom Søndergård; Villebro, Nete

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of postoperative pulmonary complications after major surgical procedures. We studied 811 consecutive patients who had undergone hip or knee arthroplasty, recording current smoking and drinking habits, any history of chronic disease...... and such intraoperative factors as the type of anaesthesia and the type and duration of surgery. We recorded any postoperative complications occurring before discharge from hospital. There were 232 smokers (28.6%) and 579 non-smokers. We found that smoking was the single most important risk factor for the development...

  4. Effect of cigarette smoke on the measured equivalent volume activity of 222Rn in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckova, S.; Tykva, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke in air on the increase of the measured equivalent volume activity of 222 Rn is demonstrated. After introduction of the smoke from one cigarette into 1 m 3 of air, this value increased up to ten times as shown be the method of sucking air through a filter. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  5. Control perceptions moderate attitudinal and normative effects on intention to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with behavioral theory such as the theory of planned behavior, numerous studies on determinants of smoking cessation confirmed that attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control each can correlate with intention to quit smoking. However, such main effect findings indicate additive

  6. The Use of Paramecium to Observe the Toxic Effect of Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, David

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment in which Paramecium caudatum was used to demonstrate the toxic effect of cigarette smoke on the cilia of epithelium cells lining the trachea and bronchi of smokers. Provides background information and explains the procedure, including how to make a simple mechanical smoking device. (TW)

  7. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Schroeder, Torben V; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking...

  8. Effects of Smoking Versus Nonsmoking on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Heavy Smokers Compared With Nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Magnus F; Bagger, Jonatan I; Lund, Asger

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological studies suggest that smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that smoking-derived nicotine and ensuing activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the gastrointestinal tract and the autonomic nervous system would have a detrimental effect...

  9. Economic effect of restaurant smoking restrictions on restaurant business in Massachusetts, 1992 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosch, William J; Pope, G C

    2002-06-01

    To determine if restaurant business declines or improves after the implementation of restrictive restaurant smoking policies. Analysis used a pre/post-quasi-experimental design that compared town meals tax receipts before and after the imposition of highly restrictive restaurant smoking policies in adopting versus non-adopting communities. The effect of restaurant smoking policies was estimated using a fixed effects regression model, entering a panel of 84 months of data for the 239 towns in the study. A separate model estimated the effect of restaurant smoking policies on establishments that served alcohol. Change in the trend in meals tax revenue (adjusted for population) following the implementation of highly restrictive restaurant smoking policies. The local adoption of restrictive restaurant smoking policies did not lead to a measurable deviation from the strong positive trend in revenue between 1992 and 1998 that restaurants in Massachusetts experienced. Controlling for other less restrictive restaurant smoking policies did not change this finding. Similar results were found for only those establishments that served alcoholic beverages. Highly restrictive restaurant smoking policies do not have a significant effect on a community's level of meal receipts, indicating that claims of community wide restaurant business decline under such policies are unwarranted.

  10. Effect of maternal smoking on birth weight of twins: a study from the Dutch Twin Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Bleker, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Since twins weigh about 20% less than singletons at birth, maternal smoking may be a more severe risk for them than for singletons. Therefore, the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birth weight was investigated in a group of 5376 twins. All necessary information was collected by a

  11. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers' Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-07-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers' readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses.

  12. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers’ Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers’ readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses. PMID:25561825

  13. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking cue distractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, R. Ross; Nichols, Travis T.; LeBreton, James M.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies suggest that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. The current study adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that performance of daily smokers (n=17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. Results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low load condition relative to the high load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. Results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions. PMID:27012714

  14. Effects of cognitive load on neural and behavioral responses to smoking-cue distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, R Ross; Nichols, Travis T; LeBreton, James M; Wilson, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation failures are frequently thought to reflect poor top-down regulatory control over behavior. Previous studies have suggested that smoking cues occupy limited working memory resources, an effect that may contribute to difficulty achieving abstinence. Few studies have evaluated the effects of cognitive load on the ability to actively maintain information in the face of distracting smoking cues. For the present study, we adapted an fMRI probed recall task under low and high cognitive load with three distractor conditions: control, neutral images, or smoking-related images. Consistent with a limited-resource model of cue reactivity, we predicted that the performance of daily smokers (n = 17) would be most impaired when high load was paired with smoking distractors. The results demonstrated a main effect of load, with decreased accuracy under high, as compared to low, cognitive load. Surprisingly, an interaction revealed that the effect of load was weakest in the smoking cue distractor condition. Along with this behavioral effect, we observed significantly greater activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) in the low-load condition than in the high-load condition for trials containing smoking cue distractors. Furthermore, load-related changes in rIFG activation partially mediated the effects of load on task accuracy in the smoking-cue distractor condition. These findings are discussed in the context of prevailing cognitive and cue reactivity theories. These results suggest that high cognitive load does not necessarily make smokers more susceptible to interference from smoking-related stimuli, and that elevated load may even have a buffering effect in the presence of smoking cues under certain conditions.

  15. Radiation effects in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begay, F.; Rosen, L.; Petersen, D.F.; Mason, C.; Travis, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yazzie, A. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ (United States). Dept. of History; Isaac, M.C.P.; Seaborg, G.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leavitt, C.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1999-04-01

    Although the Navajo possess substantial resource wealth-coal, gas, uranium, water-this potential wealth has been translated into limited permanent economic or political power. In fact, wealth or potential for wealth has often made the Navajo the victims of more powerful interests greedy for the assets under limited Navajo control. The primary focus for this education workshop on the radiation effects in the environment is to provide a forum where scientists from the nuclear science and technology community can share their knowledge toward the advancement and diffusion of nuclear science and technology issues for the Navajo public. The scientists will make an attempt to consider the following basic questions; what is science; what is mathematics; what is nuclear radiation? Seven papers are included in this report: Navajo view of radiation; Nuclear energy, national security and international stability; ABC`s of nuclear science; Nuclear medicine: 100 years in the making; Radon in the environment; Bicarbonate leaching of uranium; and Computational methods for subsurface flow and transport. The proceedings of this workshop will be used as a valuable reference materials in future workshops and K-14 classrooms in Navajo communities that need to improve basic understanding of nuclear science and technology issues. Results of the Begay-Stevens research has revealed the existence of strange and mysterious concepts in the Navajo Language of nature. With these research results Begay and Stevens prepared a lecture entitled The Physics of Laser Fusion in the Navajo language. This lecture has been delivered in numerous Navajo schools, and in universities and colleges in the US, Canada, and Alaska.

  16. The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodman, G.; Newman, S.P.; Paiva, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    The separate effects of tar and nicotine on the cigarette smoking manoeuvre were investigated. Each of ten asymptomatic habitual smokers smoked three different commercially available cigarettes in a randomised order. The brands were chosen such that two had the same tar yield (10 mg) and two had the same nicotine yield (1.4 mg). The volume of smoke inhaled into the lungs was measured by tracing the smoke with the inert gas 81 Kr m . Puffing indices were recorded using an electronic smoking analyser and flowhead/cigarette holder. There was no difference in the total volume of smoke puffed from each of the cigarette brands. With cigarettes of the samme tar level, the total inhaled smoke volume was lower with the higher nicotine cigarette (P<0.05): by contrast, with cigarettes of the same nicotine level, the toal inhaled smoke volume was lower with the lower tar cigarette (P<0.02). Tar and nicotine appear to exercise independent control over the volume of smoke inhaled. (author)

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    Radiobiology in the last years was able to find detailed explanations for the effects of ionizing radiation on living organisms. But it is still impossible to make exact statements concerning the damages by radiation. Even now, science has to content itself with probability data. Moreover no typical damages of ionizing radiation can be identified. Therefore, the risks of ionizing radiation can only be determined by comparison with the spontaneous rate of cancerous or genetic defects. The article describes the interaction of high-energy radiation with the molecules of the organism and their consequences for radiation protection. (orig.)

  18. Effects of perceived parental attitudes on children's views of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Candan; Kahraman, Seniha; Bektas, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived parental attitudes on children's discernment of cigarettes. The study sample consisted of 250 children attending grades 6, 7 and 8. Data were collected via a socio-demographic survey questionnaire, the Parental Attitude Scale (PAS) and the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS). Data analysis covered percentages, medians, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc tests using a statistical package. There were 250 participants; 117 were male, 133 were female. The mean age was 13.1 ± 0.98 for the females and 13.3 ± 0.88 for the males. A statistically significant difference was found in the children's mean scores for 'pros' subscale on the Decisional Balance Scale (DBS) according to perceived parental attitudes (F=3.172, p=0.025). There were no statistically significant differences in the DBS 'cons' subscale scores by perceived parental attitudes. It was determined that while perceived parental attitudes affect children's views on advantages of smoking, they have no effect on children's views on its disadvantages.

  19. γ radiation effects on Collembola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loring, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Pitfall traps were used to collect surface-active Collembola at intervals of 10-100 m from a γ radiation source on Long Island, N.Y., during the summer of 1968. Thirty-two species of Collembola were collected along the radiation transect. Community diversities were similar at all intervals except 10 m. Collembola appeared resistant to γ radiation; only chronic, very high γ radiation exposure seriously affected population levels and community diversity of surface Collembola

  20. Effect of Smoking on Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in patients undergoing PCI. Keywords: Antiplatelet, Clopidogrel, Pharmacokinetics, Smoking, Cigarette ..... regimen of choice to prevent thrombotic complications. [2,16]. ... either the parent drug [19] or the carboxylic acid metabolite as an ...

  1. Effect of teenage smoking on the prevalence of periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kari, Kirsti; Pajukanta, Riitta; Elonheimo, Outi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate how teenage smoking affects the prevalence of periodontal bacteria and periodontal health with the hypothesis that smoking increases the prevalence of the bacteria. Oral health of 264 adolescents (15- to 16-year-olds) was clinically examined, and their smoking history was recorded. The participants also filled in a structured questionnaire recording their general health and health habits. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Treponema denticola. The prevalence of P. intermedia (21% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) and T. forsythia and T. denticola (23% vs. 8%, p periodontal bacteria were associated with higher periodontal index scores among all teenage smokers. Smoking girls harbored more frequently certain periodontal bacteria than non-smokers, but this was not seen in boys. Hence, our study hypothesis was only partly confirmed.

  2. [Effects of a smoking cessation education on smoking cessation, endothelial function, and serum carboxyhemoglobin in male patients with variant angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sook Hee

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a smoking cessation education on endothelial function and carboxyhemoglobin levels in smokers with variant angina. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 60 male smokers with variant angina admitted to one hospital: the control group (30) between September and December, 2009, and the experimental group (30) between February and May, 2010. Endothelial function, as defined by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and serum carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) were determined at baseline and at 3 months after the initiation of education in both groups. Three months after the program, smoking cessation was successful in 22 of the 30 smokers in the experimental group, but only in 4 of 30 smokers in the control group (p<.001). After the education, the experimental group showed a significant increase in FMD, and a significant decreased in serum COHb compared with the control group. The findings indicate that this smoking cessation education program is effective for hospitalized smokers with variant angina.

  3. Lack of sustainable prevention effect of the "Smoke-Free Class Competition" on German pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexander; Mons, Ute; Edler, Lutz; Pötschke-Langer, Martina

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the school-based campaign "Smoke-Free Class Competition" as a means of preventing young non-smokers from taking up smoking. Based on two measurements of the Heidelberg Children's Panel Study (1998 and 2000), a longitudinal sample of 1704 pupils was examined: 948 in the intervention group and 756 in the control group. In order to evaluate the effects of the intervention, we compared the smoking behavior in the intervention and the control group at two points in time, shortly before, and 18 months after the intervention, on an individual case basis. (1) Stabilization of never-smoking rates: the proportion of pupils remaining a never-smoker at the follow-up is 62.1% in the intervention group and 61.5% in the control group (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.83-1.24); (2) Lowering of relapse rates among ex-smokers: the proportion of former smokers who had not started smoking again in the follow-up is 45.1% in the intervention group and 41.4% in the control group (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49). The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" did not prevent smoking among adolescents and does not appear to be an effective substitute to the complete ban of tobacco advertising, the abolition of vending machines and the creation of smoke-free environments in German schools.

  4. Parental smoking and adolescent problem behavior: an adoption study of general and specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Margaret; Legrand, Lisa N; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2008-10-01

    It is essential to understand the effect of parental smoking on offspring tobacco use. In biologically related families, parents who smoke may transmit a nonspecific genetic risk for offspring disinhibited behavior, including tobacco use. Studying adoptive families allows one to control for genetic confounding when examining the environmental effect of exposure to parental smoking. The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic and environmental contributions to the risk represented by exposure to parental smoking and to assess the specificity of that risk. Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in all assessments in person. The main outcome measures were self-reports of behavioral deviance, substance use, and personality, as well as DSM-IV clinical assessments of childhood disruptive disorders. The data from adoptive families suggest that exposure to parental smoking represents an environmental risk for substance use in adolescent offspring. In biologically related families, the effect of exposure to parental smoking is larger and more diverse, including substance use, disruptive behavior disorders, delinquency, deviant peer affiliations, aggressive attitudes, and preference for risk taking. This study provides evidence for an environmentally mediated pathway by which parental smoking increases risk specifically for substance use in adolescent offspring. The data are also consistent with a genetically mediated pathway by which nonadoptive parents who smoke may also transmit a nonspecific genetic risk to their offspring for disinhibited behavior.

  5. Effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking initiation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A; Ernstoff, Linda Titus; Gibson, Jennifer J; Tickle, Jennifer J; Heatherton, Todd F

    2004-07-01

    To determine if young adolescents who report that their parents restrict viewing R-rated movies have a lower risk of trying smoking in the future. Prospective observational study. Students from 15 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, randomly selected from all middle schools with >150 students, were surveyed in 1999. Baseline never-smokers were surveyed again by telephone 13 to 26 months later to determine smoking status. Trying smoking during the follow-up period. The majority of the 2596 students were white, with ages ranging from 10 to 14 years. Nineteen percent reported that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 29% were allowed once in a while, and 52% were allowed sometimes or all the time. Ten percent of students tried smoking during the follow-up period. Smoking-initiation rates increased as parental restriction of R-rated movies decreased (2.9% for adolescents reporting that their parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, 7.0% for those allowed to view them once in a while, and 14.3% for those allowed to view them sometimes or all the time). There was a strong and statistically significant effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking even after controlling for sociodemographics, social influences (friend smoking, receptivity to tobacco promotions), parenting style (maternal support and control, parental disapproval of smoking), and characteristics of the adolescent (school performance, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem). Compared with adolescents whose parents never allowed them to view R-rated movies, the adjusted relative risk for trying smoking was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 3.1) for those allowed to watch them once in a while and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.6, 4.7) for those allowed to watch them sometimes or all the time. The effect was especially strong among adolescents not exposed to family (parent or sibling) smoking, among whom the adjusted relative risk for smoking was 4.3 (95% CI

  6. Biologic effects of electromagnetic radiation and microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Hua

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation and microwave exist mankind's environment widely. People realize they disserve authors' health when authors make use of them. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the major physic factors which injure people's health. A review of the biologic mechanism about electromagnetic radiation and microwave, their harmful effects to human body, problems in authors' research and the prospect

  7. Study of biological effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guisheng

    1992-01-01

    The some progress on the study of biological effect for protract exposure to low dose rate radiation is reported, and it is indicated that the potential risk of this exposure for the human health and the importance of the routine monitoring of radiation dose for various nuclear installations. The potential exposure to the low dose rate radiation would attract people's extra attention

  8. Molecular and cellular effects of radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak, M.J.; Peak, J.G.; Ito, A.; Roth, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This program is concerned with the basic nature of the biological effects of mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental radiations, including those solar ultraviolet and visible radiations responsible for the most common form of human cancer: cancer of the skin. Concentrating on the damages to DNA caused by these radiations, the program attempts to delineate the basic mechanisms whereby such damage may occur. 14 refs

  9. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, G.M.

    2000-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D 37 and G inactivation were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB + ) from a heparin-MB + complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB + from a heparin-MB + complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme for the polyanion, whereas

  10. The effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    Available evidence on the effects of high levels of radiation on man and the predictions which have been made on possible low level effects, by extrapolation of the high level data, are summarised. The factors which influence the biological effects of radiation are examined and acute, delayed, somatic and hereditary effects as reported in the literature, are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking...... heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730...

  12. Effect Of Smoking On Thyroid Status In Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaj Saxena

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: Whal is Ihe impact of smoking cigarettes on thyroid functions in depression patients. Objective: To estimate T3, T4 and TSH in depressed smokers. Study Design:   Hospital   based clinical  study. Setting: Psychiatry out - door patients. Participants: Depression patients with or without history of smoking. Sample Size:     Twenty five  patients  of depression. Study Variables: Smoking, Non - smoking, T3 , T4 , TSH Statistical Analysis: Student t- test. Result: The patients of both the study group and control group had subnormal T3 but in smokers it was significantly lower than in non - smoker patients. T4 was within the normal range in both the groups, but it was significantly higher in smokers. TSH levels were normal in both the groups of patients and there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: A low T3 state exists in depression with further worsening of the condition in depressed patients who smoke, which might have an impact on therapeutic outcome. Therefore, avoidance of smoking in depression patients is suggested

  13. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  14. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia youth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.

  16. SEGEL: A Web Server for Visualization of Smoking Effects on Human Lung Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Hu, Brian; Alnajm, Sammy S; Lu, Yin; Huang, Yangxin; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Cheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of death worldwide resulting in over six million deaths per year. Cigarette smoke contains complex mixtures of chemicals that are harmful to nearly all organs of the human body, especially the lungs. Cigarette smoking is considered the major risk factor for many lung diseases, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and lung cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of smoking-induced lung injury associated with these lung diseases still remain largely unknown. Expression microarray techniques have been widely applied to detect the effects of smoking on gene expression in different human cells in the lungs. These projects have provided a lot of useful information for researchers to understand the potential molecular mechanism(s) of smoke-induced pathogenesis. However, a user-friendly web server that would allow scientists to fast query these data sets and compare the smoking effects on gene expression across different cells had not yet been established. For that reason, we have integrated eight public expression microarray data sets from trachea epithelial cells, large airway epithelial cells, small airway epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophage into an online web server called SEGEL (Smoking Effects on Gene Expression of Lung). Users can query gene expression patterns across these cells from smokers and nonsmokers by gene symbols, and find the effects of smoking on the gene expression of lungs from this web server. Sex difference in response to smoking is also shown. The relationship between the gene expression and cigarette smoking consumption were calculated and are shown in the server. The current version of SEGEL web server contains 42,400 annotated gene probe sets represented on the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 platform. SEGEL will be an invaluable resource for researchers interested in the effects of smoking on gene expression in the lungs. The server also provides useful information

  17. Non controlled effect of ionizing radiations : involvement for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that damage to DNA is the critical event on irradiated cells, and that double strand breaks are the primary DNA lesions responsible for the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This has lead to the long standing paradigm that these effects, be they cytotoxicity, mutagenesis or malignant transformation, occur in irradiated cells as a consequences of the DNA damage they incur. Evidence has been accumulating over the past decade, however, to indicate that radiation may induce effects that ar not targeted to the irradiated cells itself. Two non-targeted effects will be described in this review. The first, radiation-induced genomic instability, is a phenomenon whereby signals are transmitted to the progeny of the irradiated cell over many generations, leading to the occurrence of genetic effects such as mutations and chromosomal aberrations arising in the distant descendants of the irradiated cell. Second, the bystander effect, is a phenomenon whereby irradiated cells transmit damage signals to non-irradiated cells in a mixed population, leading to genetic effects arising in these bystander cells that received no radiation exposure. the model system described in this review involves dense monolayer cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles. The potential implications of these two phenomena for the analysis of the risk to the human population of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation is discussed. (Author) 111 refs

  18. Radiation effects on materials in high-radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Mansur, L.K.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Radiation Effects on Materials in High-Radiation Environments was held in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) from August 13 to 15, 1990 under the auspices of the Division of Materials Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. The workshop focused on ceramics, alloys, and intermetallics and covered research needs and capabilities, recent experimental data, theory, and computer simulations. It was concluded that there is clearly a continuing scientific and technological need for fundamental knowledge on the underlying causes of radiation-induced property changes in materials. Furthermore, the success of many current and emerging nuclear-related technologies critically depend on renewed support for basic radiation-effects research, irradiation facilities, and training of scientists. The highlights of the workshop are reviewed and specific recommendations are made regarding research needs. (orig.)

  19. Graphene Field Effect Transistor for Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J. (Inventor); Chen, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a graphene field effect transistor-based radiation sensor for use in a variety of radiation detection applications, including manned spaceflight missions. The sensing mechanism of the radiation sensor is based on the high sensitivity of graphene in the local change of electric field that can result from the interaction of ionizing radiation with a gated undoped silicon absorber serving as the supporting substrate in the graphene field effect transistor. The radiation sensor has low power and high sensitivity, a flexible structure, and a wide temperature range, and can be used in a variety of applications, particularly in space missions for human exploration.

  20. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-05-01

    To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. A total of 4384 adolescents age 11-15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever smokers. The results suggest that entertainment media smoking should be

  1. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine differential effects of smoking in films and tobacco advertising on adolescent smoking. We hypothesize that movie smoking will have greater effects on smoking initiation, whereas tobacco advertising receptivity will primarily affect experimentation. Design Longitudinal observational study of adolescents. Setting School-based surveys conducted in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Participants A total of 4384 adolescents age 11–15 years at baseline and re-surveyed 1 year later; ever smoking prevalence was 38% at time 1. Measurements The main outcome variable combined two items assessing life-time and current smoking (alpha = 0.87). Baseline never smokers were analyzed separately from those who had tried smoking (ever smokers). Exposure to smoking in 398 internationally distributed US movies was modeled as a continuous variable, with 0 corresponding to the 5th percentile and 1 to the 95th percentile of exposure. Tobacco marketing receptivity consisted of naming a brand for a favorite tobacco advertisement. Ordinal logistic regressions controlled for socio-demographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. Findings Whereas 34% of ever smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing at time 1, only 6% of never smokers were. Among time 1 never smokers, exposure to movie smoking was a significantly stronger predictor of higher time 2 smoking level [adjusted proportional odds ratio = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (1.84, 4.15)] than was tobacco marketing receptivity (1.53 [1.07, 2.20]). Among time 1 ever smokers, both tobacco marketing receptivity and exposure to movie smoking predicted higher levels of time 2 smoking [2.17 (1.78, 2.63) and 1.62 (1.18, 2.23), respectively], and the two estimates were not significantly different. Conclusions In this longitudinal study, exposure to movie smoking was a stronger predictor of smoking initiation than tobacco marketing receptivity, which was more common among ever

  2. The effect of smoking status on burn inhalation injury mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlin, Laquanda; Stanford, Lindsay; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Three factors that effect burn mortality are age, total body surface of burn (TBSA), and inhalation injury. Of the three, inhalation injury is the strongest predictor of mortality thus its inclusion in the revised Baux score (age+TBSA+17* (inhalation injury, 1=yes, 0=no)). However, the weighted contribution of specific comorbidities such as smoker status on mortality has traditionally not been accounted for nor studied in this subset of burn patients. We therefore sought to examine the impact of current tobacco and/or marijuana smoking in patients with inhalation injury. A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002 to 2012. Independent variables analyzed included basic demographics, burn mechanism, presence of inhalation injury, TBSA, pre-existing comorbidities, and smoker status. Bivariate analysis was performed and logistic regression modeling using significant variables was utilized to estimate odds of mortality. There were a total of 7640 patients over the study period. 7% (n=580) of the burn cohort with inhalation injury were included in this study. In-hospital burn mortality for inhalation injury patients was 23%. Current smokers (20%) included cigarette smokers and marijuana users, 19% and 3%, respectively. Preexisting respiratory disease (17%) was present in 36% of smokers compared to 13% of non-smokers (psmoke inhalation injury. Future prospective studies in human and/or animal models are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective communication: perception of two anti-smoking advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, A; McEwen, J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents part of a survey which investigated people's response to different approaches to health education campaigns. The main objective of the original study was to find out whether the respondents preferred a fear-inducing campaign or a positive image advertising. Two anti-smoking advertisement produced by the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS), one using a fear appeal and the other, using a positive image were examined. A sample of 394 subjects in three age groups took part in the study and they were interviewed by means of a questionnaire. A high proportion in each group, including smokers indicated that they preferred the fear-inducing campaign. To investigate why people prefer this type of image, respondents were asked to explain their reasons. It was found that effective communication requires: (1) reality, (2) clear cut message, (3) simplicity, and (4) thought provoking nature and impact of the message. In addition, with regard to the advertising appeals it was found that both positive image and negative image campaigns could be used to attract attention and consequently communicate with the target population. Finally, the findings of this study in the light of psychosocial theories are discussed, and the Preference Model is proposed as providing a better understanding of the process behind people's preferences.

  4. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bricard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  5. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-06-07

    The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  6. The effect of smoke-free policies on hospitality industry revenues in Cyprus: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talias, Michael A; Savva, Christos S; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Lazuras, Lambros

    2015-10-01

    Smoke-free policies aiming to improve quality of indoor air and significantly reduce exposure to secondhand smoke in the hospitality industry are faced with strong opposition from the tobacco industry and hospitality venue owners claiming that they lead to reductions of revenues. The objective of our study was to examine the impact of a recently introduced smoke-free legislation on the revenues of the hospitality industry in Cyprus. Anonymous information on revenues was obtained from the Cyprus government value added tax office for the entire hospitality industry in Cyprus including hotels, bars, restaurants and cafeterias between 2005 and 2011. Panel data methodology was used to examine the effect of a smoke-free legislation, on tourism, businesses' revenues adjusting for gross domestic product, inflation, unemployment rate, tourists' arrivals, seasonal variation and the economic crisis. Our study showed that the implementation of the smoke-free policy did not have negative effects on the hospitality industry profitability. We conclude that even in regions with relatively high smoking rates, pro-smoking societal attitudes and weak social norms against tobacco control, and even during periods of economic crisis, smoke-free legislation does not impact negatively on hospitality industry revenues and if anything may lead to a small positive increase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age.Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model.In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%. Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models.Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth.

  8. Economic effects of smoke-free laws on rural and urban counties in Kentucky and Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined the influence of smoke-free legislation on economic activity, with most finding a null effect. The influence could possibly differ in rural areas relative to urban areas due to differing rates of smoking prevalence and access to prevention and treatment programs. Furthermore, the discussion of the effectiveness of smoke-free laws has been extended to consider local ordinances relative to statewide laws. This study examines these issues using 21 local laws in Kentucky and the Ohio statewide smoke-free law. The number of employees, total wages paid, and number of reporting establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services in Kentucky and Ohio counties were documented, beginning the first quarter 2001 and ending the last quarter of 2009. A generalized estimating equation time-series design is used to estimate the impact of local and state smoke-free laws in Kentucky and Ohio rural and urban counties. There is no evidence that the economies in Kentucky counties were affected in any way from the implementation of local smoke-free laws. There was also no evidence that total employment or the number of establishments was influenced by the statewide law in Ohio, but wages increased following the implementation of the law. Furthermore, there is no evidence that either rural or urban counties experienced a loss of economic activity following smoke-free legislation. The study finds no evidence that local or state smoke-free legislation negatively influences local economies in either rural or urban communities.

  9. Radiation Effects Research Foundation bibliography of published papers, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The bibliography lists the titles of a total of 75 papers published by members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1986 (three of them published in 1985). The papers cover; 'The central nervous system and in utero exposure to ionizing radiation', 'Future directions for biostatistics and cancer epidemiology in Japan', 'Passive smoking and lung cancer among Japanese women', 'Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune response', 'Delayed effects of atomic bomb radiation to human cellular immune competence', 'Characterization of three electrophoretic variants of human erythrocyte triosephosphate isomerase found in Japanese', 'A follow-up study of clonal T-lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors', 'Comments on recent cytogenetic findings at RERF', 'Cytogenetic 'rogue' cells; What is their frequency, origin, and evolutionary sinificance?', 'A parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy', 'Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands', 'Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies', 'Celluar immune competence of patients with lung cancer and other lung diseases. I. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets using monoclonal antibodies', etc. (N.K.) 75 refs

  10. Radiation-induced polymerization and radiation effect on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao

    1977-12-01

    The processes of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers and also radiation effects on polymers have been studied by instrumental analyses of electron spin resonance (ESR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron microscopy. In radiation-induced polymerization, graft-copolymerization and absorbed state polymerization were taken up. For graft-copolymerization, monomers such as methylmethacrylate and butadiene were made to react with irradiated polyethylene, and behaviors of the initiating radicals and propagating radicals were followed under the reaction by ESR. For absorbed state polymerization, acrylonitrile/zeolite and methylmethacrylate/zeolite were chosen. Absorbed monomers were irradiated at 77 0 K and polymerized at room temperature. Active species and the concentrations were measured by ESR and the yields of polymer were observed by NMR. In radiation effect on polymers, polyvinylfluoride, polyvinylidenfluoride and polytetrafluoroethylene were taken up. Active species trapped in the polymer matrixes were identified and decay and reactivity of the species were also studied. On the basis of information from the electron microscopy and x-ray analysis, radiation effects on these polymers are described. In polytetrafluoroethylene produced by radiation polymerization, the relation between morphology and polymerization conditions and also the process of crystallization during polymerization were studied. (auth.)

  11. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  12. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  13. Untargeted effects of ionizing radiation: Implications for radiation pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Eric G; Coates, Philip J

    2006-01-01

    The dogma that genetic alterations are restricted to directly irradiated cells has been challenged by observations in which effects of ionizing radiation, characteristically associated with the consequences of energy deposition in the cell nucleus, arise in non-irradiated cells. These, so called, untargeted effects are demonstrated in cells that have received damaging signals produced by irradiated cells (radiation-induced bystander effects) or that are the descendants of irradiated cells (radiation-induced genomic instability). Radiation-induced genomic instability is characterized by a number of delayed adverse responses including chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations and cell death. Similar effects, as well as responses that may be regarded as protective, have been attributed to bystander mechanisms. Whilst the majority of studies to date have used in vitro systems, some adverse non-targeted effects have been demonstrated in vivo. However, at least for haemopoietic tissues, radiation-induced genomic instability in vivo may not necessarily be a reflection of genomically unstable cells. Rather the damage may reflect responses to ongoing production of damaging signals; i.e. bystander responses, but not in the sense used to describe the rapidly induced effects resulting from direct interaction of irradiated and non-irradiated cells. The findings are consistent with a delayed and long-lived tissue reaction to radiation injury characteristic of an inflammatory response with the potential for persisting bystander-mediated damage. An important implication of the findings is that contrary to conventional radiobiological dogma and interpretation of epidemiologically-based risk estimates, ionizing radiation may contribute to malignancy and particularly childhood leukaemia by promoting initiated cells rather than being the initiating agent. Untargeted mechanisms may also contribute to other pathological consequences

  14. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  15. Use of threshold-specific energy model for the prediction of effects of smoking and radon exposure on the risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Bulko, M.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. Smoking causes 80-90 % of cases of lung cancer. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of lung cancer by the so-called threshold-specific energy model. This model allows to analyse the biological effects of radon daughter products on the lung tissue, and is based on the assumption that the biological effect (i.e. cell inactivation) will manifest itself after the threshold-specific energy z0 deposited in the sensitive volume of the cell is exceeded. Cigarette smoking causes, among others, an increase in the synthesis of the surviving protein that protects cells from apoptosis and thereby reduces their radiosensitivity. Based on these facts, an attempt was made to estimate the shape of the curves describing the increase in the oncological effect of radiation as a function of daily cigarette consumption. (authors)

  16. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  17. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design of effective interventions for smoking cessation through financial and non-financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderrama, Fanor; Longo, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Smoking has a tremendous negative impact on the Canadian economy and contributes to growing costs in the healthcare system. Efforts to reduce smoking rates may therefore reduce strain on the healthcare system and free up scarce resources. Academic literature on economic smoking cessation incentives presents a countless variety of interventions that have met with varying degrees of success. This study reviews six different variables used in the design of incentives in smoking cessation interventions: direction, form, magnitude, certainty, recipient grouping, and target demographic. The purpose of this study is to provide analysis and recommendations about the contribution of each variable into the overall effectiveness of smoking cessation programs and help health leaders design better interventions according to their specific needs.

  19. [Application and effects of smoking ban in bars and restaurants of Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, L; Di Martino, T; Iavicoli, I

    2007-01-01

    Both active and passive tobacco smoke is carcinogenic. In the last years the most important countries of European Community developed and passed smoke-free public places and smoke-free workplace legislations. The aim of this study was to investigate the real application of smoking ban in bars and restaurants of Rome and to value social, economic and health effects caused by the application of the law. The study was carried out in 200 public places (100 restaurants and 100 bars) with an inspection of the sites and the administration of a questionnaire to the managers of the public places. Results demonstrate that smoking ban in public places is widely respected and that the application of the law had a very positive impact on the quality of life and health of workers and general population.

  20. The effect of cigarette smoke extract on thrombomodulin-thrombin binding: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujie; Zhang, Xuejie; Xu, Li; Yi, Shaoqiong; Li, Yi; Fang, Xiaohong; Liu, Huiliang

    2012-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Smoking can cause vascular endothelial dysfunction and consequently trigger haemostatic activation and thrombosis. However, the mechanism of how smoking promotes thrombosis is not fully understood. Thrombosis is associated with the imbalance of the coagulant system due to endothelial dysfunction. As a vital anticoagulation cofactor, thrombomodulin (TM) located on the endothelial cell surface is able to regulate intravascular coagulation by binding to thrombin, and the binding results in thrombosis inhibition. This work focused on the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on TM-thrombin binding by atomic force microscopy (AFM) based single-molecule force spectroscopy. The results from both in vitro and live-cell experiments indicated that CSE could notably reduce the binding probability of TM and thrombin. This study provided a new approach and new evidence for studying the mechanism of thrombosis triggered by cigarette smoking.