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Sample records for smoke pollution tsp

  1. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  2. An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzik, Taryn; Fong, Geoffrey T; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM(2.5): more than 3,800 microg/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM(2.5) were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 microg/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 microg/m3). This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.

  3. Agriculture and smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H T

    1940-01-01

    The effects of smoke fumes on the growth of crops and on the reaction of soils in Yorkshire during the last 15 years are reported. Attention is focused on the scorching effect on vegetation caused by acid rain, and the indirect effect of these acids on plants by reducing the lime status of the soil. In cities and towns the worst offenders are domestic chimneys which contribute 150 tons of sulfur to the atmosphere every week. In less densely populated industrial districts, the bulk of the fumes are contributed by industrial chimneys and by the smouldering pit heaps of collieries. The symptoms of smoke damage on wheat are the scorching of the tip of the leaf, followed by a yellowing of the remainder of the leaf. Adequate liming greatly increases the resistance of crops to attacks by fumes. The effect of acid fumes on the soil is also discussed.

  4. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  5. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitchman, S.C.; Guignard, R.; Nagelhout, G.E.; Mons, U.; Beck, F.; van den Putte, B.; Crone, M.; de Vries, H.; Hyland, A.; Fong, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors

  6. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-12-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8-14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10-24%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Air pollution: a smoking gun for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2014-04-01

    Once considered a taboo topic or stigma, cancer is the number one public health enemy in the world. Once a product of an almost untouchable industry, tobacco is indisputably recognized as a major cause of cancer and a target for anticancer efforts. With the emergence of new economic powers in the world, especially in highly populated countries such as China, air pollution has rapidly emerged as a smoking gun for cancer and has become a hot topic for public health debate because of the complex political, economic, scientific, and technologic issues surrounding the air pollution problem. This editorial and the referred articles published in this special issue of the Chinese Journal of Cancer discuss these fundamental questions. Does air pollution cause a wide spectrum of cancers? Should air pollution be considered a necessary evil accompanying economic transformation in developing countries? Is an explosion of cancer incidence coming to China and how soon will it arrive? What must be done to prevent this possible human catastrophe? Finally, the approaches for air pollution control are also discussed.

  8. Household air pollution and personal inhalation exposure to particles (TSP/PM2.5/PM1.0/PM0.25) in rural Shanxi, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ye; Du, Wei; Chen, Yuanchen; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Shen, Huizhong; Zhu, Dan; Yuan, Chenyi; Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Personal exposure to size-segregated particles among rural residents in Shanxi, China in summer, 2011 were investigated using portable carried samplers (N = 84). Household air pollution was simultaneously studied using stationary samplers in nine homes. Information on household fuel types, cooking activity, smoking behavior, kitchen ventilation conditions etc., were also collected and discussed. The study found that even in the summer period, the daily average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 in the kitchen were as high as 376 ± 573 and 288 ± 397 μg/m 3 (N = 6), that were nearly 3 times of 114 ± 81 and 97 ± 77 μg/m 3 in the bedroom (N = 8), and significantly higher than those of 64 ± 28 and 47 ± 21 μg/m 3 in the outdoor air (N = 6). The personal daily exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 were 98 ± 52 and 77 ± 47 μg/m 3 , respectively, that were lower than the concentrations in the kitchen but higher than the outdoor levels. The mass fractions of PM 2.5 in TSP were 90%, 72%, 65% and 68% on average in the kitchen, bedroom, outdoor air and personal inhalation exposure, respectively, and moreover, a majority of particles in PM 2.5 had diameters less than 1.0 μm. Calculated time-weighted average exposure based on indoor and outdoor air concentrations and time spent indoor and outdoor were positively correlated but, was ∼33% lower than the directly measured exposure. The daily exposure among those burning traditional solid fuels could be lower by ∼41% if the kitchen was equipped with an outdoor chimney, but was still 8–14% higher than those household using cleaning energies, like electricity and gas. With a ventilator in the kitchen, the exposure among the population using clean energies could be further reduced by 10–24%. - Highlights: • High inhalation exposure of fine PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 among rural residents. • Smoking prevails on cooking in increasing exposure to finer particles. • PM exposure could be reduced by

  9. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchman, Sara C.; Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy E...

  10. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    , handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...... of ventilation and fine cracks in the outer walls. In the night people can not air the bedrooms without getting the rooms filled with wood smoke. Until now the regulations of wood smoke have been ineffective. - It would be a great step forward, if local authorities and smoke affected people could have effective...

  11. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 μm (a valid atmospheric marker of tobacco smoke pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Plant as an index of smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruston, A G

    1921-01-01

    An early (1921) treatment of the effects of air pollution on plants is presented. The author notes variations in tolerance to air pollution between species, and draws correlations between morphology and pollution resistance. Air pollution effects on various species' reproductive success and metabolism are also examined, and the use of plants as bioindicators of air pollution is suggested.

  13. Dust and smoke pollution monitoring in industrial unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Dust and smoke are the two most commonly emitted industrial pollutants which are visible to the naked eye. Cement plants and power generation plants, based on coal and fuel oil etc. are the most common examples of industry emitting these pollutants. In this article these pollutants have been briefly described and some monitoring instruments for dust and smoke emissions have been specific. These instruments are especially suitable for power station and the cement industry etc. Automotive in urban areas. However, this paper does not include equipment for automotive exhaust pollution. (author)

  14. Ambient Air Pollution by Second Hand Tobacco Smoke in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.5) pollution has been studied and established. People who are often exposed to pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health consequences such as heart disease and stroke, increased risk of sudden infant ...

  15. Air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The health of populations in industrialized societies has been affected for many years by ambient air pollutants presenting a threat of chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. In the 1980s indoor pollutants received much needed investigation to assess their hazards to health. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon is now the subject of much research and concern. This review attempts to put some perspective on lung cancer that is attributable to lifetime exposure to airborne pollutants. The view is expressed that air pollution control authorities have played and are playing a major role in health improvement

  16. A Bibliography of the Personal Software Process (PSP) and the Team Software Process (TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    tspsymposium/ Padula , Alan. ―TSP-Agile Showdown: The Gun Smoke Clears.‖ Proceedings of the TSP Sympo- sium (September 2009). http://www.sei.cmu.edu...www.sei.cmu.edu/tspsymposium/ Padula , Alan. ―TSP—Agile Showdown.‖ Proceedings of the TSP Symposium (September 2008). http://www.sei.cmu.edu

  17. A Casino goes smoke free: a longitudinal study of secondhand and thirdhand smoke pollution and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Hoh, Eunha; Zakarian, Joy M; Chowdhury, Zohir; Hovell, Melbourne F; Jacob, Peyton; Watanabe, Kayo; Theweny, Teaba S; Flores, Victoria; Nguyen, Anh; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary

    2018-02-08

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) in US casinos is common, but little is known about the residue of tobacco smoke pollutants left behind in dust and on surfaces, commonly referred to as thirdhand smoke (THS). We examined SHS and THS pollution and exposure before and during a casino smoking ban and after smoking resumed. A casino was visited nine times over a 15-month period to collect dust, surface and air samples in eight locations. Finger wipe and urine samples were collected from non-smoking confederates before and after a 4-hour casino visit. Samples were analysed for markers of SHS and THS pollution and exposure. Exceptionally high levels of THS were found in dust and on surfaces. Although the smoking ban led to immediate improvements in air quality, surface nicotine levels were unchanged and remained very high for the first month of the smoking ban. Surface nicotine decreased by 90% after 1 month (Pcasino creates deep THS reservoirs that persist for months after a smoking ban. A complete smoking ban immediately improves air quality and significantly reduces exposure to SHS and THS. However, THS reservoirs contribute to continued low-level exposure to toxicants. To accelerate the effect of smoking bans, remediation efforts should address specific THS reservoirs, which may require intensive cleaning as well as replacement of carpets, furniture and building materials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. [Airway metaplasia related to smoking and environmental pollution through sputum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferman-Cano, Floribel; Padilla-Santamaría, Fernando; Moreno-Venegas, Luis; Torner-Aguilar, Carlos Alejandro; Molina-Medina, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-01

    Both environmental pollution and smoking affect the respiratory epithelium, causing cellular adaptation changes. Therefore, this work explores the presence of metaplasia in smokers compared with non-smokers from Mexico City. A prospective cohort study was performed. The sample was performed through a home interview covering the five Mexico City zones delimited to the study and monitoring of air quality. We searched metaplastic cells and inflammation in sputum cytology stained with Papanicolaou technique, and we assessed the air quality in Mexico City. We calculated relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) in relation to the presence of metaplasia and smoking. We performed 1897 home interviews obtaining a final sample of 30 participants. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers with the presence of metaplastic cells (p = 0.269), although the association of metaplastic cells and inflammation showed a significant difference in the non-smokers group (p = 0.010). The RR in association with the presence of metaplasia in sputum cytology and smoking was 1.6, and the RA was 0.2. The air quality in this city has led the population to undergo changes of cellular adaptation in the respiratory epithelium by the simple fact of being exposed to environmental pollution. Metaplastic changes in non-smokers suggest strongly that pollution causes the same effect as smoking.

  19. Predictors of car smoking rules among smokers in France, Germany and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Romain; Nagelhout, Gera E.; Mons, Ute; Beck, François; van den Putte, Bas; Crone, Mathilde; de Vries, Hein; Hyland, Andrew; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a cause of premature death and disease in non-smokers, and studies have demonstrated that smoking in cars produces high levels of TSP, this study will investigate smokers’ rules for smoking in their cars, and predictors of car smoking rules, including potentially modifiable correlates. Methods: Data were drawn from nationally representative samples of current smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project surveys in France (2007), Germany (2007), and the Netherlands (2008). Smokers in France and Germany were asked about smoking rules in their cars, and smokers in the Netherlands were asked about smoking rules in cars carrying children. Results: In France and Germany, 59% and 52% of smokers respectively, allowed smoking in their cars. In the Netherlands, 36% of smokers allowed smoking in cars carrying children. Predictors of allowing smoking in cars included: being a daily vs. non-daily smoker, being younger vs. older age, having no (young) children in the home, being a heavier smoker, and allowing smoking in the home. In the Netherlands, smokers who agreed that TSP is dangerous to non-smokers were less likely to allow smoking in cars carrying children. Conclusion: Overall, a sizeable proportion of smokers allowed smoking in their cars across the three countries. Media campaigns with information about the dangers of TSP may increase the adoption of smoke-free cars. These media campaigns could target smokers who are most likely to allow smoking in cars. PMID:22294780

  20. Biochemical diagnosis of spruce trees in regions polluted by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvrkal, H

    1959-01-01

    The material showing different degrees of damage caused by gases in smoke was sampled from 24 trees (spruces) in two smoke polluted regions - the Svatonice and Krusne Hory regions of Czechoslovakia. The essential oils were distilled out in the usual manner and chromatographed. The following terpenes were investigated: santene, ..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, ..beta..-phelandrene, substance A, which could not be identified. The following relationships were determined on the basis of the compiled per cent content tables and the degree of damage caused by gases in smoke: the highest degree of damage occurs in spruce trees in whose essential oils camphene is represented in minimal amounts; smoke damages are not observed when the dipentene content is increased even at the cost of a lower camphene content; the degree of damage is also influenced to some extent by the presence of ..beta..-pinene. A higher degree of damage caused by gases in smoke presupposes a high ..beta..-pinene content in essential oils. Results suggest that the terpene changes do not occur during the damage, but are the consequence of specific species characteristics.

  1. Effects of ambient air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health of non-smoking women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C M; Hu, Z G; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J; Peters, J

    1999-10-01

    Two-thirds of complaints received by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department in 1988 were related to poor air quality. In July 1990 legislation was implemented to reduce fuel sulphur levels. The intervention led to a reduction in respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness of primary school children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the differences in respiratory health between non-smoking women living in the more polluted district (Kwai Tsing) and those living in the less polluted district (Southern); to assess the impact of the government air quality intervention; and to study the effect of environmental tobacco smoke on respiratory health in non-smoking women in both districts. A total of 3405 non-smoking women, aged 36.5 years (standard deviation = 3.0), from two districts with good and poor air quality respectively before the intervention were followed yearly from 1989 to 1991. Binary latent variable modelling was used to summarize the six respiratory symptoms and to estimate the effects of risk factors. In 1989, living in the polluted district was associated with poor respiratory health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.17, P 0.241) in the more polluted compared with the less polluted district for poor respiratory health. In 1989, the effects on poor respiratory health for exposure to two or more categories of smokers relative to none in the home (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83, P living in polluted relative to less polluted district (95% CI of the two effects overlapping each other). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution had independent adverse effects on respiratory health of non-smoking women and improvement in air quality had produced some but non-significant benefits.

  2. Essentials of multiangle data-processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; A. Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; WeiMin Hao

    2011-01-01

    Essentials for investigating smoke plume characteristics with scanning lidar are discussed. Particularly, we outline basic principles for determining dynamics, heights, and optical properties of smoke plumes and layers in wildfire-polluted atmospheres. Both simulated and experimental data obtained in vicinities of wildfires with a two-wavelength scanning lidar are...

  3. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    , smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood...

  4. Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0615 TITLE: Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy PRINCIPAL...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy...infection or cigarette smoke enhanced pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer in humans and mice. Similarly, autoimmune arthritis, characterized by

  5. Factors which predetermine tobacco smoke air pollution in cafes, restaurants, and bars of Donetsk city, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoke-free policy is an effective tobacco control measure. Current legislation of Ukraine requires at least half of the premises of cafes, restaurants, and bars to be smoke-free provided that tobacco smoke does not penetrate from the smoking areas. METHODS: Data on fine particulate matter air pollution was collected in 28 facilities from December 2011 through January 2012 according to the international protocol with the use of Sidepak Aerosol Monitor. Characteristics of the facilities were recorded along with the data on whether smoking was observed. Height, length and width of premises were measured as well. To analyze factors that affect air pollution, generalized linear model utility in SPSS 15.0 was used. Results are presented as 95%confidence intervals of particulate matter concentrations.RESULTS: Among 25 facilities with designated smoking areas only nine had areas for non-smokers larger than the designated smoking areas. Particulate matter air concentrations in those three facilities where all the premises were smoke-free constituted 82-94 µ/m3. Concentrations in rooms for non-smokers and smokers in facilities with thoroughly divided premises were 144-158 µ/m3 and 411-625 µ/m3 respectively and in those without the division 384-436 µ/m3 in premises for non-smokers and 471-537 µ/m3 where smoking was allowed. With other factors controlled (facility size, type – bar present or not, ventilation, smoking occurring or not, there was no significant difference in concentrations between those premises where smoking was allowed and where it wasn’t if the facility was not totally smoke-free. CONCLUSION: Current legislation of Ukraine which requires designated smoking areas does not protect visitors against tobacco smoke, as it does penetrate to the non-smoking areas in most of the examined facilities of Donetsk. Introduction of 100% smoke-free policies will protect public health and simplify control and enforcement.

  6. Contribution of smoking and air pollution exposure in urban areas to social differences in respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranft Ulrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status, smoking, and exposure to increased levels of environmental air pollution are associated with adverse effects on respiratory health. We assessed the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution as competing factors for the association between socio-economic status and respiratory health indicators in a cohort of women from the Ruhr area aged 55 at the time of investigation between 1985 and 1990. Methods Data of 1251 women with spirometry and complete questionnaire information about respiratory diseases, smoking and potential confounders were used in the analyses. Exposure to large-scale air pollution was assessed with data from monitoring stations. Exposure to small-scale air pollution was assessed as traffic-related exposure by distance to the nearest major road. Socio-economic status was defined by educational level. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the contribution of occupational exposures, smoking and outdoor air pollution to social differences in respiratory health. Results Women with less than 10 years of school education in comparison to more than 10 years of school education were more often occupationally exposed (16.4% vs. 10.1%, smoked more often (20.3% vs. 13.9%, and lived more often close to major roads (26.0% vs. 22.9%. Long-term exposure to increased levels of PM10 was significantly associated with lower school education. Women with low school education were more likely to suffer from respiratory symptoms and had reduced lung function. In the multivariate analysis the associations between education and respiratory health attenuated after adjusting for occupational exposure, smoking and outdoor air pollution. The crude odds ratio for the association between the lung function indicator FEV1 less than 80% of predicted value and educational level (10 years of school education was 1.83 (95% CI: 1.22–2.74. This changed to 1.56 (95% CI: 1.03–2

  7. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  8. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire Smoke on Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Health Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational da...

  9. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. [b]Objectives. [/b]The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. [b]Results[/b]. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05. Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9. Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.8. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  10. Comparative discussion on some measurements of the atmospheric natural radioactivity and pollution with coal smoke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measuring the natural radioactivity and coal smoke pollution are discussed for two sites in an industrial town, as well as for two heights at the same site, in connection with large scale and local atmospheric stability. The effects of the radiation fog upon the radon daughters acumulation near the ground are examined in some detail. By comparing the pollutant diurnal variations during two periods of similar atmospheric stability in autumn, respectively in winter, the contribution from the dwelling coal heating has been estimated to be about half of the total pollution in the town. (author)

  11. High blood levels of persistent organic pollutants are statistically correlated with smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Hansen, Jens C.

    1999-01-01

    , smoking and intake of traditional Inuit food. Multiple linear regression analyses showed highly significant positive associations between the mothers' smoking status (never, previous, present) and plasma concentrations of all the studied organic pollutants both in maternal blood and umbilical cord blood......Persistent Organic Pollutants (11 pesticides and 14 PCB-congeners), and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se, and Zn) were determined in 175 pregnant women and 160 newborn infants (umbilical cord blood) from Disko Bay, Greenland, 1994-96. Among these, 135 women filled out questionnaires about drinking....... Traditional food and not the tobacco is known to be the source of the contaminants. But smoking may influence the enzymatic turnover of toxic substances....

  12. Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyde James N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We quantified the air quality benefits of a smoke-free workplace law in Boston Massachusetts, U.S.A., by measuring air pollution from secondhand smoke (SHS in 7 pubs before and after the law, comparing actual ventilation practices to engineering society (ASHRAE recommendations, and assessing SHS levels using health and comfort indices. Methods We performed real-time measurements of respirable particle (RSP air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH, in 7 pubs and outdoors in a model-based design yielding air exchange rates for RSP removal. We also assessed ventilation rates from carbon dioxide concentrations. We compared RSP air pollution to the federal Air Quality Index (AQI and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS to assess health risks, and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. Results Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one pub with a non-SHS air quality problem was excluded averaged 179 μg/m3, 23 times higher than post-ban levels, which averaged 7.7 μg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS for fine particle pollution (PM2.5 by nearly 4-fold. Pre-smoking ban levels of fine particle air pollution in all 7 of the pubs were in the Unhealthy to Hazardous range of the AQI. In the same 6 pubs, pre-ban indoor carcinogenic PPAH averaged 61.7 ng/m3, nearly 10 times higher than post-ban levels of 6.32 ng/m3. Post-ban particulate air pollution levels were in the Good AQI range, except for 1 venue with a defective gas-fired deep-fat fryer, while post-ban carcinogen levels in all 7 pubs were lower than outdoors. Conclusion During smoking, although pub ventilation rates per occupant were within ASHRAE design parameters for the control of carbon dioxide levels for the number of occupants present, they failed to control SHS carcinogens or RSP. Nonsmokers' SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% to 95

  13. Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James L; Hyde, James N; Brugge, Doug

    2006-10-27

    We quantified the air quality benefits of a smoke-free workplace law in Boston Massachusetts, U.S.A., by measuring air pollution from secondhand smoke (SHS) in 7 pubs before and after the law, comparing actual ventilation practices to engineering society (ASHRAE) recommendations, and assessing SHS levels using health and comfort indices. We performed real-time measurements of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in 7 pubs and outdoors in a model-based design yielding air exchange rates for RSP removal. We also assessed ventilation rates from carbon dioxide concentrations. We compared RSP air pollution to the federal Air Quality Index (AQI) and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) to assess health risks, and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one pub with a non-SHS air quality problem was excluded) averaged 179 microg/m3, 23 times higher than post-ban levels, which averaged 7.7 microg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS for fine particle pollution (PM2.5) by nearly 4-fold. Pre-smoking ban levels of fine particle air pollution in all 7 of the pubs were in the Unhealthy to Hazardous range of the AQI. In the same 6 pubs, pre-ban indoor carcinogenic PPAH averaged 61.7 ng/m3, nearly 10 times higher than post-ban levels of 6.32 ng/m3. Post-ban particulate air pollution levels were in the Good AQI range, except for 1 venue with a defective gas-fired deep-fat fryer, while post-ban carcinogen levels in all 7 pubs were lower than outdoors. During smoking, although pub ventilation rates per occupant were within ASHRAE design parameters for the control of carbon dioxide levels for the number of occupants present, they failed to control SHS carcinogens or RSP. Nonsmokers' SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% to 95% reductions in PPAH and RSP respectively, differing

  14. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  15. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura J; Myers, Vicki; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kott, Jeff

    2015-12-18

    Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM). We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02). Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02). Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM) in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  16. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jim T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks.

  17. Respiratory Health Effects of Air Pollution: Update on Biomass Smoke and Traffic Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued i...

  18. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumbach, Robert J; Kipen, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that air pollution contributes to the large global burden of respiratory and allergic diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, and possibly tuberculosis. Although associations between air pollution and respiratory disease are complex, recent epidemiologic studies have led to an increased recognition of the emerging importance of traffic-related air pollution in both developed and less-developed countries, as well as the continued importance of emissions from domestic fires burning biomass fuels, primarily in the less-developed world. Emissions from these sources lead to personal exposures to complex mixtures of air pollutants that change rapidly in space and time because of varying emission rates, distances from source, ventilation rates, and other factors. Although the high degree of variability in personal exposure to pollutants from these sources remains a challenge, newer methods for measuring and modeling these exposures are beginning to unravel complex associations with asthma and other respiratory tract diseases. These studies indicate that air pollution from these sources is a major preventable cause of increased incidence and exacerbation of respiratory disease. Physicians can help to reduce the risk of adverse respiratory effects of exposure to biomass and traffic air pollutants by promoting awareness and supporting individual and community-level interventions. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoke pollution disrupted biodiversity during the 2015 El Niño fires in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-H Lee, Benjamin P.; Davies, Zoe G.; Struebig, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    Forest and peatland fires during the 2015 El Niño drought were amongst the worst on record in Southeast Asia. They were a major contributor of carbon emissions across the region, with the associated smoke-induced haze causing an air pollution crisis that affected millions of people. We present evidence of air pollution impacts on biodiversity. Using daily acoustic recordings in central Singapore, we monitored the dawn chorus before, during and after the haze event. We demonstrate that levels of ecological community acoustic activity dropped dramatically during the haze, and that this decline was significantly associated with levels of air pollution considered ‘unhealthy’ to the human population. Acoustic disruption was apparent across four common indices of soundscape activity, with only a partial recovery to pre-haze levels observed 16 weeks after the smoke had dissipated. These impacts on ecological communities were likely to be even more severe closer to the fires, where air pollution levels were reported to be 15-fold greater than those recorded in Singapore. Our results indicate that large-scale air pollution crises may have hitherto underestimated and potentially far-reaching impacts on biodiversity, especially in parts of the world prone to extensive forest fires.

  20. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: Inpatient health impacts and economic valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Sheikh Ahmad, Md Khadzir

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). - Highlights: • Transboundary smoke haze is an annual phenomenon in Malaysia. • No evidence of seasonal factors in smoke haze related inpatient cases. • Inpatient rates during a haze event increased by 31% relative to normal days. • Annual economic loss due to inpatient health impact of haze valued at $91,000. • Present value of economic loss estimated at $1.1 million to $1.7 million. - Inpatient rates soared by 31% while economic loss valued at USD91,000 annually

  2. Interaction of smoking and urban air pollution in the etiology of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W

    1983-01-01

    Surveillance of lung cancer incidence based on mortality was carried out over 6 years in Cracow. It appeared that lung cancer death rates among Cracow inhabitants were higher than average rate in the population of Poland but this difference in the large extent could be explained by the greater prevalence of smoking habit in Cracow than in whole Poland. Very intriguing was a substantial excess of lung cancer deaths only in male residents of the city center having the highest level of the air pollution. Since this excess in the lung cancer deaths could not be exclusively explained by smoking or occupational hazards the air pollution should be assumed as a responsible factor. Lack of the similar phenomenon in females living in the city center can be explained by the fact that the air pollution alone is not sufficient cause in the etiology of lung cancer but that in combination with other adverse factors like smoking or occupational hazards it develops its carcinogenic effect.

  3. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rosen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring.

  4. Comparative study on the health effects of smoking and indoor air pollution in summer and winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, H.; Kasuga, H.; Osaka, F.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.

    1985-08-01

    This study compares summer and winter to demonstrate the health effects of indoor air pollution with special reference to NO/sub 2/ and smoking, on the subjects composed of 820 school children and their 546 mothers in the two areas with different ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations. In either case, examination was carried out with standardized questionnaire test for respiratory symptoms, personal NO/sub 2/ exposure measurement using the filter badge by Yanagisawa, and analysis of urinary hydroxyproline and creatinine in two areas with different ambient NO/sub 2/ levels. Personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level in winter season was 2-3 times higher than that in summer, particularly NO/sub 2/ level among residents living in homes with non-vented stove for space heating was substantially higher from those of residents with vented stove. Wives with vented stove had a moderate exposure level in winter season by the contribution of NO/sub 2/ originated from the kitchen and poor ventilation rate. Since the hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio (HOP-ratio) of children increased more, their household location were nearer to any heavy traffic roads in summer, health effects from automobile exhaust were suggested only in summer season. In summer season, personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level were almost the same with the ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations over both areas. These results suggest that indoor air pollution in winter season may be separated from outdoor air pollution. It was a matter of course that hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio in winter season was higher than that in summer, in any group and in any area, but the range of variation of hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio was smaller by far than that of personal NO/sub 2/ exposure level. Judging from urinary hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio, health effects of active smoking and passive smoking increased with increasing the number of smoked, dose-dependently in any season.

  5. Effect of acrolein, a hazardous air pollutant in smoke, on human middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jong Dae; Lee, Byung Don; Chae, Sung Won; Park, Moo Kyun

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein is a hazardous air pollutant. Tobacco smoke and indoor air pollution are the main causes of human exposure. Acrolein has been shown to cause cytotoxicity in the airways and induce inflammation and mucin production in pulmonary cells. We investigated whether acrolein caused cytotoxicity, induced inflammation or increased expression of mucin in immortalized human middle ear epithelial cell lines (HMEECs). Cytotoxicity following acrolein treatment was investigated using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33342 staining of HMEECs. We measured expression of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and the mucin gene MUC5AC using semi-quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Exposure to >50 μg/mL acrolein caused a decrease in cell viability. Acrolein induced apoptosis and necrosis at 50 μg/mL. Acrolein at 5-50 μg/mL increased expression of TNF-α and COX-2, as shown by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Acrolein exposure at 5-50 μg/mL for 2-24h increased MUC5AC expression, as determined by RT-PCR. Acrolein decreased cell viability, induced an inflammatory response, and increased mucin gene expression in HMEECs. These findings support the hypothesis that acrolein, a hazardous air pollutant in tobacco smoke and ambient air, is a risk factor for otitis media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative effects of atmospheric pollution and cigarette smoking on carboxyhaemoglobin levels in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P.V.

    1975-06-26

    The effects of atmospheric pollution and cigarette smoking on carboxyhemoglobin levels in man were investigated in subjects living on the Island of Sark and in two areas of the City of London. The average concentration of CO on Sark is 1 ppM. A total of 78 non-smoking subjects have a mean COHb of 0.68 percent with a range of 0.2-2.6 percent. In a hospital outpatient department in the City of London (where smoking is forbidden) the ambient CO concentrations range between 2-4 ppM. The mean COHb level in 120 non-smokers is 0.97 percent with a range of 0.2-2.5 percent. In an adjacent office where smoking is permitted, the ambient concentration is slightly higher, 3-8 ppM CO. The COHb levels in 100 office workers (non-smokers) are slightly higher, a mean of 1.12 percent with a range of 0.1-2.7 percent. The mean COHb of smokers is 5.5 percent with a range of 2.2-13.0 percent.

  7. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, M. A.; Noveandra, K.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    Activities conducted at municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) potentially cause air pollution. Heavy vehicles in MSWLs release various pollutants that can have negative impacts for humans. One noticeable pollutant at MSWLs is airborne total suspended particulate (TSP) which may contain heavy metals such as Pb and Zn and can cause disease when inhaled by humans. In this study, TSP from a landfill in Semarang, Indonesia was collected and characterized to quantify the concentration of Pb and Zn. Meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind velocity) and landfill activities were considered as factors affecting pollutant concentrations. TSP was sampled using dust samplers while the concentrations of heavy metals in TSP were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Pb concentration ranged from 0.84 to 1.78 µg/m3 while Zn concentration was from 7.87 to 8.76 µg/m3. The levels of Pb were below the threshold specified by the Indonesian Government. Meanwhile, the threshold for Zn has not yet been determined.

  8. Ontogenetic histological changes in the wood of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv Deshi) exposed to coal-smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M.C.; Iqbal, M. [Dept. of Botany, New Delhi (India)

    2005-11-01

    Trees of Mangifera indica L. cv Deshi growing at two sites, one heavily polluted due to coal-smoke emanating from a thermal power plant and the other free from such pollution, were examined across their boles (from pith to cambium) to trace ontogenetic changes induced by coal-smoke pollutants in the wood structure with special reference to vessels and fibres. Wood formation was hampered in the polluted environment, as evident from the width of annual rings, indicating an adverse influence of coal-smoke pollutants on the cambial activity. The pollutants inhibited dimensional growth of tracheal elements and promoted frequency and grouping of vessels since early growth stages. The increasing vessel number per square millimeter of wood and the decreasing dimensions of vessel elements and fibres resulted in low values for vulnerability and mesomorphic ratios in the polluted trees. The ratio of the length of fibres to that of vessel elements also decreased. With the growing age, the decline in vulnerability ratio and mesomorphic ratio was enhanced whereas that in the fibre/vessel-element length ratio was minimized.

  9. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  10. KANDUNGAN TSP DAN PM-10 DI UDARA JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A survey was performed to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta, Bogor,Depok,  Tangerang  and Bekasi.  Ambient air samples were collected from 33 sampling points at a distance of 0meter and 120 meters from each main roads respectively. The highest average content of TSP in ambientair at 0 meter was found in West Jakarta (652.02 p.g/cu.m and that of 120 meters from the main road was in Bekasi (445.46µg/cu.m . The highest difference of the TSP content between the two sampling pointswas in Kebon  Jeruk, West Jakarta (96.62 %,  and the lowest one was inCikarang, Bekasi (1.63 %.  Furthermore, the highest difference of the PM-10 content between the two sampling points was inJalan  Raya Bogor, Depok  (96.86 %,  and the lowest one was in Cikarang,  Bekasi (17.26%. In the whole areasof study, the average content of TSP  was 522.44.tg/cu.m  (0 meter, and178.09µg/cu.m (120 meters,  so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 65.91%. Meanwhile, theaverage content of PM-10 was 326.25µg/cu.m  (0 meter, and97.09µg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 70.24 %. The difference of the means ofboth TSP  and PM-10 content levels between the two sampling sites were significant. The percentages ofsampling points complying withTSP level standard were 9.52 %  (0 meter and 75.76% (120 meters from the road sides. While that of PM-10 were 18.18%  (road side sampling and 78.79% (120 meters from theroad sides.Crusial  measure for controlling theTSP  and PM-10 pollution should also be addressed tomobile sources, such as reducing diesel motorized-vehicles and providing proper mass transportation.

  11. The effects of air pollution and smoking on placental cadmium, zinc concentration and metallothionein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkun, Hulya Cetin; Bir, Ferda; Akbulut, Metin; Divrikli, Umit; Erken, Gulten; Demirhan, Huriye; Duzcan, Ender; Elci, Latif; Celik, Ismail; Yozgatli, Unsal

    2007-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the placental zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) levels in mothers who were smokers, mothers who were thought to be exposed to air pollution, and mothers who were non-smokers and to investigate the relationship between the expression of placental metallothionein (MT) binding these metals and blood progesterone level. Placental Zn and Cd levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Presence of placental MT was determined immunohistochemically. Placental changes were examined by light microscope after H and E and PAS staining. Immunohistochemical MT staining of syncytiotrophoblastic and villous interstitial cells were scored as positive or negative. Among the 92 mothers included in the study, 33 were smokers (Group I), 29 had been exposed to air pollution (Group II) and 30 were non-smoker rural residents who had never been exposed to air pollution (Group III). Mean off-spring birth weight of 3198.62 ± 380.01 g and mean placenta weight of 561.38 ± 111.55 g of Group II were lower when compared with those of other two groups. In Group I, mean placental Cd and Zn were 0.063 ± 0.022 μg/g and 39.84 ± 15.5 μg/g, respectively, being higher than in other groups. In Group II, mean placental Cd and Zn levels were higher than those of Group III. Blood progesterone levels of subjects in Group I (121 ng/ml) were the lowest of all groups. While the mean count of villi was the highest in Group III; the highest mean count of syncytial knots was in Group II. Thickening of vasculo-syncytial membrane was most prominent in Group I. Similarly, MT staining was positive and very dense in 72.7% (24/33) of cases in Group I (p ≤ 0.05). MT staining was positive in 69.0% (29/20) and denser in Group II cases compared to 36% (11/30) in Group III (p ≤ 0.05). This study showed that smoking increased Cd levels in placenta and accompanied an increase in placental MT expression immunohistochemically. The effects of exposure to air pollution are equally

  12. Indonesian fire activity and smoke pollution in 2015 show persistent nonlinear sensitivity to El Niño-induced drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, Robert D.; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; Worden, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode,making it themost severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution

  13. Air change rates of motor vehicles and in-vehicle pollutant concentrations from secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne; Klepeis, Neil; Switzer, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The air change rates of motor vehicles are relevant to the sheltering effect from air pollutants entering from outside a vehicle and also to the interior concentrations from any sources inside its passenger compartment. We made more than 100 air change rate measurements on four motor vehicles under moving and stationary conditions; we also measured the carbon monoxide (CO) and fine particle (PM(2.5)) decay rates from 14 cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle. With the vehicle stationary and the fan off, the ventilation rate in air changes per hour (ACH) was less than 1 h(-1) with the windows closed and increased to 6.5 h(-1) with one window fully opened. The vehicle speed, window position, ventilation system, and air conditioner setting was found to affect the ACH. For closed windows and passive ventilation (fan off and no recirculation), the ACH was linearly related to the vehicle speed over the range from 15 to 72 mph (25 to 116 km h(-1)). With a vehicle moving, windows closed, and the ventilation system off (or the air conditioner set to AC Max), the ACH was less than 6.6 h(-1) for speeds ranging from 20 to 72 mph (32 to 116 km h(-1)). Opening a single window by 3'' (7.6 cm) increased the ACH by 8-16 times. For the 14 cigarettes smoked in vehicles, the deposition rate k and the air change rate a were correlated, following the equation k=1.3a (R(2)=82%; n=14). With recirculation on (or AC Max) and closed windows, the interior PM(2.5) concentration exceeded 2000 microg m(-3) momentarily for all cigarettes tested, regardless of speed. The concentration time series measured inside the vehicle followed the mathematical solutions of the indoor mass balance model, and the 24-h average personal exposure to PM(2.5) could exceed 35 microg m(-3) for just two cigarettes smoked inside the vehicle.

  14. Review of urinary hydroxyproline as a biochemical marker on health effects of smoking and air pollution with nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, H.

    1985-08-01

    A series of epidemiologic studies on the health effects caused by smoking and air pollution with NO/sub 2/ were carried out. Urinary hydroxyproline (HOP) which is excreted into the urine by catabolism of lung collagen was used as a biochemical marker. Urinary HOP of smokers increased dose-dependently with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked and this result was accepted under blind conditions. Urinary HOP of nonsmokers also increased with increasing the amounts of involuntary smoking caused by smokers in their families although the increases in HOP by passive smoking were less than those by active smoking. Health effects caused by indoor air pollution with NO/sub 2/ in winter and automobile exhaust in summer were also demonstrated using urinary HOP. The effects of cessation of smoking were followed up for 14 weeks by the decrease in urinary HOP. In practice, the HOP to creatinine ratio (HOP ratio) in random urine samples was used as representative of the 24-hour urine samples. Some confounding factors for urinary HOP were taken into consideration in these studies.

  15. Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Results: FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001 showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM 10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001. Without considering passive smoking variable, PM 10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  16. Association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and smoking in Koreans: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jung Moon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs and smoking according to gender and smoking amount (cigarettes/day are limited, and the results regarding the relationship between POPs and smoking are not completely consistent across studies. Objectives: The smoking rate in Korea is one of the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. We investigated the association between serum concentrations of POPs and cigarette smoking in Koreans by smoking status (never-smoker/ever-smoker and smoking amount (cigarettes/day according to gender. Methods: Serum concentrations of 32 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were measured in 401 participants (232 men and 169 women who received health examinations during the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II. We compared POP levels in ever-smokers and never-smokers and conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify associations between POPs and smoking. Results: Among women, the concentrations of PCB 156, PCB 167, and PCB 180 were significantly higher in ever-smokers than in never-smokers. After adjustments for age, body mass index, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alcohol intake, serum PCB 157 concentration was positively associated with male ever-smokers (OR 2.26; 95% CI, 1.01–5.04. In addition, trans-nonachlordane in OCPs as well as PCBs was significantly positively related with female ever-smokers (OR 3.21; 95% CI, 1.04–9.86. We found that subjects who smoked fewer than 15 cigarettes/day had a higher risk of having high POP concentrations than never-smokers. Conclusions: These results indicate that smoking may be associated with human serum POPs levels.

  17. Smoking and Cerebral Oxidative Stress and Air Pollution: A Dreadful Equation with Particulate Matter Involved and One More Powerful Reason Not to Smoke Anything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2016-07-22

    Smoking has serious health effects. Cigarettes, including tobacco, marijuana, and electronic nicotine delivery systems are very effective ways to inhale harmful amounts of fine and ultrafine particulate matter. Does size matter? Yes, indeed! The smaller the particle you inhale, the higher the ability to produce reactive oxygen species and to readily access the brain. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Durazzo provides evidence of an association between active cigarette tobacco smoking in cognitively-normal elders and increased cerebral oxidative stress, while in actively smoking Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the association was also seen with smaller left and total hippocampal volumes. This paper has highly relevant results of interest across the US and the world because millions of people are active smokers and they have other genetic and environmental risk factors that could play a key role in the development/worsening of brain oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Smoking basically anything producing aerosols with particulate matter in the fine and ultrafine size range is detrimental to your brain. Marijuana and e-cigarette use has grown steadily among adolescents and young adults. Smoking-related cerebral oxidative stress is a potential mechanism promoting AD pathology and increased risk for AD. Current knowledge also relates fine and ultrafine particles exposures influencing neurodevelopmental processes in utero. The results from Durazzo et al. should be put in a broader context, a context that includes evaluating the oxidative stress of nano-aerosols associated with cigarette emissions and their synergistic effects with air pollution exposures. AD is expected to increase in the US threefold by the year 2050, and some of these future AD patients are smoking and vaping right now. Understanding the impact of everyday exposures to long-term harmful consequences for brain health is imperative.

  18. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  19. Seasonal variations of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals under tropical conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Trindade, H.A.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Londres, H.; Oliveira, A.E.

    The total suspended particle (TSP) and heavy metal concentrations are studied in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1974 until 1981. The principal aims are to determine how these things vary in two different areas and how meteorological parameters responsible for the transport and dilution of atmospheric pollutants affect these areas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Indoor NO{sub 2} levels in homes with different sources of air pollution - traffic, gas-use, smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnai, P.; Farkas, I.; Bacskai, J.; Sarkany, E. [Bela Johan National Inst. of Hygiene, Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, J. [Public Health Inst. of County Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Gyor (Hungary)

    1993-12-31

    Outdoor and indoor levels of NO{sub 2} in and around the homes of 300 children living in different parts of two Hungarian towns, Gyor and Sopron, were measured. Possible sources of NO{sub 2} pollution were assessed by questionnaires. NO{sub 2} levels in homes without any further known sources (like gas use for cooking and/or heating and smoking) varied according to the outdoor levels mainly depending on traffic density. Gas heaters had the strongest influence on the indoor NO{sub 2} levels measured in the children`s bedrooms while gas use for cooking and smoking proved to be the second and third most important source of indoor NO{sub 2} pollution. Different outdoor and indoor NO{sub 2} sources should be taken into account when planning the heating and ventilation systems of new buildings. (author)

  1. On One Approach to TSP Structural Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Ivanko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study an inverse approach to the traveling salesman reoptimization problem. Namely, we consider the case of the addition of a new vertex to the initial TSP data and fix the simple “adaptation” algorithm: the new vertex is inserted into an edge of the optimal tour. In the paper we consider the conditions describing the vertexes that can be inserted by this algorithm without loss of optimality, study the properties of stability areas, and address several model applications.

  2. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  3. On approximately fair cost allocation in Euclidean TSP games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of allocating the cost of an optimal traveling salesman tour in a fair way among the nodes visited; in particular, we focus on the case where the distance matrix of the underlying TSP problem satisfies the triangle inequality. We thereby use the model of TSP games in the

  4. Deterministic algorithms for multi-criteria Max-TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    We present deterministic approximation algorithms for the multi-criteria maximum traveling salesman problem (Max-TSP). Our algorithms are faster and simpler than the existing randomized algorithms. We devise algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric multi-criteria Max-TSP that achieve ratios of

  5. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  6. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  7. TETRAHEURÍSTICA SISTÉMICA (THS PARA EL TSP SYSTEMIC TETRAHEURISTIC FOR THE TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Pérez Rave

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un novedoso método, basado en elementos del pensamiento sistémico, para solucionar instancias del problema del vendedor viajero (TSP, el cual es comparado en términos de eficacia y eficiencia con "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-wwy exchange improvement" y "branch and bound". El primer apartado introduce la optimización combinatoria, el segundo ofrece un marco de referencia, el tercero presenta la metodología empleada, el cuarto apartado presenta el desarrollo de la tetraheurística sistémica, seguido del análisis de varianza y de rangos de Duncan para los factores: método y cantidad de ciudades; este apartado finaliza con el análisis del comportamiento de la proporción de "fracasos" del algoritmo propuesto a medida que aumenta la complejidad del TSP. Como resultado se obtiene un método para resolver instancias del TSP, conformado por tres heurísticas misionales: 1."vecino más cercano", 2. "sacrificio cortoplacista" y 3. "traslado LIFO", y una de apoyo llamada "búsqueda derecha 4P4". El diseño de la heurística denominada "sacrificio cortoplacista" es inspirado en el análisis sistémico del "vecino más cercano", al cual se le identifica el arquetipo de "soluciones rápidas que fallan", con aplicación a decisiones cotidianas. La tetraheurística sistémica se destaca, respecto a las demás, en solución arrojada y en tiempo computacional consumido, especialmente cuando incrementa la complejidad del TSP.This paper presents a novel method to solve instances of the TSP. This method is comparable in effectiveness and efficiency with "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-way exchange improvement" and "branch and bound". The first section provides a literature review of the combinatorial optimization, the second provides a reference frame, the third the methodology used and the fourth contains, inter alia, system thinking, AxB factorial design and management tool CAP-DO. The fourth

  8. Essentials of LIDAR multiangle data processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. A. Kovalev; A. Petkov; C. Wold; S. Urbanski; W. M. Hao

    2009-01-01

    Mobile scanning lidar is the most appropriate tool for monitoring wildfire smoke-plume dynamics and optical properties. Lidar is the only remote sensing instrument capable of obtaining detailed three-dimensional range-resolved information for smoke distributions and optical properties over ranges of 10+ km at different wavelengths simultaneously.

  9. Indoor pollution: PM2.5 and PM10 from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianese, E.; Barone, G.; Castaldo, R.M.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work is aimed to establishing the temporal and spatial dispersion of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particulate matter fractions generated by cigarettes smoking in an indoor ambient. To this purpose, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were collected with a mobile instrument positioned in a room accommodating a smoking machine. [it

  10. Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas. 1: Particulate air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess human mortality. The regression model proposed by Oezkaynak and Thurston, which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for population change, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included din the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model, and between TS and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened. Scatter plots and quintile analyses suggested a TSP threshold for COPD mortality at around 65 ug/m{sup 3} (annual average). SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Mn, PM{sup 15}, and PM{sub 2.5} were not significantly associated with mortality using the new models.

  11. Model predictions of ambient pollution concentration | Olaniyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the emission loads of the pollutants associated with the use of industrial boiler and power generating plant are in decreasing order of magnitude as NOx > CO > TSP > SO2 > VOC > SO,sub>3 and NOx > TSP > CO > HC > SO2 respectively. The emission load of SO2 is 74.6% in power generating plant, ...

  12. Countervailing effects of income, air pollution, smoking, and obesity on aging and life expectancy: population-based study of U.S. Counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan T; Hales, Nicholas M; Baccarelli, Andrea; Jerrett, Michael; Ezzati, Majid; Dockery, Douglas W; Pope, C Arden

    2016-08-12

    Income, air pollution, obesity, and smoking are primary factors associated with human health and longevity in population-based studies. These four factors may have countervailing impacts on longevity. This analysis investigates longevity trade-offs between air pollution and income, and explores how relative effects of income and air pollution on human longevity are potentially influenced by accounting for smoking and obesity. County-level data from 2,996 U.S. counties were analyzed in a cross-sectional analysis to investigate relationships between longevity and the four factors of interest: air pollution (mean 1999-2008 PM2.5), median income, smoking, and obesity. Two longevity measures were used: life expectancy (LE) and an exceptional aging (EA) index. Linear regression, generalized additive regression models, and bivariate thin-plate smoothing splines were used to estimate the benefits of living in counties with higher incomes or lower PM2.5. Models were estimated with and without controls for smoking, obesity, and other factors. Models which account for smoking and obesity result in substantially smaller estimates of the effects of income and pollution on longevity. Linear regression models without these two variables estimate that a $1,000 increase in median income (1 μg/m(3) decrease in PM2.5) corresponds to a 27.39 (33.68) increase in EA and a 0.14 (0.12) increase in LE, whereas models that control for smoking and obesity estimate only a 12.32 (20.22) increase in EA and a 0.07 (0.05) increase in LE. Nonlinear models and thin-plate smoothing splines also illustrate that, at higher levels of income, the relative benefits of the income-pollution tradeoff changed-the benefit of higher incomes diminished relative to the benefit of lower air pollution exposure. Higher incomes and lower levels of air pollution both correspond with increased human longevity. Adjusting for smoking and obesity reduces estimates of the benefits of higher income and lower air

  13. Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk: Obesity, Diabetes, Smoking, and Pollution: Part 3 of a 3-Part Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Bernd; Rohrbach, Susanne; Miller, Mark R; Newby, David E; Fuster, Valentin; Kovacic, Jason C

    2017-07-11

    Oxidative stress occurs whenever the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds endogenous antioxidant capacity. In this paper, we review the specific role of several cardiovascular risk factors in promoting oxidative stress: diabetes, obesity, smoking, and excessive pollution. Specifically, the risk of developing heart failure is higher in patients with diabetes or obesity, even with optimal medical treatment, and the increased release of ROS from cardiac mitochondria and other sources likely contributes to the development of cardiac dysfunction in this setting. Here, we explore the role of different ROS sources arising in obesity and diabetes, and the effect of excessive ROS production on the development of cardiac lipotoxicity. In parallel, contaminants in the air that we breathe pose a significant threat to human health. This paper provides an overview of cigarette smoke and urban air pollution, considering how their composition and biological effects have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of human health by particulate matter as a source of air pollution--comparison with tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Makoto; Tierney, William J; Nozaki, Kohsuke

    2008-08-01

    Increased air pollution, containing carcinogenic particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)), has gained particular attention in recent years as a causative factor in the increased incidence of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer. Extensive carcinogenicity studies conducted recently under Good Laboratory Practice conditions by National Toxicology Program in the USA, Ramazzini Foundation in Italy or Contract Research Organizations on numerous chemical compounds have demonstrated the importance of considering dose levels, times and duration of exposure in the safety evaluation of carcinogenic as well as classical toxic agents. Data on exposure levels to chemical carcinogens that produce tumor development have contributed to the evaluation of human carcinogens from extrapolation of animal data. A popular held misconception is that the risk from smoking is the result of inhaling assorted particulate matter and by products from burning tobacco rather than the very low ng levels of carcinogens present in smoke. Consider the fact that a piece of toasted bread contains ng levels of the carcinogen urethane (ethyl carbamate). Yet, no one has considered toast to be a human carcinogen. Future human carcinogenic risk assessment should emphasize consideration of inhalation exposure to higher levels of benzo (a) pyrene and other possible carcinogens and particulate matter present in polluted air derived from automobile exhaust, pitch and coal tar on paved roads and asbestos, in addition to other environmental contaminant exposure via the food and drinking water.

  15. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  16. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  17. An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) (Ik-TSP) method was presented in this study for the classification and prediction of human cancers based on gene-expression data. We compared Ik-TSP classifiers with 5 different machine learning methods and the k-TSP method based on 3 different feature selection ...

  18. 5 CFR 1601.12 - Investing future deposits in the TSP Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investing future deposits in the TSP... PARTICIPANTS' CHOICES OF TSP FUNDS Investing Future Deposits § 1601.12 Investing future deposits in the TSP.... All participants may elect to invest all or any portion of their deposits in any of the TSP Funds. [70...

  19. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  20. Indoor Air Pollution and Health in Ghana: Self-Reported Exposure to Unprocessed Solid Fuel Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Frederick A; Odoi, Justice O; Luginaah, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    Most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana still depend extensively on unprocessed solid cooking fuels with many people exposed on a daily basis to harmful emissions and other health risks. In this study, using complementary log-log multivariate models, we estimated the health effects of exposure to smoke from unprocessed wood in four regions of Ghana while controlling for socio-environmental and socio-demographic factors. The results show that the distribution of self-reported exposure to smoke was highest among participants in the Northern region, rural dwellers, the 25-49 age groups, individuals with no education, and married women. As expected, exposure to smoke was higher in crowded households and in communities without basic social amenities. Region, residential locality, housing quality (type of roofing, floor and exterior materials), self-reported housing condition, and access to toilet facilities were associated with self-reported exposure to solid fuel smoke. Participants living in urban areas were less likely (OR = 0.82, ρ ≤ 0.01) to be exposed to solid fuel smoke compared to their rural counterparts. An inverse relationship between self-reported housing condition and exposure to solid fuel smoke was observed and persisted even after adjustments were made for confounding variables in the demographic model. In Ghana, the cost and intermittent shortages of liquefied petroleum gas and other alternative fuel sources hold implications for the willingness of the poor to shift to their use. Thus, the poorest rural populations with nearly no cash income and electricity, but with access to wood and/or agricultural waste, are unlikely to move to clean fuels or use significantly improved stoves without large subsidies, which are usually not sustainable. However, there appears to be large populations between these extremes that can be targeted by efforts to introduce improved stoves.

  1. Indonesian Fire Activity and Smoke Pollution in 2015 Show Persistent Nonlinear Sensitivity to El Niño-induced Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert D.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Fanin, Thierry; Fetzer, Eric; Fuller, Ryan; Jethva, Hiren; Levy, Robert; Livesey, Nathaniel; Luo, Ming; Torres, Omar; hide

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 fire season and related smoke pollution in Indonesia was more severe than the major 2006 episode, making it the most severe season observed by the NASA Earth Observing System satellites that go back to the early 2000s, namely active fire detections from the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS), MODIS aerosol optical depth, Terra Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) carbon monoxide (CO), Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO, Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index, and Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) CO. The MLS CO in the upper troposphere showed a plume of pollution stretching from East Africa to the western Pacific Ocean that persisted for two months. Longer-term records of airport visibility in Sumatra and Kalimantan show that 2015 ranked after 1997 and alongside 1991 and 1994 as among the worst episodes on record. Analysis of yearly dry season rainfall from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and rain gauges shows that, due to the continued use of fire to clear and prepare land on degraded peat, the Indonesian fire environment continues to have non-linear sensitivity to dry conditions during prolonged periods with less than 4mmday of precipitation, and this sensitivity appears to have increased over Kalimantan. Without significant reforms in land use and the adoption of early warning triggers tied to precipitation forecasts, these intense fire episodes will re-occur during future droughts, usually associated with El Nio events.

  2. Longitudinal study of respiratory function and symptoms in a non-smoking group of long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2013-08-17

    Air pollution is known to be a leading cause of respiratory symptoms. Many cross-sectional studies reported that air pollution caused respiratory disease in Japanese individuals in the 1960s. Japan has laws regulating air pollution levels and providing compensation for victims of pollution-related respiratory disease. However, long-term changes in respiratory function and symptoms in individuals who were exposed to air pollution in the 1960s have not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate longitudinal respiratory function and symptoms in older, non-smoking, long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness. The study included 563 officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness living in Kurashiki, Okayama who were aged ≥ 65 years in 2009. Data were retrospectively collected from yearly respiratory symptom questionnaires and spirometry examinations conducted from 2000 to 2009. Respiratory function declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 (p pollutants around 1970 resulted in a decrease in respiratory function and an increase in respiratory symptoms in the study population. From 2000 to 2009, the mean annual changes in respiratory function were within the normal range, even though the severity of dyspnea worsened. The changes in respiratory function and symptoms over the study period were probably due to aging. The laws governing air pollution levels and providing compensation for officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness in Japan may be effective for respiratory disease cause by pollution.

  3. Cytotoxicity of TSP in 3D Agarose Gel Cultured Cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Chun

    Full Text Available A reference reagent, 3-(trimethylsilyl propionic-2, 2, 3, 3-d4 acid sodium (TSP, has been used frequently in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS as an internal reference to identify cell and tissue metabolites, and determine chemical and protein structures. This reference material has been exploited for the quantitative and dynamic analyses of metabolite spectra acquired from cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of TSP on three-dimensionally, agarose gel, cultured cells.A human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63 was selected, and cells were three dimensionally cultured for two weeks in an agarose gel. The culture system contained a mixture of conventional culture medium and various concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20 30 mM of TSP. A DNA quantification assay was conducted to assess cell proliferation using Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA reagent and kit, and cell viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity kit. Both examinations were performed simultaneously at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days from cell seeding.In this study, the cytotoxicity of TSP in the 3D culture of MG-63 cells was evaluated by quantifying DNA (cell proliferation and cell viability. High concentrations of TSP (from 10 to 30 mM reduced both cell proliferation and viability (to 30% of the control after one week of exposure, but no such effects were found using low concentrations of TSP (0-10 mM.This study shows that low concentrations of TSP in 3D cell culture medium can be used for quantitative NMR or MRS examinations for up to two weeks post exposure.

  4. [The recent advances of HAM/TSP research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osame, M

    1999-12-01

    The ninth international conference on HTLVs and related disorders was held on April 5-9, 1999 at Kagoshima, Japan under the conference chairperson, Dr. Mitsuhiro Osame. In this meeting, world-wide epidemiological data on HTLV-I carriers, ATL patients, and HAM/TSP patients were summarized as shown in the table. The total number of them was supposed to be more than 2.2 millions, 1,200, and 3,000, respectively. To elucidate the localization of HTLV-I proviral DNA directly, double staining using immunohistochemistry and PCR in situ hybridization in the spinal cords of HAM/TSP patients were performed. HTLV-I proviral DNA was localized only to OPD 4-positive cells (Matsuoka et al, 1998). The localization of HTLV-I messenger RNA was the same (Moritoyo et al, 1996). A novel technique to detect HTLV-I tax protein was also developed. In HAM/TSP patients, 0.04-1.16% of the CSF cells and 0.02-0.54% of PBMCs were positive for HTLV-I tax protein (Moritoyo et al, 1999). It was also hypothesized that HLA alleles control HTLV-I proviral load and thus influence susceptibility to HAM/TSP. Two hundred and thirty-two cases of HAM/TSP were compared with 201 randomly selected HTLV-I seropositive asymptomatic blood donors. It was shown that, after infection with HTLV-I, the class I allele HLA-A*02 halves the odds of HAM/TSP (p doubled the odds of HAM/TSP in the absence of the protective effect of HLA-A*02 (Jeffery and Usuku et al, 1999).

  5. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  6. Air pollution caused by industrial smoke and its effect on agriculture and horticulture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Houten, J G

    1953-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing industrialization after the second world war in some areas in the Netherlands, damage caused by air pollution occurred. Some gladiolus varieties are particularly susceptible while others did not show any symptoms. Near Pernis fruit trees were damaged. Some pear varieties showed irregular black margins along the leaves and finally all leaves blackened entirely and dropped. Need for further investigation is stressed. Some foreign literature is cited and a description of the author's experiences in this field during a visit through USA is given. Symptoms caused by SO/sub 2/, HF, oxidized unsaturated hydrocarbons and growth substances (2,4-D) are described and the methods in use are discussed including some for determining the chemical constituents in air pollutants responsible for damage in plants.

  7. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael; Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla; Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m 3 /ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  8. Measures of association of some air pollutants. Natural ionizing radiation and cigarette smoking with mortality rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, R C; McDonald, G C

    1976-03-01

    Two methods are employed to estimate the association of hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, natural ionizing radiation, and cigarette smoking with some age stratified and disease specific United States mortality rates for white males. The first method is based on a ridge regression technique and the second on a sign constrained least squares analysis. It is concluded that increased concentration of sulfur compounds and increased consumption of cigarettes are associated with increases in the total white male mortality rate. Associations for nitrogen compounds, the hydrogen index, and ionizing radiation are dependent on methodology and data stratification. The estimated elasticities are not directly comparable to those from other studies. Most estimates are fairly close except for the associations of heart disease with sulfur compounds. (JTE)

  9. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Hodgins, Michelle Jurkouich, Delwyn Kel- logg, Juan Lopez, Andy Oughton, Rafael Salazar, and Jim Van Buren. vi | CMU/SEI-2009-SR-009 1...listed below in bold font ) are areas that should be of particular interest for potential SEI-Certified TSP Coaches and Mentor Coaches, as these are

  10. Fractionation of applied 32P labeled TSP in calcareous soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfary, A.F.; Al-Merey, R.; Al-Hameish, M.

    2005-01-01

    Calcareous dark brown red soil (calcixerollic xerochrept) from northern Syria was used in a pot experiment to study the fate of triple super phosphate fertilizer (TSP) with and without a crop (Local durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. group durum (Desf)) c v. Bohouth). The soil received 17μg P/g soil of 32 P labeled TSP, and samples were collected from soils and plants at successive dates. Soil inorganic P was ≅94% of total soil P, with only 50-80% being soluble. Calcium phosphate compounds were the dominant fraction (≤68%) of the soluble inorganic soil P followed by occluded iron phosphate (≤48%) and all other fractions were ≤9%. Isotopic measurements showed that ≅ 50% of fertilizer P was nonexchangeable within 2 days, and TSP values in each fraction of soil inorganic P fluctuated in relatively similar proportions to the concentrations of fractions in soil. Available P (soil and TSP) in cropped soil was more than that in the uncropped soil, and plants had no effect on the distribution of P from fertilizer amongst the different P fractions. (author)

  11. Air quality in Beijing and its transition from coal burning caused problems to traffic exhaust related pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shao, M.; Hu, M.; Tang, D.

    1997-01-01

    Air pollution in Beijing is characterized by coal smoke for a long time because of energy structure highly dependence on coal consumption. SO 2 , TSP, and NO x ambient concentration are kept in high levels, which exceed the guideline of WHO and National Air Quality Standard NAQS. The trend of SO 2 change is relative stable, its annual average concentration fluctuates around 100 g/m 3 since 1981. TSP show a fast decrease before 1986 and keep a slow decrease afterwards approaching the level of about 300 g/m 3 . NO x concentration increases continuously all the time. Since 1993, NO x concentration exceeds SO 2 to be the important pollutant next to TSP in Beijing, especially in summertime and traffic busy areas. As the consequence of NO x fast increase, the ozone pollution level is elevated greatly since 1980s. Several integrated field measurements were conducted to study the characteristics of photochemical smog and its formation mechanism. Hourly averaged ozone concentration usually exceeded the NAQS (80 ppb) in April to October. The O 3 formation is very sensitive to NO x concentration because of the high NMHC/NO x ratio. In recent years, high O 3 concentration is observed in early Spring and photochemical smog pollution is getting more and more severe with dramatically increase of vehicles in downtown Beijing. It is predicted that O 3 pollution will be expected to enhance greatly in next 20 years under the development plan of future urban transportation system and increment of vehicles, even in the case that control strategies suggested by municipal government are undertaken. So more strengthen control strategies in Beijing are needed

  12. Arctic smoke – record high air pollution levels in the European Arctic due to agricultural fires in Eastern Europe in spring 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In spring 2006, the European Arctic was abnormally warm, setting new historical temperature records. During this warm period, smoke from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe intruded into the European Arctic and caused the most severe air pollution episodes ever recorded there. This paper confirms that biomass burning (BB was indeed the source of the observed air pollution, studies the transport of the smoke into the Arctic, and presents an overview of the observations taken during the episode. Fire detections from the MODIS instruments aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites were used to estimate the BB emissions. The FLEXPART particle dispersion model was used to show that the smoke was transported to Spitsbergen and Iceland, which was confirmed by MODIS retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD and AIRS retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO total columns. Concentrations of halocarbons, carbon dioxide and CO, as well as levoglucosan and potassium, measured at Zeppelin mountain near Ny Ålesund, were used to further corroborate the BB source of the smoke at Spitsbergen. The ozone (O3 and CO concentrations were the highest ever observed at the Zeppelin station, and gaseous elemental mercury was also elevated. A new O3 record was also set at a station on Iceland. The smoke was strongly absorbing – black carbon concentrations were the highest ever recorded at Zeppelin – and strongly perturbed the radiation transmission in the atmosphere: aerosol optical depths were the highest ever measured at Ny Ålesund. We furthermore discuss the aerosol chemical composition, obtained from filter samples, as well as the aerosol size distribution during the smoke event. Photographs show that the snow at a glacier on Spitsbergen became discolored during the episode and, thus, the snow albedo was reduced. Samples of this polluted snow contained strongly elevated levels of potassium, sulphate, nitrate and ammonium ions, thus relating the discoloration to the

  13. Better understanding the influence of cigarette smoking and indoor air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case-control study in Mainland China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, F.; Yin, X.M.; Shen, H.B.; Xu, Y.C.; Ware, R.S.; Owen, N. [Nanjing Municipal Center for District Control & Prevention, Nanjing (China)

    2007-11-15

    This study investigated the relationship between the total amount of cigarettes smoked (TACS) and indoor air pollution, with the risk of COPD among urban and rural Chinese adults. A nested case-control study was performed using data collected in a large community survey (N = 29 319) conducted between October 2000 and March 2001 in Nanjing, China. The exposure to indoor respiratory pollutants of cooking and heating materials and to passive cigarette smoke was compared in patients diagnosed with COPD (n = 1743) and controls matched for age, gender and residence (n = 1743). The smoking rate among COPD patients was significantly higher than that among the controls. After controlling for possible confounders, the adjusted odds ratios for COPD increased across TACS tertiles: from lower (OR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.79), to middle (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.21-1.99), and upper (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.37-2.29). Among smokers, women were significantly more likely to develop COPD than men (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.41). There were no significant associations between COPD and domestic fuels used, kitchen ventilation or passive smoking. Heating in winter with coal was weakly but positively linked with COPD among non-smokers overall, among women non-smokers, and specifically for women living in urban as well as rural areas. This clear dose-response relationship exists between cigarette smoking and COPD; compared with men, women smokers were more susceptible to COPD. Exposure to other respiratory pollutants in the home was not significantly associated with the diagnosis of COPD.

  14. Does mortality risk of cigarette smoking depend on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants? Prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important cause of preventable death globally, but associations between smoking and mortality vary substantially across country and calendar time. Although methodological biases have been discussed, it is biologically plausible that persistent organic pollutants (POPs like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides can affect this association. This study was performed to evaluate if associations of cigarette smoking with mortality were modified by serum concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides. We evaluated cigarette smoking in 111 total deaths among 986 men and women aged 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS with mean follow-up for 7.7 years. The association between cigarette smoking and total mortality depended on serum concentration of PCBs and OC pesticides (P value for interaction = 0.02. Among participants in the highest tertile of the serum POPs summary score, former and current smokers had 3.7 (95% CI, 1.5-9.3 and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.3-17.7 times higher mortality hazard, respectively, than never smokers. In contrast, the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality among participants in the lowest tertile of the serum POPs summary score was much weaker and statistically non-significant. The strong smoking-mortality association observed among elderly people with high POPs was mainly driven by low risk of mortality among never smokers with high POPs. As smoking is increasing in many low-income and middle-income countries and POPs contamination is a continuing problem in these areas, the interactions between these two important health-related issues should be considered in future research.

  15. Indoor PM2.5 in an urban zone with heavy wood smoke pollution: The case of Temuco, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco; Heyer, Johanna; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Schiappacasse, Luis N; Montoya, Lupita D

    2018-05-01

    Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; however, little is known about the indoor air quality in this region. A field measurement campaign at 63 households in the Temuco urban area was conducted in winter 2014 and is reported here. In this study, indoor and outdoor (24-hr) PM 2.5 and its elemental composition were measured and compared. Infiltration parameters and outdoor/indoor contributions to indoor PM 2.5 were also determined. A statistical evaluation of how various air quality interventions and household features influence indoor PM 2.5 was also performed. This study determined median indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations of 44.4 and 41.8 μg/m 3 , respectively. An average infiltration factor (0.62 ± 0.06) was estimated using sulfur as a tracer species. Using a simple mass balance approach, median indoor and outdoor contributions to indoor PM 2.5 concentrations were then estimated as 12.5 and 26.5 μg/m 3 , respectively; therefore, 68% of indoor PM 2.5 comes from outdoor infiltration. This high percentage is due to high outdoor pollution and relatively high household air exchange rates (median: 1.06 h -1 ). This study found that S, Br and Rb were dominated by outdoor contributions, while Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and As originated from indoor sources. Using continuous indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 measurements, a median indoor source strength of 75 μg PM 2.5 /min was estimated for the diurnal period, similar to literature results. For the evening period, the median estimate rose to 135 μg PM 2.5 /min, reflecting a more intense wood burning associated to cooking and space heating at night. Statistical test results (at the 90% confidence level) support the ongoing woodstove replacement program (reducing emissions) and household weatherization subsidies (reducing heating demand) for improving indoor air quality in southern Chile, and suggest that a cookstove improvement program might be helpful as well

  16. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  17. Valuing health effects from the industrial air pollution in rural Tianjin,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhi-feng; XU Lin-yu

    2004-01-01

    High concentrations of air pollutants such as total suspended particulates(TSP) and sulfur dioxide(SO2 ) have serious impacts on nearby populations. In this paper, a survey of rural Tianjin residents' willingness-to-pay for health improvement was reported on, and the MBDC( multiple bounded discrete choice) model was adopted to study the respondents' willingness-to-pay to prevent respiratory illnesses.The results showed that the willingness-to-pay for health improvement was affected by respondents' health condition, work situation and environmental awareness, but not by personal habits, such as smoking. If person's willingness-to-pay to avoid respiratory diseases can be considered equal to the cost to personal health caused by air pollution, the total cost will reach 538 x 106 RMB Yuan( RMB, equal to 65million USD) per year.

  18. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  19. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  20. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  1. Advanced evaluation method of SG TSP BEC hole blockage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Harada, Yutaka; Murakami, Ryuji

    2003-01-01

    In spite of the control of the water chemistry of SG secondary feed-water in PWR-SG, SG TSP BEC holes, which are the flow path of secondary water, are often clogged. In the past, the trending of BEC hole blockage rate has conducted by evaluating ECT original signals and visual inspections. However, the ECT original signals of deposits are diversified, it becomes difficult to analyze them with the existing evaluation method using the ECT original signals. In this regard, we have developed the secondary side visual inspection system, which enables the high-accuracy evaluation of BEC hole blockage rate, and new ECT signal evaluation method. (author)

  2. A review of tsp as one of the transportation security aspects of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiryono

    2013-01-01

    A review has done for the Transportation Safety Plan (TSP) as one of the aspects of safety in the transport of nuclear materials. The review is necessary to harmonize national regulations with international practice. International practice of using TSP as one of the security requirements in addition to the Radiation Protection Program as a requirement of safety in the transport of nuclear materials. TSP is intended to ensure sound implementation of the transport of nuclear materials. TSP evaluation process can be done with a prescriptive approach, performance, and combinations. TSP contains information about administrative requirements, delivery security and response planning. TSP can be used to ensure the security of the implementation of the transport of nuclear materials effectively and efficiently. BAPETEN should require the applicant to submit the TSP as one document security requirements prior approval transporting nuclear materials. BAPETEN need to define the approach to the formulation and evaluation of TSP. BAPETEN need to set up an evaluation and inspection procedures for the implementation of TSP. (author)

  3. The influence of the cigarette smoke pollution and ventilation rate on alpha-activities per unit volume due to radon and its progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Flata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha and beta activities per unit volume air due to radon, thoron and their decay products were evaluated in the air of various cafe rooms polluted by cigarette smoke. Both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were used. Equilibrium factors between radon and its progeny and thoron and its daughters have been evaluated in the air of the studied cafe rooms. The committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products were determined in different regions of the respiratory tract of non-smoker members of the public. The influence of cigarette smoke pollution, ventilation rate and exposure time on committed equivalent dose in the respiratory systems of non-smokers was investigated. Committed equivalent doses ranged from 1.15x10 -11 -2.7x10 -7 Sv.y -1 /h of exposure in the extrathoracic region and from 0.8x10 -12 -1.7x10 -8 Sv.y -1 /h of exposure in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract of non-smokers

  4. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topinka, J.; Milcova, A.; Libalova, H.; Novakova, Z.; Rossner, P.; Balascak, I.; Sram, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    32 P-postlabelling and PAH-ELISA using the antiserum no. 29 were employed to analyze DNA adducts in venous and umbilical cord blood and the placenta of 79 mothers giving birth to 80 living babies in Prague (Czech Republic). Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary measurements of basic air pollutants (PM2.5, c-PAHs) during the entire pregnancy. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire data and by plasma cotinine levels. The total DNA adduct levels in the lymphocytes of mothers and newborns were elevated by 30-40% (p 8 nucleotides vs. 0.15 ± 0.06 adducts/10 8 nucleotides) with newborns indicated a 30-40% increase of adducts in mothers. Almost equal PAH-DNA adduct levels were detected by anti-BPDE-DNA ELISA in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed and -unexposed mothers. Our results suggest a protective effect of the placental barrier against the genotoxic effect of some tobacco smoke components between the circulation of mother and child. We found a correlation between adduct levels in the blood of mothers and newborns.

  5. General k-opt submoves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    2009-01-01

    Local search with k-exchange neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This paper presents an effective implementation of k-opt in LKH-2, a variant of the Lin–Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation...

  6. An Effective Implementation of K-opt Moves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    Local search with k-change neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This report presents an effective implementation of k-opt for the Lin- Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation is demonstrated with extensive...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...'s performance are important to measure? 102-117.280 Section 102-117.280 Public Contracts and... § 102-117.280 What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure? Important TSP performance...) Percentage of customer satisfaction reports on carrier performance. ...

  8. A numerical simulation study on the impact of smoke aerosols from Russian forest fires on the air pollution over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingzhe; Liu, Yuzhi; Jia, Rui; Hua, Shan; Shao, Tianbin; Wang, Bing

    2018-06-01

    Serious forest fires were observed over Siberia, particularly in the vast area between Lake Baikal and the Gulf of Ob, during the period of 18-27 July 2016 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite simultaneously detected a multitude of smoke aerosols surrounding the same area. Combing a Lagrangian Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model output, the transport of smoke aerosols and the quantification of impact of Russian forest fires on the Asia were investigated. From model simulations, two transport paths were determined for the smoke plumes from the Russian forest fires. The first path was directed southwestward from Russia to Central Asia and eventually Xinjiang Province of China, furthermore, the second path was directed southeastward through Mongolia to Northeast China. The FLEXPART-WRF model simulations also revealed that the smoke aerosol concentrations entering the Central Asia, Mongolia and Northern China were approximately 60-300 μg m-3, 40-250 μg m-3 and 5-140 μg m-3, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerosol particles from these forest fires have an impact on the air quality in Asia. With the arrival of smoke aerosols from the Russian forest fires, the near-surface PM10 concentrations over Altay, Hulunbuir and Harbin increased to 61, 146 and 42 μg m-3, respectively. In conclusion, smoke aerosols from Russian forest fires can variably influence the air quality over Central Asia, Mongolia and Northern China.

  9. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  10. Reduction in air pollution using the “Basa Njengo Magogo” methodology and applicability to low-smoke fuels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available in the streets after one month of using the method. Work by Nova (Nova, 2003) in eMbalenhle indicated up to a 60% reduction in smoke compared with the conventional method of bottom-up ignition. To support the findings of these largely qualitative studies...

  11. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  12. The threonine protease activity of testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is essential for its function in cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50, a newly discovered threonine enzyme, has similar amino acid sequences and enzymatic structures to those of many serine proteases. It may be an oncogene. TSP50 is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelial cells, and ectopic expression of TSP50 in TSP50-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells has been found to promote cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which TSP50 exerts its growth-promoting effects are not yet fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate whether the threonine protease activity of TSP50 is essential to its function in cell proliferation, we constructed and characterized a mutant TSP50, called TSP50 T310A, which was identified as a protease-dead mutant of TSP50. By a series of proliferation analyses, colony formation assays and apoptosis analyses, we showed that T310A mutation significantly depresses TSP50-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Next, the CHO stable cell line expressing either wild-type or T310A mutant TSP50 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice. We found that the T310A mutation could abolish the tumorigenicity of TSP50 in vivo. A mechanism investigation revealed that the T310A mutation prevented interaction between TSP50 and the NF-κBIκBα complex, which is necessary for TSP50 to perform its function in cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our data highlight the importance of threonine 310, the most critical protease catalytic site in TSP50, to TSP50-induced cell proliferation and tumor formation.

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.255 - What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.255 Section 102-117.255 Public Contracts and... may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? If the TSP's performance is not satisfactory...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.285 - What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.285 Section 102-117.285 Public Contracts and Property... are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? You may choose to place a TSP in temporary...

  15. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  16. Temperature Switch PCR (TSP: Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather Diane E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP, a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. Results We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Conclusion Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  17. Indoor air pollution (PM2.5) due to secondhand smoke in selected hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Taj, Tahir; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Lee, Kiyoung; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-09-01

    To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and cafés) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM(2.5) levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM(2.5) levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m(3) and the outdoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 18 to 96 μg/m(3). The overall mean indoor PM(2.5) level was 138.8 μg/m(3) (± 112.8). Among the four types of venues, the highest mean indoor PM(2.5) level was reported from snooker/billiard clubs: 264.7 μg/m(3) (± 85.4) and the lowest from restaurants: 66.4 μg/m(3) (± 57.6) while the indoor/outdoor ratio ranged from 0.97 to 10.2, highest being at the snooker/billiard clubs. The smoking density ranged from 0.21 to 0.57, highest being at gaming zones. The indoor PM(2.5) concentration and smoking density were not significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.113; p = 0.636). This study demonstrates unacceptably high levels of PM(2.5) exposure associated with secondhand smoke (SHS) at various entertainment venues of Karachi even after 8 years since the promulgation of smoke-free ordinance (2002) in Pakistan; however, better compliance may be evident at hospitality venues. The results of this study call for effective implementation and enforcement of smoke-free environment at public places in the country.

  18. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  19. Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 μg/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

  20. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teresa W.; Vermeulen, Roel C.H.; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S.; Silverman, Debra T.; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In China’s rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. PMID:26468118

  1. An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Key words: Cancer classification, gene expression, k-TSP, information entropy, gene selection. INTRODUCTION ..... The 88 kDa precursor protein, progranulin, is also ... TCF3 is in acute myeloid leukemia pathway, so it is.

  2. Pumping characteristics of sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Patel, R.J.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Pandiyar, M.L.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    For achieving hydrocarbon free, clean ultra high vacuum, SIP-TSP combination is one of the ideal choice for pumping. For the SRS facility in Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), we are utilising this combination, enmass. For this purpose, two modules of these combination set-ups are assembled, one with the TSP as an integral part of SIP and the other, with TSP as a separate pump mounted on the top of SIP. The pump bodies were vacuum degassed at 700 degC at 10 -5 mbar for 3 hrs. An ultimate vacuum of 3 x 10 -11 mbar was achieved, after a bake-out at 250 degC for 4 hrs, followed by continuous SIP pumping for 48 hrs, with two TSP flashing at approximately 10 hrs interval. The pump-down patterns as well as the pressure-rise patterns are studied. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs

  3. Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J

    1991-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with increased mortality during episodes of high pollution concentrations. The relationship at lower concentrations has been more controversial, as has the relative role of particles and sulfur dioxide. Replication has been difficult because suspended particle concentrations are usually measured only every sixth day in the U.S. This study used concurrent measurements of total suspended particulates (TSP) and airport visibility from every sixth day sampling for 10 years to fit a predictive model for TSP. Predicted daily TSP concentrations were then correlated with daily mortality counts in Poisson regression models controlling for season, weather, time trends, overdispersion, and serial correlation. A significant correlation (P less than 0.0001) was found between predicted TSP and daily mortality. This correlation was independent of sulfur dioxide, but not vice versa. The magnitude of the effect was very similar to results recently reported from Steubenville, Ohio (using actual TSP measurements), with each 100 micrograms/m3 increase in TSP resulting in a 6% increase in mortality. Graphical analysis indicated a dose-response relationship with no evidence of a threshold down to concentrations below half of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate matter.

  4. Indoor Air Pollution and Risk of Lung Cancer among Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10 and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income and smoking. Results Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to ETS at work (aOR=3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR=3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR=4.08) and heating (aORcoal stove=2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM2.5 concentration was 68ug/m3, and PM10 was 230ug/m3. PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating and ventilators. PM1 levels in cases are more than 3-time higher than that in controls. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM1 is associated with 45% increased risk of lung cancer. Conclusions Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. PMID:23314675

  5. Harvard Air Pollution Health Study in six cites in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spengler, J D; Ferris, Jr, B G

    1985-08-01

    The Harvard Air Pollution Health Study has been a ten year prospective study of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of children and adults living in six US communities. Indices of acute and chronic effects of air pollution exposures have been studied. Evidence is presented for adverse effects of ambient and indoor air pollution on children. Relationships between ambient TSP concentrations and hospital emergency room admissions, temporary decreases in pulmonary functions and prevalence of community bronchitis all indicate a slight adverse effect. Refinements of these relationships will occur when fine fraction and acid sulfate aerosol concentrations are incorporated into the health analysis. Exposures to cigarette smoke at home are associated with increased reported respiratory symptoms in children. There is a negative relationship between maternal smoking and age and sex adjusted height for children. Results from indoor and personal exposure studies have lead to the design of an acute symptoms and indoor air pollution study. Between 1985 and 1988 1800 children will be tracked for a year while respirable particles, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and air exchange will be measured in their homes. Using continuous sulfate/sulfuric acid monitors built at Harvard, we are characterizing the magnitude, duration and frequency of acid aerosol events in each of our study cities. This information will be utilized in the analysis of the respiratory symptom data. The Harvard Air Pollution Health Study is providing information on the relationship among health variables and air pollutant exposures. In addition, this study will add to our understanding of lung growth and aging and the risk factors associated with chronic respiratory disabilities.

  6. The Mice Drawer System Tissue Sharing Program (MDS-TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biticchi, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cilli, Michele; Cotronei, Vittorio; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Pignataro, Salvatore; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tasso, Roberta; Tavella, Sara

    obtain from the animals sent to the ISS as much as possible information including also microgravity induced modifications of tissues other than bone, we associated to the MDS experiment several international group from Italian, American, Japanese Universities and from NASA and JAXA labs and we created a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP). In total 17 groups from 6 countries were involved in the program. The MDS payload containing three PTN-transgenic mice (Tg) and three wild type (Wt) mice was launched with the Shuttle STS-128, on August, 28 2009 and the MDS transferred to the ISS for three months. The payload re-entry was with the Shuttle STS-129 on November, 27 2009 in Florida. Unfortunately during this period 3 mice (two Wt and one Tg) died due to a spinal cord lesion probably occurred during the shuttle lift off, a liver pathology and a failure of the food delivery system respectively. All the three dead mice were however frozen for subsequent skeletal analysis. The remaining 3 mice had a normal behavior during the flight and appeared in excellent health conditions at the time of landing. During the MDS stay at the ISS several physical parameters were under daily check. With regard to the animal health status checking, the daily water consumption for each individual mouse revealed to be one of the most important parameter. Immediately after landing the mice were sacrificed, blood parameter were measured and all different tissues were dissected. Samples from almost the entire organism are now under investigation by the TSP team. A ground replica of the flight experiment ("ground control") was performed at the University of Genova from November 2009 to the second week of February 2010. Some of the initial results from the flight and the ground control experiments are presented in the individual abstracts.

  7. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  8. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  9. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  10. Incorporation Between AHP and N-TSP for Plant Surveillance Routing with Multiple Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Hari Nugroho

    2002-01-01

    This paper observed plant on-line surveillance routing for maintenance management with multiple constraints using TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem). In the research N-TSP (nomadic TSP) type was used. In this case, on-line surveillance could be implemented on moving robot. Route for preventive maintenance management was observed sequentially per stage using multiple constraints (a) distance between components, and (b) failure probability of components using AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Simulation was observed utilizing DURESS as a complex system. The simulation result showed that the route with single constraint distance between components represents the sequence of 1 - 6 - 2 - 4 - 3 - 5. Routing for DURESS with multiple constraints using incorporation of AHP and TSP showed that the first priority in the route is flow sensor FB2 with the value of comparation of 0.1042. The next priority is sequentially FB1, FA2, FA1, FA, FB, VB, VA, VA1, VA2, VB1, VB2, pump B, pump A, FR1, FR2, reservoir 2, and reservoir 1. Numerical experiment obtained that the incorporation between AHP and N-TSP has successfully constructed the surveillance routing with multiple constraints. (author)

  11. IMPLEMENTASI ALGORITMA TSP DALAM PENYELESAIAN TRACKING PAKET PADA UNIT PROCESSING CENTER POS INDONESIA KOTA LHOKSEUMAWE ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richki Hardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traveling salesperson problem-TSP problem is an optimization problem to find the optimal way for the traveling salesman who wants to visit several cities, and returned to the original departure city. TSP is a difficult problem when viewed from the point of computing. Several methods have been used to solve these problems but until now not been found mangkus algorithms to solve them. The easiest way to solve TSP is to try all possible routes and find the optimal route. However, at the time of the very practical now required to complete an algorithm that quickly so that the TSP solution obtained near optimal solutions.TSP is very precise algorithm used for solving complex optimization problems and solved difficult conventional methods. Route and distance data used to determine the optimal route in the system is obtained from the survey results at the post office Lhokseumawe. The results showed that the algorithm is the shortest route from the post office to post office Lhokseumawe, Meulaboh, Lhokseumawe is through the route - Bireun-Simpang Tiga-Takengon-Meulaboh with a total distance of 326 kilometers. The implementation of this system using the programming language PHP, MySQL, and Macromedia Flash.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of chemicals in the TSP aerosols simultaneously collected at three islands in Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Azechi, Sotaro; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Nakaema, Fumiya; Hitomi, Yuya; Handa, Daishi; Oshiro, Yoshito; Miyagi, Youichi; Tsuhako, Ai; Murayama, Hitomi; Higaonna, Yumi; Tanahara, Akira; Itoh, Akihide; Fukushima, Soko; Higashi, Kazuaki; Henza, Yui; Nishikawa, Rin; Shinjo, Hibiki; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-11-01

    East Asia's rapid economic growth has led to concerns about the emission of air pollutants. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) aerosol samples simultaneously at three islands in Okinawa, Japan, which are downwind of East Asia, during the Asian dust season, to examine the spatial and temporal variations and chemical transformations of major chemicals in the aerosols. Weekly samples were collected from July 2008 to June 2010, and the concentrations of water-soluble cations, anions, and organic carbon (WSOC) were determined (n = 303). Spatial distribution analysis showed that monthly mean concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- in the spring (Asian dust season) decreased with increasing distance from Asia, while the trend for NO3- was less evident, suggesting that chemical transformation affected the long-range transport of certain chemicals. Temporal variation analysis showed that concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, and WSOC during the spring were about 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 times those in the summer (cleaner air mass from the Pacific Ocean), respectively. This study demonstrated that air pollutants were transported from the Asian continent to the Okinawa islands and affected the air quality in the region. There may also be impacts on ecosystems, because increased concentrations of particulate NO3- could increase nutrient levels around the Okinawa islands.

  13. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  14. Indoor Spatial Monitoring of Combustion Generated Pollutants (TSP, CO, and BaP) by Indian Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    whereas Ariyur has a strata of economic conditions. Fuel is both bought and gathered. Most southern cooks use logs of Casurina, and coconut husks and...per unit of energy than combustion of oil and most coals Morris, 1982, Cooper, 1980. Recent literature on woodsmoke have been documented by Cooper...Group on Energy Po]icy, Planning Commission, Govt. of India, New Delhi, 1979) lists firewood as the major source of fuel (68.5%) oil products (16.9

  15. Longitudinal study of respiratory function and symptoms in a non-smoking group of long-term officially-acknowledged victims of pollution-related illness

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kotaki, Kenji; Yano, Yudai; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Background Air pollution is known to be a leading cause of respiratory symptoms. Many cross-sectional studies reported that air pollution caused respiratory disease in Japanese individuals in the 1960s. Japan has laws regulating air pollution levels and providing compensation for victims of pollution-related respiratory disease. However, long-term changes in respiratory function and symptoms in individuals who were exposed to air pollution in the 1960s have not been well studied. This study a...

  16. 5 CFR 1605.22 - Claims for correction of Board or TSP record keeper errors; time limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... record keeper errors; time limitations. 1605.22 Section 1605.22 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL... § 1605.22 Claims for correction of Board or TSP record keeper errors; time limitations. (a) Filing claims... after that time, the Board or TSP record keeper may use its sound discretion in deciding whether to...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? For... Government Billing Documents Terms and Conditions Governing Acceptance and Use of A Government Bill of Lading...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.260 - Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA? 102-118.260 Section 102-118.260 Public Contracts and... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Quotations, Tenders Or Contracts § 102-118.260 Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to...

  19. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W; Hoek, G; Brunekreef, B [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health; and others

    1996-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  20. European study protocol: `Effect of short-term changes in urban air pollution on the respiratory health of children with chronic respiratory symptoms. The PEACE project, Pollution Effects on Asthmatic Children in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer, W.; Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the last decades, concentrations of air pollution components such as SO{sub 2} and airborne, coarse particulates have decreased in many areas in Europe. This decrease can be ascribed to emission abatement measures and changes in energy production for industrial processes and space heating. Levels of other pollutants such as NO{sub 2} have increased during the same period, mostly due to higher intensity of motor vehicle traffic. Older epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution used indicator pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSP) and Black Smoke at extremely high levels. More recent studies using the same and other indicators such as PM10 (particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of 10 {mu}m) have shown effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity at lower levels, even sometimes lower than current WHO air quality guidelines for Europe. These findings suggest that due to the changing composition of air pollution, effects of air pollution can be seen below levels of exposure which were thought to be safe. Another reason is that the recent studies are conducted at levels which were hard to find in earlier days. Therefore new, quantitative data are needed to evaluate the current guidelines and standards. In order to achieve this, standardization of methodology as well as the execution of epidemiologic studies using such standardized methodology is needed. In the framework of the ENVIRONMENT Research Programme of the Commission of the European Communities, a collaborative study was funded that sought to develop a standardized methodology for epidemiologic studies of effects short-term changes in air pollution on the respiratory system

  1. The Response to P-Derived from Phosphate Rock and TSP by Crops Grown in a Simulated Crop Rotation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsye L; Sisworo, Widjang H; Havid-Rasjid; Syamsul-Rizal; Komarudin-Idris

    2002-01-01

    A green house experiment was carried out on a simulated crop rotation system of upland rice-soybean-mungbean to determine the effect of P-derived from different phosphate rock (PR) sources and TSP using 32 P. The data obtained reveal that all the P-sources has a significant effect on the growth of all the three crops, expressed in dry weight, % P-total and total P-uptake (mg P pot -1 ). For the P-source it was shown that % P-derived from PR/TSP and their uptake (mg P pot -1 ) was quite high, showing that the PR s applied were of good reactivity. The residue of the PR s has also still a good effect on plant growth than that of TSP. The efficiency of PR s was far below that of TSP. This apparently was due to the high rate of application, ten times the rate of TSP. (author)

  2. Approximation algorithms for deadline-TSP and vehicle routing with time-windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Blum, A.; Chawla, S.; Meyerson, A.; Babai, L.

    2004-01-01

    Given a metric space G on n nodes, with a start node r and deadlines D(v) for each vertex v, we consider the Deadline-TSP problem of finding a path starting at r that visits as many nodes as possible by their deadlines. We also consider the more general Vehicle Routing with Time-Windows problem, in

  3. 5 CFR 839.1119 - How is the actuarial reduction for TSP computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefit that is payable, the present value factor for the survivor's age at the time of death is used. The survivor benefit is not reduced for TSP if the retiree's rate was reduced. Survivor Benefits ... reduction. OPM will divide the Government contributions and earnings by the present value factor for your...

  4. Heuristics for Comparing the Lengths of Completed E-TSP Tours: Crossings and Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.

    2017-01-01

    The article reports three experiments designed to explore heuristics used in comparing the lengths of completed Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (E-TSP) tours. The experiments used paired comparisons in which participants judged which of two completed tours of the same point set was shorter. The first experiment manipulated two factors, the…

  5. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer to t...

  6. Team Software Process (TSP) Coach Mentoring Program Guidebook Version 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Hodgins, Michelle Jurkouich, Delwyn Kellogg, Juan Lopez, Andy Oughton, Rafael Salazar, and Jim Van Buren. vi | CMU/SEI-2010-SR-016 vii | CMU/SEI...which it was deemed that TSP coaches must be competent; Sections C through G (listed below in bold font ) are areas that should be of particular

  7. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  8. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  9. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M.; Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C.; Corredera, G.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N 2 H 4 , amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide-solution interfaces

  10. The motor evoked potential in AIDS and HAM/TSP: state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Elfakhani, Mohamed; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for 'HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP' were selected and analysed. Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.

  11. Magnetic evaluation of TSP-filters for air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Miranda, Ana Gabriela; Böhnel, Harald N.; Molina-Garza, Roberto S.; Chaparro, Marcos A. E.

    2014-10-01

    We present the magnetic properties of the powders collected by high volume total suspended particle air samplers used to monitor atmospheric pollution in Santiago de Querétaro, a city of one million people in central Mexico. The magnetic measurements have been combined with scanning electron microscopy observations and analysis, in order to characterize the particles captured in the filters as natural and anthropogenic. The main goal of the study is to test if magnetic measurements on the sampled atmospheric dust can be effective, low-cost, proxy to qualitatively estimate the air quality, complementing the traditional analytical methods. The magnetic properties of the powder collected in the filters have been investigated measuring the low field magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loops, thermomagnetic curves, and isothermal remanent magnetization. The rock magnetism data have been supplemented by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the main magnetic carrier is low-Ti magnetite in the PSD range with a contribution from SP particles, and small but significant contributions from hematite, maghemite and goethite particles. Total suspended particles in the atmosphere during the monitored days ranged between about 30 and 280 μg/m3. Magnetic susceptibility values are well correlated with the independently determined total suspended particles concentration (R = 0.93), but particle concentration does not correlate as well with IRM1T. This may be attributed to contributions from SP and paramagnetic particles to the susceptibility signal, but not to the remanence. The effects of climate in particle size, composition and concentration were considered in terms of precipitation and wind intensity, but they are actually minor. The main effect of climate appears to be the removal of SP particles during rainy days. There is a contribution to air pollution from natural mineral sources, which we attribute to low vegetation cover

  12. Multivariate analysis between air pollutants and meteorological variables in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Lim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between air pollutants and meteorological variables measured in Seoul from January 1 to December 31, 1999. The first principal component showed the contrast effect between O 3 and the other pollutants. The second principal component showed the contrast effect between CO, SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 , PM 10 , TSP. Based on the cluster analysis, three clusters represented different air pollution levels, seasonal characteristics of air pollutants, and meteorological conditions. Discriminant analysis with air environment index (AEI) was carried out to develop an air pollution index function. (orig.)

  13. EDF feedback on recent EPRI SGOG SG chemical cleanings applications for TSP blockage reduction and heat transfer recover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijoux, M.; De Bouvier, O.; Mercier, S.; Pages, D.; Bretelle, J.-L.; Leclercq, P.; Mermillod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2008, six Steam Generators Chemical Cleanings (SGCC) with the inhibitor free high temperature process were applied on EDF PWR units. The main goal was to reduce the excessive Tube Support Plate blockages observed on several units of the EDF fleet and the consequences on wide range levels and the risk of tube cracks. The heat transfer recovery was the second objective. Despite the correct results obtained, the corrosion impact of the high temperature process on internal metallic surfaces, higher than expected, and the environmental issues led EDF to move to a new cleaning process. The low temperature process developed by EPRI SGOG and applied for many years was selected for the same purpose. Some qualification laboratory tests were performed by Dominion Engineering Inc (DEI) to demonstrate the innocuousness an the efficiency of the process to achieve these goals. The EPRI SGOG process was then applied seven times by Westinghouse on the EDF units Cruas 3, Cruas 2, Belleville 1, Cattenom 1, Cattenom 3, Chinon B3 and Cattenom 4 between 2008 and 2010. All these units operate from the initial start at low AVT pH 25 o C (9,2) in the secondary circuit. Due to copper presence in the deposits to remove, the cleaning sequence 'Copper - Iron - Copper steps' was performed each time. After a short description of the process, including the specific adaptation in France, lessons learned are reported in this paper in the following areas: process monitoring, corrosion, efficiency, liquid and gaseous wastes, chemical pollution during start-up. Based on the 3 first applications in 2008, some modifications of the process were implemented, particularly for the copper step. For the units cleaned, 1100 to 4500 kg of deposits per SG have been removed, including TS sludge lancing. The reduction of TSP blockages was satisfying. The effect on steam pressure improvement and the wide range level is then discussed. The paper concludes on EDF perspectives for soft

  14. The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in FTC-133 thyroid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soula-Rothhut, Mahdhia; Coissard, Cyrille; Sartelet, Herve; Boudot, Cedric; Bellon, Georges; Martiny, Laurent; Rothhut, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multidomain extracellular macromolecule that was first identified as natural modulator of angiogenesis and tumor growth. In the present study, we found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) up-regulated TSP-1 expression in FTC-133 (primary tumor) but not in FTC-238 (lung metastasis) thyroid cancer cells. Both EGF and TSP-1 induced expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in a mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent manner. In FTC-133 cells, EGF induced proliferation in a TSP-1- and TIMP-1-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that re-expression of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN induced cell death, an effect that correlated with a block of Akt kinase phosphorylation. EGF-induced TSP-1 and TIMP-1 promoter activity and protein expression were inhibited in FTC-133 cells stably expressing wtPTEN but not in cells expressing mutant PTEN. Furthermore, we found that wtPTEN inhibited EGF-but not TSP-1-stimulated FTC-133 cell migration and also inhibited invasion induced by EGF and by TSP-1. Finally, an antibody against TSP-1 reversed EGF-stimulated FTC-133 cell invasion as well as the constitutive invasive potential of FTC-238 cells. Overall, our results suggest that PTEN can function as an important modulator of extracellular matrix proteins in thyroid cancer. Therefore, analyzing differential regulation of TSP-1 by growth factors such as EGF can be helpful in understanding thyroid cancer development

  15. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  16. Air pollution monitoring in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hasaan, A.A.; Dann, T.F.; Brunet, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, a collaborative research program was established between the Royal Scientific Society of Jordan and Environment Canada, Pollution Measurement Division, Ottawa, Canada, with the objective of developing an air pollution monitoring network for Amman and preparing recommendations for national air quality standards and national emission standards for Jordan. Four monitoring sites were established in residential and commercial areas of Amman. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and total suspended particle matter (TSP) were measured at the Downtown station. At the other sites only TSP was measured. A short-term monitoring program carried out with a mobile monitoring unit showed relatively low levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide at the RSS, Naser and Marka sites as compared to the Downtown site. Continuous analyzers purchased from Environment SA, France, were used to measure sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide; Sierra-Anderson high volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used to collect total suspended particulates samples. Gaseous pollutants were continuously measured at the Downtown site and TSP samplers were operated on a three day schedule at all sites. Sampling began in July 1986 and continues to the present

  17. Sampling and preparation of air pollutants at the Coal Paiton Power Plant area Probolinggo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iswantoro; Sutanto, W.W

    2013-01-01

    Sampling has been conducted on April 8 th to 18 th, 2012 at the plant area of Paiton Coal Power Plant using e-sampler for particulated matter PM-2,5 and PM-10, high volume air sampler for total suspended particulate (TSP) at the three sampling locations as the representative pollution. Filter before and after sampling was weighed and extremely guarded contamination. Air filters stored in desiccator filter for 24 hours. Determination of concentration of ambient air pollutants conducted by gravimetric method derived from a reduction in weight the samples on the filter PM-2,5; PM-10 and TSP to the weight of the empty filter. (author)

  18. Structural and electrical characterization of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) doped with NH4HCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, M.; Mathavan, T.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Selvalakshmi, S.

    2018-04-01

    In the modern era, development of electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors gain attention due to the deficiency of renewable energy resources. More specifically, proton conducting materials create prime interest in the development of electrochemical devices. In this regards, a novel proton conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide (TSP) was synthesized with different concentration of ammonium formate (NH4HCO2). The amorphous nature of the polymer electrolytes has been identified by XRD technique. The observed ionic conductivity values reveal that the biopolymer containing 1 g TSP: 0.4 g NH4HCO2 has highest ionic conductivity 1.23×10-3 S cm-1.

  19. Data-Acquisition Software for PSP/TSP Wind-Tunnel Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Goad, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Wing-Viewer is a computer program for acquisition and reduction of image data acquired by any of five different scientificgrade commercial electronic cameras used at Langley Research center to observe wind-tunnel models coated with pressure or temperature-sensitive paints (PSP/TSP). Wing-Viewer provides full automation of camera operation and acquisition of image data, and has limited data-preprocessing capability for quick viewing of the results of PSP/TSP test images. Wing- Viewer satisfies a requirement for a standard interface between all the cameras and a single personal computer: Written by use of Microsoft Visual C++ and the Microsoft Foundation Class Library as a framework, Wing-Viewer has the ability to communicate with the C/C++ software libraries that run on the controller circuit cards of all five cameras.

  20. Characterization, source identification and apportionment of selected metals in TSP in an urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M

    2006-03-01

    To understand the metal distribution characteristics in the atmosphere of urban Islamabad, total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected on daily 12 h basis, at Quaid-i-Azam University campus, using high volume sampler. The TSP samples were treated with HNO(3)/HClO(4) based wet digestion method for the quantification of eight selected metals; Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni and Cd by FAAS method. The monitoring period ran from June 2001 to January 2002, with a total of 194 samples collected on cellulose filters. Effects of different meteorological conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction on selected metal levels were interpreted by means of multivariate statistical approach. Enhanced metal levels for Fe (930 ng/m(3)), Zn (542 ng/m(3)) and Pb (210 ng/m(3)) were found on the mean scale while Mn, Cr, Co and Ni emerged as minor contributors. Statistical correlation study was also conducted and a strong correlation was observed between Pb-Cr (r=0.611). The relative humidity showed some significant influence on atmospheric metal distribution while other meteorological parameters showed weak relationship with TSP metal levels. Regarding the origin of sources of heavy metals in TSP, the statistical procedure identified three source profiles; automobile emissions, industrial/metallurgical units, and natural soil dust. The metal levels were also compared with those reported for other parts of the world which showed that the metal levels in urban atmosphere of Islamabad are in exceedence than those of European industrial and urban sites while comparable with some Asian sites.

  1. Experimental and numerical study of deposit formation in secondary side SG TSP by electrokinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillodo, Michael; Foucault, Marc; Ryckelynck, Natacha; Chahma, Farah; Guingo, Mathieu; Mansour, Carine; Alos-Ramos, Olga; Corredera, Geraldine

    2012-09-01

    Corrosion products deposit formation observed in PWR steam generators (SGs) - related to SG free span fouling and SG clogging - is now reported since several years. SG clogging is a localized phenomenon observed between the leading edge of the Tube Support Plate (TSP) and SG tubing materials. Based on visual inspections, it was found that the gaps between SG tubing material and TSP at the lower part of the broached holes were getting progressively blocked. Therefore, for safe operation, most affected PWRs had to be operated at reduced power. TSP blockage was mainly observed for low-pH water chemistry conditioning, which directly depends on the operating water chemistry. The TSP blockage mechanism is complex due to the localized conditions in which flow pattern change, chemistry and electrochemical conditions are not well understood. Electrokinetic considerations could be pointed out to explain the coupling of chemistry, materials and thermohydraulic (T/H) conditions. In this frame AREVA and EDF have launched a long-term R and D program in order to understand the mechanisms driving the formation of SG clogging. This study based on parametric laboratory tests aims to assess the role of secondary water chemistry, material and T/H conditions on deposit formation. The experimental approach focused on electrokinetic measurements of metallic substrates and on the assessment of oxidation properties of materials in secondary side chemistry. An overall analysis of recent results is presented to address SG deposit formation in secondary water chemistry for various conditioning amines - morpholine, ethanolamine and dimethylamine. To complete the study, the experimental results have been correlated to CFD simulations of particle deposition, by means of stochastic Lagrangian models. These calculations have in particular reproduced correctly the location of the most important particle deposit (the leading edge of the test tube), and have stressed the influence of the

  2. Smoke in a new era of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel White; Paul Hessburg; Sim Larkin; Morgan. Varner

    2017-01-01

    Smoke from fire can sharply reduce air quality by releasing particulate matter, one of the most dangerous types of air pollution for human health. A third of U.S. households have someone sensitive to smoke. Minimizing the amount and impact of smoke is a high priority for land managers and regulators. One tool for achieving that goal is prescribed fire. Prescribed fire...

  3. Fast-response underwater TSP investigation of subcritical instabilities of a cylinder in crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Di Felice, Fabio; Beifuss, Uwe; Miozzi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the classic cylinder in crossflow case to test the effectiveness of a fast-response underwater temperature-sensitive paint coating (TSP) in providing highly resolved spatial and time observations of the action of a flow over a bluff body surface. The flow is investigated at Reynolds number crisis state. The obtained TSP image sequences convey an accurate description of the evolution of the main features in the fluid-cylinder interaction, like the separation line position, the pattern of the large coherent structures acting on the cylinder's surface and the small-scale intermittent streamwise arrays of vortices. Ad hoc data management and features extraction techniques are proposed which allow extraction of quantitative data, such as separation line position and vortex-shedding frequency, and results are compared to the literature. Use of TSP for water applications introduces an interesting point of view about the fluid-body interactions by focusing directly on the effect of the flow on the model surface.

  4. INTEGRATING CASE-BASED REASONING, KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH AND TSP ALGORITHM FOR MINIMUM TOUR FINDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Erfani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Imagine you have traveled to an unfamiliar city. Before you start your daily tour around the city, you need to know a good route. In Network Theory (NT, this is the traveling salesman problem (TSP. A dynamic programming algorithm is often used for solving this problem. However, when the road network of the city is very complicated and dense, which is usually the case, it will take too long for the algorithm to find the shortest path. Furthermore, in reality, things are not as simple as those stated in AT. For instance, the cost of travel for the same part of the city at different times may not be the same. In this project, we have integrated TSP algorithm with AI knowledge-based approach and case-based reasoning in solving the problem. With this integration, knowledge about the geographical information and past cases are used to help TSP algorithm in finding a solution. This approach dramatically reduces the computation time required for minimum tour finding.

  5. Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasilis, Vasilis; Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Tsanou, Elena; Kitsou, Evangelia; Kalofonos, Haralambos; Fountzilas, George; Fotsis, Theodore; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary remains a mallignancy of elusive biology and grim prognosis that lacks effective therapeutic options. We investigated angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary to expand our knowledge on the biology of these tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets. Paraffin embedded archival material from 81 patients diagnosed with CUP was used. Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (77%), undifferentiated carcinoma (18%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%). The tissue expression of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1 was assessed immunohistochemically by use of specific monoclonal antibodies and was analyzed against clinicopathological data. VEGF expression was detected in all cases and was strong in 83%. Stromal expression of TSP-1 was seen in 80% of cases and was strong in 20%. The expression of both proteins was not associated with any clinical or pathological parameters. Tumor MVD was higher in tumors classified as unfavorable compared to more favorable and was positively associated with VEGF and negatively with TSP-1. Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary. These findings support the clinical investigation of VEGF targeted therapy in this clinical setting

  6. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  7. The matricellular protein TSP1 promotes human and mouse endothelial cell senescence through CD47 and Nox1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijles, Daniel N; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Al Ghouleh, Imad; Amaral, Jefferson H; Bienes-Martinez, Raquel; Knupp, Heather E; Attaran, Shireen; Sembrat, John C; Nouraie, Seyed M; Rojas, Mauricio M; Novelli, Enrico M; Gladwin, Mark T; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Cifuentes-Pagano, Eugenia; Pagano, Patrick J

    2017-10-17

    Senescent cells withdraw from the cell cycle and do not proliferate. The prevalence of senescent compared to normally functioning parenchymal cells increases with age, impairing tissue and organ homeostasis. A contentious principle governing this process has been the redox theory of aging. We linked matricellular protein thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) and its receptor CD47 to the activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), but not of the other closely related Nox isoforms, and associated oxidative stress, and to senescence in human cells and aged tissue. In human endothelial cells, TSP1 promoted senescence and attenuated cell cycle progression and proliferation. At the molecular level, TSP1 increased Nox1-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the increased abundance of the transcription factor p53. p53 mediated a DNA damage response that led to senescence through Rb and p21 cip , both of which inhibit cell cycle progression. Nox1 inhibition blocked the ability of TSP1 to increase p53 nuclear localization and p21 cip abundance and its ability to promote senescence. Mice lacking TSP1 showed decreases in ROS production, p21 cip expression, p53 activity, and aging-induced senescence. Conversely, lung tissue from aging humans displayed increases in the abundance of vascular TSP1, Nox1, p53, and p21 cip Finally, genetic ablation or pharmacological blockade of Nox1 in human endothelial cells attenuated TSP1-mediated ROS generation, restored cell cycle progression, and protected against senescence. Together, our results provide insights into the functional interplay between TSP1 and Nox1 in the regulation of endothelial senescence and suggest potential targets for controlling the aging process at the molecular level. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  8. [Impact of atmospheric total suspended particulate pollution on photosynthetic parameters of street mango trees in Xiamen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-xian; Chen, Jin-sheng; Ren, Yin; Li, Fang-yi; Cui, Sheng-hui

    2010-05-01

    With the development of urbanization, total suspended particulate (TSP) pollution is getting serious, and the normal physiological processes of urban vegetation are profoundly affected while adsorbing and purifying the particulates. In this study, four areas were selected, i.e., Tingxi reservoir (clean control area), Xiamen University (cultural and educational area), Xianyue (business area), and Haicang (industrial area), with their atmospheric TSP concentrations and the photosynthetic parameters of street Mango (Mangifera indica) trees monitored in April and May, 2009. The daily average concentration of TSP in Tingxi, Xiamen University, Xianyue, and Haicang was 0.061, 0.113, 0.120 and 0.205 mg x m(-3), respectively, and the impact of TSP stress on M. indica was in the sequence of Haicang > Xianyue > Xiamen University > Tingxi. TSP pollution negatively affected the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of M. indica, and induced intercellular CO2 concentration changed significantly. High TSP concentration could cause the decline of net photosynthetic rate via stomatal limitation.

  9. EDF steam generators fleet: In-operation monitoring of TSP blockage and tube fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, P.; Gay, N.; Crinon, R. [Electricite De France (France)

    2012-07-01

    EDF operates 58 Pressurized Water Reactors in France. In the mid 2000‟s some of them have been affected by Steam Generators (SG) Tube Support Plates (TSP) blockage and U-tubes external surface fouling with iron oxides deposits due to corrosion of secondary-side components. These issues have been tackled by a global maintenance strategy of chemical cleanings and a method for in-operation monitoring of fouling and TSP blockage has been developed and is implemented since mid 2009. This monitoring is aimed at giving information for SG maintenance planning as regards non destructive examinations and chemical cleaning. This paper will first remind of the physical reasons of fouling and TSP blockage and identify the resulting stakes regarding safety and availability along with the action levers available to control both phenomena. Then details will be given on how in-operation monitoring of fouling and TSP blockage is carried out, using measurements of Wide Range water Level (WRL) and SG steam pressure during thermally stabilized periods. Information will also be given on how those data are analyzed and shared as well at a local as at a corporate level to participate in the planning of SG inspection and maintenance operations. Finally, possible refinements will be discussed, notably regarding the issue of WRL measurements reliability and the possibility to use the analysis of SG dynamic behavior during power transients to assess the TSP blockage ratio. In terms of „issues requiring discussion‟, the following are operational issues currently being investigated by EDF: 1. SG pressure can have quite large variations during one operating cycle (notably after a plant trip) and from one cycle to the other and generally pressure tends to decrease on a long-term basis. How can such variations be explained? What are the solutions to moderate/stop the pressure loss? 2. On some of the SG-models operated by EDF, hard curative Chemical Cleaning of the U-tubes didn't bring

  10. Sister chromatid exchanges and high-frequency cells in men environmentally and occupationally exposed to ambient air pollutants. An intergroup comparison with respect to seasonal changes and smoking habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendzich, Joanna; Motykiewicz, Grazyna; Michalska, Jadwiga; Kostowska, Alina; Chorazy, Mieczyslaw [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute of Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Wang, Li You [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1997-11-28

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and high-frequency cells (HFC) were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes from men environmentally and occupationally exposed to a mixture of ambient air pollutants. The environmentally exposed individuals were inhabitants of the industrial region of Upper Silesia; those occupationally exposed were Silesian cokery or steel plant workers, while the control group consisted of rural region residents. A total of 147 males were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected in winter (February) and summer (September) seasons. Three major areas were investigated during the study: exposure-based dose dependency, seasonal changes, and influence of smoking habits on the SCE frequencies. The latter is frequently reported as a confounding factor in SCE analyses. In both winter and summer samples, statistically significant increases of SCE were observed in the environmentally and occupationally exposed groups compared to the controls (p<0.001). The difference between both exposed groups was also significant (p<0.001). An intergroup comparison was based on ANOVA after adjustment for smoking status. In all three groups of interest, a seasonal variation was found with higher levels in winter. However, in a part of the study in which each donor served as his own control, statistical differences were only found within the exposed groups. Control region inhabitants did not have significantly higher frequencies of SCE in winter, compared to summer samples. The impact of two major confounders, age of the donor and smoking habit, was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Smoking was a major factor influencing the level of SCE. Nevertheless, the effect was seen in winter samples only, which suggests an additive response and adds new information to this known effect

  11. Generalized additive model of air pollution to daily mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Yang, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    The association of air pollution with daily mortality due to cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and old age (65 or older) in Seoul, Korea was investigated in 1999 using daily values of TSP, PM10, O 3 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and CO. Generalized additive Poisson models were applied to allow for the highly flexible fitting of daily trends in air pollution as well as nonlinear association with meteorological variables such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed. To estimate the effect of air pollution and weather on mortality, LOESS smoothing was used in generalized additive models. The findings suggest that air pollution levels affect significantly the daily mortality. (orig.)

  12. Long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants from mainland East Asia to western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Minami, Hiroki; Abe, Maho; Hasei, Tomohiro; Oro, Tadashi; Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Honda, Naoko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2015-01-01

    Asian dust events, transport of dust particles from arid and semi-arid areas in China and Mongolia to the east by prevailing westerlies, are often observed in Japan in spring. In recent decades, consumption of fossil fuels has markedly increased in mainland East Asia with rapid economic growth, and severe air pollution has occurred. A part of air pollutants including mutagens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generated in mainland East Asia are thought to be transported to Japan by the prevailing westerlies, like Asian dust, and winter monsoon. The objective of this study was to clarify the long-range transport of mutagens and other air pollutants in East Asia. Thus, we collected total suspended particles (TSP) at a rural town in western Japan, namely, Yurihama in Tottori Prefecture, for 1 year (June 2012-May 2013), and investigated their chemical constituents and mutagenicity. Many TSP collected from January to March showed high mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with and without S9 mix, and high levels of lead (Pb) and sulfate ions (SO4 (2-)), which are indicators of transboundary air pollutions from mainland East Asia, were detected in those TSP. A large amount of iron, which is an indicator of sand, was found in highly mutagenic TSP collected in March, but not in TSP collected in January and February. High levels of PAHs were detected in highly mutagenic TSP collected from January to March. The ratios of the concentration of fluoranthene to those of fluoranthene and pyrene suggested that the main source of PAHs in TSP collected in winter and spring was coal and biomass combustion. Backward trajectories of air masses on days when high levels of mutagenicity were found indicated that these air masses had traveled from eastern or northern China to Yurihama. These results suggest that high levels of mutagens were transported from mainland East Asia to western Japan, and this transportation accompanied Asian dust in March, but not in

  13. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydroc...... with an enhancement of adduct levels and the effect was strengthened when only individuals unexposed to ETS were taken into consideration. No significant effects were observed for other dietary parameters or factors reflecting exposure to air pollution....... surroundings with a minimal burden of urban air pollution. The remaining Halkida subjects had intermediate levels, while Athens subjects showed the lowest levels. This trend, which was observed over both monitoring seasons, consistently paralleled the variation in three markers of exposure to environmental......) positive correlations were observed between DNA adducts and (i) measured personal exposures to chrysene or benzo[a]pyrene, (ii) time of declared ETS exposure and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i] perylene ratios. These correlations suggest that, for a group suffering minimal exposure to urban air pollution...

  14. Air pollution and mortality: Determination of a quantitative association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostro, B

    1994-07-01

    Over the last few decades, several epidemiologic studies have reported associations between daily concentrations of ambient particulate matter and mortality among the general population. Among these studies, statistically significant relationships have been found using several alternative measures of particulate matter including total suspended particulates (TSP) for particles of all sizes], fine particles (particles less than 25 microns in diameter), British smoke (BS), coefficient of haze (COH), and sulfates. None has involved measurement of the mass of particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), the metric used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The studies have been conducted in several different cities and seasons, thereby incorporating a wide range of climates, chemical compositions of particulate matter, and populations. The epidemiologic. investigations have used two principal study designs: time-series and cross-sectional. Time-series analysis examines changes in daily mortality rates within a specific area as air pollution levels fluctuate. A cross-sectional analysis compares differences in mortality rates across several cities at a selected point or period of time. This paper seeks to examine the air pollution-mortality association in view of these criteria, with particular focus on the consistency of the association. Replication of results in other environments and populations is a powerful test before causality can be inferred. The check for consistency will be accomplished by reviewing and comparing the results of the more recent empirical studies. Ultimately, the results of these calculations are presented in terms of the percent increase in mortality associated with changes in PM{sub 10}. After examining the consistency of the associations, some of the other criteria will be briefly discuss.

  15. Air pollution and mortality: Determination of a quantitative association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostro, B.

    1994-01-01

    Over the last few decades, several epidemiologic studies have reported associations between daily concentrations of ambient particulate matter and mortality among the general population. Among these studies, statistically significant relationships have been found using several alternative measures of particulate matter including total suspended particulates (TSP) for particles of all sizes], fine particles (particles less than 25 microns in diameter), British smoke (BS), coefficient of haze (COH), and sulfates. None has involved measurement of the mass of particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), the metric used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The studies have been conducted in several different cities and seasons, thereby incorporating a wide range of climates, chemical compositions of particulate matter, and populations. The epidemiologic. investigations have used two principal study designs: time-series and cross-sectional. Time-series analysis examines changes in daily mortality rates within a specific area as air pollution levels fluctuate. A cross-sectional analysis compares differences in mortality rates across several cities at a selected point or period of time. This paper seeks to examine the air pollution-mortality association in view of these criteria, with particular focus on the consistency of the association. Replication of results in other environments and populations is a powerful test before causality can be inferred. The check for consistency will be accomplished by reviewing and comparing the results of the more recent empirical studies. Ultimately, the results of these calculations are presented in terms of the percent increase in mortality associated with changes in PM 10 . After examining the consistency of the associations, some of the other criteria will be briefly discuss

  16. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  17. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  18. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  19. Analysis of smoke trailers at individual classes of atmosphere stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, V.; Macala, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the present most endangered element of the environment is currently atmosphere and its pollution that rapidly accrue. Pollutants are emitted from air pollution sources. The output of pollutant from air pollution source is creating so-called smoke screen. Smoke screens can be observed from point sources of air pollution - smokestacks, up-cast. The purpose of this article was to build theoretical models of smoke screens rise from point source at different meteorological conditions characterized with fifth classes of atmosphere stability. (authors)

  20. Air pollution and respiratory illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indra, G. [DIET, Uttamasolapuram, Salem (India)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provides an overview of air pollution and impacts on public health. It provides a definition of pollution according to the Oxford English dictionary and categorizes the different types of pollution according to air, water, land and noise. It discusses air pollution and its pollutants (gaseous and particulate pollutants) as well as the diameter of the pollutant (dust, smoke, and gas). The paper also illustrates the formation of acid rain and discusses the amount of pollutants in the atmosphere per year. It presents occupational diseases, discusses radio active pollutants, respiratory illnesses as well as pollution prevention and control. The paper concluded that more research is needed to obtain information on ways to reduce the quantity of pollutants being discharged from special processes. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi 160. © 2017 The College of .... have high population overall rates of household air pollution. The Cooking and ..... Wood smoke exposure, poverty and impaired lung function in ...

  2. Saharan dust contributions to PM10 and TSP levels in Southern and Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Kallos, G.; Kakaliagou, O.

    The analysis of PM10 and TSP levels recorded in rural areas from Southern and Eastern Spain (1996-1999) shows that most of the PM10 and TSP peak events are simultaneously recorded at monitoring stations up to 1000 km apart. The study of the atmospheric dynamics by back-trajectory analysis and simulations with the SKIRON Forecast System show that these high PM10 and TSP events occur when high-dust Saharan air masses are transported over the Iberian Peninsula. In the January-June period, this dust transport is mainly caused by cyclonic activity over the West or South of Portugal, whereas in the summer period this is induced by anticyclonic activity over the East or Southeast Iberian Peninsula. Most of the Saharan intrusions which exert a major influence on the particulate levels occur from May to September (63%) and in January and October. In rural areas in Northeast Spain, where the PM10 annual mean is around 18 μg PM10 m -3, the Saharan dust accounts for 4-7 annual daily exceedances of the forthcoming PM10-EU limit value (50 μg PM10 m -3 daily mean). Higher PM10 background levels are recorded in Southern Spain (30 μg PM10 m -3 as annual mean for rural areas) and very similar values are recorded in industrial and urban areas. In rural areas in Southern Spain, the Saharan dust events accounts for 10-23 annual daily exceedances of the PM10 limit value, a high number when compared with the forthcoming EU standard, which states that the limit value cannot be exceeded more than 7 days per year. The proportion of Sahara-induced exceedances with respect to the total annual exceedances is discussed for rural, urban and industrial sites in Southern Spain.

  3. Laboratory controlled quantitative information about reduction in air pollution using the "Basa njengo Magogo" methodology and applicability to low-smoke fuels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available / M J ) 2005 Time to cooking temperature C o a l ( t r a d i t i o n a l ) C o a l ( B N M ) A n t h r a c i t e U G S l a t e r c o a l A n t h r a c i t e O C 0 5 10 15 20... the problem – Electrification – Low smoke fuels – Low smoke appliances – Basa Njengo Magogo 2005 First: add coal 2005 Second: add paper 2005 Third: add wood and extra coal 2005 First 10 minutes with chimney •BNM method •Traditional method 2005 Fuel...

  4. Aseguramiento de la Calidad en el Proceso de Desarrollo de Software utilizando CMMI, TSP y PSP

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarría, Alex Espejo; Oré, Sussy Bayona; Pastor, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    En la actualidad las empresas que desarrollan software se han convertido en socios estratégicos de sus clientes a través de la generación de valor, mediante la entrega de productos que soportan sus diversos procesos de negocio. Sin embargo, aún existen problemas en los proyectos de desarrollo de software como la calidad. En este artículo se describe los resultados de la implementación de un modelo de aseguramiento de la calidad que integra CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration), TSP (Te...

  5. A performance evaluation of ACO and SA TSP in a supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Supply Chain management and E commerce business solutions are one of the prominent areas of active research. In our paper we have modelled a supply chain model which aggregates all the manufacturers requirement and the products are supplied to all the manufacturer through a common vehicle routing algorithm. An appropriate tsp has been constructed for all the manufacturers which determines the shortest route thru which the aggregated material can be supplied in the shortest possible time. In this paper we have solved the shortest route through constructing a Simulated annealing algorithm and Ant colony algorithm and their performance is evaluated.

  6. PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI GOOGLE MAPS UNTUK PENYELESAIAN ONLINE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM (TSP BERBASIS GEOGRAFIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA HEURISTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Agustiono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP adalah salah satu metode klasik dalam proses pemecahan masalah optimasi dan penemuan rute terpendek dari sebuah rute perjalanan yang melewati beberapa titik lokasi. Oleh karena kehandalan metode ini banyak sekali algoritma dan metode optimasi yang mencoba memecahkan TSP dalam banyak penelitian. Sebagin besar hasil dari rangkaian ujicoba tersebut berupa kombinasi teroptimal dari rangkaian perjalanan salesman yang umumnya digambarkan dalam sebuah graph. Namun belum banyak penelitian yang menerapkan TSP pada data spasial atau geografis seperti Google Maps yang dapat memberikan representasi nyata permasalahan TSP dalam menemukan rute perjalanan melewati titik-titik wilayah di muka bumi. Dibandingkan dengan representasi graph, Google Maps memiliki kemampuan tidak sekedar menampilkan rute perjalanan akan tetapi juga dapat menyajikan informasi yang lebih komprehensif, interaktif dan faktual. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan metode TSP pada layanan data spasial sehingga akan dihasilkan visualisasi secara riil dari alternatif rute perjalanan salesman. Sebagai basis dari data spasial, penelitian ini memanfaatkan Google Maps Mashup untuk mendapatkan informasi rute yang lebih aktual, interaktif, dan komprehensif.

  7. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  8. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 2 – Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pease, David; LaBrier, Daniel; Ali, Amir; Blandford, Edward D.; Howe, Kerry J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc release is limited to less than 1 mg/L in TSP-buffered solution under a variety of conditions (pH, temperature, zinc source). • Zinc release in high-temperature non-TSP-buffered environment is approximately 25 mg/L. • Long-term zinc release is controlled by passivation (without TSP) and zinc solubility (with TSP). • Precipitation and solubility of zinc phosphate limit the release of zinc. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of zinc from metallic zinc-bearing surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that in non-buffered (acidic) environments, measurable quantities of zinc are released from zinc-bearing surfaces. Precipitation and solubility of phosphate-based corrosion products, such as zinc phosphate, limit the release of zinc from zinc-bearing surfaces. These experiments have found that under a variety of conditions, including variations of temperature, pH, and across different zinc-bearing surfaces, the release of zinc into solution is limited to <1 mg/L when phosphate is present. When phosphate is not present, zinc release is instead bounded by a markedly higher saturation limit which is a strong function of the solution temperature.

  9. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and its transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part II: Oxidative damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Milcová, Alena; Líbalová, Helena; Nováková, Zuzana; Topinka, Jan; Balaščak, I.; Šrám, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 669, 1-2 (2009), s. 20-26 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * newborns Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.556, year: 2009

  10. What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Weaker: Prenatal Pollution Exposure and Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    I examine the impact of prenatal total suspended particulate (TSP) exposure on educational outcomes using county-level variation in the timing and severity of the industrial recession of the early 1980s as a shock to ambient TSPs (similar to Chay and Greenstone 2003b). I then instrument for pollution levels using county-level changes in relative…

  11. Solving Large-Scale TSP Using a Fast Wedging Insertion Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new partitioning method, called Wedging Insertion, is proposed for solving large-scale symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The idea of our proposed algorithm is to cut a TSP tour into four segments by nodes’ coordinate (not by rectangle, such as Strip, FRP, and Karp. Each node is located in one of their segments, which excludes four particular nodes, and each segment does not twist with other segments. After the partitioning process, this algorithm utilizes traditional construction method, that is, the insertion method, for each segment to improve the quality of tour, and then connects the starting node and the ending node of each segment to obtain the complete tour. In order to test the performance of our proposed algorithm, we conduct the experiments on various TSPLIB instances. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm in this paper is more efficient for solving large-scale TSPs. Specifically, our approach is able to obviously reduce the time complexity for running the algorithm; meanwhile, it will lose only about 10% of the algorithm’s performance.

  12. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  13. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  14. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Kerry J., E-mail: howe@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Mitchell, Lana, E-mail: lmitchell@alionscience.com [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kim, Seung-Jun, E-mail: skim@lanl.gov [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [University of New Mexico, 210 University Blvd., Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Kee, Ernest J., E-mail: erniekee@gmail.com [South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company, P.O. Box 270, Wadsworth, TX 77483 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH){sub 3}. • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known.

  15. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 1 – Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Kerry J.; Mitchell, Lana; Kim, Seung-Jun; Blandford, Edward D.; Kee, Ernest J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Trisodium phosphate (TSP) causes aluminum corrosion to cease after 24 h of exposure. • Chloride, iron, and copper have a minimal effect on the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Zinc can reduce the rate of aluminum corrosion when TSP is present. • Aluminum occasionally precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated solubility for Al(OH) 3 . • Corrosion and solubility equations can be used to calculate the solids generated during a LOCA. - Abstract: Bench experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum from metallic aluminum surfaces under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident at a nuclear power generating facility. The experiments showed that TSP is capable of passivating the aluminum surface and preventing continued corrosion after about 24 h at the conditions tested. A correlation that describes the rate of corrosion including the passivation effect was developed from the bench experiments and validated with a separate set of experiments from a different test system. The saturation concentration of aluminum was shown to be well described by the solubility of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for the majority of cases, but instances have been observed when aluminum precipitates at concentrations lower than the calculated aluminum hydroxide solubility. Based on the experimental data and previous literature, an equation was developed to calculate the saturation concentration of aluminum as a function of pH and temperature under conditions representative of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a TSP-buffered pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment. The corrosion equation and precipitation equation can be used in concert with each other to calculate the quantity of solids that would form as a function of time during a LOCA if the temperature and pH profiles were known

  16. Imaging spinal cord atrophy in progressive myelopathies: HTLV-I-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Shila; Nair, Govind; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Charlip, Emily; Vellucci, Ashley; Cortese, Irene; Dwyer, Jenifer; Billioux, B Jeanne; Thomas, Chevaz; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10. Clinical disability scores, viral markers, and immunological parameters were obtained for patients and correlated with representative spinal cord cross-sectional area regions at the C2 to C3, C4 to C5, and T4 to T9 levels. In 2 HAM/TSP patients, spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured over 3 years. All spinal cord regions are thinner in HAM/TSP (56 mm 2 [standard deviation, 10], 59 [10], 23 [5]) than in HC (76 [7], 83 [8], 38 [4]) and AC (71 [7], 78 [9], 36 [7]). SPMS (62 [9], 66 [9], 32 [6]) and PPMS (65 [11], 68 [10], 35 [7]) have thinner cervical cords than HC and RRMS (73 [9], 77 [10], 37 [6]). Clinical disability scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale [p = 0.009] and Instituto de Pesquisas de Cananeia [p = 0.03]) and CD8 + T-cell frequency (p = 0.04) correlate with T4 to T9 spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP. Higher cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load (p = 0.01) was associated with thinner spinal cord cross-sectional area. Both HAM/TSP patients followed longitudinally showed thoracic thinning followed by cervical thinning. Group average spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP and progressive MS show spinal cord atrophy. We further hypothesize in HAM/TSP that is possible that neuroglial loss from a thoracic inflammatory

  17. Measurement of activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, 2{sup 32T}h and {sup 238}U in TSP aerosols and the associated inhalation annual effective radiation dose to the public in Gosan site, Jeju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chung Hun; Park, Youn Hyun; Park, Jae Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Gamma radiation emitted from naturally occurring radioisotopes, such as 40K and the radionuclides from the {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U series and their decay products, which exist at trace levels in all ground formations, represents the main external source of irradiation to the human body. The objective of the current study is to determine the activity concentrations of 40K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U in airborne TSP and the associated internal radiation dose to the public due to inhalation in Gosan site, Jeju Island, Korea. The atmospheric total suspended particulates (TSP) aerosols were collected at Gosan site of Jeju Island, which is one of the background sites of Korea, during January to April 2013. This study analyzed using ICP-DRC-MS the concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium, and evaluated the annual effective dose by breathing from the results. The correlations between the studied natural isotopes is a good positive correlation between {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, supporting the conclusion that they originated from the same source, mostly the crust. The backward trajectory analysis has confirmed that the 40K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th are delivered as the air masses have moved from the China continent. The inhalation annual effective radiation dose (default mode F) to the public due to natural isotopes of the airborne TSP was in the range 16.195 - 77.051 nSv/y, depending on the age group. Jeju Island with less pollution source and low population density is also one of the best places as a background area in Asia.

  18. Indoor particulate matter measurement as a tool in the process of the implementation of smoke-free hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, S; Cagnin, R; Invernizzi, G; Ruprecht, A; Boffi, R; Formentini, S

    2004-01-01

    There are International and National standards that requires hospitals and health premises to be smoke-free. According to recent data from Italy and other European Countries, smoking is a widespread habit in hospitals. To get smoke-free hospitals in an Italian region, we have adopted the European Code for smoke-free hospitals, which sets standards and provides instruments for its implementation. According to the Code, whenever possible, each step towards a smoke-free hospital, should be shared by all staff. As a mean for achieving this goal, in our region the certification of single units as smoke-free units has been chosen. For getting the certification, besides implementing the Code, we planned to use ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) monitoring, as ETS should not be present in hospitals. As a marker of ETS we have chosen Particulate Matter (PM), as it can easily be measured in real-time with a portable instrument and, when other even outdoor--sources of combustion can be ruled out, it is an accurate detector of cigarette smoke. Here the first experience of measuring PM in hospitals for monitoring ETS and certificating smoke-free health premises, is described. PM measurements were carried out without any previous notification in different areas of two Network hospitals of the Veneto Region, during a single working day. A real time laser-operated aerosol mass analyser was used. Several classes of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, TSP Total Suspended Particles) were measured. Outdoor PM levels were found to be repeatedly lower than the annual official limits of 65 mcg/m3 and around the 24 hour official limits of 15 mcg/m3 [15 to 20 mcg/m3, with an overall mean (+/-SD) of 17.8 (1.9)] throughout the whole day. Very good indoor air quality was found in the operating theaters and isolation department, where PM2.5 concentrations were much lower than outdoor levels [1.6 (0.9) and 5.9 (0.6) mcg/m3, respectively]. No increase in PM pollution was found in the surveyed medical

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.50 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR? 102-117.50 Section 102-117.50... Related Services § 102-117.50 What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP... office is able to handle the requirement. (b) The FAR may be a disadvantage when you: (1) Cannot prepare...

  20. Penanganan Fuzzy Time Window pada Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP dengan Penerapan Algoritma Genetika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Eka Yuliastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The route of the travel tour packages offered by travel agents is not considered optimum, so the level of satisfaction the tourist is not maximal. Selection of the route of the travel packages included in the traveling salesman problem (TSP. The problem that occurs is uncertain tourists visiting destinations at the best destinations timing hereinafter be referred to as the fuzzy time window problem. Therefore, the authors apply the genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Based on test results obtained optimum solution with the fitness value of 1.3291, a population size of 100, the number of generations of 1000, a combination of CR=0,4 and MR=0.6.

  1. Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retire Tool When Deciding Between High 36 Retirement and Blended TSP Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave...VALUE OF THE TSP ...........16 D. ELEMENTS OF RETIRE TOOL ANALYSIS .....................................18 1. Cash Flow Analysis...23 3. Cash Flow Comparison ...............................................................24 4. Volatility Analysis

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.45 - How does a transportation service provider (TSP) bill my agency for transportation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (b) Billing method (1)(i) Government issued agency charge card, (1) Bill from charge card company (may be electronic). (ii) Centrally billed travel account citation. (2)(i) Purchase order, (2) Bill from TSP (may be electronic). (ii) Bill of lading, (iii) Government Bill of Lading, (iv) Government...

  3. The Application of Fitness Sharing Method in Evolutionary Algorithm to Optimizing the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurmaulidar Nurmaulidar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is one of complex optimization problem that is difficult to be solved, and require quite a long time for a large number of cities. Evolutionary algorithm is a precise algorithm used in solving complex optimization problem as it is part of heuristic method. Evolutionary algorithm, like many other algorithms, also experiences a premature convergence phenomenon, whereby variation is eliminated from a population of fairly fit individuals before a complete solution is achieved. Therefore it requires a method to delay the convergence. A specific method of fitness sharing called phenotype fitness sharing has been used in this research. The aim of this research is to find out whether fitness sharing in evolutionary algorithm is able to optimize TSP. There are two concepts of evolutionary algorithm being used in this research. the first one used single elitism and the other one used federated solution. The two concepts had been tested to the method of fitness sharing by using the threshold of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75. The result was then compared to a non fitness sharing method. The result in this study indicated that by using single elitism concept, fitness sharing was able to give a more optimum result for the data of 100-1000 cities. On the other hand, by using federation solution concept, fitness sharing can yield a more optimum result for the data above 1000 cities, as well as a better solution of data-spreading compared to the method without fitness sharing.

  4. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  5. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  6. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Z.; Oztopal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  7. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  8. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Solution Structure, Membrane Interactions, and Protein Binding Partners of the Tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a Vaccine Antigen from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.; Craik, David J.; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument. PMID:24429291

  10. Solution structure, membrane interactions, and protein binding partners of the tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a vaccine antigen from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J; Daly, Norelle L; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jones, Malcolm K; Craik, David J; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-03-07

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument.

  11. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP: contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración Relevant literary space on travelling salesman problem (TSP: contents, classification, methods and fields of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Pérez Rave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el TSP Probabilístico. Entre los principales campos de inspiración para resolver el TSP están la evolución biológica y su base genético-molecular, el comportamiento de hormigas reales, la termodinámica, las estrategias sistemáticas para combinar reglas de decisión y la búsqueda de vecindades. Hoy día se tiende a desarrollar métodos híbridos, especialmente integrando enfoques globales con búsquedas locales, y se identifica la necesidad de introducir nuevos campos de inspiración.This paper describes and analyzes, in terms of content, the types of TSP, methods and fields of inspiration - the most relevant "literary space" on TSP. It is built based on the top most cited on the TSP history and the Top 10 cited from 2006 to 2010. The study of TSP still prevails in Research, focusing on the original problem and its variants: Multiple TSP (m-TSP and Probabilistic TSP (PTSP. Evidence shows that there has been progress in the development of TSP solving methods, highlighted by various inspiration fields: biological evolution, behavior of real ants, thermodynamics, systematic strategies for combining decision rules, and neighborhood search. There is a tendency to develop hybrid methods, in particular by integrating global approaches to local search. There is need to introduce new fields of inspiration.

  12. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  13. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  14. Changes in air pollution and children`s health in East Germany between 1991 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, U; Schlipkoeter, H W; Dolgner, R [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf (Germany); Willer, H M [State Inst. of Hygiene, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Already in the 1960s a lot of cross-sectional studies were conducted to determine the effects of air-pollution on respiratory diseases or symptoms of children. According to the then dominating type of air-pollution, effects of SO{sub 2} and TSP were mainly studied. Usually SO{sub 2} and TSP were highly correlated and their effects could not be separated satisfactorily. Such a high correlation was not seen when comparing annual mean concentrations in different towns of East and West Germany in 1989. The range of SO{sub 2} values was from 20 to 310 g/m{sup 3} whereas the range of TSP was narrower, from 65 to 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3} In 1991 therefore a study was started to compare the effects of different types and amounts of air pollution on children`s health. The results of the first cross-sectional study, in 1991, were presented at the 9{sup th} World Clean Air Congress. It was found that airway diseases and respiratory symptoms were clearly related to the SO{sub 2} pollution load. This was not true for allergic manifestations. Since 1990 there is a considerable reduction of SO{sub 2} pollution in East Germany. The aim of this presentation is to show that the associations which had been found on an spatial scale can be seen on an temporal scale, too. (author)

  15. Changes in air pollution and children`s health in East Germany between 1991 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, U.; Schlipkoeter, H.W.; Dolgner, R. [Medical Inst. of Environmental Hygiene, Duesseldorf (Germany); Willer, H.M. [State Inst. of Hygiene, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Already in the 1960s a lot of cross-sectional studies were conducted to determine the effects of air-pollution on respiratory diseases or symptoms of children. According to the then dominating type of air-pollution, effects of SO{sub 2} and TSP were mainly studied. Usually SO{sub 2} and TSP were highly correlated and their effects could not be separated satisfactorily. Such a high correlation was not seen when comparing annual mean concentrations in different towns of East and West Germany in 1989. The range of SO{sub 2} values was from 20 to 310 g/m{sup 3} whereas the range of TSP was narrower, from 65 to 123 {mu}g/m{sup 3} In 1991 therefore a study was started to compare the effects of different types and amounts of air pollution on children`s health. The results of the first cross-sectional study, in 1991, were presented at the 9{sup th} World Clean Air Congress. It was found that airway diseases and respiratory symptoms were clearly related to the SO{sub 2} pollution load. This was not true for allergic manifestations. Since 1990 there is a considerable reduction of SO{sub 2} pollution in East Germany. The aim of this presentation is to show that the associations which had been found on an spatial scale can be seen on an temporal scale, too. (author)

  16. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  17. Sustainable urban transportation: impact of CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies on local pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Yedla; Jyoti K Parikh [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India); Ram M Shrestha [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). School of Environment Resource and Development

    2003-07-01

    This paper assesses CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies in Delhi and Mumbai against the dynamics of local pollutants. After testing against techno-economic feasibility, compressed natural gas (CNG) technology, four-stroke two-wheelers and battery-operated vehicles (BOV) were selected as candidate options for Mumbai and Delhi. Multiple constrained optimization for finding out the optimal mix of vehicles to meet the travel demand under the business-as-usual scenario for the period of 1998-2020 revealed the dominance of CNG vehicles. CO{sub 2} mitigation targets of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25% resulted in reduced stock of diesel and petrol vehicles, with the reduction spanning over different points of the above time period. In the case of Mumbai, battery-operated three-wheelers dominated the vehicular mix, with the share of CNG vehicles remaining at a standard level. CO{sub 2} reduction targets did not influence the CNG option significantly. CO{sub 2} mitigation influenced the dynamics of local pollutants considerably in both Delhi and Mumbai. In Delhi, TSP and SO{sub x} reduction levels against the CO{sub 2} mitigation target were found to be significant. In Mumbai, the percentage reduction in local pollution (TSP in particular) was higher than the target CO{sub 2} reduction. Local pollutants other than TSP and SO{sub x} showed an increasing trend against the CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies in Delhi. In the case of Mumbai, all non-target pollutants showed a falling trend against the CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies, though insignificantly for pollutants other than TSP and SO{sub x}. (author)

  18. An Extension of the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun TSP Solver for Constrained Traveling Salesman and Vehicle Routing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    This report describes the implementation of an extension of the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun TSP solver for solving constrained traveling salesman and vehicle routing problems. The extension, which is called LKH-3, is able to solve a variety of well-known problems, including the sequential ordering...... problem (SOP), the traveling repairman problem (TRP), variants of the multiple travel-ing salesman problem (mTSP), as well as vehicle routing problems (VRPs) with capacity, time windows, pickup-and-delivery and distance constraints. The implementation of LKH-3 builds on the idea of transforming...... the problems into standard symmetric traveling salesman problems and handling constraints by means of penalty functions. Extensive testing on benchmark instances from the literature has shown that LKH-3 is effective. Best known solutions are often obtained, and in some cases, new best solutions are found...

  19. Determination of samples with TSP size at PLTU Pacitan, Jawa Timur have been done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusmanto, Tri; Mulyono; Irianto, Bambang

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is done using equipment High Volume Air Sampler (HVAS) and analysis using gamma spectrometer. Sampling at 3 locations, each location of the sampling carried out 24 hours, air samples on filter conditioned at room temperature, weighed to a contained weight, counting for 24 hours with gamma spectrometer. The result of qualitative and quantitative analysis of filter TSP was contained of locations I Ra-226 = 0,000888 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,000356 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 0,000859 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,000712 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,004447 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,035454 Bq/m 3 ) , Locations II Ra-226 = 0,00113 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,00079 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 0,001351 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,000433 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,007138 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,018532 Bq/m 3 , Locations III Ra-226 = 0,001424 Bq/m 3 , Pb-212 = 0,000208 Bq/m 3 , Pb-214 = 000052 Bq/m 3 , Bi-214 = 0,001408 Bq/m 3 , Ac-228 = 0,008362 Bq/m 3 , K-40 = 0,020536 Bq/m 3 . Radionuclides activity was all still below quality of air enabled by BAPETEN. Become the activities of ambient air of PLTU area still be peaceful enough as settlement area. (author)

  20. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  2. THE ABERRANT PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION PATTERN OF THE ANTI - ANGIOGENIC TSP1 GENE IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CARCINOMA: AN INDIAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The promoter hypermethylation patterns of Thrombospodin - 1 gene in 50 EOC patients were studied and the methylation pattern was correlated with various clinic pathological parameters. METHODS: The promoter hypermethylation pattern of the TSP - 1 gene was assessed using nested PCR and Methylation specific PCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All the available data was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test or Fisher Exact Test on the SPSS software version 22.0 and a value <0.0 5 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty of the fifty ovarian carcinoma samples reported positive for methylation corresponding to a methylation frequency of 80%. A methylation frequency of 89.2%, 83.3% and 42.8% was observed in malignant , Low malignant potential (borderline and benign sample cohorts. CONCLUSION: From the results drawn from this study, it clearly shows that the anti angiogenic protein TSP - 1 is extensively hypermethylated in ovarian carcinoma and that it accumulates over t he progression of the disease from benign to malignant. As previous reports suggest that there is no evidence of mutation of this gene, promoter hypermethylation may be a crucial factor for the down regulation of the gene. Further by clubbing together the promoter hypermethylation pattern of TSP - 1 gene with hypermethylation patterns of other TSG may provide a better insight into the application of using methylation profiles of TSG as a biomarker in the detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  3. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  4. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  5. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  6. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  7. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Tosi, Giovanna; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  8. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baratella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL, and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  9. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: III. Components of diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions driving non-cancer biological responses in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, Joe L; Seilkop, Steven K

    2014-09-01

    An approach to identify causal components of complex air pollution mixtures was explored. Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation 6 h daily for 1 week or 6 months to dilutions of simulated downwind coal emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts and wood smoke. Organ weights, hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage, central vascular and respiratory allergic responses were measured. Multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of the combined database ranked 45 exposure (predictor) variables for importance to models best fitting 47 significant responses. Single-predictor concentration-response data were examined for evidence of single response functions across all exposure groups. Replication of the responses by the combined influences of the two most important predictors was tested. Statistical power was limited by inclusion of only four mixtures, albeit in multiple concentrations each and with particles removed for some groups. Results gave suggestive or strong evidence of causation of 19 of the 47 responses. The top two predictors of the 19 responses included only 12 organic and 6 inorganic species or classes. An increase in red blood cell count of rats by ammonia and pro-atherosclerotic vascular responses of mice by inorganic gases yielded the strongest evidence for causation and the best opportunity for confirmation. The former was a novel finding; the latter was consistent with other results. The results demonstrated the plausibility of identifying putative causal components of highly complex mixtures, given a database in which the ratios of the components are varied sufficiently and exposures and response measurements are conducted using a consistent protocol.

  10. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shan; Shen Zhemin; Zhou Pisheng; Zou Xiaodong; Che Shengquan; Wang Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Parks with various types of vegetations played an important role in ameliorating air quality in urban areas. However, the attenuation effect of urban vegetation on levels of air pollution was rarely been experimentally estimated. This study, using seasonal monitoring data of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) from six parks in Pudong District, Shanghai, China, demonstrated vegetations in parks can remove large amount of airborne pollutants. In addition, crown volume coverage (CVC) was introduced to characterize vegetation conditions in parks and a mixed-effects model indicated that CVC and the pollution diffusion distance were key predictors influencing pollutants removal rate. Therefore, it could be estimated by regression analysis that in summer, urban vegetations in Pudong District could contribute to 9.1% of TSP removal, 5.3% of SO 2 and 2.6% of NO 2 . The results could be considered for a better park planning and improving air quality. - Highlights: → We examined markedly air pollution decline in urban vegetation patches by field experiments. → Crown volume coverage (CVC) served to characterize vegetation condition among different species. → CVC and pollutants diffusion distance were key predictors affecting air pollution attenuation within parks. - Crown volume coverage (CVC) and pollutants diffusion distance had been proved as key predictors influencing attenuation effect on levels of air pollutants in urban parks.

  11. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Shan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, 316 Wurster Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen Zhemin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou Pisheng [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zou Xiaodong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Che Shengquan [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Wenhua, E-mail: whwang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Parks with various types of vegetations played an important role in ameliorating air quality in urban areas. However, the attenuation effect of urban vegetation on levels of air pollution was rarely been experimentally estimated. This study, using seasonal monitoring data of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) from six parks in Pudong District, Shanghai, China, demonstrated vegetations in parks can remove large amount of airborne pollutants. In addition, crown volume coverage (CVC) was introduced to characterize vegetation conditions in parks and a mixed-effects model indicated that CVC and the pollution diffusion distance were key predictors influencing pollutants removal rate. Therefore, it could be estimated by regression analysis that in summer, urban vegetations in Pudong District could contribute to 9.1% of TSP removal, 5.3% of SO{sub 2} and 2.6% of NO{sub 2}. The results could be considered for a better park planning and improving air quality. - Highlights: > We examined markedly air pollution decline in urban vegetation patches by field experiments. > Crown volume coverage (CVC) served to characterize vegetation condition among different species. > CVC and pollutants diffusion distance were key predictors affecting air pollution attenuation within parks. - Crown volume coverage (CVC) and pollutants diffusion distance had been proved as key predictors influencing attenuation effect on levels of air pollutants in urban parks.

  12. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  13. Cloning and analysis of a bifunctional methyltransferase/restriction endonuclease TspGWI, the prototype of a Thermus sp. enzyme family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylicz-Stachula Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction-modification systems are a diverse class of enzymes. They are classified into four major types: I, II, III and IV. We have previously proposed the existence of a Thermus sp. enzyme family, which belongs to type II restriction endonucleases (REases, however, it features also some characteristics of types I and III. Members include related thermophilic endonucleases: TspGWI, TaqII, TspDTI, and Tth111II. Results Here we describe cloning, mutagenesis and analysis of the prototype TspGWI enzyme that recognises the 5'-ACGGA-3' site and cleaves 11/9 nt downstream. We cloned, expressed, and mutagenised the tspgwi gene and investigated the properties of its product, the bifunctional TspGWI restriction/modification enzyme. Since TspGWI does not cleave DNA completely, a cloning method was devised, based on amino acid sequencing of internal proteolytic fragments. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme shares significant sequence similarity with another representative of the Thermus sp. family – TaqII. Interestingly, these enzymes recognise similar, yet different sequences in the DNA. Both enzymes cleave DNA at the same distance, but differ in their ability to cleave single sites and in the requirement of S-adenosylmethionine as an allosteric activator for cleavage. Both the restriction endonuclease (REase and methyltransferase (MTase activities of wild type (wt TspGWI (either recombinant or isolated from Thermus sp. are dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Conclusion TspGWI is a bifunctional protein comprising a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains; particularly noticeable is the central HsdM-like module comprising a helical domain and a highly conserved S-adenosylmethionine-binding/catalytic MTase domain, containing DPAVGTG and NPPY motifs. TspGWI also possesses an N-terminal PD-(D/EXK nuclease domain related to the corresponding domains in HsdR subunits, but lacks the ATP-dependent translocase module

  14. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  15. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  16. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  17. Towards smoke-free rental cars: an evaluation of voluntary smoking restrictions in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Fortmann, Addie L; Quintana, Penelope J E; Zakarian, Joy M; Romero, Romina A; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-05-01

    Some car rental companies in California and other states in the USA have established non-smoking policies for their vehicles. This study examined the effectiveness of these policies in maintaining smoke-free rental cars. A stratified random sample of 250 cars (non-smoker, smoker and unknown designation) was examined in San Diego County, California, USA. Dust, surfaces and the air of each vehicle cabin were sampled and analysed for residual tobacco smoke pollutants (also known as thirdhand smoke (THS)), and each car was inspected for visual and olfactory signs of tobacco use. Customer service representatives were informally interviewed about smoking policies. A majority of putative non-smoker cars had nicotine in dust, on surfaces, in air and other signs of tobacco use. Independent of a car's smoking status, older and higher mileage cars had higher levels of THS pollution in dust and on surfaces (pcars, non-smoker cars had lower levels of nicotine on surfaces (pcars was associated with lower levels of THS pollutants in dust and air (pcars compared with smoker cars. However, policies failed in providing smoke-free rental cars; THS levels were not as low as those found in private cars of non-smokers with in-car smoking bans. Major obstacles include inconsistent communication with customers and the lack of routine monitoring and enforcement strategies. Strengthening policies and their implementation would allow car rental companies to reduce costs, better serve their customers and make a constructive contribution to tobacco control efforts.

  18. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  19. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  20. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Cloud condensation nuclei in polluted air and biomass burning smoke near the mega-city Guangzhou, China – Part 1: Size-resolved measurements and implications for the modeling of aerosol particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We measured and characterized CCN in polluted air and biomass burning smoke during the PRIDE-PRD2006 campaign from 1–30 July 2006 at a rural site ~60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeastern China.

    CCN efficiency spectra (activated fraction vs. dry particle diameter; 20–290 nm were recorded at water vapor supersaturations (S in the range of 0.068% to 1.27%. The corresponding effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of particle composition on CCN activity were in the range of κ≈0.1–0.5. The campaign average value of κ=0.3 equals the average value of κ for other continental locations. During a strong local biomass burning event, the average value of κ dropped to 0.2, which can be considered as characteristic for freshly emitted smoke from the burning of agricultural waste. At low S (≤0.27%, the maximum activated fraction remained generally well below one, indicating substantial portions of externally mixed CCN-inactive particles with much lower hygroscopicity – most likely soot particles (up to ~60% at ~250 nm.

    The mean CCN number concentrations (NCCN,S ranged from 1000 cm−3 at S=0.068% to 16 000 cm−3 at S=1.27%, which is about two orders of magnitude higher than in pristine air. Nevertheless, the ratios between CCN concentration and total aerosol particle concentration (integral CCN efficiencies were similar to the ratios observed in pristine continental air (~6% to ~85% at S=0.068% to 1.27%. Based on the measurement data, we have tested different model approaches for the approximation/prediction of NCCN,S. Depending on S and on the model approach, the relative deviations between observed and predicted NCCN,S ranged from a few

  3. Perimenarchal air pollution exposure and menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, S; Missmer, S E; Cheng, J J; Chavarro, J; Laden, F; Hart, J E

    2018-01-25

    What is the association between perimenarchal exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP) in air, menstrual irregularity phenotypes and time to menstrual cycle regularity? Exposures to TSP during high school are associated with slightly increased odds of menstrual irregularity and longer time to regularity in high school and early adulthood. The menstrual cycle is responsive to hormonal regulation. Particulate matter air pollution has demonstrated hormonal activity. However, it is not known if air pollution is associated with menstrual cycle regularity. Cross sectional study of 34 832 of the original 116 430 women (29.91%) enrolled in 1989 from the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). The follow-up rate for this analytic sample was 97.76% at the 1991 survey. Annual averages of TSP were available for each year of high school attendance. We created three case definitions including high school menstrual irregularity and androgen excess. The time to menstrual cycle regularity was reported by participants as air pollution in the adolescent and early adulthood window may be especially important, given its association with phenotypes of menstrual irregularity. The data from this study agrees with existing literature regarding air pollution and reproductive tract diseases. Shruthi Mahalingaiah: Reproductive Scientist Development Program HD000849, and a research grant from the Boston University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stacey Missmer: R01HD57210 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Environmental Health Sciences Translational Pilot Project Program, R01CA50385 from the National Cancer Institute, Jaime Hart and Francine Laden: 5R01ES017017 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, Jaime Hart: P30 ES00002 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences at the National Institute of Health, The Nurses' Health Study II is supported by

  4. STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A STEAM BOILER BENSON ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racoceanu Cristinel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on the influence of the energy efficiency of a steam boiler of 330 MW energy group on the environment. The Benson boiler works with powdered lignite. We present the results of experimental measurements on immission and emissions of pollutants resulting from burning lignite: SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2,5, TSP. Experimental measurements were performed on the boilers of 330MW power units of the thermoelectric plant of Rovinari.

  5. Flora of tree boles, with special reference to the effect of smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E W

    1953-01-01

    The variations in sensitivity among lichens to smoke pollution are discussed. Based on surveys of lichen distributions around industrial areas in Great Britain, it is suggested that lichens may serve as a useful bioassay for air pollution.

  6. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  7. Structure and dynamics of the peptide strand KRFK from the thrombospondin TSP-1 in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb Bendiab, W; Benomrane, B; Bounaceur, B; Dauchez, M; Krallafa, A M

    2018-02-14

    Theoretical investigations of a solute in liquid water at normal temperature and pressure can be performed at different levels of theory. Static quantum calculations as well as classical and ab initio molecular dynamics are used to completely explore the conformational space for large solvated molecular systems. In the classical approach, it is essential to describe all of the interactions of the solute and the solvent in detail. Water molecules are very often described as rigid bodies when the most commonly used interaction potentials, such as the SPCE and the TIP4P models, are employed. Recently, a physical model based upon a cluster of rigid water molecules with a tetrahedral architecture (AB 4 ) was proposed that describes liquid water as a mixture of both TIP4P and SPCE molecular species that occur in the proportions implied by the tetrahedral architecture (one central molecule versus four outer molecules; i.e., 20% TIP4P versus 80% SPCE molecules). In this work, theoretical spectroscopic data for a peptide strand were correlated with the structural properties of the peptide strand solvated in water, based on data calculated using different theoretical approaches and physical models. We focused on a particular peptide strand, KRFK (lysine-arginine-phenylalanine-lysine), found in the thrombospondin TSP-1, due to its interesting properties. As the activity and electronic structure of this system is strongly linked to its structure, we correlated its structure with charge-density maps obtained using different semi-empirical charge Q eq equations. The structural and thermodynamic properties obtained from classical simulations were correlated with ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) data. Structural changes in the peptide strand were rationalized in terms of the motions of atoms and groups of atoms. To achieve this, conformational changes were investigated using calculated infrared spectra for the peptide in the gas phase and in water solvent. The calculated AIMD

  8. Lichens as pollution indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, F

    1970-01-01

    Although lichens are generally considered to be of little use to man, their sensitivity to air pollution makes them good biological indicators. The author describes how this feature can help to establish relative degrees of air pollution. He notes areas where lichens are reduced in number and vigor, and some in which they have disappeared altogether. He challenges the idea that dryness is responsible, since they have also disappeared from damp woodland areas. Experimental work supports the view that sulfur dioxide is the major factor rather than smoke, although there is no definitive proof. Lichen damage correlates best with mean winter levels of air pollution by SO/sub 2/. 16 references, 1 figure.

  9. Comparison of HTLV-I Proviral Load in Adult T Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-Associated Myelopathy (HAM-TSP) and Healthy Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi, Hossein; Hassannia, Tahereh; Shoja Razavi, Ghazaleh; Sabet, Faezeh; Shirdel, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    Human T Lymphocyte Virus Type one (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects about 10-20 million people worldwide. Khorasan province in Iran is an endemic area. The majority of HTLV-I-infected individuals sustain healthy carriers but small proportion of infected population developed two progressive diseases: HAM/TSP and ATL. The proviral load could be a virological marker for disease monitoring, therefore in the present study HTLV-I proviral load has been evaluated in ATL and compared to HAM/TSP and healthy carriers. In this case series study, 47 HTLV-I infected individuals including 13 ATL, 23 HAM/TSP and 11 asymptomatic subjects were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were investigated for presence of HTLV-I DNA provirus by PCR using LTR and Tax fragments. Then in infected subjects, HTLV-I proviral load was measured using real time PCR TaqMan method. The average age of patients in ATL was 52±8, in HAM/TSP 45.52±15.17 and in carrier's 38.65±14.9 years which differences were not statistically significant. The analysis of data showed a significant difference in mean WBC among study groups (ATL vs HAM/TSP and carriers P=0.0001). Moreover, mean HTLV-I proviral load was 11967.2 ± 5078, 409 ± 71.3 and 373.6 ± 143.3 in ATL, HAM/TSP and Healthy Carriers, respectively. The highest HTLV-I proviral load was measured in ATL group that had a significant correlation with WBC count (R=0.495, P=0.001). The proviral load variations between study groups was strongly significant (ATL vs carrier P=0.0001; ATL vs HAM/TSP P= 0.0001 and HAM/TSP vs carriers P< 0.05). Conclusion : The present study demonstrated that HTLV-I proviral load was higher in ATL group in comparison with HAM/TSP and healthy carriers. Therefore, HTLV-I proviral load is a prognostic factor for development of HTLV-I associated diseases and can be used as a monitoring marker for the efficiency of therapeutic regime.

  10. Climate, air pollution, and chronic bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawther, P J

    1958-01-01

    Air pollution (SO/sub 2/ and smoke) was correlated with simple, 4-degree diary records of a group of 180 bronchitic patients for the winter of 1955 to 1956. Obvious connection during the winter months disappears in the spring with the decrease in pollution levels.

  11. Smoking as a Determinant of High Organochlorine Levels in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2003-01-01

    diet, and smoking or plasma cotinine in multiple linear-regression models (p smoking status. These findings confirm that the source of POPs among the Inuit in Greenland is diet, but smoking......The authors investigated the accumulation of organochlorines among smoking and nonsmoking Inuit hunters (n = 48) in Uummanaq, Greenland, a population with high dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Human plasma organochlorine levels were positively correlated with age, marine...... is an important determinant of POP bioaccumulation. Smoking cessation may provide a means to lower the body burden of POPs....

  12. Air pollution damage to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, G T

    1974-01-01

    The effects of the most important air pollutants on plants are described in detail. The include: smoke and particulates, sulfur dioxide, fluorides, peroxyacetyl nitrate, nitrogen oxides, and ozone. An attempt is made to show that plant injury by air pollution can be recognized and evaluated in the presence of effects from insect, fungal, bacterial, viral pathogens and the symptoms of nutrient and enviromental stress. All plants are more or less affected by toxic gases and metals absorbed from the air. For each plant and each pollutant there is a critical concentration above which damage occurs, and below which growth is normal.

  13. Low smoke coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Asamoah, J.K.; Grobbelaar, C.J. [Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    The South African government has started a low-smoke coal programme to reduce air pollution from combustion of coal, which is used for cooking and heating in some residential areas despite electrification. Government policy is to assist the private sector to manufacture and market low-smoke fuels and to encourage use of cleaner fuels. The philosophy and the implementation of this programme are discussed. Preliminary results from a macro scale experiment, that involved supplying low-smoke fuel to a township for a period of one to two weeks and monitoring the impacts, are reported.

  14. Intake fractions of industrial air pollutants in China. Estimation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Li, Ji; Lu, Yongqi; Ho, Mun S.

    2006-01-01

    Intake fractions, an emissions-intake relationship for primary pollutants, are defined and are estimated in order to make simple estimates of health damages from air pollution. The sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particles (TSP) intake fractions for five cities of China are estimated for the four main polluting industries-electric power generation, mineral (mostly cement) products industry, chemical process industry and metallurgical industry (mainly iron and steel smelting). The Industrial Source Complex Long Term (ISTLT3) model is used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental ambient concentrations due to emissions from a large sample of site-specific sources. Detailed population distribution information is used for each city. The average intake fractions within 50 km of these sources are 4.4x10 -6 for TSP, and 4.2x10 -6 for SO 2 , with standard deviations of 8.15x10 -6 and 9.16x10 -6 , respectively. They vary over a wide range, from 10 -7 to 10 -5 . Although the electric power generation has been the focus of much of the air pollution research in China, our results show that it has the lowest average intake fraction for a local range among the four industries, which highlights the importance of pollutant emissions from other industrial sources. Sensitivity analyses show how the intake fractions are affected by the source and pollutant characteristics, the most important parameter being the size of the domain. However, the intake fraction estimates are robust enough to be useful for evaluating the local impacts on human health of primary SO 2 and TSP emissions. An application of intake fractions is given to demonstrate how this approach provides a rapid population risk estimate if the dose-response function is linear without threshold, and hence can help in prioritizing pollution control efforts. (author)

  15. Impact of smoke-free housing policy lease exemptions on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Kaufman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of smoke-free housing policies on compliance, enforcement and smoking behavior. From 2012 to 2014, we studied two affordable housing providers in Canada with comprehensive smoke-free policies: Waterloo Regional Housing that required new leases to be non-smoking and exempted existing leases, and Yukon Housing Corporation that required all leases (existing and new to be non-smoking. Focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 31 housing and public health staff involved in policy development and implementation, and qualitative interviews with 56 tenants. Both types of smoke-free policies helped tenants to reduce and quit smoking. However, exempting existing tenants from the policy created challenges for monitoring compliance and enforcing the policy, and resulted in ongoing tobacco smoke exposure. Moreover, some new tenants were smoking in exempted units, which undermined the policy and maintained smoking behavior. Our findings support the implementation of complete smoke-free housing policies that do not exempt existing leases to avoid many of the problems experienced by staff and tenants. In jurisdictions where exempting existing leases is still required by law, adequate staff resources for monitoring and enforcement, along with consistent and clear communication (particularly regarding balconies, patios and outdoor spaces will encourage compliance. Keywords: Smoke-free policy, Housing, Tobacco smoke pollution, Smoking cessation, Qualitative research

  16. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  17. Secondhand Smoke Exposure in a Rural High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J.; Riker, Carol A.; Hoehne, Amber; White, Ashleigh; Greenwell, Devin; Thompson, Dyshel

    2007-01-01

    Although federal law requires all public schools to be smoke free, lack of compliance with the smoke-free policy is commonly reported. The aims of this study were to describe the indoor fine-particle (PM[subscript 2.5]) air pollution in a rural high school and surrounding public venues. This cross-sectional, nonexperimental study was conducted in…

  18. Air pollution and respiratory health in Africa: A review | Tanmowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To bring into focus the existence of respiratory hazards due to air pollution as a result of industrialisation, tobacco smoking (personal pollution), domestic pollution and vehicular fuel combustion on the African continent; and to stimulate health workers, and the various governments in Africa, to devote more ...

  19. Water pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Students will learn about what causes water pollution and how to be environmentally aware. *Note: Students should understand the concept of the water cycle before moving onto water pollution (see Lesson Plan “Oceans all Around Us”).

  20. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  1. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  2. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  3. Water Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni, J.

    1984-01-01

    This work is about the water pollution. The air and the water interaction cycles is the main idea of the geochemical pollution conception. In the water surface as well as in the deep aquifers we can found cough metals or minerals from the athmosferic air. The activities of mercury fluor and nitrates are important to the pollution study

  4. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  5. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  6. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  7. Evaluation of tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) result using the Japanese highway rock mass classification system for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von, W. C.; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The knowing of geological profile ahead of tunnel face is significant to minimize the risk in tunnel excavation work and cost control in preventative measure. Due to mountainous area, site investigation with vertical boring is not recommended to obtain the geological profile for Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer project. Hence, tunnel seismic prediction (TSP) method is adopted to predict the geological profile ahead of tunnel face. In order to evaluate the TSP results, IBM SPSS Statistic 22 is used to run artificial neural network (ANN) analysis to back calculate the predicted Rock Grade Points (JH) from actual Rock Grade Points (JH) using Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs from TSP. The results show good correlation between predicted Rock Grade points and actual Rock Grade Points (JH). In other words, TSP can provide geological profile prediction ahead of tunnel face significantly while allowing continuously TBM excavation works. Identifying weak zones or faults ahead of tunnel face is crucial for preventative measures to be carried out in advance for a safer tunnel excavation works.

  8. Polluted Runoff: Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonpoint Source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground, it picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters.

  9. Predictors of Indoor Air Concentrations in Smoking and Non-Smoking Residences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Guay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71 homes participating in both seasons. In addition, data for relative humidity, temperature, air exchange rates, housing characteristics and occupants’ activities during sampling were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct season-specific models for the air pollutants. Where smoking was a major contributor to indoor concentrations, separate models were constructed for all homes and for those homes with no cigarette smoke exposure. The housing characteristics and occupants’ activities investigated in this study explained between 11% and 53% of the variability in indoor air pollutant concentrations, with ventilation, age of home and attached garage being important predictors for many pollutants.

  10. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  11. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  12. Modeling residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    We apply a simulation model to explore the effect of a house's multicompartment character on a nonsmoker's inhalation exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). The model tracks the minute-by-minute movement of people and pollutants among multiple zones of a residence and generates SHS pollutant profiles for each room in response to room-specific smoking patterns. In applying the model, we consider SHS emissions of airborne particles, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in two hypothetical houses, one with a typical four-room layout and one dominated by a single large space. We use scripted patterns of room-to-room occupant movement and a cohort of 5000 activity patterns sampled from a US nationwide survey. The results for scripted and cohort simulation trials indicate that the multicompartment nature of homes, manifested as inter-room differences in pollutant levels and the movement of people among zones, can cause substantial variation in nonsmoker SHS exposure.

  13. Urban air pollution and respiratory emergency visits at pediatric unit, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedeschi, Emanuela; Campari, Cinzia; Candela, Silvia; Collini, Giorgia; Caranci, Nicola; Frasca, Gabriella; Galassi, Claudia; Francesca, Gabriella; Vigotti, Maria Angela

    2007-02-01

    Short-term effects of air pollution on daily mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory causes are well documented. Few studies, however, explore the association between exposure to air pollution and daily emergency room visits for respiratory disorders, particularly in Italy and particularly among children as a susceptible population. A time-series analysis was conducted to explore the short-term association between air pollutants (PM10, total suspended particulates [TSP], NO2, SO2, CO, O3) and pediatric emergency room (ER) visits in a small city of northern Italy, Reggio Emilia, during the period 03/01/2001-03/31/2002. There were 1051 ER visits included in the study. Data were analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM), adjusting for various confounding variables, including temperature, humidity, and pollens (Graminaceae). The analyses were also stratified according to the nationality of children (Italians and foreigners). In single-pollutant models, the strongest associations were observed at lag 3 for a 10-microg/m3 increase of TSP (2.7% increase in ER, 95% CI 0.7-4.6) and PM10 (3.0% increase, 95% CI 0.4-5.7), and at lag 4 for a 10-microg/m3 increase of NO2 (11.0% increase in ER, 95% CI 3.6-18.8). At lag 3, the percentage increase in ER visits is similar for the 2 groups of children (Italians and foreigners) for TSP and PM10. The results of the study support the findings that air pollution is a relevant determinant of deterioration of respiratory health among children.

  14. Role of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections with emphasis on HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Taraneh; Farajifard, Hamid; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Bustani, Reza; Valizadeh, Narges; Rajaei, Bahareh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-06-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) enhances the survival and cytotoxic properties of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and exhibits essential roles in controlling chronic viral infections. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the nervous system. The main determinant of disease progression is efficiency of the CTL response to Human T lymphotropic virus types I (HTLV-1). In this study, the expression of host IL-21 and HTLV-I Tax and proviral load (PVL) was evaluated to understand the role and mechanism of IL-21 in HTLV-1 infections and the subsequent development of HAM/TSP. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 HAM/TSP patients, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 20 healthy controls (HCs) to evaluate the expression of IL-21 and Tax and PVL in non-activated and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-ionomycin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The mean mRNA expression of IL-21 in the non-activated and activated PBMCs was higher (by 5-13 times) in the HAM/TSP patients than in ACs and HCs (p Tax and PVL was observed in the HAM/TSP subjects than ACs (p Tax gene expression was positively correlated with PVL (R = 0.595, p = 0.000) and IL-21 gene expression (R = 0.395, p = 0.021) in the HTLV-1-infected subjects. In conclusion, the increase in IL-21 mRNA expression may reflect the attempt of infected T cells to induce an appropriate antiviral response, and the decrease in IL-21 protein expression may reflect the inhibition of IL-21 mRNA translation by viral factors in favour of virus evasion and dissemination.

  15. Nucleotide sequence analysis of HTLV-I isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with TSP/HAM: comparison to other HTLV-I isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyaya, R; Sadaie, M R

    1993-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and the chronic neurologic disorder tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). To study the genetic structure of the virus associated with TSP/HAM, we have obtained and sequenced a partial genomic clone from an HTLV-I-positive cell line established from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a Jamaican patient with TSP/HAM. This clone consisted of a 4.3-kb viral sequence containing the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR), gag, and N-terminal portion of the pol gene, with an overall 1.3% sequence variation resulting from mostly nucleotide substitutions, as compared to the prototype HTLV-I ATK-1. The gag and pol regions showed only 1.4% and 1.2% nucleotide variations, respectively. However, the U3 region of the LTR showed the highest sequence variation (3.6%), where several changes appear to be common among certain TSP/HAM isolates. Several of these changes reside within the 21-bp boundaries and the Tax-responsive element. It would be important to determine if the observed changes are sufficient to cause neurologic disorders similar to the murine leukemia virus system or simply reflect the divergent pool of HTLV-I from different geographic locations. At this time, we cannot rule out the possibility that the observed changes have either direct or indirect significance for the HTLV-I pathogenesis in TSP/HAM.

  16. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James

    2004-09-01

    How do the concentrations of indoor air pollutants known to increase risk of respiratory disease, cancer, heart disease, and stroke change after a smoke-free workplace law? Real-time measurements were made of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in a casino, six bars, and a pool hall before and after a smoking ban. Secondhand smoke contributed 90% to 95% of the RSP air pollution during smoking, and 85% to 95% of the carcinogenic PPAH, greatly exceeding levels of these contaminants encountered on major truck highways and polluted city streets. This air-quality survey demonstrates conclusively that the health of hospitality workers and patrons is endangered by tobacco smoke pollution. Smoke-free workplace laws eliminate that hazard and provide health protection impossible to achieve through ventilation or air cleaning.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco smoke, and epigenetic remodeling in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, E. C.; Hew, K. M.; Nygaard, U. C.; Nadeau, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental determinants including aerosolized pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tobacco smoke have been associated with exacerbation and increased incidence of asthma. The influence of aerosolized pollutants on the development of immune dysfunction in asthmatics has been suggested to be mediated through epigenetic remodeling. Genome accessibility and transcription are regulated primarily through DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA transcript silencing. Epigenetic remodeling has been shown in studies to be associated with Th2 polarization and associated cytokine and chemokine regulation in the development of asthma. This review will present evidence for the contribution of the aerosolized pollutants PAH and environmental tobacco smoke to epigenetic remodeling in asthma. PMID:24760221

  18. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    (TLBW, restriction (IUGR), and suggest that some subgroups of pregnant women who are smoking, of low or high body-mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status (SES) or asthma are more vulnerable towards...... on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite...... direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women...

  19. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  20. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  1. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  2. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  3. Concept and development of measurement method of time sensitivity profile (TSP) in X-ray CT. Comparison of non-helical, single-slice helical, and multi-slice helical scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujioka, Katsumi; Ida, Yoshihiro; Ohtsubo, Hironori; Takahashi, Yasukata; Niwa, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    We focused on the time element contained in a single CT image, and devised the concept of a time-sensitivity profile (TSP) describing how the time element is translated into an image. We calculated the data collection time range when the helical pitch is changed in non helical scans, single slice helical scans, and multi slice helical scans. We then calculated the time sensitivity profile (TSP) from the weighting applied when the data collection time range is translated into an image. TSP was also measured for each scanning method using our self-made moving phantom. TSPs obtained from the calculation and the experiments were very close. TSP showed interesting characteristics with each scanning method, especially in the case of multi slice helical scanning, in which TSP became shorter as helical pitch increased. We referred to the TSP's FWHM as the effective scanning time. When we conducted multi slice helical scanning at helical pitch 3, the effective scanning time increased to about 24% longer than that of a non helical scan. When we conducted multi slice helical scanning at helical pitch 5 or 6, the effective scanning time was about half that of a non helical scan. The time sensitivity profile (TSP) is a totally new concept that we consider an important element in discussing the time resolution of a CT scanner. The results of this review will provide significant data in determining the scanning parameters when scanning a moving object. (author)

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoke Cockroaches Dust Mites Pets & Animals Pollen Aloe Vera Arsenic Bisphenol A (BPA) Cell Phones Climate Change ... produced by the burning of fossil fuels (i.e. the coal and petroleum used in energy production) ...

  5. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  6. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  7. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzuck, W.

    1982-01-01

    The volume of the anthropogenic pollution of the environment (incl. radioactivity) is of great economical importance and has also a meaning to the health and happiness of people. The pocket book introduces into the whole problem by giving exact information and data. After a general survey, the pollutions of urban-industrial, and aquatic ecosystems are dealt with. The book closes with indications as to general principles, specific dangers, and the fature development of the environmental pollution. (orig.) [de

  8. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  9. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  10. Measurement of Air Pollution Comes from Adra Cement Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odat, M.; Meslmani, Y.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Shamali, K.

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of air pollution were carried out in and around Adra cement factory during a single period (December). The Measurements included the following: 1- Dust fall. 2- Total suspended particulates (TSP) and inhalable particulates PM-1-0 & PM-3 inside the factor and in residential area surrounded the factory (Worker City of Adra, Adra city, Wafeden Mokheam, Baironi Hospital and Alkatiefa City). 3-Determination the levels of Cd, Pb, Cu and zinc associated with air born. 4- Determination of toxic gases (CO, SO-2 and NO-x) emitted from the chimneys. The results showed that the quantity of dust fall was varied obviously inside the factory and the regions affected by air pollutions. The monthly concentration of dust fall were 165, 27 and 10 tons/Km 2 /month inside the factory , affected villages and Baironi Hospital respectively, Wherein the permissible limit is (9tons/Km'2/month). The total suspended particulates (TSP) and inhalable particulates PM-1-0 & PM-3 in the studies area were higher than the permissible limit. The TSP concentrations inside the factory ranged between 497 and 2021 microgram/m'3 while the ranged between 328 and 561 microgram /m'3 in the surrounded villages and between 232 and 244 microgram/m'3 near Damascus, the were far higher than the world health organization (WHO) standards (120 Microgram/m'3). The PM-3 which is the most effecting on the human health reached 117.6, 124.6 and 62.6 microgram /m 3 inside the factory (main in trance), city worker of Adra and Baironi Hospital respectively, theses concentrations were higher than the Syrian standards (15 microgram/m'3) The measurements which were carried out through an exclusive day refered that the percentage of TSP/PM-3 is increasedwith moving away from the factory and reached 6.8, 18.6, 19.3% in the main intrance of the factory, worker city of Adra and Bironi Hospital respectively. The level of toxic gases inside the source (chimneys) was within the standards

  11. Smoke Sense: Citizen Science Study on Health Risk and Health Risk Communication During Wildfire Smoke Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why do we need to communicate smoke impacts on health? Indicence and severity of large fires are increasing. As emissions from the Wildland fires produce air pollution that adversely impacts people's health, incidence and severity of large fires are increasing. As emissions fr...

  12. Pollution Damage and Protection of Asian Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke was used to simulate a polluted environment and an experiment was performed to reveal how virgin and bleached hair are damaged by a polluted environment. The dry/wet combability, surface contact angle, tryptophan content, and cuticle morphology of the smoke exposed hair were evaluated, and compared to unexposed virgin hair. The results showed that pollution exposure can cause significant chemical damage to hair. In particular, virgin hair exposure to pollution can cause damage to the hair cuticles (higher wet/dry combing, protein degradation, and a more hydrophilic hair surface. The experiment also demonstrated that the styling polymer, polyimide-1 (isobutylene/dimethyl amino propyl maleimide/ethoxylated maleimide/maleic acid copolymer, can provide effective protection against such hair damage.

  13. [Adsorption Capacity of the Air Particulate Matter in Urban Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-kang; Wang, Bing; Niu, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Urban landscape plants, as one of the important factors of the urban ecosystem, play an important role in stagnating airborne particulates and purifying urban atmospheric environment. In this article, six kinds of common garden plants were studied, and aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I) was used to measure the ability of their leaves to stagnate atmospheric particulates (TSP and PM2.5) in different polluted regions. Meanwhile, environmental scanning electron microscope was used to observe changes in the leaf structure of the tested tree species. The results showed: (1)Among the tested tree species, the ability of coniferous species to stagnate atmospheric particulates was higher than that of broad-leaved species per unit leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis stagnated the highest volume of (3. 89± 0. 026) µg . m-2, followed by Pinus bungeana of (2. 82 ± 0. 392) µg . cm-2, and Populus tomentosa stagnated the minimum of (2. 00 ± 0. 118) µg . cm-2; (2) Through observing the leaf microstructure morphology, coniferous species were found to have tightly packed stomas, stoma density and surface roughness higher than those of broad-leaved species, and they could also secrete oil; (3) In different polluted regions, the leaves of the same tree species showed significant difference in stagnating TSP. Per unit leaf area, the tree species leaves situated around the 5th Ring Road had higher ability to absorb TSP than the tree species leaves at Botanical Garden, while their abilities to absorb PM2.5 showed no significant difference; (4) In different polluted regions, significantly adaptive changes were found in leaf structure. Comparing to the region with light pollution, the outer epidermal cells of the plant leaves in region with heavy pollution shrank, and the roughness of the leaf skin textures as well as the stomatal frequency and villous length increased. In spite of the significant changes in plant leaves exposed to the heavy pollution, these plants could still maintain normal

  14. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  15. 'You think that I'm smoking and they're not': why mothers still smoke in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J

    2007-08-01

    Past research into smoking and motherhood has explained how smoking enables mothers to care in conditions of hardship and poverty. However, much of this research was conducted before the risks to the health of non-smokers of inhaling tobacco smoke were widely known, and so mothers' attitudes towards passive smoking and caring remain under explored. Children living with smokers are at risk of developing serious acute and chronic conditions during childhood and later life. Despite increased awareness of health messages among parents, young children are still exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the home, with maternal smoking identified as the primary source of exposure. In this paper, we present the findings from a project set up to explore the changing social and environmental context of smoking and motherhood. Using focus groups, 54 mothers of children aged under five years from the Merseyside area of England, who smoked, discussed their beliefs about smoking, passive smoking and the health of their children. Although mothers were aware of the messages linking ETS exposure to childhood illnesses they appeared to rely more on their own explanations for any ill health experienced by their children, discounting smoking as a primary cause and preferring alternative explanations including 'genetics' and 'pollution'. These alternative explanations were common both within and between groups, suggesting that they form part of a wider resistant dialogue constructed within families and communities, where information about smoking and child health is received, challenged, and reconciled with existing knowledge, before being either accepted or rejected. Crucially, this alternative dialogue supports the mothers' continued smoking, and is inevitably linked to their personal need to smoke while caring. These findings have implications for the development of future strategies for promoting the health of children with mothers who are reluctant, or feel unable, to accept

  16. Cd pollution and ecological risk assessment for mining activity zone in Karst Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; He, J. L.; Wen, X. M.; Tan, H.

    2017-08-01

    The monitored soil samples were collected from farmland in the area with mining activity in Karst area in Liupanshui. In this article, moss bag technology and TSP were used simultaneously for Cd transportation and deposition in the study area. Geostatistics and GIS were then used for the spatial distribution of Cd in the soil. Afterwards, Cd pollution to the soil environment and human health was studied by using the geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index methods. The results indicated that atmospheric deposition is the major route of Cd pollution. A moderate to strong pollution of Cd in the area and the degree of potential ecological risk was in a high level in the study area. Furthermore, Cd pollution in Liupanshui may originate from mining activity and atmospheric deposition.

  17. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  18. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Urea, Tsp, Kcl Dan Pupuk Organik Cair (Poc) Kulit Pisang Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Tanaman Cabai Merah Keriting (Capsicum Annum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    adrian, Edo; Yetti, Husna

    2017-01-01

    This research to determine the interaction of inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP, KCl)and banana peelliquid organic fertilizer (POC) to find the best results on the growth and yield of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).This study was conducted for four months (March-June, 2016), the Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Riau Pekanbaru,using a completely randomized design (CRD) factorial,consists of two factors and three replications.The results were analyzed by analysis of va...

  20. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel; Blandford, Edward; Howe, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  1. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobycco smoke and other parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, Jan; Stoikidou, M.; Kaila, S.; Gioka, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Autrup, H.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 9 (2001), s. 1447-1457 ISSN 0143-3334 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/2/00 Grant - others:EU(XC) ENV4V-CT96-0203; EU(XC) IC20CT960063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomarkers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.543, year: 2001

  2. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  3. Sabiedriskās ēdināšanas uzņēmuma konkurētspējas analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Beinaroviča, Kristīne

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs „Sabiedriskās ēdināšanas uzņēmuma konkurētspējas analīze”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt SIA „G & K” restorāna „Zilā govs” konkurētspēju un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās uzlabošanai. Bakalaura darba pirmajā nodaļā pētīti konkurences un konkurētspējas teorētiskie aspekti, otrajā nodaļā raksturota nozare, kurā uzņēmums darbojas, valsts ekonomiskās lejupslīdes kontekstā, veikta nozares vides analīze, izmantojot M.E.Portera 5 spēku modeli. Trešajā nodaļā raksturota uzņēmuma vēsturiskā ...

  4. Cēsu alus konkurētspēja un to ietekmējošie faktori Latvijas tirgū.

    OpenAIRE

    Baltroka, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma „Cēsu alus konkurētspēja un to ietekmējošie faktori Latvijas tirgū”. Konkurence ir viens no svarīgākajiem nosacījumiem uzņēmuma pilnveidošanās procesā, stratēģijas izstrādē. Latvijas tirgū, dzērienu nozarē ir liela konkurence, piedāvāto produktu klāsts ir ļoti plašs. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt akciju sabiedrības „Cēsu alus” konkurētspēju ietekmējošos faktorus Latvijas tirgū, kā arī izstrādāt priekšlikumus konkurētspējas paaugstināšanai. Kvantitatīvās analīze...

  5. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-02

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  6. Environmental Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong IK

    1990-03-01

    This book tells US that what nature is, which gives descriptions of the world of living things like the role of plant, order of the vegetable kingdom, the world of plant, destruction of the natural world, and the world of bugs, nature and human with man's survive and change of nature, environment and human, and in creasing population and environment, philosophy of conservation of nature on meaning, destroy and management, and direction, air pollution spot, water pollution, soil pollution conservation of nature and industry case of foreign country and view of environment and environmental assimilating capacity.

  7. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  8. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  9. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  10. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigar Smoking and Cancer On This Page How are cigars ... to quit? How can I get help quitting smoking? How are cigars different from cigarettes? Cigarettes usually ...

  11. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  12. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke ... Things that make COPD symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel ...

  13. Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAughey John

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many recent developments of in vitro cigarette smoke systems closely replicating in vivo exposures. The Borgwaldt RM20S smoking machine (RM20S enables the serial dilution and delivery of cigarette smoke to exposure chambers for in vitro analyses. In this study we have demonstrated reliability and robustness testing of the RM20S in delivering smoke to in vitro cultures using an in-house designed whole smoke exposure chamber. Results The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells, exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2 demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber. Conclusions These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  14. Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  15. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with ... NIEHS Newsletter) Karletta Chief Featured in Science Friday Film (April 2018) Chlorine Levels Help Detect Risk for ...

  16. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  17. Surviving With Smog and Smoke: Precision Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuous efforts of regional governmental agencies, air pollution remains a major threat to public health worldwide. In January 2017, a severe episode of smog similar to the Great Smog of 1952 occurred in London. The longest episode of Chinese haze also developed in Beijing, during which levels of particulate matter smog and Chinese haze are associated with large numbers of premature deaths each year, at 400,000 and 1.2 million, respectively, primarily from respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and ischemic heart diseases. In addition to air pollution, some are exposed to other harmful environmental factors, such as secondhand smoke. For countries with large populations of smokers, such as China, India, the United States, and Russia, surviving both smog and smoke is a serious problem. With novel genomic and epigenomic studies revealing air pollution- and smoking-induced mutational signatures and epigenetic editing in diseases such as lung cancer, it has become feasible to develop precision strategies for early intervention in the disease-causing pathways driven by the specific mutations or epigenetic regulations, or both. New therapies guided by gene-drug interactions and genomic biomarkers may also be developed. We discuss both perspectives regarding the urgent need to manage the toxic effects of smog and smoke for the benefit of global health and the novel concept of precision intervention to protect the exposed individuals when exposure to smog and secondhand smoke cannot be voluntarily avoided or easily modified. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  19. Effects of air pollution on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasadle, J K.A.

    1959-01-01

    The environment for plant growth is affected in three ways by the presence of coal smoke (1) by a reduction in the amount of light available to the plants, (2) by an alteration in soil conditions, and (3) by the contamination of the air by foreign gases. The smoke haze in or near industrial areas reduced the light available to plants for photosynthesis, thus reducing their growth rate. The tarry deposit on leaves further reduced the light available to the plant, and lowered the assimilation rate. It was generally thought that rain falling in or near industrial areas dissolved the predominantly acidic polluting gases from the air and leached bases from the soil. Rainwater collected showed a reduced number of soil bacteria, resulting in a reduction in the availability of plant nutrients. The most common and abundant gaseous pollutant in Britain was sulfur dioxide formed from the sulfur contained in coal. Concentrations of 0.5 parts per million induced symptoms of leaf scorch in many species. Results showed the yield of Aberystwyth 523 ryegrass was reduced when plants were grown continuously in air polluted with coal smoke. This affected the processes involving cell division. Coal smoke and sulfur also increased the rate of leaf senescence. This rate increased as the concentration of sulfur dioxide increased, or as the length of exposure per day to a standard concentration was increased. The leaves of evergreen trees and shrubs also aged more rapidly in conditions of pollution. 14 references.

  20. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  1. DNA Vaccine Encoding the Chimeric Form of Schistosoma mansoni Sm-TSP2 and Sm29 Confers Partial Protection against Challenge Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves de Assis, Natan Raimundo; Batistoni de Morais, Suellen; Figueiredo, Bárbara Castro Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Almeida, Leonardo Augusto; da Silva Pinheiro, Carina; Martins, Vicente de Paulo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease worldwide that affects more than 207 million people in 76 countries and causes approximately 250,000 deaths per year. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. Due to the ability of DNA vaccines to generate humoral and cellular immune responses, such vaccines are considered a promising approach against schistosomiasis. Sm29 and tetraspanin-2 (Sm-TSP2) are two proteins that are located in the S. mansoni tegument of adult worms and schistosomula and induce high levels of protection through recombinant protein immunization. In this study, we transfected BHK-21 cells with plasmids encoding Sm29, Sm-TSP2 or a chimera containing both genes. Using RT-PCR analysis and western blot, we confirmed that the DNA vaccine constructs were transcribed and translated, respectively, in BHK-21 cells. After immunization of mice, we evaluated the reduction in worm burden. We observed worm burden reductions of 17-22%, 22%, 31-32% and 24-32% in animals immunized with the pUMVC3/Sm29, pUMVC3/SmTSP-2, pUMVC3/Chimera and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 plasmids, respectively. We evaluated the humoral response elicited by DNA vaccines, and animals immunized with pUMVC3/Sm29 and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 showed higher titers of anti-Sm29 antibodies. The cytokine profile produced by the spleen cells of immunized mice was then evaluated. We observed higher production of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in vaccinated mice and no significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. The DNA vaccines tested in this study showed the ability to generate a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, probably through the production of Th1 cytokines. However, future strategies aiming to optimize the protective response induced by a chimeric DNA construct need to be developed. PMID:25942636

  2. DNA Vaccine Encoding the Chimeric Form of Schistosoma mansoni Sm-TSP2 and Sm29 Confers Partial Protection against Challenge Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Raimundo Gonçalves de Assis

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease worldwide that affects more than 207 million people in 76 countries and causes approximately 250,000 deaths per year. The best long-term strategy to control schistosomiasis is through immunization combined with drug treatment. Due to the ability of DNA vaccines to generate humoral and cellular immune responses, such vaccines are considered a promising approach against schistosomiasis. Sm29 and tetraspanin-2 (Sm-TSP2 are two proteins that are located in the S. mansoni tegument of adult worms and schistosomula and induce high levels of protection through recombinant protein immunization. In this study, we transfected BHK-21 cells with plasmids encoding Sm29, Sm-TSP2 or a chimera containing both genes. Using RT-PCR analysis and western blot, we confirmed that the DNA vaccine constructs were transcribed and translated, respectively, in BHK-21 cells. After immunization of mice, we evaluated the reduction in worm burden. We observed worm burden reductions of 17-22%, 22%, 31-32% and 24-32% in animals immunized with the pUMVC3/Sm29, pUMVC3/SmTSP-2, pUMVC3/Chimera and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 plasmids, respectively. We evaluated the humoral response elicited by DNA vaccines, and animals immunized with pUMVC3/Sm29 and pUMVC3/Sm29 + pUMVC3/SmTSP-2 showed higher titers of anti-Sm29 antibodies. The cytokine profile produced by the spleen cells of immunized mice was then evaluated. We observed higher production of Th1 cytokines, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ, in vaccinated mice and no significant production of IL-4 and IL-5. The DNA vaccines tested in this study showed the ability to generate a protective immune response against schistosomiasis, probably through the production of Th1 cytokines. However, future strategies aiming to optimize the protective response induced by a chimeric DNA construct need to be developed.

  3. Environmental pollution of sericulture and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, S

    1971-02-01

    Pollution which affects sericulture includes smokes and dusts exhausted by industrial factories, pesticides applied by helicopter and airplane, and dusts due to motor vehicles. Pesticides in air damage 130 ton of cocoons/yr. The special feature of air pollution damage is that damage to mulberry tree leaves appears as damage to silkworm cocoons. The exhausted pollutants from factories go from air into soil, and are taken up by the mulberry tree. Healthy silkworms suffer injury in a very short time. The major symptoms are reluctance to eat, motionlessness, lying flat, agony, vomiting, rolling, and death.

  4. Influence of air pollution upon plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, E

    1963-01-01

    This talk, which was given at a symposium concerned with pollution of the air, arranged by the Societas Biochemica Biophysica et Microbiologica of Finland, deals with the influence exerted by air pollution upon plants, and upon trees in particular. Mention is made of the gases which have in Finland caused pollution of the air and have damaged plants (SO/sub 2/, Cl, gases containing chlorates, and the smoke from coal and liquid fuel). The effect of these substances, and of their varying concentrations, is reported, together with the effect of forms of dirt, especially with respect to coniferous trees.

  5. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  6. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  7. Environmental pollution and health in the metropolitan zone of Mexico Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Concerned about pollution in the Metropolitan Zone of Mexico Valley and its effects on inhabitant's health, the Faculty of Chemistry has been performing the monitoring of radon levels and heavy metals in environmental samples, since 1992. Samples consisted in aerosol fillers classified as Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Respirable Particles (PM10) as well as dry fallout. Surveys were carried out in several zones covering the MZMV and different seasons along successive years. Metallic elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), X-Ray Fluorescence (dispersive and total reflection) and other techniques. Simultaneously, TSP and PM10 were determined by gravimetry. Annual radon gas concentration was determined with passive electret system (type E-PERM) and short radon decay products with a continuous working level monitor. This work presents the distribution an evolution of metallic pollutants in the MZMV. The effective equivalent dose for radon, calculated by the measured annual mean values of Radon and its short decay products, are 1.233 mSvy -1 in good agreement with the world average reported by UNSCEAR of 1.3 mSvy -1 . Despite of substantial progress in elimination of Lead sources (primarily from the phase-out leaded gasoline and regulations to reduce motorized traffic as part of stricter environmental laws) well correlated with a dramatic diminution of 91% in the geometric mean (2.00 μg dL -1 compared with that of 1980, 22.2 μg dL -1 ), the risk of Lead exposure is stilI present. Besides, TSP and PM10 concentration continue at levels above annual average concentration specified in the Mexican Norm. It makes necessary the continuity in efforts targeted to diminish the pollution and also epidemiological studies to relate its effects on population health and suggest guidelines. (Author)

  8. Journey-time exposure to particulate air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, John; Briggs, David J.

    Journey-time exposures to particulate air pollution were investigated in Leicester, UK, between January and March 2005. Samples of TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 were simultaneously collected using light scattering devices whilst journeys were made by walking an in-car. Over a period of two months, 33 pairs of walking and in-car measurements were collected along two circular routes. Average exposures while walking were seen to be higher than those found in-car for each of the particle fractions: average walking to in-car ratios were 1.2 (± 0.6), 1.5 (± 0.6), 1.3 (± 0.6), and 1.4 (± 0.6) μg m -3 for coarse (TSP-PM 10), intermediate (PM 10-PM 2.5), fine (PM 2.5-PM 1), and very fine particles (PM 1), respectively. Correlations between walking and in-car exposures were seen to be weak for coarse particles ( r=0.10, p=0.58), moderate for the intermediate particles ( r=0.49, pcar exposures were 25% higher than the same fixed-site monitor. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm were seen to be highly correlated between walking and in-car particle exposures and a rural fixed-site monitor about 30 km south of Leicester.

  9. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  10. Follow-up of fluorine pollution effect on grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    2004-12-01

    By another way, our results seem to show that full mature grapevine leaves may constitute an efficient tool to assess fluorine pollution impact. Berries contamination seems to be affected directly by the factory smoke, there is no endogenous supply. Likewise, by its characteristic necrosis in the leaf boundaries, grapevine may be considered as a bioindicator variety of fluorine pollution which can be used in mapping polluted areas.

  11. Pollution and respiratory consequences--Have we done enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihălţan, Florin; Danciu, Lucia; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Pollution is the second major cause for many respiratory diseases, after smoking. For every country it is a challenging problem to diminish the exposure of their citizens. The authors are discussing the history of progressing of pollution in different countries, the interactions with some respiratory diseases, the influence on mortality and morbidity and the strategies in developing and developed countries for diminishing the level of the polluted particles.

  12. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  13. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Omoto, Jason; Ong, Seow Ling; Omoto, Harmeena Sahota; Dhaliwal, Narinder

    2012-09-22

    Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM(2.5) levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM(2.5) concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don't substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas or in a separate, but

  14. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  15. Air pollution and respiratory infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J W.B.; Waller, R E

    1966-01-01

    Air pollution, as estimated by domestic coal consumption was categorized into 4 groups; very low, low, moderate, and high. The predicted pollution categories were later compared with measured smoke and SO/sub 2/ concentrations and found to be as expected. The smoke concentration was found to be 67, 138, 217, and 281 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ while the SO/sub 2/ concentration was 90, 130, 191, and 257 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ in the very low, low, moderate, and high pollution groups respectively. These values excluded the greater London area which had somewhat lower smoke but similar SO/sub 2/ concentrations. The air pollution had no effect on upper-respiratory illness in British children but had a highly significant effect on lower-respiratory illness. The percent of children experiencing the first lower-respiratory tract infection during the first 9 months of life in the 4 pollution groups were 7.2 in the very low, 11.4 in the low, 16.5 in the moderate and 17.1 in the high.

  16. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Maigeng; Liu, Yunning; Wang, Lijun; Kuang, Xingya; Xu, Xiaohui; Kan, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM 10 , were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM 10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 μg/m 3 PM 10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM 10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM 10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

  17. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  18. Using Facebook to address smoking and heavy drinking in young adults: Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Kaur, Manpreet; Corpuz, Ella S; Satre, Derek D; Delucchi, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A; Prochaska, Judith J

    2018-05-01

    Tobacco and alcohol often are used simultaneously by young adults, and their co-use is associated with greater health consequences than from single use. Social media platforms offer low cost and highly accessible channels to reach and engage young people in substance use interventions. The current trial seeks to compare the Facebook Tobacco Status Project (TSP) smoking cessation intervention to an intervention targeting both tobacco use and heavy episodic drinking (TSP + ALC) among young adults who use both substances. This randomized clinical trial will evaluate the feasibility and initial efficacy of TSP + ALC compared to TSP with 225 US young adult smokers reporting heavy drinking. Participants will be recruited online and randomized to one of two conditions (TSP or TSP + ALC), both with assignment to a Facebook group tailored to readiness to quit smoking. Groups will receive a 90-day intervention including daily Facebook postings and weekly live counseling sessions. The TSP + ALC group will include content related to alcohol use. All participants will be offered a 2-week introductory supply of nicotine patch. Participants will complete baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month online assessments of substance use and other health risk behaviors. The primary efficacy outcome is biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence. Secondary outcomes include alcohol and tobacco use, combined use, and thoughts about each substance. This trial examines an innovative and scalable approach to engaging young adults online in tobacco and alcohol use treatment. Study findings will inform digital health interventions and best practices for treating multiple substance use in young adults. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  1. Evaluation of the smoking ban application at the emergency service of the Fundación Alcorcón Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Navarro Ortega

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The law for the prevention of tobacco dependence came into effect on the first of January of 2006. With the application of this law, smoking is not allowed neither in public nor in private work centers. From May 2005, the Real Decreto 192/1998, that forbids smoking in medical centers, has been applied at the emergency service of the Fundación Alcorcon Hospital.Objectives: Describe and analyze the consequences of the application of the rule on smoking and non-smoking nursing personnel at the emergency service, as well as changes in smoking habits, knowledge of tobacco smoke pollution’s (TSP effect on health, tobacco effects and arguments between smokers and non-smokers.Material and methods: Cross descriptive study by means of a questionnaire directed to smoker and non-smoker personnel, with different sections for each of these groups. This questionnaire will be previously validated by a group of experts and a pilot exercise at the Fuenfría Hospital. Statistical analysis of the data will be carried out by SPSS software, establishing the frequency of the answers and comparing the obtained results.The results of this study will be usefully applied to evaluate the way of implementing smoking ban at work, detect and correct weak points in order to achieve the best compliance with the rule, and know its influence in the decrease in tobacco consumption and smoking cessation.

  2. Prevention of air pollution: guidebook of the French techniques of dedusting and purification of gases and smokes in the industry; Prevention de la pollution de l'air: guide des techniques francaises de depoussierage et d'epuration des gaz et fumees dans l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This new edition favours the multi-pollutants approach and integrates the improvements made in the European standardization of emission measurements. It contributes to the diffusion of the French techniques in the domain of gases dedusting and purification. (J.S.)

  3. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Ramos, julio

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the complexity of the problem of environmental pollution and what can be the possible solutions to the problem. Also, how the Industrial Engineering can contribute to the prevention and control of pollution. El artículo muestra la complejidad del problema de la contaminación ambiental y cuáles pueden ser las propuestas de solución al problema. Así mismo, cómo la Ingeniería Industrial puede contribuir a la prevención y control de la contaminación.

  5. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  6. Long-term associations of morbidity with air pollution: A catalog and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederick W

    2018-01-01

    I searched the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database through January 2017 for long-term studies of morbidity and air pollution and cataloged them with respect to cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer, diabetes, hospitalization, neurological, and pregnancy-birth endpoints. The catalog is presented as an online appendix. Associations with PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter pollutant significance (yes, no), duration of exposure, and publication date. I found statistically significant pollutant relationships (P pollutant effect estimates, 396 are statistically significant. Pollutant associations with cardiovascular indicators, lung function, respiratory symptoms, and low birth weight are more likely to be significant than with disease incidence, heart attacks, diabetes, or neurological endpoints. Elemental carbon (EC), traffic, and PM 2.5 are most likely to be significant for cardiovascular outcomes; TSP, EC, and ozone (O 3 ) for respiratory outcomes; NO 2 for neurological outcomes; and PM 10 for birth/pregnancy outcomes. Durations of exposure range from 60 days to 35 yr, but I found no consistent relationships with the likelihood of statistical significance. Respiratory studies began ca. 1975; studies of diabetes, cardiovascular, and neurological effects increased after about 2005. I found 72 studies of occupational air pollution exposures; 40 reported statistically significant adverse health effects, especially for respiratory conditions. I conclude that the aggregate of these studies supports the existence of nonlethal physiological effects of various pollutants, more so for non-life-threatening endpoints and for noncriteria pollutants (TSP, EC, PM 2.5 metals). However, most studies were cross-sectional analyses over limited time spans with no consideration of lag or disease latency. Further longitudinal studies are thus needed to investigate the progress of disease incidence in association with air pollution exposure. Relationships of

  7. Cigarette smoking: health effects of passive smoking. January 1970-February 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-February 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the health consequences of involuntary tobacco smoking. The effects of cigarette pollutants on humans is emphasized. Animal studies are included. Discussion of the specific pollutants and their effects are presented. (Contains 56 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  9. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  10. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  11. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  13. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  14. Social media approaches to modeling wildfire smoke dispersion: spatiotemporal and social scientific investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonya Sachdeva; Sarah M. McCaffrey; Dexter Locke

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires have significant effects on human populations, economically, environmentally, and in terms of their general wellbeing. Smoke pollution, in particular, from either prescribed burns or uncontrolled wildfires, can have significant health impacts. Some estimates suggest that smoke dispersion from fire events may affect the health of one in three residents in the...

  15. Assessing smoke damage. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, F; Hartig, W

    1957-06-01

    Briefly described are experiments comparing air pollution tests with rags impregnated with BaO, hung both in the tree tops and below the canopy of Spruce stands, with analyses of needles collected at the same points. S content of the atmosphere (expressed in mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ content of the rags) was, at equal distances, markedly greater above than below the closed canopy, suggesting that the tallest trees would suffer most. While absolute S content of needles (also expressed in mg H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) gave no indication of smoke damage, relative differences in S content between 1-year-old and 5-year-old needles proved to be a useful indication.

  16. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  17. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  18. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  19. The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: II. Comparison of responses to diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, hardwood smoke and simulated downwind coal emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauderly, J L; Barrett, E G; Day, K C; Gigliotti, A P; McDonald, J D; Harrod, K S; Lund, A K; Reed, M D; Seagrave, J C; Campen, M J; Seilkop, S K

    2014-09-01

    The NERC Program conducted identically designed exposure-response studies of the respiratory and cardiovascular responses of rodents exposed by inhalation for up to 6 months to diesel and gasoline exhausts (DE, GE), wood smoke (WS) and simulated downwind coal emissions (CE). Concentrations of the four combustion-derived mixtures ranged from near upper bound plausible to common occupational and environmental hotspot levels. An "exposure effect" statistic was created to compare the strengths of exposure-response relationships and adjustments were made to minimize false positives among the large number of comparisons. All four exposures caused statistically significant effects. No exposure caused overt illness, neutrophilic lung inflammation, increased circulating micronuclei or histopathology of major organs visible by light microscopy. DE and GE caused the greatest lung cytotoxicity. WS elicited the most responses in lung lavage fluid. All exposures reduced oxidant production by unstimulated alveolar macrophages, but only GE suppressed stimulated macrophages. Only DE retarded clearance of bacteria from the lung. DE before antigen challenge suppressed responses of allergic mice. CE tended to amplify allergic responses regardless of exposure order. GE and DE induced oxidant stress and pro-atherosclerotic responses in aorta; WS and CE had no such effects. No overall ranking of toxicity was plausible. The ranking of exposures by number of significant responses varied among the response models, with each of the four causing the most responses for at least one model. Each exposure could also be deemed most or least toxic depending on the exposure metric used for comparison. The database is available for additional analyses.

  20. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TSP Symposium 2012 Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    royalty -free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or disclose the work, in whole or in part and in any manner, and to have or permit others to... Malaysian Journal of Computer Science 18, 2 (December 2005): 11–27. [Pomeroy-Huff 2012] Pomeroy-Huff, M.; Cannon, R.; Chick, T. A.; Mullaney, J

  2. TSP Symposium 2013 Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Innovación con Nuevas Tecnologías en la Docencia de la Ingeniería. IEEE, 2009. [Börstler 2002] Börstler, J., Carrington, D., Hislop, G. W., Lisack, S...Região do Norte), under project reference SI IDT - 21562/2011. The work of M. Raza is funded by FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia ), under

  3. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  4. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  5. [The rotationally stable screw-anchor with trochanteric stabilizing plate (RoSA/TSP) : First results in unstable trochanteric femur fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K-J; Bücking, B; Horst, K; Andruszkow, H; Hildebrand, F; Knobe, M

    2017-12-01

    In unstable trochanteric fractures, the extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor (RoSA) combines the benefits of the load and rotational stability of the blade with the advantages of the screw (pull-out resistance, compression capability) in a single load carrier, and was designed to prevent femoral neck shortening by using an additional locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). The aim of the current prospective cohort study was the clinical evaluation of the RoSA/TSP system regarding the mechanical re-operation rate and the amount of postoperative femoral neck shortening. From September 2011 to January 2014 80 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures underwent internal extramedullary fixation with the RoSA/TSP (Königsee Implantate GmbH, Allendorf, Germany). Due to fracture stability and after induction of compression, additional long locked antitelescoping screws (AT, n = 1-4) were placed reaching the femoral head. Radiological (femoral neck shortening) and clinical re-examination of patients (n = 61) was performed 6-10 weeks and 6-10 months later. In the 61 re-examined patients (76 %) femoral neck shortening was very low with 2 mm 6-10 months after operation. Re-operations occurred in 8 % (n = 6) and in 4 % (n = 3) as prophylactic surgical intervention. Whereas one-third (4 %) of re-operations occurred due to iatrogenic surgical problems from the first operation two-thirds of patients (8 %) had a re-operation due to delay of bone union (3× nonunion, 3 planned removals of AT-screws to improve healing). The in-hospital mortality was 3 % (n = 2). The fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures using the RoSA/TSP in a first clinical setting led to a great primary stability, with significant advantages with regard to limited femoral neck shortening. However, the rigidity of the construct with its consequences regarding bone healing can be challenging for the surgeon. Nevertheless, in some cases of revision it could be beneficial

  6. Carbon monoxide, smoking, and atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, P

    1973-10-01

    Studies on the effects of carbon monoxide and smoking on atherosclerosis are reviewed. Nonsmokers do not run the risk of getting significantly elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from automobile exhaust in the streets, however, they do run the risk of getting elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from exposure to CO in closed areas such as garages and tunnels. Carboxyhemoglobin levels up to 20 percent may also be found in smokers. The central nervous system seems to be influenced by carboxyhemoglobin concentrations up to 20 percent. The myocardium may also be affected. Experimental work with rabbits exposed to carbon monoxide and cholesterol is described which proved that CO has a damaging effect on arterial walls, leading to increased permeability for various plasma components, to the formation of subendothelial edema, and to increased atheromatosis. The results indicate that the much higher risk of smokers of developing arterial disease in comparison to nonsmokers is mainly due to the inhaled CO in the tobacco smoke and not to nicotine. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  7. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  8. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  9. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  10. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  11. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  12. The Internet Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宁宁

    2005-01-01

    Life today has brought new problems. As we know, there are fourterrible pollutions in the world: water pollution, noise pollution, air pol-lution and rubbish pollution. Water pollution kills our fish and pollutesour drinking water. Noise pollution makes us talk louder and become angry more easily. Air pollution makes us hold our breath longer and be badto all living things in the world. Rubbish pollution often makes our livingenvironment much dirtier. But I think that the Internet pollution is anothernew pollution in the world.

  13. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  15. Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides an online Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires, which lists resources and tools that provide information on health impacts from smoke exposure, current fire conditions and forecasts and strategies to reduce exposure to smoke.

  16. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  18. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes contains particulate matter (PM, gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  19. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  20. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the workplace, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In the United States, the source of most secondhand smoke is from cigarettes, followed by pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products ( 4 ). The amount of smoke created by a tobacco product depends on the amount ...

  1. Smoking - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  2. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  3. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  4. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  5. Routine prediction of smoke transport from fuel reduction burns in southwest Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.A.; Hess, G.D.; Draxler, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) has recently developed a mesoscale numerical weather prediction system and, in collaboration wit NOAA/ARL, implemented a sophisticated Lagrangian dispersion/transport model for long-range air pollution applications. Linking these two systems provides a method of predicting the path taken by smoke from bushfires, and was applied daily over southwestern Western Australia during the spring/summer of 1996-7. This paper very briefly describes the NWP model and the dispersion models, demonstrates their application in a case of smoke pollution over Perth in November 1995, and then discusses the utility of the experimental daily smoke trajectory forecasts

  6. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  7. AAS "BALTA" konkurētspēja juridisko personu īpašuma produkta apdrošināšanā Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Jukštaka, Elīna

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā tiek pētīta AAS Balta juridisko personu īpašuma apdrošināšanas produkta konkurētspēja starp vadošajiem tirgus līderiem īpašuma apdrošināšanā Latvijas tirgū. Analizējot juridisko personu īpašuma apdrošināšanas noteikumus un finanšu rādītājus ir izteikti secinājumi un priekšlikumi AAS Balta juridisko personu īpašuma apdrošināšanas produkta konkurētspējas paaugstināšanai. Lai sasniegtu izvirzīto mērķi, autors izpētīja Latvijas nedzīvības apdrošināšanas tirgus attīstību un atse...

  8. Defective human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E; Fernandez, J; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Rios, M

    2003-02-01

    Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We studied the presence of HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 72 Chilean patients with progressive spastic paraparesis by polymerase chain reaction: 32 seropositive and 40 seronegative cases. We amplified different genomic regions of HTLV-I using primers of 5' ltr, tax, env/tax, pX, pol and env genes. These genes were detected from all seropositive patients. The seronegative patients were negative with 5' ltr, pol, env, and pX primers. However, amplified product of tax and env/tax genes was detected from 16 and four seronegative patients, respectively. Three of them were positive with both genetic regions. The results of this study show that the complete HTLV-I provirus is found in 100% of seropositive cases. In seronegative cases, clinically very similar of seropositive cases, was found only tax gene in 42.5% (17/40) of patients. These results suggest the presence of a defective HTLV-I provirus in some seronegative patients with progressive spastic paraparesis, and suggest a pathogenic role of this truncate provirus for a group of TSP/HAM.

  9. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  10. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  11. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, J.D.; Sexton, K.

    1983-01-01

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms, and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  12. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maigeng; Liu, Yunning; Wang, Lijun; Kuang, Xingya; Xu, Xiaohui; Kan, Haidong

    2014-03-01

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990-1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 μg/m(3) PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  14. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  15. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  16. Women and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1996-01-01

    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.

  17. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects

  18. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  19. Characterization of major pollution events (dust, haze, and two festival events) at Agra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Tripti; Singla, Vyoma; Satsangi, Aparna; Lakhani, Anita; Kumari, K Maharaj

    2013-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected during dust, haze, and two festival events (Holi and Diwali) from February 2009 to June 2010. Pollutant gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) along with the meteorological parameters were also measured during the four pollution events at Agra. The concentration of pollutant gases decreases during dust events (DEs), but the levels of the gases increase during other pollution events indicating the impact of anthropogenic emissions. The mass concentrations were about two times higher during pollution events than normal days (NDs). High TSP concentrations during Holi and Diwali events may be attributed to anthropogenic activities while increased combustion sources in addition to stagnant meteorological conditions contributed to high TSP mass during haze events. On the other hand, long-range transport of atmospheric particles plays a major role during DEs. In the dust samples, Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-) were the most abundant ions and Ca(2+) alone accounted for 22 % of the total ionic mass, while during haze event, the concentrations of secondary aerosols species, viz., NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and NH4 (+), were 3.6, 3.3, and 5.1 times higher than the normal days. During Diwali, SO4 (2-) concentration (17.8 μg m(-3)) was highest followed by NO3 (-), K(+), and Cl(-) while the Holi samples were strongly enriched with Cl(-) and K(+) which together made up 32.7 % of the total water-soluble ions. The ion balances indicate that the haze samples were acidic. On the other hand, Holi, Diwali, and DE samples were enriched with cations. The carbonaceous aerosol shows strong variation with the highest concentration during Holi followed by haze, Diwali, DEs, and NDs. However, the secondary organic carbon concentration follows the order haze > DEs > Diwali > Holi > NDs. The scanning electron microscope/EDX results indicate that KCl and carbon-rich particles were more dominant during Holi and haze events while DE samples were enriched

  20. Determination of Toxic Elements in Cigarettes Smoke, Using Neutron Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellawati, J; Chichester D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to get information of the toxic elements content in cigarettes smoke which could be used to estimate the cigarettes smoke contribution in air pollution. The sample were cigarette smoke from the mixture of 7 popular brand cigarettes collected by The Centre Cigarettes Research, University of kentucky, USA. Neutron activation was done in the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor, IRI Delft Netherlands, using thermal neutron flux 4.8 x 10 16n cm-2 second-1 for 4 hours. Result of the analysis showed that the cigarettes smoke contained Cd, As, Sb, and Br which are toxic elements

  1. [Current status and issues of anti-smoking measures in the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mayumi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Compared with developed foreign countries, anti-smoking measures in Japan is lagging behind. As a country that has signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should be run the appropriate tobacco control. For example, in many stores of the service industry that smoking is allowed, employees are working while being exposed to second-hand smoke. Even in workplace air polluted environment, employees will not be able to leave there. Such a harsh environment to ignore health and safety, it must be eliminated as soon as possible. In order to protect the health of workers, the workplace should be smoke free.

  2. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    particular concerns. Inside vehicles, in fact, the smoke of one single cigarette causes concentrations of fine particulate matter three times higher than what is considered the threshold of hazard. According to surveys conducted by DOXA (an Italian statistical and opinion research company) in 2011-2012, two thirds of Italian smokers smoked in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. Despite this, 80% of Italian adults (and 49% of current smokers) supported a smoking ban in private cars, and 93% (and 84% of current smokers) supported such a ban in cars carrying children [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. We therefore welcome the incoming Minister's Decree banning tobacco smoking in private vehicles in presence of minors or pregnant women. The risk associated to SHS exposure is still largely underestimated. To give an idea of its harmful effect, we recommend viewing a video realised by colleagues at the National Cancer Institute of Milan, showing how the indoor air pollution generated by one single cigarette is 4 to 6 times higher than that produced by a diesel truck [Ruprecht et al., 2015]. There is a need to further inform the (Italian) population, including in particular smokers with young children, about the harmful effects of SHS, in order to increase the number of smoke-free homes and cars. In this sense, paediatricians or paediatric dentists have today the opportunity to give a major help. Their contribution can imply a minimum effort, e.g., providing informative leaflets, or making available, in the waiting rooms of their clinics, monitors showing informative videos, including the one previously described [Ruprecht et al., 2015].

  3. Influences on adolescent smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Koprivnikar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporated in the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good mental health, indicating the importance of links to programmes outside of the tobacco control.

  4. Smoking, health and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicita-Mauro Claudio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lecture of V. Nicita-Mauro on Smoking, health and ageing is summarized. Smoking represents an important ageing accelerator, both directly by triggering an inflammatory responses, and indirectly by favoring the occurrence of several diseases where smoking is a recognized risk factor. Hence, non-smokers can delay the appearance of diseases and of ageing process, so attaining longevity.

  5. AIR POLLUTION AND LUNG CAPACITY OF PEOPLE LIVING AROUND THE CEMENT INDUSTRY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Azizi Jayadipraja

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: A cement industry is one of anthropogenic sources of air pollution. In polluting the air, the industry creates some dust particles, nitrogen oxide (NO2, sulfur oxide (SO2, and carbon monoxide (CO. Research Purpose: The research aimed at finding out the ambient air quality around a cement industry and relating it with the lung capacity of people living around the area. Methodology: This was a cross sectional studies by measuring the ambient air quality in the morning, noon, and evening in four different settlements within 3 km from the cement industry. The measurement is then correlated with the FEV1 and FVC of lung capacity of people living around the area. Result: Of all four locations, three have ambient air quality (PM2.5 = 109.47 µg/Nm3, TSP = 454.7 µg/Nm3 that surpass the quality standard (PM2.5 = 65 µg/Nm3, TSP = 230 µg/Nm3. Of 241 respondents, the average level of FVC and FEV1 is respectively 1.9352 liter (SD: 0.45578 and 1.7486 liter (SD: 0.43874. Furthermore, the level of PM2.5 in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.009 and p=0.003; the level of TSP in the morning and at noon is respectively p=0.003 and p=0.01; the level of NO2 in the morning is p=0.006; the level of SO2 in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.000, p=0.022, and p=0.000; and the level of CO in the morning, at noon and in the evening is respectively p=0.003, p=0.015, and p=0.024. Those levels are associated with the level of respondents’ FEV1. Moreover, the level of TSP in the morning is p=0.024; the level of SO2 in the morning and in the evening is p=0.007. These levels relate to the level of respondents’ FVC. Conclusion: The ambient air quality around a cement industry is affected by dispersion of industrial emission and of other sources which can cause some impairment to lung capacity.

  6. Developing a Clinical Approach to Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Michael B; Baumgartner, Jill; Vedanthan, Rajesh

    2018-02-13

    Nearly 3 billion people are exposed to household air pollution emitted from inefficient cooking and heating stoves, and almost the entire global population is exposed to detectable levels of outdoor air pollution from traffic, industry, and other sources. Over 3 million people die annually of ischemic heart disease or stroke attributed to air pollution, more than from traditional cardiac risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, or smoking. Clinicians have a role to play in reducing the burden of pollution-attributable cardiovascular disease. However, there currently exists no clear clinical approach to this problem. Here, we provide a blueprint for an evidence-based clinical approach to assessing and mitigating cardiovascular risk from exposure to air pollution. We begin with a discussion of the global burden of pollution-attributable cardiovascular disease, including a review of the mechanisms by which particulate matter air pollution leads to cardiovascular outcomes. Next, we offer a simple patient-screening tool using known risk factors for pollution exposure. We then discuss approaches to quantifying air pollution exposures and cardiovascular risk, including the development of risk maps for clinical catchment areas. We review a collection of interventions for household and outdoor air pollution, which clinicians can tailor to patients and populations at risk. Finally, we identify future research needed to quantify pollution exposures and validate clinical interventions. Overall, we demonstrate that clinicians can be empowered to mitigate the global burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to air pollution. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The Benefit Impact of Air Pollution Reduction Through ATCS Implementation at Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Huboyo, Haryono Setiyo; Samadikun, Budi Prasetyo

    2018-02-01

    The field study in five intersections that had ATCS, such as Krapyak, Tugu Muda, Polda, Bangkong and Fatmawati were done to investigate the effectivity of air pollution reduction. The study was done by estimating the differences between the vehicle speed due to the cycle duration of green light by field observation and video recording in each intersection. In five intersections that had been observed, the percentage of fuel consumption savings for two-wheeled vehicles were between 15 - 18%, meanwhile for four-wheel vehicles were between 30 - 46%. Based on the calculation that adopt the emission factor from CORINAIR and USEPA emission, the emission reduction based on pollutant types were TSP (12-17%), NOx (22-36%), CO (15-25%), HC (16-28%) and SO2 (22-35%). The result to the vehicles' speed that passed the intersections through ATCS has also indicated that the ATCS could increase vehicle speed and consequently reduce the emission.

  8. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  9. Coping with Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution > Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Font: Outdoor Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Asthma Triggers For Kids and Teachers Coping with Indoor Air Pollution Indoor air pollution is irritating to everyone: But people who ...

  10. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders Tobacco Use by Geographic ... Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report ...

  11. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around along with the pipe. Also beware of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which contain cancer-causing chemicals ... smoking. Nicotine and the other toxins in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes can affect a person's body quickly, ...

  12. Health aspects of air pollution in Dublin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevany, J; Rooney, M; Kennedy, J

    1975-01-01

    A study of the relationship between air pollution and specific health indicators in Dublin from 1970 to 1973 was undertaken using partial correlation analysis. Smoke and sulfur dioxide, accepted as indicators of general pollution conditions, were measured in the study. The indicators of health were deaths and hospital admissions of elderly and chronically ill people due to cardiovascular and respiratory illness, other than influenza and tonsillitis. Because temperature is also known to affect cardiovascular and respiratory illness, maximum daily temperature was chosen as the controlled weather variable. Mortality for cardiovascular disease was significantly correlated with SO/sub 2/ levels within the same 24 hr. Ischemic heart disease was the major component of this correlation. There is a progressive positive correlation at increasing threshold levels. These correlations were not sustained with a lag period of two days nor in relation to smoke indicators at any lag period or threshold level. Mortality for respiratory disease was less consistently associated with air pollution than cardiovascular disease. Levels of SO/sub 2/ up to 75 micrograms/cu m did not produce any significant response in terms of mortality. From 100 micrograms/cu m upwards there is a strong correlation with details from acute respiratory disease, principally acute bronchitis. At 150 micrograms/cu m threshold there is also a strong correlation with deaths from chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. No significant correlations existed for smoke at any threshold or lag period. Implications for community health are discussed.

  13. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  14. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  15. Polluted air--outdoors and indoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, I; Maynard, R L

    2005-09-01

    Many air pollutants which are considered important in ambient (outdoor) air are also found, sometimes at higher levels, in indoor air. With demanding standards having been set for many of these pollutants, both in the workplace and ambient air, consideration of the problems posed by indoor pollution is gaining pace. Studies on exposure to pollutants found in the indoor domestic environment are increasing and are contributing to an already significant compilation of datasets. Improvement in monitoring techniques has helped this process. Documented reports of fatalities from carbon monoxide poisonings are still worrying. However, studies on health effects of non-fatal, long term, low dose, indoor exposure to carbon monoxide and other pollutants, are still inconclusive and too infrequently documented. Of particular concern are the levels of air pollutants found in the domestic indoor environment in developing countries, despite simple interventions such as vented stoves having shown their value. Exposure to biomass smoke is still a level that would be considered unacceptable on health grounds in developed countries. As in the occupational environment, steps need to be taken to control the risks from exposure to the harmful constituents of indoor air in the home. However, the difficulty regarding regulation of the domestic indoor environment is its inherent privacy. Monitoring levels of pollutants in the home and ensuring regulations are adhered to, would likely prove difficult, especially when individual behaviour patterns and activities have the greatest influence on pollutant levels in indoor air. To this end, the Department of Health is developing guidance on indoor air pollution to encourage the reduction of pollutant levels in indoor domestic air. The importance of the effects of domestic indoor air on health and its contribution to the health of the worker are increasingly appreciated. Occupational physicians, by training and interest, are well placed to extend

  16. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-A041 400 DDC/BIB-77/06 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION SONIC BOOM A DDC BIBLIOGRAPHY DDC-TAS Cameron Station Alexandria, Va...rn7Sttio 658S-A041 400 4 TITLE xand r.VuhtlVlia) 2 TA i b- 1iblog ra ph y ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : --. Apr-l IM59-Jul, 7NOISE POLLUTION -SONIC BOOM. 1,976...BIBLIOGRAPHY SEARCH CONTROL NO. /2OM09 AD- 769 970 20/1 1/3 DEFENSE UOCUMENTATION CENTER ALEXANDRIA VA ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION : NOISE POLLUTION

  17. A Recourse-Based Type-2 Fuzzy Programming Method for Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a recourse-based type-2 fuzzy programming (RTFP method is developed for supporting water pollution control of basin systems under uncertainty. The RTFP method incorporates type-2 fuzzy programming (TFP within a two-stage stochastic programming with recourse (TSP framework to handle uncertainties expressed as type-2 fuzzy sets (i.e., a fuzzy set in which the membership function is also fuzzy and probability distributions, as well as to reflect the trade-offs between conflicting economic benefits and penalties due to violated policies. The RTFP method is then applied to a real case of water pollution control in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China, where chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Solutions of optimal production plans of economic activities under each probabilistic pollutant discharge allowance level and membership grades are obtained. The results are helpful for the authorities in exploring the trade-off between economic objective and pollutant discharge decision-making based on river water pollution control.

  18. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Götschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brändli, O

    2003-09-01

    In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p cafes for this reason. Two thirds stated that all cafe/restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p cafe. In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies.

  19. The monitoring of air pollution in France. History, evolution, structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delandre, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    After a broad description of APPA's (Association for Prevention of Atmospheric Pollution) activities in France since it was created in 1958, the structures of the various types of measuring systems (at July 1, 1991) are presented: urban centers networks, industrial areas networks, including forest acid rain monitoring. A list of the main continuously measured pollutants is given (high acidity, settling dust, sulfur dioxide, black smoke, suspended dust, fluorine, etc.)

  20. Kuwaiti oil fires: Composition of source smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. [Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Stevens, R.K.; Pinto, J.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, D.I. [Hughes STX Corp., Hampton, VA (United States); Abdulraheem, M.Y. [Kuwait Environmental Protection Dept., Kuwait City (Kuwait); Al-Sahafi, M. [Ministry of Defense and Aviation, Eastern Province (Saudi Arabia); Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)] [and others

    1992-09-20

    While the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke plumes manifested a pronounced impact on solar radiation in the Gulf region (visibility, surface temperatures, etc.), smoke plume concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants suggest that the overall chemical impact on the atmosphere of the smoke from these fires was probably much less than anticipated. Combustion in the Kuwaiti oil fires was surprisingly efficient, releasing on average more than 93% of the combusted hydrocarbon fuels as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, combustion-produced quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbonaceous particles were low, each {approximately} 2% by weight. The fraction of methane (CH{sub 4}) produced by the fires was also relatively low ({approximately} 0.2%), but source emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons were high ({approximately} 2%). Processes other than combustion (e.g., volatilization) probably contributed significantly to the measured in-plume hydrocarbon concentrations. Substantially, different elemental to organic carbon ratios were obtained for aerosol particles from several different types of fires/smokes. Sulfur emissions (particulate and gaseous) measured at the source fires were lower ({approximately} 0.5%) than predicted based on average sulfur contents in the crude. Sulfur dioxide measurements (SO{sub 2}) reported herein, however, were both limited in actual number and in the number of well fires sampled. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from the Kuwaiti oil fires were very low and often could not be distinguished from background concentrations. About 25-30% of the fires produced white smoke plumes that were found to be highly enriched in sodium and calcium chlorides. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 3—Calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Sterling; Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Blandford, Edward D, E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States); Howe, Kerry [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Calcium leaching from NUKON fiberglass in borated TSP-buffered solution is independent of the level of fiberglass destruction. • The initial calcium release rate and the maximum calcium concentration increases with increased fiber concentration. • The calcium release in solution has a repeatable pattern of four distinct regions (prompt release, metastable, autocatalytic drop, and stable region) for all experiments. • Magnesium plays a significant role in initiating calcium precipitation in TSP-buffered environment. • Head loss through multi-constituents debris beds was found to increase progressively in all calcium concentration regions. - Abstract: Calcium that leaches from damaged or destroyed NUKON fiberglass in containment post a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) could lead to the formation of chemical precipitates. These precipitates could be filtered through the accumulated fibrous debris on the sump screen and compromising the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) sump pump performance. Reduced-scale leaching experiments were conducted on three solution inventory scales—bench (0.5 L), vertical column (31.5 L), and tank (1136 L) using three different flow conditions, and fiberglass concentrations (1.18–8 g/L) to investigate calcium release from NUKON fiber. All experiments were conducted in simulated post-LOCA water chemistry. (∼220 mM boric acid with ∼5.8 mM trisodium phosphate (TSP) buffer). Prior to the leaching tests, a preliminary experiment was carried out on the bench scale to determine the effect of the fiber preparation (unaltered and blended) method on calcium leaching. Results indicate that the extent of fiberglass destruction does not affect the amount of calcium released from fiberglass. Long-term calcium leach testing at constant temperature (80 °C) in borated TSP-buffered solution had repeatable behavior on all solution scales for different fiberglass concentrations. The calcium-leaching pattern can be divided into

  2. Domestic smoke exposure is associated with alveolar macrophage particulate load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Duncan G; Jere, Khuzwayo; Jambo, Kondwani; Kulkarni, Neeta S; Zijlstra, Eduard E; Grigg, Jonathan; French, Neil; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Gordon, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with impaired respiratory health. The pre-dominant indoor air pollutant to which two billion of the world's population is exposed is biomass fuel smoke. We tested the hypothesis that reported smoke exposure in men and women is associated with increased alveolar macrophage uptake of biomass smoke particulates. Healthy volunteers attending for research bronchoscopy in Malawi completed a questionnaire assessment of smoke exposure. Particulate matter visible in alveolar macrophages (AM) was quantified using digital image analysis. The geometric mean of the percentage area of the cytoplasm occupied by particulates in 50 cover-slip adherent AM was calculated and termed particulate load. In 57 subjects (40 men and 17 women) there was a significant difference between the particulate load in groups divided according to pre-dominant lighting form used at home (ANOVA P = 0.0009) and type of cooking fuel (P = 0.0078). Particulate load observed in macrophages is associated with the reported type of biomass fuel exposure. Macrophage function in relation to respiratory health should now be investigated in biomass smoke exposed subjects.

  3. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M [Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark); Larsen, Poul Bo [Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  4. [Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, R; Blohmke, S; Sargent, J D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking in movies can predict established smoking in adolescence. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 13 months with 4112 German students. Adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies was assessed by asking each student to indicate which film he or she had seen from a unique list of 50 movies, which was randomly selected for each individual survey from a sample of 398 popular contemporary movies. We calculated exposure to movie smoking for each respondent by summing the number of smoking occurrences for each movie that the respondent reported seeing. At follow-up, a total of 272 young people had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. While 2.1% of the young people with the lowest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking, 13.4% of the group with the highest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking. The adjusted relative risk of initiation of established smoking was 2.05 times higher in the group with the highest movie smoking exposure compared to the group with the lowest exposure (95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.35). Our data indicate that smoking in movies can be regarded as an independent risk factor for the initiation of established smoking in adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Uzņēmuma McDonalds konkurētspējas novērtēšanas un tās uzlabošanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Artemjeva, Anžela

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma – „Uzņēmuma McDonalds konkurētspējas novērtēšana un tās uzlabošanas iespējas”. Bakalaura darba mērķis-pamatojoties uz teorētiskām atziņām par konkurenci un konkurētspēju, izpētīt SIA McDonalds konkurētspēju tirgū un tās pilnveidošanas iespējas balstoties uz Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas investīciju nozares analīzes datu rezultātiem, izdarīt secinājumus un sniegt priekšlikumus SIA McDonalds konkurētspējas uzlabošanai. Bakalaura darba izstrādes gaitā autore ir izstr...

  6. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  7. Implementasi Algoritma Best-First Search (BeFS pada Penyelesaian Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP (Studi Kasus: Perjalanan Wisata Di Kota Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Abrori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yogyakarta offers many tourist attractions, from nature based tourism, culinary tourism until cultural tourism. With so many tourist attractions offered by Yogyakarta, tourist often finds it difficult to arrange their travel schedule (from choosing which tourist attractions to be visited until choosing which route tourist should takes to maximize their vacation time. Therefore, it’s required to have a way to determine the shortest tour route so tourist can make their tour in the Yogyakarta effective. This problem can be categorized as Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP case. There are a lot of methods can be used to find the shortest route in Travelling Salesman Problems (TSP case. To solve the problem, which is to find the shortest tour route in Yogyakarta, Algorithm Best-First Travelling will be used in this undergraduate thesis. The implementation of Algorithm Best-First Search to find the shortest tour route in Yogyakarta can be used to produce a solution for tourist to choose the shortest tour package and decide which route they should take. The premium tour package produces tour route from Adi Sucipto Airport-Gembira Loka Zoo- Purawisata-N’dalem Gamelan Hotel-Yogyakarta Palace-Benteng Vredeburg Museum-Taman Pintar-Tamansari-Adi Sucipto Airport with distance covered 20.297 meter. The middle tour package produces tour route from Tugu railway station-Benteng Vredeburg Museum- Taman Pintar-Yogyakarta Palace-Mawar Asri Hotel-Tamansari-Purawisata-Gembira Loka Zoo-Tugu railway station with distance covered 11.772 meter. The economy tour package produces tour route from Giwangan bus station- Gembira Loka zoo-Purawisata-Yogyakarta Palace-Mitra Hotel-Benteng Vredeburg Museum-Taman Pintar-Tamansari-Giwangan bus station with distance covered 14.037 meter.

  8. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  9. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  10. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  11. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  12. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Haggar, S.M.; Saad, S.G.; Saleh, S.K.; El-Kady, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  13. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    distribution of wood smoke particles, essentially all will be contained in the PM2.5 fraction. In Denmark, recent results indicate that about 10,000 tonnes PM2.5 per year, about half of the total particle emission in Denmark, come from residential wood combustion. Based on a few measurement campaigns conducted...... in Denmark in selected residential areas with different kinds of heating, the annual average PM2.5 exposure from wood smoke can be estimated at 0.4–2 mg/m3 as a preliminary estimate for the whole Danish population. Epidemiological studies evaluating adverse health effects from ambient air pollution...

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  15. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Suhan; Ren, Meng; Ma, Rui; He, Yiling

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization and development of transport infrastructure, air pollution caused by multiple-pollutant emissions and vehicle exhaust has been aggravated year by year in China. In order to improve air quality, the Chinese authorities have taken a series of actions to control air pollution emission load within a permissible range. However, although China has made positive progress on tackling air pollution, these actions have not kept up with its economy growth and fossil-fuel use. The traditional single-pollutant approach is far from enough in China now, and in the near future, air pollution control strategies should move in the direction of the multiple-pollutant approach. In addition, undesirable air quality is usually linked with the combination of high emissions and adverse weather conditions. However, few studies have been done on the influence of climate change on atmospheric chemistry in the global perspective. Available evidence suggested that climate change is likely to exacerbate certain kinds of air pollutants including ozone and smoke from wildfires. This has become a major public health problem because the interactions of global climate change, urban heat islands, and air pollution have adverse effects on human health. In this chapter, we first review the past and current circumstances of China's responses to air pollution. Then we discuss the control challenges and future options for a better air quality in China. Finally, we begin to unravel links between air pollution and climate change, providing new opportunities for integrated research and actions in China.

  16. USCG Vessel Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  17. USCG Facility Pollution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  18. Childhood myopia and parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S-M; Chia, K-S; Lindstrom, J M; Tan, D T H; Stone, R A

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relation between exposure to passive parental smoke and myopia in Chinese children in Singapore. 1334 Chinese children from three schools in Singapore were recruited, all of whom were participants in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Information on whether the father or mother smoked, number of years smoked, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day during the child's lifetime were derived. These data were correlated with contemporaneously obtained data available in SCORM. The children's cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius, and biometry measures were compared with reported parental smoking history. There were 434 fathers (33.3%) and 23 mothers (1.7%) who smoked during their child's lifetime. There were no significant trends observed between paternal smoking and refractive error or axial length. After controlling for age, sex, school, mother's education, and mother's myopia, children with mothers who had ever smoked during their lifetime had more "positive" refractions (adjusted mean -0.28 D v -1.38 D) compared with children whose mother did not smoke (p = 0.012). The study found no consistent evidence of association between parental smoking and refractive error. There was a suggestion that children whose mothers smoked cigarettes had more hyperopic refractions, but the absence of a relation with paternal smoking and the small number of mothers who smoked in this sample preclude definite conclusions about a link between passive smoking exposure and myopia.

  19. Serum levels of TSP-1, NF-κB and TGF-β1 in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients in northern China suggest PCOS is associated with chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meimei; Gao, Jiayin; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Peiling; Wang, Hongli; Ren, Xiaopang; Li, Changmin

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappaβ (NF-κβ) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without insulin resistance and after treatment with cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with or without concomitant metformin. Prospective. Patients with PCOS and healthy women were recruited. Patients were subdivided into obese and nonobese based on body mass index. Patients with PCOS were also grouped according to homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥ 2·69 or PCOS phenotype. Patients with PCOS-IR were treated with a 6-month course of cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with or without concomitant metformin. Inflammatory markers were examined at baseline, and after 6 months of treatment. A total of 445 women with PCOS (mean age 25·9 ± 2·7 years; 298 obese, 147 nonobese) and 213 normal controls (mean age 24·9 ± 3·0 years) were included. Regardless of obesity status, testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio, HOMA-IR, TSP-1 and NF-κB in the PCOS groups were significantly higher than in the control group, whereas TSP-1 was lower in the PCOS groups (all, P PCOS without IR had lower TSP-1 levels than control patients (P Treatment with cyproterone acetate/ethinyloestradiol with addition of metformin reduced the level of NF-κB, TGF-β1 and HOMA-IR and increased the level of TSP-1. These results support the association between PCOS and chronic inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The health burden of pollution: the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira SE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandra E Vieira Pediatrics Department, Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Exposure to atmospheric pollutants in both open and closed environments is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that may be both controlled and minimized. Despite growing evidence, several controversies and disagreements exist among the studies that have analyzed the effects of prenatal pollutant exposure. This review article aims to analyze primary scientific evidence of the effects of air pollution during pregnancy and the impact of these effects on the fetus, infant health, and in particular, the respiratory system. We performed a review of articles from the PubMed and Web of Science databases that were published in English within the past 5 years, particularly those related to birth cohorts that began in pregnancy with follow-up until the first years of life. The largest reported effects are associated with prenatal exposure to particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and tobacco smoke. The primary effects affect birth weight and other parameters of fetal biometry. There is strong evidence regarding the impact of pollutants on morbidity secondary to respiratory problems. Growing evidence links maternal smoking to childhood asthma and wheezing. The role of passive maternal smoking is less clear. Great heterogeneity exists among studies. There is a need for additional studies on birth cohorts to monitor the relationship between the exposure of pregnant women to pollutants and their children’s progress during the first years of life. Keywords: air pollutants, pregnancy, birth weight, lung disease, tobacco, fetal development

  1. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  2. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  3. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  4. Radiological hazards of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of Polonium-210 and Lead -210 contents of tobacco has a great importance because of the increase in the incidence of lung cancer observed among smokers. The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides of the uranium-radium series have long been associated with tobacco plants. The properties and distribution of trichomes on tobacco leaf surfaces suggest that they are effective collectors of small particles. It was reported that for an individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day, the radiation dose to bronchial epithelium from 210 Po inhaled in cigarette smoking probably is at least seven times that from background sources. The effective dose of persons who smoke one or more packs per day of low quality brands is much higher than that resulting from intake with food and water. This indicates that smoke absorbed through the respiratory system is the main source and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Cigarette smoking can be the reason for the higher incidence of cancer of all organs of the respiratory system. (author)

  5. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  6. Ambient air pollution and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Carrie J; Schisterman, Enrique F; Ha, Sandie; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Chen, Zhen; Liu, Danping; Sherman, Seth; Mendola, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Ambient air pollution is associated with systemic increases in oxidative stress, to which sperm are particularly sensitive. Although decrements in semen quality represent a key mechanism for impaired fecundability, prior research has not established a clear association between air pollution and semen quality. To address this, we evaluated the association between ambient air pollution and semen quality among men with moderate air pollution exposure. Of 501 couples in the LIFE study, 467 male partners provided one or more semen samples. Average residential exposure to criteria air pollutants and fine particle constituents in the 72 days before ejaculation was estimated using modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Generalized estimating equation models estimated the association between air pollutants and semen quality parameters (volume, count, percent hypo-osmotic swollen, motility, sperm head, morphology and sperm chromatin parameters). Models adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking and season. Most associations between air pollutants and semen parameters were small. However, associations were observed for an interquartile increase in fine particulates ≤2.5 µm and decreased sperm head size, including -0.22 (95% CI -0.34, -0.11) µm 2 for area, -0.06 (95% CI -0.09, -0.03) µm for length and -0.09 (95% CI -0.19, -0.06) µm for perimeter. Fine particulates were also associated with 1.03 (95% CI 0.40, 1.66) greater percent sperm head with acrosome. Air pollution exposure was not associated with semen quality, except for sperm head parameters. Moderate levels of ambient air pollution may not be a major contributor to semen quality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Origin of pollutants in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Waheed, S.

    2012-01-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution in the South Asian region has been an issue of increasing importance over the past several decades. Long-range transport of pollution produced by natural processes such as dust storms or natural forest fires. Airborne particulate matter datasets covering the period from 2002 to 2007 from the neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka were used to find the source areas that are primarily responsible for long range transported pollutants. All countries collected samples with the same type of sampler and used the same techniques for mass and BC measurements. It was found that high fine soil contributions were from dust storms. On the other hand smoke in this region mainly comes from Northern India where agricultural waste is often burned is shown. (Orig./A.B.)

  8. Smoke management for the '90s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A discussion paper is presented which examines the different kinds of biomass burning practices in British Columbia and the resulting health/environment issues. Smoke from the burning of wood and other biomass contains a number of pollutants that can cause health problems, and also can create a visual haze that can cover entire communities for weeks at a time, notably in mountain valleys during cold weather. Biomass burning in the province includes prescribed burning, mainly for silvicultural purposes; residue burning in the forest products industry; urban and agricultural burning; and residential wood burning. A wide range of options and management approaches are suggested for reducing smoke-caused air pollution, including the burning of logging residue in efficient energy-recovering burners, minimization of on-site biomass waste by suitable site preparation techniques, utilizing biomass residues for non-energy applications such as papermaking, recycling of municipal and agricultural biomass waste into compost, and controlling emissions from woodburning appliances. 56 refs., 3 figs. 4 tabs

  9. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Galassi, Claudia; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Hoogh, Kees de; Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.

  10. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M; Kundi, M; Wiesenberger, W [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  11. Lung functions at school age and chronic exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, M.; Kundi, M.; Wiesenberger, W. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    Early signs of lung function impairment have been found correlated with annual concentrations of outdoor air pollutants and with passive smoking. To investigate the combined effects of both indicators of chronic exposure to air pollution pulmonary functions in all elementary and high school children of an Austrian town was examined for 5 years. (author)

  12. Nature and extent of air pollution by smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J B; Ruston, A G

    1909-10-14

    In a former paper read at the Congress of the Sanitary Institute held at Leeds in 1897 an account was given of the quantity of soot suspended in and deposited from the atmosphere of Leeds. It was then shown that, on the average working day, 20 tons of soot are sent into the air of Leeds, of which half a ton falls on an area of four square miles, and of the latter from 20 lb. to 25 lb. stick, that is, are not removable by rain. The present paper contains a record of the atmospheric impurities carried down by rain and the effect of this rain water on vegetation. It also contains an inquiry into the diminution of daylight caused by suspended particles of soot. 1 figure, 1 table.

  13. After the smoke has cleared: evaluation of the impact of a new national smoke-free law in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R; Thomson, G; Wilson, N; Waa, A; Bullen, C; O'Dea, D; Gifford, H; Glover, M; Laugesen, M; Woodward, A

    2008-02-01

    The New Zealand 2003 Smoke-free Environments Amendment Act (SEAA) extended existing restrictions on smoking in office and retail workplaces by introducing smoking bans in bars, casinos, members' clubs, restaurants and nearly all other workplaces from 10 December 2004. To evaluate the implementation and outcomes of aspects of the SEAA relating to smoke-free indoor workplaces and public places, excluding schools and early learning centres. Data were gathered on public and stakeholder attitudes and support for smoke-free policies; dissemination of information, enforcement activities and compliance; exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the workplace; changes in health outcomes linked to SHS exposure; exposure to SHS in homes; smoking prevalence and smoking related behaviours; and economic impacts. Surveys suggested growing majority support for the SEAA and its underlying principles among the public and bar managers. There was evidence of high compliance in bars and pubs, where most enforcement problems were expected. Self reported data suggested that SHS exposure in the workplace, the primary objective of the SEAA, decreased significantly from around 20% in 2003, to 8% in 2006. Air quality improved greatly in hospitality venues. Reported SHS exposure in homes also reduced significantly. There was no clear evidence of a short term effect on health or on adult smoking prevalence, although calls to the smoking cessation quitline increased despite reduced expenditure on smoking cessation advertising. Available data suggested a broadly neutral economic impact, including in the tourist and hospitality sectors. The effects of the legislation change were favourable from a public health perspective. Areas for further investigation and possible regulation were identified such as SHS related pollution in semi-enclosed outdoor areas. The study adds to a growing body of literature documenting the positive impact of comprehensive smoke-free legislation. The scientific and public

  14. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. The report finds a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and declares ... Learn more about asthma at the CDC site . Exposure to secondhand smoke may cause new cases of asthma in children ...

  15. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  16. Actual implications of industrial smoke damage to forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieger, E

    1955-01-01

    General problems of smoke-induced damages, diagnosis, and control methods are reviewed. Damages caused by etching of leaves and needles are mostly of an acute and local character. Damages due to disturbed assimilation, caused primarily by sulfur dioxide, are of the greatest importance economically. Sulfur dioxide is less harmful in winter and during night hours. Acids and sulfur dioxide both turn the soil acid, and affect the edaphon. Such damages are primarily of chronic character. Different diagnostic methods such as plant, soil, and air analyses should be combined to obtain reliable results. Due to the complexity of the processes involved in smoke damages, biological tests are best in diagnosis. The sunlight test exploits the fact that branches cut from smoke-damaged trees lose their needles more readily than such from intact trees. Haertels turbidity test is based on the increased wax secretion by smoke-damaged needles. The appraisal of damages is made by evaluation of the economic losses after the limitation of the smoke-affected area. The possible control measures in forestry are the breeding of smoke-resistant species and liming, while the pollution control techniques presently available in industry are unsatisfactory, the major problems being caused by sulfur dioxide. Standardization of thresholds and maximum allowable concentrations, as well as cooperation of forestry and industries are imperative. 12 references.

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and otitis media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauer, Michael; Gehring, Ulrike; Brunekreef, Bert; de Jongste, Johan; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Rovers, Maroeska; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Wijga, Alet; Heinrich, Joachim

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media is one of the most common infections in young children. Although exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a known risk factor associated with otitis media, little information is available regarding the potential association with air pollution. OBJECTIVE: We set out to

  18. Wildland fires and air pollution. Developments in Environmental Science 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael Arbaugh; Christian Andersen; Allen Riebau

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between smoke and air pollution creates a public health challenge. Fuels treatments proposed for National Forests are intended to reduce fuel accumulations and wildfire frequency and severity, as well as to protect property located in the wild land-urban interface. However, prescribed fires produce gases and aerosols that have instantaneous and long-...

  19. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  20. Effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on bark epiphytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, P D

    1967-01-01

    The destructive effects of sulfur dioxide pollution on epiphytic bryophytes is seen to be due to chlorophyll degradation and the impairment of cell structure and function through plasmolysis. Morphological changes noted by Pearson and Skye (1965) in lichens were not seen, although stunting and infertility are evident in epiphyte remnants in polluted areas. The investigation of the ion exchange and buffer capacities of sycamore bark indicates a loss of both in approximate proportion to the degree of pollution. Smoke and aerosol particles are not considered to be of particular importance at the present time although they may well have been important in the past.

  1. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  2. General parenting, anti-smoking socialization and smoking onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was tested in which general parenting and parental smoking predicted anti-smoking socialization, which in turn predicted adolescent smoking onset. Participants were 4351 Dutch adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In the model, strictness and psychological autonomy granting

  3. Detection of nicotine as an indicator of tobacco smoke by direct analysis in real time (DART) tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    The residual tobacco smoke contamination (thirdhand smoke, THS) on the clothes of a smoker was examined by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. DART-MS enabled sensitive and selective analysis of nicotine as the indicator of tobacco smoke pollution. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments were also performed to confirm the identification of nicotine. Transferred thirdhand smoke originated from the fingers of a smoker onto other objects was also detected by DART mass spectrometry. DART-MS/MS was utilized for monitoring the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the air of the laboratory using nicotine as an indicator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of DART-MS and DART-MS/MS to the detection of thirdhand smoke and to the monitoring of secondhand smoke.

  4. "There's no-fresh air there": narratives of smoke exposure among residents of extended-stay hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Terri; Bryant, Lawrence Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Hotel environments have been identified as places where hospitality workers and patrons are at an increased risk for smoke exposure and associated health hazards. However, little research has been conducted to understand experiences of long-term hotel residents. This article presents narrative accounts of tobacco smoke exposure from 37 residents at extended-stay hotels in a large metropolitan Atlanta county. Residents' narratives included an awareness of smoking as an unhealthy habit but a shared activity that facilitates social engagement at the hotel. Secondhand smoke narratives included descriptions of exposure from roommates and hotel neighbors. Thirdhand smoke narratives included reports of persistent pollution and smoke residue in the hotel environment. These results suggest a need for further research to understand the extent and impact of tobacco smoke exposure among this understudied population. The implications of this research support the efforts of social workers to engage in clean air advocacy and policy making for a vulnerable population.

  5. Light pollution : working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Stefan; Arns, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is one of the fastest growing and most pervasive of environmental pollution (Chepesiuk, 2009). In the last couple of years, a lot of research has been done about the effects of light pollution. The interest in light pollution has been growing in many fields of science, extending from

  6. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino) to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels) in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%). The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes) smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10%) and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas encapsulated inside smoking areas

  7. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepeis Neil E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%. The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10% and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas

  8. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  9. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Handbook of smoke control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Klote, John H; Turnbull, Paul G; Kashef, Ahmed; Ferreira, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Smoke Control Engineering extends the tradition of the comprehensive treatment of smoke control technology, including fundamental concepts, smoke control systems, and methods of analysis. The handbook provides information needed for the analysis of design fires, including considerations of sprinklers, shielded fires, and transient fuels. It is also extremely useful for practicing engineers, architects, code officials, researchers, and students. Following the success of Principles of Smoke Management in 2002, this new book incorporates the latest research and advances in smoke control practice. New topics in the handbook are: controls, fire and smoke control in transport tunnels, and full-scale fire testing. For those getting started with the computer models CONTAM and CFAST, there are simplified instructions with examples. This is the first smoke control book with climatic data so that users will have easy-to-use weather data specifically for smoke control design for locations in the U.S., Can...

  11. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  12. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  13. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  14. Kids and Smoking (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause cancer, heart disease, and lung disease. E-cigarettes , vape pens, and hookahs (water pipes) , which have ... and Asthma Nicotine: What Parents Need to Know E-Cigarettes Secondhand Smoke What Are the Risks of Smoking ...

  15. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  16. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Not reported 7% In transport 1% 195 incidents Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  17. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  18. Pollution management system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A pollution management system comprises an array of one or more inlets and at least one outlet. The one or more inlets are arranged to collect polluted air and supply said polluted air to a polluted air treatment element. The one or more inlets each comprise a respective inlet sensor for measuring...... a level of pollution at the inlet, and the at least one outlet comprises an outlet sensor for measuring a level of pollution at the outlet. The inlet sensors and the outlet sensor are arranged to provide feedback to the polluted air treatment element....

  19. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  20. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P; Roerdam Olesen, H; Bossi, R; Stubkjaer, J

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  1. Effects of air pollution on the skin: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Poonam; Nandar, Shashi Kumar; Kathuria, Sushruta; Ramesh, V

    2017-01-01

    The increase in air pollution over the years has had major effects on the human skin. Various air pollutants such as ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, oxides, particulate matter, ozone and cigarette smoke affect the skin as it is the outermost barrier. Air pollutants damage the skin by inducing oxidative stress. Although human skin acts as a biological shield against pro-oxidative chemicals and physical air pollutants, prolonged or repetitive exposure to high levels of these pollutants may have profound negative effects on the skin. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation has been associated with extrinsic skin aging and skin cancers. Cigarette smoke contributes to premature aging and an increase in the incidence of psoriasis, acne and skin cancers. It is also implicated in allergic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are associated with extrinsic skin aging, pigmentation, cancers and acneiform eruptions. Volatile organic compounds have been associated with atopic dermatitis. Given the increasing levels of air pollution and its detrimental effects on the skin, it is advisable to use strategies to decrease air pollution.

  2. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  3. The Reproducibility of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP Measurement: A Test Case for the Measurement of Key Air Pollutants from the Pan Frying of Fish Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the robustness of various indoor air quality (IAQ indices, we explored the possible role of reproducibility-induced variability in the measurements of different pollutants under similar sampling and emissions conditions. Polluted indoor conditions were generated by pan frying fish samples in a closed room. A total of 11 experiments were carried out to measure a list of key variables commonly used to represent indoor air pollution (IAP indicators such as particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP and a set of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs with some odor markers. The cooking activity conducted as part of our experiments was successful to consistently generate significant pollution levels (mean PM10: 7110 μg m−3 and mean total VOC (TVOC: 1400 μg m−3, resp.. Then, relative standard error (RSE was computed to assess the reproducibility between different IAP paramters measured across the repeated experiments. If the results were evaluated by an arbitrary criterion of 10%, the patterns were divided into two data groups (e.g., 10% for the remainders. Most noticeably, TVOC had the most repeatable results with a reproducibility (RSE value of 3.2% (n=11.

  4. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  5. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  6. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  7. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth / For Teens / Smoking and Asthma Print en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...

  8. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul G Sangani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution

  9. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Einstein Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  12. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  13. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  14. Smoking and thyroid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2013-01-01

    Current smoking in population surveys is associated with a slight dose-dependent fall of serum TSH, likely secondary to a rise of serum FT4 and FT3 induced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system; it is independent of iodine intake. In contrast, the slightly greater thyroid size in smokers

  15. Smoke Detector Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  16. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  17. Retrieving Smoke Aerosol Height from DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike industrial pollutant particles that are often confined within the planetary boundary layer, smoke from forest and agriculture fires can inject massive carbonaceous aerosols into the upper troposphere due to the intense pyro-convection. Sensitivity of weather and climate to absorbing carbonaceous aerosols is regulated by the altitude of those aerosol layers. However, aerosol height information remains limited from passive satellite sensors. Here we present an algorithm to estimate smoke aerosol height from radiances in the oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) from the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). With a suit of case studies and validation efforts, we demonstrate that smoke aerosol height can be well retrieved over both ocean and land surfaces multiple times daily.

  18. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  19. Monitoring of dispersed smoke-plume layers by determining locations of the data-point clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Wold, Cyle; Petkov, Alexander; Min Hao, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A modified data-processing technique of the signals recorded by zenith-directed lidar, which operates in smoke-polluted atmosphere, is discussed. The technique is based on simple transformations of the lidar backscatter signal and the determination of the spatial location of the data point clusters. The technique allows more reliable detection of the location of dispersed smoke layering. Examples of typical results obtained with lidar in a smokepolluted atmosphere are presented.

  20. A NONLINEAR MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR ASTHMA: EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARESHA RAM

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore a nonlinear mathematical model to study the spread of asthma due to inhaled pollutants from industry as well as tobacco smoke from smokers in a variable size population. The model is analyzed using stability theory of differential equations and computer simulation. It is shown that with an increase in the level of air pollutants concentration, the asthmatic (diseased population increases. It is also shown that along with pollutants present in the environment, smoking (active or passive also helps in the spread of asthma. Moreover, with the increase in the rate of interaction between susceptibles and smokers, the persistence of the spread of asthma is higher. A numerical study of the model is also performed to see the role of certain key parameters on the spread of asthma and to support the analytical results.