WorldWideScience

Sample records for smoke point measurements

  1. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  2. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  3. Measurement of smoking: surveys and some recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, R H; Rosen, T J; Williams, C

    1982-01-01

    A survey of smoking cessation researchers found considerable disagreement in the measurement procedures used to determine treatment outcome. The survey investigated (1) the duration of the measurement interval used to determine abstinence and smoking rate; (2) procedures for classifying people who smoke after treatment but are abstinent at follow-up; and (3) procedures for classifying people who use marijuana or tobacco products other than cigarettes. The marked disagreement among researchers' survey responses was compounded by the failure of their published articles to explain how smoking had been measured and scored. The Discussion identifies long-term abstinence as the most critical problem; its measurement was least consistent procedurally across studies yet most important for comparing them. Recommendations are made for establishing measurement and reporting conventions.

  4. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  5. A systematic review on the impact of point-of-sale tobacco promotion on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose-response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Measuring Secondhand Smoke in Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad A. Al-Lawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to measure exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS and assess venue compliance with the municipal Law against smoking indoors in public places in Muscat, Oman. Methods: Following the selection of 30 public indoor venues within the Muscat governorate, the concentration of suspended SHS particulate matter (PM2.5 in the venues’ indoor air was measured throughout July and August 2010. Results: Almost all of the venues were found to be compliant with the smoke-free municipal, with the exception of a café that served waterpipes for smoking indoors. The concentration of PM2.5 in this venue showed an average level of 256 μg/m3 which was 64 times the level of that found in the non-smoking venues. Conclusion: Aside from one café, the majority of the assessed indoor public venues abided by the smoke-free municipal law. However, the enforcement of policies banning smoking in indoor public recreational venues should be re-examined in order to protect member of the public in Oman from exposure to SHS.

  7. Point process analyses of variations in smoking rate by setting, mood, gender, and dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Rathbun, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The immediate emotional and situational antecedents of ad libitum smoking are still not well understood. We re-analyzed data from Ecological Momentary Assessment using novel point-process analyses, to assess how craving, mood, and social setting influence smoking rate, as well as assessing the moderating effects of gender and nicotine dependence. 304 smokers recorded craving, mood, and social setting using electronic diaries when smoking and at random nonsmoking times over 16 days of smoking. Point-process analysis, which makes use of the known random sampling scheme for momentary variables, examined main effects of setting and interactions with gender and dependence. Increased craving was associated with higher rates of smoking, particularly among women. Negative affect was not associated with smoking rate, even in interaction with arousal, but restlessness was associated with substantially higher smoking rates. Women's smoking tended to be less affected by negative affect. Nicotine dependence had little moderating effect on situational influences. Smoking rates were higher when smokers were alone or with others smoking, and smoking restrictions reduced smoking rates. However, the presence of others smoking undermined the effects of restrictions. The more sensitive point-process analyses confirmed earlier findings, including the surprising conclusion that negative affect by itself was not related to smoking rates. Contrary to hypothesis, men's and not women's smoking was influenced by negative affect. Both smoking restrictions and the presence of others who are not smoking suppress smoking, but others’ smoking undermines the effects of restrictions. Point-process analyses of EMA data can bring out even small influences on smoking rate. PMID:21480683

  8. [Smoking status among urban family and the measures of smoking control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ciyin; Ma, Grace; Zhai, Chengkai; Cao, Pei

    2009-01-01

    To find out the smoking status among the families and their members, in order to hold their knowledge, attitude, practice on smoking and its influence and to put forward the countermeasure of smoking Control. A questionnaire surveys were conducted among 419 people which came from 419 families. 409 qualified questionnaire were obtained. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, test and logistic analysis. The family current smoking rates were 68.2%, the smoking rates of past family were 90.2%, the current smoking rates of individual were 31.5%, the individual past smoking rates were 39.9%. Those who attempted smoking under the age of 18 years accounted for 46.6%. Those who smoked their first cigarette from friends accounted for 48.1%. The comparisons of knowledge, attitude between smoking-ever family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P attitude between smoking family members and non-smoking family members had significant difference (P < 0.05). Those who were married women, and had career had high score of KAP. The contents of education of the decreases of smoking rates were on the following: (1) Smoking damages health. (2) Smoking should not be used as means of communication. (3) Feel offensive when someone smoking around. (4) Most persons still don't smoke. The key place of smoking control could be family. Smoking control could depend on married female. The key crowd of tobacco control could be children and youngsters. Not offering smoke and not advise others to smoking could be the key measures of smoking control.

  9. Directly measured secondhand smoke exposure and COPD health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although personal cigarette smoking is the most important cause and modulator of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, secondhand smoke (SHS exposure could influence the course of the disease. Despite the importance of this question, the impact of SHS exposure on COPD health outcomes remains unknown. Methods We used data from two waves of a population-based multiwave U.S. cohort study of adults with COPD. 77 non-smoking respondents with a diagnosis of COPD completed direct SHS monitoring based on urine cotinine and a personal badge that measures nicotine. We evaluated the longitudinal impact of SHS exposure on validated measures of COPD severity, physical health status, quality of life (QOL, and dyspnea measured at one year follow-up. Results The highest level of SHS exposure, as measured by urine cotinine, was cross-sectionally associated with poorer COPD severity (mean score increment 4.7 pts; 95% CI 0.6 to 8.9 and dyspnea (1.0 pts; 95% CI 0.4 to 1.7 after controlling for covariates. In longitudinal analysis, the highest level of baseline cotinine was associated with worse COPD severity (4.7 points; 95% CI -0.1 to 9.4; p = 0.054, disease-specific QOL (2.9 pts; -0.16 to 5.9; p = 0.063, and dyspnea (0.9 pts; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.6 pts; p Conclusion Directly measured SHS exposure appears to adversely influence health outcomes in COPD, independent of personal smoking. Because SHS is a modifiable risk factor, clinicians should assess SHS exposure in their patients and counsel its avoidance. In public health terms, the effects of SHS exposure on this vulnerable subpopulation provide a further rationale for laws prohibiting public smoking.

  10. Acid dew point measurement in flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-06-01

    The operation of modern boiler plants requires the continuous measurement of the acid dew point in flue gases. An existing measuring instrument was modified in such a way that it can determine acid dew points reliably, reproduceably and continuously. The authors present the mechanisms of the dew point formation, the dew point measuring principle, the modification and the operational results.

  11. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Switzer, Galen E; Dalton, Madeline A

    2007-05-01

    To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with 2 clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Cross-sectional survey. One large suburban high school. A total of 1211 high school students aged 14 to 18 years. Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Of the 1138 students with data on current smoking, 216 (19.0%) reported current smoking, and 342 (38.3%) of the 893 nonsmoking students with susceptibility data were susceptible to future smoking. Factor analysis identified 3 normative belief constructs, labeled "perceived prevalence of smoking," "perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society," and "disapproval of smoking by parents/peers." On average, students believed that 56% of people in the United States smoke cigarettes; 27.7% believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the 3 constructs was independently associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.05 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.02-1.08], 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.23], and 0.66 [95% CI, 0.59-0.75], respectively), even after controlling for covariates. Students' perceptions of smoking among the successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (adjusted odds ratios, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.11-1.29] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79-0.96], respectively). Adolescents' normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least 3 distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking.

  12. Computer Vision Based Measurement of Wildfire Smoke Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUGARIC, M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel method for measurement of wildfire smoke dynamics based on computer vision and augmented reality techniques. The aspect of smoke dynamics is an important feature in video smoke detection that could distinguish smoke from visually similar phenomena. However, most of the existing smoke detection systems are not capable of measuring the real-world size of the detected smoke regions. Using computer vision and GIS-based augmented reality, we measure the real dimensions of smoke plumes, and observe the change in size over time. The measurements are performed on offline video data with known camera parameters and location. The observed data is analyzed in order to create a classifier that could be used to eliminate certain categories of false alarms induced by phenomena with different dynamics than smoke. We carried out an offline evaluation where we measured the improvement in the detection process achieved using the proposed smoke dynamics characteristics. The results show a significant increase in algorithm performance, especially in terms of reducing false alarms rate. From this it follows that the proposed method for measurement of smoke dynamics could be used to improve existing smoke detection algorithms, or taken into account when designing new ones.

  13. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    , handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...... of ventilation and fine cracks in the outer walls. In the night people can not air the bedrooms without getting the rooms filled with wood smoke. Until now the regulations of wood smoke have been ineffective. - It would be a great step forward, if local authorities and smoke affected people could have effective...

  14. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  16. Monitoring of dispersed smoke-plume layers by determining locations of the data-point clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Wold, Cyle; Petkov, Alexander; Min Hao, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A modified data-processing technique of the signals recorded by zenith-directed lidar, which operates in smoke-polluted atmosphere, is discussed. The technique is based on simple transformations of the lidar backscatter signal and the determination of the spatial location of the data point clusters. The technique allows more reliable detection of the location of dispersed smoke layering. Examples of typical results obtained with lidar in a smokepolluted atmosphere are presented.

  17. 40 CFR 86.884-9 - Smoke measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) The optical unit of the smokemeter shall be mounted radially to the exhaust pipe so that the... distance from the optical centerline to the exhaust pipe outlet shall be 1 ±0.25 inch. The full flow of the... Regulations for New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-9 Smoke measurement...

  18. Reactor coolant flow measurements at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenciaglia, G.; Gurevich, Y.; Liu, G.

    1996-01-01

    The CROSSFLOW ultrasonic flow measurement system manufactured by AMAG is fully proven as reliable and accurate when applied to large piping in defined geometries for such applications as feedwater flows measurement. Its application to direct reactor coolant flow (RCF) measurements - both individual channel flows and bulk flows such as pump suction flow - has been well established through recent work by AMAG at Point Lepreau, with application to other reactor types (eg. PWR) imminent. At Point Lepreau, Measurements have been demonstrated at full power; improvements to consistently meet ±1% accuracy are in progress. The development and recent customization of CROSSFLOW to RCF measurement at Point Lepreau are described in this paper; typical measurement results are included. (author)

  19. Point-of-sale tobacco promotion and youth smoking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Cameron, Claire; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2016-12-01

    Previous systematic reviews have found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility among children and adolescents. No meta-analysis has been conducted on these studies to date. Systematic literature searches were carried out to identify all quantitative observational studies that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and individual-level smoking and smoking-related cognitions among children and adolescents, published between January 1990 and June 2014. Random-effects meta-analyses were used. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to extent of tobacco POS advertising environment in the study environment. Sensitivity analyses were performed according to study size and quality. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria; 11 reported data for behavioural outcomes, 6 for cognitive outcomes (each of these assessed smoking susceptibility). The studies were cross-sectional, with the exception of 2 cohort studies. For the behavioural outcomes, the pooled OR was 1.61 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.96) and for smoking susceptibility the pooled OR was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.61). Children and adolescents more frequently exposed to POS tobacco promotion have around 1.6 times higher odds of having tried smoking and around 1.3 times higher odds of being susceptible to future smoking, compared with those less frequently exposed. Together with the available evaluations of POS display bans, the results strongly indicate that legislation banning tobacco POS promotion will effectively reduce smoking among young people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Method and device for measuring the smoke concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennemo, B.

    1994-01-01

    The patent deals with a method and a device for measuring the smoke concentration in air. In a smoke chamber are located two electrodes, connected to a voltage source for forming a circuit in which a DC current flows. A radioactive radiation source to ionize the air molecules is located in the vicinity of the smoke chamber, so that the number of ionized air molecules which are formed is dependent upon the radiation intensity of the ion source and the concentration of smoke particles in the smoke chamber. The charging voltage will further imply that a cloud of high ion concentration is built up close to the surface of the electrodes. The ion cloud will be discharged capacitively upon a plurality of short voltages pulses applied to the electrodes to thereby result in current pulses substantially greater than the DC current flowing through the chamber. 8 figs

  1. Measurements of the Effects of Smoke on Active Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformably coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 MOmega) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the cent acts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray-capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  2. Measurements of the effects of smoke on active circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Smoke has long been recognized as the most common source of fire damage to electrical equipment; however, most failures have been analyzed after the fire was out and the smoke vented. The effects caused while the smoke is still in the air have not been explored. Such effects have implications for new digital equipment being installed in nuclear reactors. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring work to determine the impact of smoke on digital instrumentation and control. As part of this program, Sandia National Laboratories has tested simple active circuits to determine how smoke affects them. These tests included the study of three possible failure modes on a functional board: (1) circuit bridging, (2) corrosion (metal loss), and (3) induction of stray capacitance. The performance of nine different circuits was measured continuously on bare and conformally coated boards during smoke exposures lasting 1 hour each and continued for 24 hours after the exposure started. The circuit that was most affected by smoke (100% change in measured values) was the one most sensitive to circuit bridging. Its high impedance (50 Mohm) was shorted during the exposure, but in some cases recovered after the smoke was vented. The other two failure modes, corrosion and induced stray capacitance, caused little change in the function of the circuits. The smoke permanently increased resistance of the circuit tested for corrosion, implying that the contacts were corroded. However, the change was very small (< 2%). The stray capacitance test circuit showed very little change after a smoke exposure in either the short or long term. The results of the tests suggest that conformal coatings and type of circuit are major considerations when designing digital circuitry to be used in critical control systems

  3. Tobacco Point-of-Purchase marketing in school neighbourhoods and school smoking prevalence: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2007-01-01

    Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low ( 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.

  4. Smoking behaviour in young families. Do parents take practical measures to prevent passive smoking by the children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, W; Bruusgaard, D

    1995-12-01

    To investigate smoking behaviour in young families. Cross-sectional study. Mother and child health centres in Oslo, Norway. The families of 1,046 children attending the health centres for 6-weeks-, 2- or 4- year well child visits. Daily smoking, smoking quantity and practical measures taken by the parents to prevent passive smoking among the children as assessed by parental reports. In 48% of the families at least one adult was smoking. 33% of the smoking parents smoked more than ten cigarettes per day. 47% of the smoking families reported that they did not smoke indoors. The parents were less likely to smoke if they were more than 35 years of age, had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee or had a long education. Smoking parents smoked less if they had a spouse/co-habitee, had a child aged less than one year or had few children. Smoking parents were more often careful and did not smoke indoors if they had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee, did not have a smoking spouse/co-habitee or smoked a low number of cigarettes per day.

  5. Boiling point measurements on liquid UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, M.; Singer, J.; Trapp, M.

    1986-01-01

    In analogy to the classic boiling point method, a quasi-stationary millisecond laser-heating technique was applied to measure the saturated-vapour pressure curve of liquid UO 2 in the temperature range of 3500 to 4500 K. The result is represented by log p(MPa) 5.049 -23042/T(K) according to an average heat of vaporization of 441 kJ/mol and a normal boiling point of 3808 K. Besides, spectral emissivities of liquid UO 2 were measured at the pyrometer wavelengths of 752 and 1064 nm. (author)

  6. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  7. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  8. Discontinuous Patterns of Cigarette Smoking From Ages 18 to 50 in the United States: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-13

    Effective cigarette smoking prevention and intervention programming is enhanced by accurate understanding of developmental smoking pathways across the life span. This study investigated within-person patterns of cigarette smoking from ages 18 to 50 among a US national sample of high school graduates, focusing on identifying ages of particular importance for smoking involvement change. Using data from approximately 15,000 individuals participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study, trichotomous measures of past 30-day smoking obtained at 11 time points were modeled using repeated-measures latent class analyses. Sex differences in latent class structure and membership were examined. Twelve latent classes were identified: three characterized by consistent smoking patterns across age (no smoking; smoking developing effective smoking prevention and intervention programming. This study examined cigarette smoking among a national longitudinal US sample of high school graduates from ages 18 to 50 and identified distinct latent classes characterized by patterns of movement between no cigarette use, light-to-moderate smoking, and the conventional definition of heavy smoking at 11 time points via repeated-measures latent class analysis. Membership probabilities for each smoking class were estimated, and critical ages of susceptibility to change in smoking behaviors were identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Acid dew point measurements in combustion gases using the dew point measuring system AH 85100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1984-01-01

    Measuring system for continuous monitoring of the SO/sub 2//SO/sub 3/ dew point in the flue gas, characterized by a low failure rate, applicability inside the flue gas duct, maintenance-free continuous operation, and self-cleaning. The measuring principle is the cooling of the sensor element down to the 'onset condensation' message. Sensor surface temperatures are listed and evaluated as flue gas dew point temperatures. The measuring system is described. (DOMA).

  10. Association between the display of cigarette packs at the point of sale and smoking susceptibility among adolescents in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Macario, Andreza Madeira; Souza, Roberto Hess de; Boing, Antônio Fernando; Botelho, Lúcio; Cohen, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the association between exposure to tobacco displays at the point of sale and susceptibility to smoking in schoolchildren in the 14- to 17-year age bracket. Of the participating students, 69.0%, 21.3%, and 9.7% were classified as never smokers, experimenters, and smokers, respectively. Of the participants who were classified as being exposed to smoking, 18.9% were susceptible to smoking. Of the participants who were classified as being unexposed to smoking, 12.9% were susceptible to smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04 -2.35; p = 0.029). Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays is associated with smoking susceptibility in Brazilian adolescents.

  11. Association between the display of cigarette packs at the point of sale and smoking susceptibility among adolescents in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Curi Hallal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This was a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the association between exposure to tobacco displays at the point of sale and susceptibility to smoking in schoolchildren in the 14- to 17-year age bracket. Of the participating students, 69.0%, 21.3%, and 9.7% were classified as never smokers, experimenters, and smokers, respectively. Of the participants who were classified as being exposed to smoking, 18.9% were susceptible to smoking. Of the participants who were classified as being unexposed to smoking, 12.9% were susceptible to smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.04 -2.35; p = 0.029. Exposure to point-of-sale tobacco displays is associated with smoking susceptibility in Brazilian adolescents.

  12. An experimental and numerical study of diffusion flames in cross-flow and quiescent environment at smoke point condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sien Fong

    An experimental and numerical study of a turbulent smoke point diffusion flame in a quiescent and cross-flow condition was performed. The fuel mass flow rate of a turbulent smoke point flame was determined at a quiescent condition and in cross-flow with velocity ranging from 2 to 4 m/s. This fuel mass flow rate is defined as the Critical Fuel Mass Flow Rate (CFMFR). At a fuel mass flow rate below the CFMFR the flame produces smoke. In the dilution study, an amount of inert gas (nitrogen) was added to the fuel stream to achieve the smoke point condition for ten different fractions of CFMFR. From this dilution study, three regions were defined, the chemically-dominated region, transition region, and momentum-dominated region. The first objective of this study was to determine the factors behind the distinction of these three regions. The second objective was to understand the effect of cross-flow velocity on the smoke point flame structure. The flame temperature, radiation, geometrical dimension of flame, velocity, and global emissions and in-flame species concentration were measured. The third objective was to study a numerical model that can simulate the turbulent smoke point flame structure. The dilution study showed that the flames in quiescent condition and in the 3.5 and 4 m/s cross-flow condition had the chemically-dominated region at 5% to 20% CFMFR, the transition region at 20% to 40% CFMFR, and the momentum-dominated region at 40% to 100% CFMFR. On the other hand, the flame in cross-flow of 2 to 3 m/s showed the chemically-dominated region at 5% to 10% CFMFR, the transition region at 10% to 30% CFMFR, and the momentum-dominated region at 30% to 100% CFMFR. The chemically-dominated flame had a sharp dual-peak structure for the flame temperature, CO2 and NO concentration profiles at 25% and 50% flame length. However, the momentum-dominated region flame exhibited a dual peak structure only at 25% flame length. The decrease of flow rate from 30% to 10% CFMFR

  13. Modulation of cigarette smoke-related end-points in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Flora, Silvio; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Camoirano, Anna; Bennicelli, Carlo; Bagnasco, Maria; Cartiglia, Cristina; Tampa, Elena; Longobardi, Maria Grazia; Lubet, Ronald A.; Izzotti, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer and the increase of other tumours and chronic degenerative diseases associated with tobacco smoking have represented one of the most dramatic catastrophes of the 20th century. The control of this plague is one of the major challenges of preventive medicine for the next decades. The imperative goal is to refrain from smoking. However, chemoprevention by dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy, which can be targeted not only to current smokers but also to former smokers and passive smokers. This article summarises the results of studies performed in our laboratories during the last 10 years, and provides new data generated in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans. We compared the ability of 63 putative chemopreventive agents to inhibit the bacterial mutagenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke. Modulation by ethanol and the mechanisms involved were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Several studies evaluated the effects of dietary chemopreventive agents towards smoke-related intermediate biomarkers in various cells, tissues and organs of rodents. The investigated end-points included metabolic parameters, adducts to haemoglobin, bulky adducts to nuclear DNA, oxidative DNA damage, adducts to mitochondrial DNA, apoptosis, cytogenetic damage in alveolar macrophages, bone marrow and peripheral blood erytrocytes, proliferation markers, and histopathological alterations. The agents tested in vivo included N-acetyl-L-cysteine, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, oltipraz, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 5,6-benzoflavone, and sulindac. We started applying multigene expression analysis to chemoprevention research, and postulated that an optimal agent should not excessively alter per se the physiological background of gene expression but should be able to attenuate the alterations produced by cigarette smoke or other carcinogens. We are working to develop an animal model for the induction of lung tumours following exposure

  14. Statistical Measure Of Association Between Smoking And Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical Measure Of Association Between Smoking And Lung Cancer In Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... To investigate the havoc caused by all these on people, questionnaire was distributed among smokers and non smokers in various areas of specialization and habitations.

  15. Measurement of moisture in smoldering smoke and implications for fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    2006-01-01

    Smoke from wildland burning in association with fog has been implicated as a visibility hazard over roadways in the southern United States. A project began in 2002 to determine whether moisture released during the smoldering phases of southern prescribed burns could contribute to fog formation. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken from 27...

  16. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  17. Tobacco display and brand communication at the point of sale: implications for adolescent smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John; McNeill, Ann; Ratschen, Elena; Szatkowski, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In England, point-of-sale (PoS) displays in larger shops were prohibited in April 2012, with an exemption for smaller retailers until 2015. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tobacco displays and brand communication at the PoS and adolescent smoking behaviour, and to assess the potential benefits likely to accrue from this legislation. Self-completion questionnaire survey in students aged 11-15 years in March 2011. The odds of ever-smoking doubled for those visiting shops almost daily relative to less than once a week (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.55), and susceptibility increased by around 60% (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.10). Noticing tobacco on display every time during store visits increased the odds of susceptibility more than threefold compared with never noticing tobacco (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.52 to 6.54). For each additional tobacco brand recognised at the PoS, the adjusted odds of being an ever-smoker increased by 5% (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) and of susceptibility by 4% (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.05). The association between frequency of visiting stores and susceptibility was predominantly due to exposure in small shops. Exposure to and awareness of PoS displays and brands in displays were associated with smoking susceptibility. The association between PoS display exposure and smoking susceptibility was predominantly due to exposure in small shops. These findings suggest that a one-off, comprehensive tobacco display ban is the recommended approach for countries considering a display ban.

  18. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  19. Effects of brief smoking cessation education with expiratory carbon monoxide measurement on level of motivation to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Young; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Lee, Ok-Gyu

    2013-05-01

    Smoking rates among Korean adult males is still high despite multifaceted efforts to reduce it. In Korea, there have been several studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education for inpatients, health check-ups, and smoking cessation clinics. However, there haven't been any studies on the effectiveness of smoking cessation education conducted outside the hospital. This study investigated effectiveness of brief education on smoking cessation with an expiratory carbon monoxide (CO) measurement outside the hospital among adult male office-workers in Korea. From April 1st to May 10th, 2012, we conducted a controlled trial among 95 adult male office workers over the age of 19 who smoke outside, in a public place in Seoul by cluster sampling. For the education group, we provided smoking cessation education for about 5 to 10 minutes, measured the expiratory CO level, and made the subjects complete questionnaires, while only self-help materials on quitting smoking were given to the control group. After 4 weeks, we evaluated the change in the level of motivation or success to quit smoking in both groups via e-mail or mobile phone. In the education group, the level of motivation to quit smoking was improved significantly. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of improved motivation to quit smoking in the education group was 28.10 times higher than that of the control group. Brief education on smoking cessation with expiratory CO measurement conducted outside the hospital could enhance the level of motivation to quit smoking.

  20. The density of tobacco retailers and its association with attitudes toward smoking, exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking among New York youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Kim, Annice E; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Estimate the association between the density of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviors among middle and high school students in New York. The 2000-2008 New York Youth Tobacco Surveys were pooled (N=70,427) and linked with county-level density of LTRs and retailer compliance with laws restricting youth access to cigarettes. Logistic regressions tested for associations with attitudes toward smoking exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking prevalence. LTR density is associated with self-reported exposure to point-of-sale advertising in New York City (NYC) among all youth (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30) and nonsmokers (OR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30); youth believing that smoking makes them look cool, overall (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.52) and among nonsmokers (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.55); and a counter-intuitive negative relationship with frequent smoking in NYC (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84). Retailer compliance was negatively associated with youth reporting that a retail store is their usual source for cigarettes (OR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Restricting tobacco licenses and enforcing youth access laws are reasonable policy approaches for influencing youth smoking outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  2. Point-of-sale cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation in smokers: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Robbins, Regina; Tibbits, Melissa; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Soliman, Ghada; McCarthy, Molly; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-04-28

    Strict restrictions on outdoor cigarette marketing have resulted in increasing concentration of cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale (POS). The association between POS cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation (SID) has never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine this association and how it is mediated by cravings to smoke, urges to buy cigarettes, and unplanned purchases of cigarettes. Data from a telephone survey of 939 smokers were collected in Omaha, Nebraska. POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as cigarette price discounts within their respective neighborhoods. SID was measured with the following question: "In the last six months, has there been a time when the money you spent on cigarettes resulted in not having enough money for household essentials such as food? [yes/no]" We used structural equation modeling to examine the study aim. There was overwhelming evidence for an association between higher levels of POS cigarette marketing and a higher probability of SID (p marketing is associated with a higher probability of experiencing SID, policies that ban POS cigarette marketing might help some smokers afford essentials household items such as food more easily and thus have better standards of living.

  3. Unplanned cigarette purchases and tobacco point of sale advertising: a potential barrier to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clattenburg, Eben J; Elf, Jessica L; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    In the USA, tobacco marketing expenditure is increasingly concentrated at the point of sale (POS). Previous studies have demonstrated an association between exposure to tobacco POS advertising and increased smoking initiation, but limited evidence is available on adult smokers' decisions and behaviours. An immediate post-cigarette purchase survey was administered to 301 cigarette purchasers outside of two grocery stores in Vermont to assess the prevalence of unplanned purchases and opinions about POS tobacco advertising and displays. In total, 11.3% of purchases were reported as unplanned. Certain groups were more likely to make unplanned purchases including: 18-24-year-olds (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.4), less than daily smokers (OR: 5.6, 95% CI 1.9 to 16.9), smokers who made 3+ quit attempts in the previous year (OR: 2.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.0), those who plan to quit in the next month (OR: 3.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.0), and those who agreed that tobacco POS advertising makes quitting smoking harder (OR: 2.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.8). Overall, 31.2% of participants agreed that tobacco POS advertising makes quitting smoking harder. Individuals who intended to quit within the next month, made 3+ quit attempts in the last year, or made an unplanned cigarette purchase were the most likely to agree. Young adults and individuals making multiple quit attempts or planning to quit in the next month are more likely to make unplanned cigarette purchases. Reducing unplanned purchases prompted by tobacco POS advertising could improve the likelihood of successful cessation among smokers.

  4. Placing Antismoking Graphic Warning Posters at Retail Point-of-Sale Locations Increases Some Adolescents' Susceptibility to Future Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude; Dunbar, Michael; Kusuke, Daniela; Lanna, Serafina; Meyer, Amanda

    2017-12-13

    This experiment tested whether introducing graphic antitobacco posters at point-of-sale (POS) had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking and whether these effects were moderated by adolescents' baseline risk of cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab, a life-sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail POS environments influence tobacco use risk and behavior during simulated shopping experiences. In this study, 441 adolescents were randomized to one of the four conditions in a 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the tobacco power wall: no, yes) × 2 (graphic antismoking poster placed near the cash register: no, yes) experimental design. The outcome of interest was susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The addition of antismoking posters at POS led to a significant increase in future smoking susceptibility among those adolescents who already were at high risk for smoking in the future (p posters had no impact on committed never smokers, regardless of poster location; never smokers' susceptibility to future smoking was uniformly low across experimental conditions. Introducing graphic antismoking posters at POS may have the unintended effect of further increasing cigarette smoking susceptibility among adolescents already at risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Yazd People’s Point of View about Effect of Visual Media on Smoking Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2013-10-01

    Results: Based on participants' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants. Conclusion: The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.

  6. ''Stenungsund-77'': smoke plume measurements with a pulsed dye laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, G; Hartmann, B; Spangstedt, G; Steinvall, O

    1977-12-01

    This report describes some of the results obtained in a field experiment at Stenungsund in May 1977, under the support and coordination of the Swedish Space Corporation. We made lidar measurements with a pulsed tunable dye laser working at wavelengths in the uv and visible part of the spectrum. The study concerned SO/sub 2/-absorption, NO/sub 2/-absorption, and particle scattering in the smoke plume of an oil fuel electric power plant. The SO/sub 2/-burden in the plume, near the smoke stack exit, as estimated from our lidar measurements, is compatible with in situ measurements and calculated values. The NO/sub 2/-concentration proved to be lower than the sensitivity limit of our lidar system. The particle scattering experiments led to qualitative results, and only permitted order of magnitude estimates of particle concentrations. They show, however, that a low power, eye safe uv lidar was capable of tracking plumes undiscernible to the eye, out to a distance of 2 to 3 km.

  7. Mixed-Poisson Point Process with Partially-Observed Covariates: Ecological Momentary Assessment of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustifter, Benjamin; Rathbun, Stephen L; Shiffman, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment is an emerging method of data collection in behavioral research that may be used to capture the times of repeated behavioral events on electronic devices, and information on subjects' psychological states through the electronic administration of questionnaires at times selected from a probability-based design as well as the event times. A method for fitting a mixed Poisson point process model is proposed for the impact of partially-observed, time-varying covariates on the timing of repeated behavioral events. A random frailty is included in the point-process intensity to describe variation among subjects in baseline rates of event occurrence. Covariate coefficients are estimated using estimating equations constructed by replacing the integrated intensity in the Poisson score equations with a design-unbiased estimator. An estimator is also proposed for the variance of the random frailties. Our estimators are robust in the sense that no model assumptions are made regarding the distribution of the time-varying covariates or the distribution of the random effects. However, subject effects are estimated under gamma frailties using an approximate hierarchical likelihood. The proposed approach is illustrated using smoking data.

  8. The association of point-of-sale cigarette marketing with cravings to smoke: results from a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Dodd, Michael; Carlson, Les; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Meza, Jane; Wan, Neng; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-07-01

    To examine the association between recalled exposure to point-of-sale (POS) cigarette marketing (ie, pack displays, advertisements and promotions such as discounts) and reported cravings to smoke while visiting a store. Data were collected using a telephone survey of a cross-sectional sample of 999 adult smokers in Omaha, Nebraska. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents about noticing (a) pack displays, (b) advertisements and (c) promotions in store in their neighbourhood. A 3-item scale indicating the frequency of experiencing cravings to smoke in locations where cigarettes are sold was created by asking respondents: (1) "feel a craving for a cigarette?" (2) "feel like nothing would be better than smoking a cigarette?" and (3) "feel like all you want is a cigarette?" The association between recalled exposure to POS cigarette marketing and cravings was estimated using ordinary least squares linear regression models, controlling for nicotine dependence, gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, education, frequency of visiting stores in one's neighbourhood and method of recruitment into the study. Recalled exposure to POS cigarette displays (pmarketing is associated with cravings to smoke as predicted by laboratory studies on the effects of smoking cues on cigarette craving. Policies that reduce or eliminate POS cigarette marketing could reduce cigarette cravings and might attenuate impulse buying of cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  10. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  11. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Measures of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Multiple Vascular Beds in Japanese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Kadota, Aya; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Torii, Sayuki; Suzuki, Sentaro; Miyagawa, Naoko; Sato, Atsushi; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Abbott, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is an overwhelming, but preventable, risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although smoking prevalence remains high in developed and developing countries in East Asia. Methods and Results In a population?based sample of 1019 Japanese men aged 40 to 79?years, without CVD, we examined cross?sectional associations of smoking status, cumulative pack?years, daily consumption, and time since cessation, with subclinical atherosclerosis at 4 anatomically distinct vascular ...

  12. Ionospheric drift measurements: Skymap points selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Daniel; Boška, Josef; Galkin, I. A.; Santolík, Ondřej; Šauli, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2008), RS1S90/1-RS1S90/11 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/1619; GA ČR GA205/06/1267; GA AV ČR IAA300420504 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC 296; MIERS(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : digisonde drift measurement * plasma drift * radio sounding * ionosphere * Doppler shift * skymap processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2008 http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/2007RS003633.shtml

  13. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  14. Dew point measurement technique utilizing fiber cut reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostritskii, S. M.; Dikevich, A. A.; Korkishko, Yu. N.; Fedorov, V. A.

    2009-05-01

    The fiber optical dew point hygrometer based on change of reflection coefficient for fiber cut has been developed and examined. We proposed and verified the model of condensation detector functioning principle. Experimental frost point measurements on air with different frost points have been performed.

  15. Measures of Noncircularity and Fixed Points of Contractive Multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In analogy to the Eisenfeld-Lakshmikantham measure of nonconvexity and the Hausdorff measure of noncompactness, we introduce two mutually equivalent measures of noncircularity for Banach spaces satisfying a Cantor type property, and apply them to establish a fixed point theorem of Darbo type for multifunctions. Namely, we prove that every multifunction with closed values, defined on a closed set and contractive with respect to any one of these measures, has the origin as a fixed point.

  16. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John, E-mail: conor_mcgrath@bat.co [British American Tobacco, Group R and D Centre, Southampton, SO15 8TL (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  17. Characterizing the solar reflection from wildfire smoke plumes using airborne multiangle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Varnai, T.; Gautam, R.; Poudyal, R.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    To help better understand forest fire smoke plumes, this study examines sunlight reflected from plumes that were observed over Canada during the ARCTAS campaign in summer 2008. In particular, the study analyzes multiangle and multispectral measurements of smoke scattering by the airborne Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR). In combination with other in-situ and remote sensing information and radiation modeling, CAR data is used for characterizing the radiative properties and radiative impact of smoke particles—which inherently depend on smoke particle properties that influence air quality. In addition to estimating the amount of reflected and absorbed sunlight, the work includes using CAR data to create spectral and broadband top-of-atmosphere angular distribution models (ADMs) of solar radiation reflected by smoke plumes, and examining the sensitivity of such angular models to scene parameters. Overall, the results help better understand the radiative properties and radiative effects of smoke particles, and are anticipated to help better interpret satellite data on smoke plumes.

  18. Real-time measurement of inhaled and exhaled cigarette smoke: Implications for dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of 150 -- 250 nm count median diameter (CMD). Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, the average CMD of inhaled smoke was 160 nm while the average CMD of exhaled smoke was 239 nm with an average growth factor of 1.5.

  19. Voluntary Smoke-Free Measures Among Oklahoma Nightlife Owners: Barriers and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson; McQuoid, Julia; Sheon, Nicolas; Olson, Sarah; Ling, Pamela M

    2018-03-01

    Smoke-free policies prevent exposure to secondhand smoke and encourage tobacco cessation. Local smoke-free policies that are more comprehensive than statewide policies are not allowed in states with preemption, including Oklahoma, which has the sixth highest smoking prevalence in the United States. In states with preemption, voluntary smoke-free measures are encouraged, but little research exists on venue owners' and managers' views of such measures, particularly in nightlife businesses such as bars and nightclubs. This article draws from semistructured interviews with 23 Oklahoma bar owners and managers, examining perceived risks and benefits of adopting voluntary smoke-free measures in their venues. No respondents expressed awareness of preemption. Many reported that smoke-free bars and nightclubs were an inevitable societal trend, particularly as younger customers increasingly expected smoke-free venues. Business benefits such as decreased operating and cleaning costs, improved atmosphere, and employee efficiency were more convincing than improved employee health. Concerns that voluntary measures created an uneven playing field among venues competing for customers formed a substantial barrier to voluntary measures. Other barriers included concerns about lost revenue and fear of disloyalty to customers, particularly older smokers. Addressing business benefits and a level playing field may increase support for voluntary smoke-free nightlife measures.

  20. Fine particulate matter measurements in Swiss restaurants, cafés and bars: what is the effect of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.; Kooijman, C.; Breuer, M.; Bohler, P.; Zund, T.; Wenk, S.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed 124 measurements of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in 95 hospitality venues such as restaurants, bars, cafés, and a disco, which had differing smoking regulations. We evaluated the impact of spatial separation between smoking and non-smoking areas on mean PM(2.5) concentration, taking

  1. Exposure to point-of-sale displays and changes in susceptibility to smoking: findings from a cohort study of school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Szatkowski, Lisa; McNeill, Ann; Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Britton, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association between frequency of visiting shops and noticing of tobacco point-of-sale (PoS) displays and the development of susceptibility to smoking, or smoking uptake, in secondary school students. Two surveys of a school based cohort study carried out in 2011 and 2012. Nottinghamshire, UK. A total of 2270 children aged 11-16 years from eight schools in Nottinghamshire. We investigated changes in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status in relation to frequency of visiting shops and noticing PoS displays and number of tobacco brands recognized, controlling for a range of potential confounders. Susceptibility to smoking was defined using a set of three questions covering intentions to try smoking, to smoke within the next year and likelihood of smoking if a best friend offered a cigarette. For the analysis we used multinomial logistic regression. Among non-susceptible never smokers, noticing PoS displays more frequently was associated independently with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking [adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) = 1.74; 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.69], but was not associated with smoking uptake. Recognizing a higher number of brands among non-susceptible never smokers doubled the risk of becoming susceptible to smoking and of becoming a smoker, but this did not have a significant effect on transition to smoking among susceptible never smokers. Frequency of noticing tobacco PoS displays was not associated significantly with smoking uptake among those who were susceptible never smokers at baseline. Noticing tobacco point-of-sale displays more often and recognizing a higher number of tobacco brands is associated with an increased risk of becoming susceptible to smoking among adolescents in the United Kingdom, and recognizing a higher number of brands is associated positively with an increased risk of smoking uptake. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  3. Dew-point measurements at high water vapour pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomperski, S.; Dreier, J.

    1996-05-01

    A dew-point meter capable of measuring humidity at high vapour pressure and high temperature has been constructed and tested. Humidity measurements in pure steam were made over the temperature range 100 - 1500957-0233/7/5/003/img1C and a vapour pressure range of 1 - 4 bar. The dew-point meter performance was assessed by comparing measurements with a pressure transmitter and agreement between the two was within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity. Humidity measurements in steam - air mixtures were also made and the dew-point meter readings were compared to those of a zirconia oxygen sensor. For these tests the dew-point meter readings were generally within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity of the oxygen sensor measurements.

  4. Geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco: real-time craving and smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Thomas R; Cantrell, Jennifer; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Ganz, Ollie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the association between point-of-sale marketing and behavior, because methods that directly link individual-level use outcomes to real-world point-of-sale exposure are only now beginning to be developed. Daily outcomes during smoking cessation were examined as a function of both real-time geospatial exposure to point-of-sale tobacco (POST) and subjective craving to smoke. Continuous individual geospatial location data collected over the first month of a smoking-cessation attempt in 2010-2012 (N=475) were overlaid on a POST outlet geodatabase (N=1060). Participants' mobility data were used to quantify the number of times they came into contact with a POST outlet. Participants recorded real-time craving levels and smoking status via ecological momentary assessment (EMA) on cellular telephones. The final data set spanned a total of 12,871 days of EMA and geospatial tracking. Lapsing was significantly more likely on days with any POST contact (OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.18, 1.20), and increasingly likely as the number of daily POST contacts increased (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.06, 1.08). Overall, daily POST exposure was significantly associated with lapsing when craving was low (OR=1.22, 95% CI=1.20, 1.23); high levels of craving were more directly associated with lapse outcomes. These data shed light on the way mobility patterns drive a dynamic interaction between individuals and the POST environment, demonstrating that quantification of individuals' exposure to POST marketing can be used to identify previously unrecognized patterns of association among individual mobility, the built environment, and behavioral outcomes. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  5. Automatic continuous dew point measurement in combustion gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1986-08-01

    Low exhaust temperatures serve to minimize energy consumption in combustion systems. This requires accurate, continuous measurement of exhaust condensation. An automatic dew point meter for continuous operation is described. The principle of measurement, the design of the measuring system, and practical aspects of operation are discussed.

  6. [Current status and issues of anti-smoking measures in the workplace in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mayumi Saito

    2014-02-01

    Compared with developed foreign countries, anti-smoking measures in Japan is lagging behind. As a country that has signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should be run the appropriate tobacco control. For example, in many stores of the service industry that smoking is allowed, employees are working while being exposed to second-hand smoke. Even in workplace air polluted environment, employees will not be able to leave there. Such a harsh environment to ignore health and safety, it must be eliminated as soon as possible. In order to protect the health of workers, the workplace should be smoke free.

  7. A quartz crystal microbalance dew point sensor without frequency measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohua; Zhang, Weishuo; Wang, Shuo; Sun, Jinglin

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the design of a dew point sensor based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) without measuring the frequency. This idea is inspired by the fact that the Colpitts oscillation circuit will stop oscillating when the QCM works in the liquid media. The quartz crystal and the electrode are designed through the finite element simulation and the stop oscillating experiment is conducted to verify the sensibility. Moreover, the measurement result is calibrated to approach the true value. At last a series of dew points at the same temperature is measured with the designed sensor. Results show that the designed dew point sensor is able to detect the dew point with the proper accuracy.

  8. Social Facilitation Expectancies for Smoking: Psychometric Properties of a New Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Myers, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Expectancies about social outcomes for smoking are relevant to college student smokers, who frequently report "social smoking." A new measure, the Social Facilitation Expectancies (SFE) scale, was developed to assess these beliefs. Participants: The SFE was administered to undergraduate college student smokers ("N" =…

  9. Effect of cigarette smoke on the measured equivalent volume activity of 222Rn in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckova, S.; Tykva, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke in air on the increase of the measured equivalent volume activity of 222 Rn is demonstrated. After introduction of the smoke from one cigarette into 1 m 3 of air, this value increased up to ten times as shown be the method of sucking air through a filter. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  10. INDIAN POINT REACTOR REACTIVITY AND FLUX DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batch, M. L.; Fischer, F. E.

    1963-11-15

    The reactivity of the Indian Point core was measured near zero reactivity at various shim and control rod patterns. Flux distribution measurements were also made, and the results are expressed in terms of power peaking factors and normalized detector response during rod withdrawal. (D.L.C.)

  11. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...... using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations....

  12. [Second-hand smoke exposure in hospitality venues in Barcelona: measurement of respirable particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; López, María José; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Fernández, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the concentration of respirable particles equal to or smaller than 2.5μm (PM(2.5)) as a marker of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of hospitality venues in Barcelona 2 years after the Spanish smoking law came into effect. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study from October to December 2007. The study population consisted of 40 hospitality venues in Barcelona selected by a random route sampling, with representation of the different types of smoking regulation included in the law (smoking allowed, smoking ban and venues with smoking areas). SHS levels were quantified by measuring PM(2.5) concentrations, which were measured using a laser photometer (Side Pack AM 510 Personal Aerosol Monitor). The measurements were carried out for 5 minutes outside the venue and for 30 minutes inside the venue. In addition, observational variables related to the characteristics of the venue and signs of tobacco consumption were recorded. The concentration of PM(2.5) in venues where smoking was still allowed was five times higher than that in venues where smoking was banned (182μg/m(3) and 34μg/m(3), respectively) and exceeded the concentration established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as harmful (35μg/m(3)). However, in venues where smoking was banned, the concentration was lower than the EPA standard and there were no significant differences with the outdoor PM(2.5) concentration. Two years after the introduction of the Spanish smoking law, SHS exposure in venues where smoking was allowed was q still very high, representing a significant health risk for hospitality workers. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Noise evaluation of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maculotti, Giacomo; Feng, Xiaobing; Galetto, Maurizio; Leach, Richard

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography measuring instrument is evaluated, as the first step towards establishing a route to traceability for this type of instrument. The evaluation is based on the determination of the metrological characteristics for noise as outlined in draft ISO specification standards by using a calibrated optical flat. The static noise and repeatability of the autofocus sensor are evaluated. The influence of environmental disturbances on the measured surface topography and the built-in software to compensate for such influences are also investigated. The instrument was found to have a measurement noise of approximately 2 nm or, when expressed with the measurement bandwidth, 0.4 nm for a single-point measurement.

  14. Tobacco smoking: How far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, Ram C.

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003” which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended. PMID:22556442

  15. The dynamics of smoking-related disturbed methylation: a two time-point study of methylation change in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory; Wahl, Simone; Pfeiffer, Liliane; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Kunze, Sonja; Kretschmer, Anja; Reischl, Eva; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie

    2017-10-18

    The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large-scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. Here, through the use of the Illumina 450K BeadChip and data collected at two time-points separated by approximately 7 years, we investigate changes in methylation over time associated with quitting smoking or remaining a former smoker, and those associated with continued smoking. Our results indicate that after quitting smoking the most rapid reversion of altered methylation occurs within the first two decades, with reversion rates related to the initial differences in methylation. For 52 CpG sites, the change in methylation from baseline to follow-up is significantly different for former smokers relative to the change for never smokers (lowest p-value 3.61 x 10 -39 for cg26703534, gene AHRR). Most of these sites' respective regions have been previously implicated in smoking-associated diseases. Despite the early rapid change, dynamism of methylation appears greater in former smokers vs never smokers even four decades after cessation. Furthermore, our study reveals the heterogeneous effect of continued smoking: the methylation levels of some loci further diverge between smokers and non-smokers, while others re-approach. Though intensity of smoking habit appears more significant than duration, results remain inconclusive. This study improves the understanding of the dynamic link between cigarette smoking and methylation, revealing the continued fluctuation of methylation levels decades after smoking cessation and demonstrating that continuing smoking can have an array of effects. The results can facilitate insights into the molecular mechanisms behind smoking-induced disturbed methylation, improving the possibility for development of biomarkers of past smoking behavior and increasing the understanding of

  16. Scattering analysis of point processes and random measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    In the present paper scattering analysis of point processes and random measures is studied. Known formulae which connect the scattering intensity with the pair distribution function of the studied structures are proved in a rigorous manner with tools of the theory of point processes and random measures. For some special fibre processes the scattering intensity is computed. For a class of random measures, namely for 'grain-germ-models', a new formula is proved which yields the pair distribution function of the 'grain-germ-model' in terms of the pair distribution function of the underlying point process (the 'germs') and of the mean structure factor and the mean squared structure factor of the particles (the 'grains'). (author)

  17. Two-Gyro Pointing Stability of HST measured with ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Riess, Adam; Sirianni, Marco; Biretta, John; Pavlovsky

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of the pointing stability tests for HST, as measured with the ACS/ HRC during the Two-Gyro test program conducted in February 2005. We measure the shifts of 185 exposures of the globular clusters NGC6341 and Omega Centauri, obtained over a total of 13 orbits, and compare the measured pointings to those that were commanded in the observing program. We find in all cases that the measured shifts and rotations have the same level of accuracy as those that were commanded in three-gyro mode. Specifically, the pointing offsets during an orbit relative to the first exposure can be characterized with distributions having a dispersion of 2.3 milliarcseconds for shifts and 0.00097 degrees for rotations, thus less than 0.1 HRC pixels, and agree extremely well with similar values measured for comparable exposures obtained in three-gyro mode. In addition, we successfully processed these two-gyro test data through the MultiDrizzle software which is used in the HST pipeline to perform automated registration, cosmic ray rejection and image combination for multiple exposure sequences, and we find excellent agreement with similar exposures obtained in three-gyro mode. In summary, we find no significant difference between the quality of HST pointing as measured from these two-gyro test data, relative to the nominal behavior of HST in regular three-gyro operations.

  18. Impact on smoking of England's 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; McNeill, Ann; West, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A partial tobacco point of sale (PoS) display ban was introduced in large shops (>280 m 2 floor area) in England on 6 April 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term effects of the partial tobacco PoS display ban on smoking in England. Data were used from 129 957 respondents participating in monthly, cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of the English adult population aged 18+ years from January 2009 to February 2015. Interrupted-time series regression models assessed step changes in the level of current smoking and cigarette consumption in smokers and changes in the trends postban compared with preban. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and e-cigarette use, seasonality and autocorrelation. Potential confounding by cigarette price was accounted for by time, as price was almost perfectly correlated with time. Following the display ban, there was no immediate step level change in smoking (-3.69% change, 95% CI -7.94 to 0.75, p=0.102) or in cigarette consumption (β -0.183, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.236). There was a significantly steeper decline in smoking post display ban (-0.46% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001). This effect was demonstrated by respondents in manual occupations (-0.62% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001), but not for those in non-manual occupations (-0.42, 95% CI -0.90 to 0.06, p=0.084). Cigarette consumption declined preban period (β -0.486, 95% CI -0.633 to -0.339, p<0.001), but no significant change in cigarette consumption trend was observed (β 0.019, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.042, p=0.131). The partial tobacco PoS display ban introduced in England in April 2012 did not lead to an immediate decline in smoking, but was followed by a decline in the trend of smoking prevalence that could not be accounted for by seasonal factors, e-cigarette use or price changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  20. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  1. Legibility Evaluation Using Point-of-regard Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Saito, Masao

    Web site visibility has become important because of the rapid dissemination of World Wide Web, and combinations of foreground and background colors are crucial in providing high visibility. In our previous studies, the visibilities of several web-safe color combinations were examined using a psychological method. In those studies, simple stimuli were used because of experimental restriction. In this paper, legibility of sentences on web sites was examined using a psychophisiological method, point-of-regard measurement, to obtain other practical data. Ten people with normal color sensations ranging from ages 21 to 29 were recruited. The number of characters per line in each page was arranged in the same number, and the four representative achromatic web-safe colors, that is, #000000, #666666, #999999 and #CCCCCC, were examined. The reading time per character and the gaze time per line were obtained from point-of-regard measurement, and the normalized with the reading time and the gaze time of the three colors were calculated and compared. As the results, it was shown that the time of reading and gaze become long at the same ratio when the contrast decreases by point-of-regard measurement. Therefore, it was indicated that the legibility of color combinations could be estimated by point-of-regard measurement.

  2. Micro-four-point Probe Hall effect Measurement method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    barriers and with a magnetic field applied normal to the plane of the sheet. Based on this potential, analytical expressions for the measured four-point resistance in presence of a magnetic field are derived for several simple sample geometries. We show how the sheet resistance and Hall effect...

  3. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-10-01

    We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17, 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors' access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.

  4. Self-control, future orientation, smoking, and the impact of Dutch tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The pronounced discrepancy between smokers' intentions to quit and their smoking behavior has led researchers to suggest that many smokers are time inconsistent, have self-control problems, and may benefit from external efforts to constrain their consumption. This study aims to test whether self-control and future orientation predict smoking levels and to identify if these traits modify how cigarette consumption responds to the introduction of tobacco control measures. A sample of Dutch adults (N = 1585) completed a measure of self-control and the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS) in 2001 and indicated their tobacco consumption each year from 2001 to 2007. In 2004, a workplace smoking ban and substantial tax increase on tobacco was introduced in the Netherlands. To identify the potential impact of these tobacco control measures we examined whether participants smoked or were heavy smokers (20 + cigarettes per day) each year from 2001 to 2007. Participants with high self-control and CFCS scores showed lower rates of smoking across the seven year period of the study. The 2004 smoking restrictions were linked with a subsequent decline in heavy smoking. This decline was moderated by self-control levels. Those with low self-control showed a large reduction in heavy smoking whereas those with high self-control did not. The effects were, however, temporary: many people with low self-control resumed heavy smoking 2-3 years after the introduction of the tobacco restrictions. The immediate costs which national tobacco control measures impose on smokers may assist smokers with poor self-control in reducing their cigarette consumption.

  5. Practical experience with measurement of diesel engine smoke pursuant to ECE-R 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittrich, W

    1975-01-01

    Since the ECE regulation 24 demands that diesel smoke of automobiles be measured with opacimeters or units yielding equivalent results, the smoke density of diesel engines was measured with opacimeters and filter units for comparison. Conversion tables, comparative curves, and calculations are provided permitting the conversion of grey tones into opacity units with an accuracy sufficient for practical use. The correlation of measurements obtained with the filters and opacimeters was studied during operation at constant full load and at free acceleration. A relationship could be found in most cases; however, it provided no basis for setting up correlations. Finally, smoke characteristics of induction diesel engines were compared with supercharged engines at different geographical altitudes, based upon practical road tests in the Grossglockner mountains. A linear smoke increase with increasing altitude or decreasing air density was observed.

  6. Validation of English-language versions of three scales measuring attitudes towards smoking, smoking-related self-efficacy and the use of smoking cessation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Derek H; Etter, Jean-François

    2005-06-01

    To assess the validity of English translations of three scales initially developed in French, measuring perception of the adverse effects of smoking, self-efficacy and the use of smoking cessation strategies. Between 1999 and 2001, 5667 people from 97 countries (4724 smokers and 943 ex-smokers) answered the scales on the internet, of which 997 (18%) took part in a follow-up 86 days later. The factor structures of the scales were generally maintained after translation. Internal consistency coefficients were 0.5-0.9. Test-retest reliability was >0.7 for the "Adverse effects" and self-efficacy scales, but was low (0.2-0.4) for self-change strategies, which probably reflects active use of these strategies in this sample. The translated scales performed adequately in most tests of construct validity. In particular, higher self-efficacy ratings predicted smoking cessation at follow-up, and a lower self-efficacy predicted relapse in baseline ex-smokers. The validity of the scales was maintained after translation in English.

  7. Four-point potential drop measurements for materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The technique of measuring the voltage difference (potential drop) between two of the four electrodes of a four-point probe, in order to determine conductivity or surface resistivity of a test piece, is well established in the direct-current (dc) or quasi-dc regime. The technique finds wide usage in the semiconductor industry for the purpose of measuring surface resistivity of semiconductors, and also in the measurement of conductivity of metals, particularly of ferromagnetic metals for which conductivity cannot be easily measured using eddy-current nondestructive evaluation (NDE). In these applications, the conductivity of the test piece is deduced from an analytic formula that depends on the geometry of the probe and test piece. Such a formula requires, as an input, the measured value of the potential drop. Several analytical expressions exist for a variety of test-piece geometries and probe arrangements. Recently, it has been shown that broadband measurements of the potential drop, known as 'alternating current potential drop' (ac PD) measurements, can be used not only to obtain the conductivity of a test piece, but also its linear permeability μ. The beauty of this measurement is that the two parameters are completely decoupled in the quasi-static regime. In fact, μ does not appear in the quasi-static expression for σ. Hence, σ may be obtained from low-frequency ac PD measurements and then μ may be deduced as the frequency increases beyond the quasi-static regime, once σ is known. In this review, both dc and ac solutions that are useful in determining the conductivity of metals and semiconductors, and the permeability of ferromagnetic conductors, are summarized. In particular, flat test pieces with arbitrary thickness are considered. At the next level of complexity, a solution for a half-space coated with a surface layer is given, along with a discussion of the use of the four-point potential drop method for determining thickness of a surface layer, such

  8. "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, F.; Ivey, M.; Hardesty, J.; Roesler, E. L.; Dexheimer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific Infrastructure To Support Atmospheric Science, Aerosol Science and UAS's for The Department Of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs At The Mobile Facility 3 Located At Oliktok Point, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility 3 (AMF3) located at Oliktok Point, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site designed to collect data and help determine the impact that clouds and aerosols have on solar radiation. AMF3 provides a scientific infrastructure to support instruments and collect arctic data for the international arctic research community. The infrastructure at AMF3/Oliktok is designed to be mobile and it may be relocated in the future to support other ARM science missions. AMF3's present base line instruments include: scanning precipitation Radars, cloud Radar, Raman Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Balloon sounding system, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL) Along with all the standard metrological measurements. In addition AMF3 provides aerosol measurements with a Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS). Ground support for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and tethered balloon flights. Data from these instruments and systems are placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments and systems are at the ARM Research Facility at Oliktok Point Alaska.

  9. Exceptional points and quantum correlations in precise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilagam, A

    2012-01-01

    We examine the physical manifestations of exceptional points and passage times in a two-level system which is subjected to quantum measurements and which admits a non-Hermitian description. Using an effective Hamiltonian acting in the two-dimensional space spanned by the evolving initial and final states, the effects of highly precise quantum measurements in which the monitoring device interferes significantly with the evolution dynamics of the monitored two-level system is analyzed. The dynamics of a multipartite system consisting of the two-level system, a source of external potential and the measurement device is examined using correlation measures such as entanglement and non-classical quantum correlations. Results show that the quantum correlations between the monitored (monitoring) systems is considerably decreased (increased) as the measurement precision nears the exceptional point, at which the passage time is half of the measurement duration. The results indicate that the underlying mechanism by which the non-classical correlations of quantum systems are transferred from one subsystem to another may be better revealed via use of geometric approaches. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  10. The association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the natural history of smoking who also completed a web-based assessment of implicit attitudes toward smoking (N = 1,337). Multiple regression was used to test the association between covariates (sex, age, educational attainment, parent status, and smoking status), implicit attitude toward smoking, and explicit attitude toward smoking and support for tobacco control policies. The moderating effect of the covariates on the relation between attitudes and support for policies was also tested. Females, those with higher educational attainment, parents, and nonsmokers expressed more support for tobacco control policy measures. For nonsmokers, only explicit attitude was significantly associated with support for policies. For smokers, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significantly associated with support. The effect of explicit attitude was stronger for those with lower educational attainment. Both explicit and implicit smoking attitudes are important for building support for tobacco control policies, particularly among smokers. More research is needed on how to influence explicit and implicit attitudes to inform policy advocacy campaigns.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of fine particles and smoking activity in a statewide survey of 36 California Indian casinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ru O-Ting; Cheng, Ka I-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Klepeis, Neil E; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2011-01-01

    Despite California's 1994 statewide smoking ban, exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) continues in California's Indian casinos. Few data are available on exposure to airborne fine particles (PM2.5) in casinos, especially on a statewide basis. We sought to measure PM2.5 concentrations in Indian casinos widely distributed across California, exploring differences due to casino size, separation of smoking and non-smoking areas, and area smoker density. A selection of 36 out of the 58 Indian casinos throughout California were each visited for 1–3 h on weekend or holiday evenings, using two or more concealed monitors to measure PM2.5 concentrations every 10 s. For each casino, the physical dimensions and the number of patrons and smokers were estimated. As a preliminary assessment of representativeness, we also measured eight casinos in Reno, NV. The average PM2.5 concentration for the smoking slot machine areas (63 μg/m3) was nine times as high as outdoors (7 μg/m3), whereas casino non-smoking restaurants (29 μg/m3) were four times as high. Levels in non-smoking slot machine areas varied: complete physical separation reduced concentrations almost to outdoor levels, but two other separation types had mean levels that were 13 and 29 μg/m3, respectively, higher than outdoors. Elevated PM2.5 concentrations in casinos can be attributed primarily to SHS. Average PM2.5 concentrations during 0.5–1 h visits to smoking areas exceeded 35 μg/m3 for 90% of the casino visits. PMID:20160761

  13. Integrated CMOS dew point sensors for relative humidity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Nicolo; Baglio, Salvatore; Castorina, Salvatore; Sacco, Vincenzo; Tringali, Cristina

    2004-07-01

    This work deals with the development of integrated relative humidity dew point sensors realized by adopting standard CMOS technology for applications in various fields. The proposed system is composed by a suspended plate that is cooled by exploiting integrated Peltier cells. The cold junctions of the cells have been spread over the plate surface to improve the homogeneity of the temperature distribution over its surface, where cooling will cause the water condensation. The temperature at which water drops occur, named dew point temperature, is a function of the air humidity. Measurement of such dew point temperature and the ambient temperature allows to know the relative humidity. The detection of water drops is achieved by adopting a capacitive sensing strategy realized by interdigited fixed combs, composed by the upper layer of the adopted process. Such a capacitive sensor, together with its conditioning circuit, drives a trigger that stops the cooling of the plate and enables the reading of the dew point temperature. Temperature measurements are achieved by means of suitably integrated thermocouples. The analytical model of the proposed system has been developed and has been used to design a prototype device and to estimate its performances. In such a prototype, the thermoelectric cooler is composed by 56 Peltier cells, made by metal 1/poly 1 junctions. The plate has a square shape with 200 μm side, and it is realized by exploiting the oxide layers. Starting from the ambient temperature a temperature variation of ΔT = 15 K can be reached in 10 ms thus allowing to measure a relative humidity greater than 40%.

  14. Validation of Am-241 measurement in ion chamber type smoke detector by using gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Khairul Nizam Razali

    2005-01-01

    Smoke detectors are useful devices in modern days that able to save many lives. Even though, the use of ion chamber type smoke detector (usually contain Americium-241) was exempted in Malaysia, but the trading of this device was controlled by regulation, under the Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304). The activity of the Am-241 can be measured by using the Gamma Spectrometry System since it was much easier, compared to Alpha Spectrometry System. To do so, the system was first need to be calibrated using the standard reference source to find the efficiency of the germanium detector. The method used for the measurement was first validated for several relevant parameters, which include specificity, precision (repeatability), bias (accuracy), linearity, working range, detection limit, robustness and ruggedness to ensure it was fit for the purpose. The measured Am-241 activity inside the smoke detector will be reported together with a reasonable expanded uncertainty arise from the measurement. (Author)

  15. 40 CFR 86.1372-2007 - Measuring smoke emissions within the NTE zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... internal combustion compression-ignition engines—Apparatus for measurement of the opacity and for... percent opacity for a five inch effective optical path length using the Beer-Lambert relationship. (2.../FDIS-10054 “Internal combustion compression-ignition engines—Measurement apparatus for smoke from...

  16. Feasibility of Measuring Tobacco Smoke Air Pollution in Homes: Report from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rosen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke air pollution (TSAP measurement may persuade parents to adopt smoke-free homes and thereby reduce harm to children from tobacco smoke in the home. In a pilot study involving 29 smoking families, a Sidepak was used to continuously monitor home PM2.5 during an 8-h period, Sidepak and/or Dylos monitors provided real-time feedback, and passive nicotine monitors were used to measure home air nicotine for one week. Feedback was provided to participants in the context of motivational interviews. Home PM2.5 levels recorded by continuous monitoring were not well-accepted by participants because of the noise level. Also, graphs from continuous monitoring showed unexplained peaks, often associated with sources unrelated to indoor smoking, such as cooking, construction, or outdoor sources. This hampered delivery of a persuasive message about the relationship between home smoking and TSAP. By contrast, immediate real-time PM2.5 feedback (with Sidepak or Dylos monitor was feasible and provided unambiguous information; the Dylos had the additional advantages of being more economical and quieter. Air nicotine sampling was complicated by the time-lag for feedback and questions regarding shelf-life. Improvement in the science of TSAP measurement in the home environment is needed to encourage and help maintain smoke-free homes and protect vulnerable children. Recent advances in the use of mobile devices for real-time feedback are promising and warrant further development, as do accurate methods for real-time air nicotine air monitoring.

  17. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemeier, N.P.

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au)

  18. Flow speed measurement using two-point collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeier, N.P

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of turbulence in plasmas and fluids using the technique of collective light scattering have always been plagued by very poor spatial resolution. In 1994, a novel two-point collective light scattering system for the measurement of transport in a fusion plasma was proposed. This diagnostic method was design for a great improvement of the spatial resolution, without sacrificing accuracy in the velocity measurement. The system was installed at the W7-AS steallartor in Garching, Germany, in 1996, and has been operating since. This master thesis is an investigation of the possible application of this new method to the measurement of flow speeds in normal fluids, in particular air, although the results presented in this work have significance for the plasma measurements as well. The main goal of the project was the experimental verification of previous theoretical predictions. However, the theoretical considerations presented in the thesis show that the method can only be hoped to work for flows that are almost laminar and shearless, which makes it of very small practical interest. Furthermore, this result also implies that the diagnostic at W7-AS cannot be expected to give the results originally hoped for. (au) 1 tab., 51 ills., 29 refs.

  19. Accuracy enhancement of point triangulation probes for linear displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Oh, SeBaek; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun

    2000-03-01

    Point triangulation probes (PTBs) fall into a general category of noncontact height or displacement measurement devices. PTBs are widely used for their simple structure, high resolution, and long operating range. However, there are several factors that must be taken into account in order to obtain high accuracy and reliability; measurement errors from inclinations of an object surface, probe signal fluctuations generated by speckle effects, power variation of a light source, electronic noises, and so on. In this paper, we propose a novel signal processing algorithm, named as EASDF (expanded average square difference function), for a newly designed PTB which is composed of an incoherent source (LED), a line scan array detector, a specially selected diffuse reflecting surface, and several optical components. The EASDF, which is a modified correlation function, is able to calculate displacement between the probe and the object surface effectively even if there are inclinations, power fluctuations, and noises.

  20. Precise pointing knowledge for SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bramstedt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to precisely determine the viewing direction for solar occultation instruments from scans over the solar disk. Basic idea is the fit of the maximum intensity during the scan, which corresponds to the center of the solar disk in the scanning direction. We apply this method to the solar occultation measurements of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY, which scans the Sun in elevation direction. The achieved mean precision is 0.46 mdeg, which corresponds to an tangent height error of about 26 m for individual occultation sequences. The deviation of the derived elevation angle from the geolocation information given along with the product has a seasonal cycle with an amplitude of 2.26 mdeg, which is in tangent height an amplitude of about 127 m. The mean elevation angle offset is −4.41 mdeg (249 m. SCIAMACHY's sun follower device controls the azimuth viewing direction during the occultation measurements. The derived mean azimuth direction has an standard error of 0.65 mdeg, which is about 36 m in horizontal direction at the tangent point. We observe also a seasonal cycle of the azimuth mispointing with an amplitude of 2.3 mdeg, which is slightly increasing with time. The almost constant mean offset is 88 mdeg, which is about 5.0 km horizontal offset at the tangent point.

  1. Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Rubinstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14–25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Overall, 144 (38.7% self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9% of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1 mg/dL; P<0.01 and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P=0.03. There was no difference between smokers and nonsmokers in fasting glucose or BMD. There appear to be only minimal effects from tobacco smoking on markers of cardiac risk and bone health in this population of HIV-positive youth. While these smokers may not have had sufficient exposure to tobacco to detect changes in the outcome measures, given the long-term risks associated with smoking and HIV, it is critical that we encourage HIV-positive youth smokers to quit before the deleterious effects become apparent.

  2. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Smoking Marihuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the construction and validity of a scale to measure student attitudes toward marihuana. The scale could be used as a means to select the best presentation for drug education in schools. (KH)

  4. The Dynamics of Smoking-Related Disturbed Methylation: A Two Time-Point Study of Methylation Change in Smokers, Non-Smokers and Former Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The evidence for epigenome-wide associations between smoking and DNA methylation continues to grow through cross-sectional studies. However, few large­ scale investigations have explored the associations using observations for individuals at multiple time-points. ...

  5. Four-point probe measurements using current probes with voltage feedback to measure electric potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, Felix; Cuma, David; Korte, Stefan; Cherepanov, Vasily; Voigtländer, Bert

    2018-02-01

    We present a four-point probe resistance measurement technique which uses four equivalent current measuring units, resulting in minimal hardware requirements and corresponding sources of noise. Local sample potentials are measured by a software feedback loop which adjusts the corresponding tip voltage such that no current flows to the sample. The resulting tip voltage is then equivalent to the sample potential at the tip position. We implement this measurement method into a multi-tip scanning tunneling microscope setup such that potentials can also be measured in tunneling contact, allowing in principle truly non-invasive four-probe measurements. The resulting measurement capabilities are demonstrated for \

  6. [Real-time measurement of indoor particulate matter originating from environmental tobacco smoke: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Giovanni; Ruprecht, Ario; Mazza, Roberto; Majno, Edoardo; Rossetti, Edoardo; Paredi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Short-term measurement of suspended particulate matter has been recently made possible since the release of laser-operating portable instruments. Data of a pilot study of field evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) with a portable instrument are reported. We analysed the concentrations of total suspended particle (TSP) and of the fine particles PM10, PM7, PM2.5 and PM1 released indoor from a single cigarette, and their levels inside smoking- and non-smoking-areas of a restaurant. The results indicate that ETS creates high level indoor particulate pollution, with concentrations of PM10 exceeding air quality standards. This kind of field evaluation could allow a more careful assessing of short-term exposure to ETS and its relevance to public health.

  7. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  8. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Materials and Methods Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Results Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). Conclusion The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy. PMID:26996576

  9. Monitoring an outdoor smoking area by means of PM2.5 measurement and vegetal biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    The extension of pollutant accumulation in plant leaves associated with its genotoxicity is a common approach to predict the quality of outdoor environments. However, this approach has not been used to evaluate the environmental quality of outdoor smoking areas. This study aims to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by assessing particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) levels, the pollen abortion assay, and trace elements accumulated in plant leaves in an outdoor smoking area of a hospital. For this, PM 2.5 was measured by active monitoring with a real time aerosol monitor for 10 days. Eugenia uniflora trees were used for pollen abortion and accumulated element assays. Accumulated elements were also assessed in Tradescantia pallida leaves. The median concentration of PM 2.5 in the smoking area in all days of monitoring was 66 versus 34 μg/m 3 in the control area (P Eugenia uniflora were in higher concentration in the smoking area when compared to control area. Smoking area also showed higher rate of aborted grains (26.1 ± 10.7 %) compared with control (17.6 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.003). Under the study conditions, vegetal biomonitoring proved to be an effective tool for assessing ETS exposure in outdoor areas. Therefore, vegetal biomonitoring of ETS could be a complement to conventional analyses and also proved to be a cheap and easy-handling tool to assess the risk of ETS exposure in outdoor areas.

  10. Measurement of Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery William

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available D’ordinaire, les furanes et les dioxines chlorés (ci-après dénommées ‘les dioxines’ ne sont pas détectés dans la fumée de cigarette à des niveaux susceptibles de dépasser les limites dites de sécurité recommandées et tracées par les agences de protection de l’environnement et de la santé. Par convention, ces substances sont mesurées selon leur équivalence toxique totale (TEQ. La méthode mise au point par le présent groupe combine la chromatographie en phase gazeuse ultrasensible et la spectrométrie de masse en tandem (GC-MS/MS. Le seuil de détection (LOD a été posé à 4,3 pg TEQ/cigarette, à savoir en-dessous de la norme ISO 3308 relative au tabac et produits du tabac. Les dioxines présentes dans la fumée de cigarette ne sont pas soumises à un quelconque contrôle réglementaire de routine. Cependant, certains congénères de la dioxine sont hautement toxiques et ont été qualifiés par la United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA de constituants nocifs et potentiellement nocifs (HPHC de la fumée de cigarette. Par conséquent se pose la question des modalités de suivi et de mesure de l’incertitude lorsque la (les substance(s à analyser n’apparaissent normalement pas dans la matrice concernée. En l’absence d’une cigarette de référence contenant des niveaux de dioxine supérieurs au seuil de détection, nous avons préparé des éprouvettes contenant des quantités connues de 17 congénères de la dioxine considérés par l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS comme présentant une toxicité significative. Le présent article apporte des données qui concernent les taux de transfert et ont été relevées à l’aide d’une machine à fumer utilisée dans des conditions conformes aux recommandations de Health Canada Intense (HCI et à la norme ISO 3308 (ISO. Par ailleurs, il propose un moyen d’estimer l’incertitude (U en se fondant sur la valeur TEQ. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26

  11. A measure of smoking abstinence-related motivational engagement: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani N; Heckman, Bryan W; Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Although a great deal of research has focused on measuring motivation and readiness to quit smoking, little research has assessed gross motivational changes after a smoker has made an attempt to quit smoking. Unlike previous single-item global measures of motivation to remain abstinent, we developed the abstinence-related motivational engagement (ARME) scale to evaluate the degree to which abstinence motivation is reflected by an ex-smoker's daily experience in areas that include cognitive effort, priority, vigilance, and excitement. The aim of this study was to collect reliability and initial construct validity data on this new measure. Participants were 199 ex-smokers recruited from the community and smoking cessation Web sites. Participants completed online measures including a global motivation measure, the ARME scale, demographic questionnaire, and a measure of cessation self-efficacy. The 16-item ARME questionnaire demonstrated high internal consistency reliability (alpha = .89). Analyses provided support for convergent, discriminant, and construct validity of the scale. ARME demonstrated the predicted correlation with a traditional measure of global cessation motivation, yet, also as predicted, only the ARME was negatively associated with length of abstinence. Moreover, as hypothesized, ex-smokers engaged in the quitting process via ongoing smoking Web site participation showed higher ARME scores than a comparison community sample. A five-item short form demonstrated similar psychometric properties. This study provided initial support for the ARME construct and offers two versions of a reliable instrument for assessing this construct. Future research will examine the ARME as a predictor of cessation outcome and a potential target for relapse prevention.

  12. Distance of Sample Measurement Points to Prototype Catalog Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Perram, John

    2006-01-01

    We discuss strategies for comparing discrete data points to a catalog (reference) curve by means of the Euclidean distance from each point to the curve in a pump's head H vs. flow Qdiagram. In particular we find that a method currently in use is inaccurate. We propose several alternatives...

  13. Measurement of fine breathable particles (PM(2.5)) as a marker of environmental smoke in catering establishments in Zaragoza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, Isabel; Alayeto, Carmen; Córdoba, Rodrigo; López, María José; Nebot, Manel

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the levels of small breathable suspended particles (PM(2.5)) as atmospheric markers of environmental tobacco smoke in catering establishments in Zaragoza, Spain. An observational study was conducted between October 2006 and April 2008 in various catering establishments in Zaragoza. A SidePack Aerosol Monitor (AM510 model) was used to sample and record the levels of breathable suspended particles (PM(2.5)) indoors and outdoors, and the following variables were collected: smoking policy (smoking allowed, completely banned, or partially banned with non-smoking sections, physically separated or not); percentage of smokers and presence of cigarette ends, ashtrays or smokers in non-smoking sections. A total of 111 venues were sampled. The level of PM(2.5) was eight times higher in smoking venues than in non-smoking ones and also higher than outdoors. The correlation between the level of particles and percentage of smokers was 0.61 (P<.01). In the non-smoking sections without physical separation the level of particles was twice as much as outdoors and similar to physically separated smokers sections. Only a complete ban on smoking in all workplaces, including leisure venues, has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and customers health. The measurement of PM(2.5) can be a simple method to assess the presence of environmental tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2010 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Cohort study investigating the effects of first stage of the English tobacco point-of-sale display ban on awareness, susceptibility and smoking uptake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2017-01-23

    A prospective evaluation of the effect of 2012 point-of-sale (PoS) display ban in supermarkets in England on perceived exposure to PoS displays, and on changes in susceptibility and smoking uptake among young people. Cohort study. Seven schools in Nottinghamshire, England. 1035 11-16-year-old school children. Changes in reported exposure to PoS displays before and after prohibition, and the association between exposure to and awareness of PoS displays and change in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status between 2011 and 2012 (before the ban) and 2012 and 2013 (after the ban). The proportion of children noticing tobacco PoS displays in supermarkets most or every time they visited a shop changed little between 2011 and 2012 (59.6% (95% CI 56.6% to 62.6%) and 58.8% (95% CI 55.8% to 61.8%), respectively); but decreased by about 13 percentage points to 45.7% (95% CI 42.7% to 48.7%) in 2013, after the ban. However, after adjusting for confounders, implementation of the first stage of the PoS ban in 2012 did not result in significant changes in the relation between susceptibility to smoking and smoking status and exposure to and awareness of PoS displays. Prohibition of PoS in large supermarkets resulted in a decline in the proportion of young people noticing PoS displays in large shops, but little or no change in smoking uptake or susceptibility. It remains to be seen whether extension of the PoS ban to all shops in 2015 has a more marked effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Analysis of point source size on measurement accuracy of lateral point-spread function of confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shihang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yao; Ding, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) has matured to become one of the most powerful instruments in analytical science because of its molecular sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Compared with conventional Raman Microscopy, CRM can perform three dimensions mapping of tiny samples and has the advantage of high spatial resolution thanking to the unique pinhole. With the wide application of the instrument, there is a growing requirement for the evaluation of the imaging performance of the system. Point-spread function (PSF) is an important approach to the evaluation of imaging capability of an optical instrument. Among a variety of measurement methods of PSF, the point source method has been widely used because it is easy to operate and the measurement results are approximate to the true PSF. In the point source method, the point source size has a significant impact on the final measurement accuracy. In this paper, the influence of the point source sizes on the measurement accuracy of PSF is analyzed and verified experimentally. A theoretical model of the lateral PSF for CRM is established and the effect of point source size on full-width at half maximum of lateral PSF is simulated. For long-term preservation and measurement convenience, PSF measurement phantom using polydimethylsiloxane resin, doped with different sizes of polystyrene microspheres is designed. The PSF of CRM with different sizes of microspheres are measured and the results are compared with the simulation results. The results provide a guide for measuring the PSF of the CRM.

  16. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  17. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To measure reduction in exposure to smoke in two population-based studies of self-reported smoking reduction not using nicotine replacement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of biomarkers and smoking. SETTING: Data from two time-points in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), 1981....../83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  18. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and heart rate variability and inflammation among non-smoking construction workers: a repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming; Fang, Shona C; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C; Cavallari, Jennifer M

    2013-10-02

    Although it has been well recognized that exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with cardiovascular mortality, the mechanisms and time course by which SHS exposure may lead to cardiovascular effects are still being explored. Non-smoking workers were recruited from a local union and monitored inside a union hall while exposed to SHS over approximately 6 hours. Participants were fitted with a continuous electrocardiographic monitor upon enrollment which was removed at the end of a 24-hr monitoring period. A repeated measures study design was used where resting ECGs and blood samples were taken from individuals before SHS exposure (baseline), immediately following SHS exposure (post) and the morning following SHS exposure (next-morning).Inflammatory markers, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC) were analyzed. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed from the ECG recordings in time (SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency (LF, HF) domain parameters over 5-minute periods. SHS exposure was quantified using a personal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor.Linear mixed effects regression models were used to examine within-person changes in inflammatory and HRV parameters across the 3 time periods. Exposure-response relationships with PM2.5 were examined using mixed effects models. All models were adjusted for age, BMI and circadian variation. A total of 32 male non-smokers were monitored between June 2010 and June 2012. The mean PM2.5 from SHS exposure was 132 μg/m3. Immediately following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with declines in HRV (7.8% [standard error (SE) =3%] SDNN, 8.0% (SE = 3.9%) rMSSD, 17.2% (SE = 6.3%) LF, 29.0% (SE = 10.1%) HF) and increases in WBC count 0.42 (SE = 0.14) k/μl. Eighteen hours following SHS exposure, a 100 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 24.2% higher CRP levels. Our study suggest that short-term SHS exposure is associated

  19. Assessing smoking status in disadvantaged populations: is computer administered self report an accurate and acceptable measure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Jamie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.

  20. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Johnson; R.J. Yokelson; S.K. Akagi; I.R. Burling; D.R. Weise; S.P. Urbanski; C.E. Stockwell; J. Reardon; E.N. Lincoln; L.T.M. Profeta; A. Mendoza; M.D.W. Schneider; R.L. Sams; S.D. Williams; C.E. Wold; D.W.T. Griffith; M. Cameron; J.B. Gilman; C. Warneke; J.M. Roberts; P. Veres; W.C. Kuster; J de Gouw

    2014-01-01

    Project RC-1649, "Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns" was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement...

  1. Measuring tobacco smoke exposure: quantifying nicotine/cotinine concentration in biological samples by colorimetry, chromatography and immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Preeti

    2004-04-01

    Procedures to assess tobacco smoke exposure are reviewed and biomarkers used for determining the smoking status of an individual are compared. Methods used to extract these biomarkers from saliva, urine, and blood and the advantages and disadvantages of the assays are discussed. Finally, the procedures used to measure the levels of cortisol, a stress hormone speculated to be linked to nicotine metabolism, are discussed.

  2. Using SMS Text Messaging to Assess Moderators of Smoking Reduction: Validating a New Tool for Ecological Measurement of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T.; Dickenson, Janna; Falk, Emily B.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Understanding the psychological processes that contribute to smoking reduction will yield population health benefits. Negative mood may moderate smoking lapse during cessation, but this relationship has been difficult to measure in ongoing daily experience. We used a novel form of ecological momentary assessment to test a self-control model of negative mood and craving leading to smoking lapse. Design We validated short message service (SMS) text as a user-friendly and low-cost option for ecologically measuring real-time health behaviors. We sent text messages to cigarette smokers attempting to quit eight times daily for the first 21 days of cessation (N-obs = 3,811). Main outcome measures Approximately every two hours, we assessed cigarette count, mood, and cravings, and examined between- and within-day patterns and time-lagged relationships among these variables. Exhaled carbon monoxide was assessed pre- and posttreatment. Results Negative mood and craving predicted smoking two hours later, but craving mediated the mood–smoking relationship. Also, this mediation relationship predicted smoking over the next two, but not four, hours. Conclusion Results clarify conflicting previous findings on the relation between affect and smoking, validate a new low-cost and user-friendly method for collecting fine-grained health behavior assessments, and emphasize the importance of rapid, real-time measurement of smoking moderators. PMID:21401252

  3. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  4. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  5. Temporal patterns of lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - consequences to remediation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of uranium miners conducted since the late 1960s demonstrated that the risk depends on cumulated exposure in terms of working level months (WLM) integrating both duration of exposure and concentration of radon. It has been also demonstrated that the risk from radon decreases with time since exposure. The present analysis of temporal changes of relative risk is based on a model where the total individual exposure is partitioned into components in dependence on time. Exposure to radon is studied in a cohort of 9411 Czech uranium miners with 766 cases of lung cancer and in a residential study of 11 803 inhabitants exposed to radon in houses with 218 cases. In addition, temporal patterns of the risk from smoking are analyzed in a case-control study of patients from a major Prague hospital including 566 cases. For both carcinogens, the relative risk decreases with time since exposure. The risk from exposures before 20-34 years is 36% and 34% in comparison to period 5-19 for smoking and radon, respectively. The effect of exposures from more distant periods 35-49 is only 5% for smoking and 14% for radon in comparison to 5-19 years. This substantial decrease of relative risk with time may contribute to a better evaluation of remediation measures taken in houses and in the cost effectiveness of remediation. Combined effect of smoking and radon is studied by a nested case-control approach including 434 cases and 962 controls. Analyses of the joint effects of smoking and radon, conducted in the occupational and the residential studies, suggest a sub-multiplicative interaction. The relative risk from radon among non-smokers is higher by a factor of 2-3 in comparison to smokers, suggesting different patterns of lung deposition and clearance among smokers and non-smokers. (author)

  6. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, Irina; Rapp, Markus; Strelnikov, Boris; Baumgarten, Gerd; Brattli, Alvin; Svenes, Knut; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Friedrich, Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Williams, Bifford P.

    2009-03-01

    The first sounding rocket of the European ECOMA-project (ECOMA, Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric smoke particles in the middle Atmosphere) was launched on 8 September 2006. Measurements with a new particle detector described in the companion paper by Rapp and Strelnikova [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.002] clearly showed meteor smoke particle (MSP) signatures in both data channels. The data channels measure particles directly impacting on the detector electrode and photoelectrons from the particles actively created using ionization by the UV-photons of a xenon-flashlamp. Measured photoelectron currents resemble model expectations of the shape of the MSP layer almost perfectly, whereas derived number densities in the altitude range 60-90 km are larger than model results by about a factor of 5. Given the large uncertainties inherent to both model and the analysis of our measurements (e.g., the composition of the particles is not known and must be assumed) we consider this a satisfactory agreement and proof that MSPs do extend throughout the entire mesosphere as predicted by models. The measurements of direct particle impacts revealed a confined layer of negative charge between 80 and 90 km. This limited altitude range, however, is quantitatively shown to be the consequence of the aerodynamics of the rocket flight and does not have any geophysical origin. Measured charge signatures are consistent with expectations of particle charging given our own measurements of the background ionization. Unfortunately, however, a contamination of these measurements from triboelectric charging cannot be excluded at this stage.

  7. Automated measurement of pulmonary emphysema and small airway remodeling in cigarette smoke-exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Taylor, Katherine L; Mahadeva, Ravi; Boukedes, Steve S; Owen, Caroline A

    2015-01-16

    COPD is projected to be the third most common cause of mortality world-wide by 2020((1)). Animal models of COPD are used to identify molecules that contribute to the disease process and to test the efficacy of novel therapies for COPD. Researchers use a number of models of COPD employing different species including rodents, guinea-pigs, rabbits, and dogs((2)). However, the most widely-used model is that in which mice are exposed to cigarette smoke. Mice are an especially useful species in which to model COPD because their genome can readily be manipulated to generate animals that are either deficient in, or over-express individual proteins. Studies of gene-targeted mice that have been exposed to cigarette smoke have provided valuable information about the contributions of individual molecules to different lung pathologies in COPD((3-5)). Most studies have focused on pathways involved in emphysema development which contributes to the airflow obstruction that is characteristic of COPD. However, small airway fibrosis also contributes significantly to airflow obstruction in human COPD patients((6)), but much less is known about the pathogenesis of this lesion in smoke-exposed animals. To address this knowledge gap, this protocol quantifies both emphysema development and small airway fibrosis in smoke-exposed mice. This protocol exposes mice to CS using a whole-body exposure technique, then measures respiratory mechanics in the mice, inflates the lungs of mice to a standard pressure, and fixes the lungs in formalin. The researcher then stains the lung sections with either Gill's stain to measure the mean alveolar chord length (as a readout of emphysema severity) or Masson's trichrome stain to measure deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins around small airways (as a readout of small airway fibrosis). Studies of the effects of molecular pathways on both of these lung pathologies will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of COPD.

  8. Tobacco Control Measures to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking: The Necessity, Time-Course Perspective, and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Brunner, Eric

    2018-04-05

    Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smoking inequality itself and to develop strategies to reduce smoking inequality, knowledge of the underlying principles or mechanisms of the inequality over a long time-course may be important. For example, the inverse equity hypothesis recognizes that inequality may evolve in stages. New population-based interventions are initially primarily accessed by the affluent and well-educated, so there is an initial increase in socioeconomic inequality (early stage). These inequalities narrow when the deprived population can access the intervention after the affluent have gained maximum benefit (late stage). Following this hypothesis, all tobacco control measures may have the potential to reduce smoking inequality, if they continue for a long term, covering and reaching all socioeconomic subgroups. Re-evaluation of the impact of the interventions on smoking inequality using a long time-course perspective may lead to a favorable next step in equity effectiveness. Tackling socioeconomic inequality in smoking may be a key public health target for the reduction of inequality in health.

  9. Brauer groups, Tamagawa measures, and rational points on algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnel, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The central theme of this book is the study of rational points on algebraic varieties of Fano and intermediate type--both in terms of when such points exist and, if they do, their quantitative density. The book consists of three parts. In the first part, the author discusses the concept of a height and formulates Manin's conjecture on the asymptotics of rational points on Fano varieties. The second part introduces the various versions of the Brauer group. The author explains why a Brauer class may serve as an obstruction to weak approximation or even to the Hasse principle. This part includes two sections devoted to explicit computations of the Brauer-Manin obstruction for particular types of cubic surfaces. The final part describes numerical experiments related to the Manin conjecture that were carried out by the author together with Andreas-Stephan Elsenhans. The book presents the state of the art in computational arithmetic geometry for higher-dimensional algebraic varieties and will be a valuable referenc...

  10. Measurement and estimation of dew point for SNG. [Comparison of calculated and measured values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Y.

    1974-08-01

    Toho Gas measured and estimated SNG dew points in high-pressure deliveries by calculating the theoretical values by the high-pressure gas-liquid equilibrium theory using the pressure-extrapolation method to reach K = 1, and the BWR method to estimate fugacity, then verifying these values experimentally. The experimental values were measured at 161.7 to 367.5 psi using the conventional static and circulation methods, in addition to a newly developed method consisting of circulating a known composition of gas mixtures, partially freezing them, and monitoring the dew point by observing the droplets on a mirror cooled by blowing liquid nitrogen. Good agreement was found between the calculated and the experimental values.

  11. Cubature/ Unscented/ Sigma Point Kalman Filtering with Angular Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    similarly transformed to work with the Laplace distribution. Cubature formulae for w(x) = 1 over regions of various shapes could be used for evaluating...measurement and process non- linearities, such as the cubature Kalman filter, can perform ex- tremely poorly in many applications involving angular...in the form of the “unscented transform ”) consider just converting such measurements into Cartesian coordinates and feeding the converted measurements

  12. Measurement noise of a point autofocus surface topography instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaobing; Quagliotti, Danilo; Maculotti, Giacomo

    Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment.......Optical instruments for areal topography measurement can be especially sensitive to noise when scanning is required. Such noise has different sources, including those internally generated and external sources from the environment....

  13. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-11-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (-90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range.

  14. Scanning tip measurement for identification of point defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raineri Vito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-assembled iron-silicide nanostructures were prepared by reactive deposition epitaxy of Fe onto silicon. Capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS were used to measure the electrical properties of Au/silicon Schottky junctions. Spreading resistance and scanning probe capacitance microscopy (SCM were applied to measure local electrical properties. Using a preamplifier the sensitivity of DLTS was increased satisfactorily to measure transients of the scanning tip semiconductor junction. In the Fe-deposited area, Fe-related defects dominate the surface layer in about 0.5 μm depth. These defects deteriorated the Schottky junction characteristic. Outside the Fe-deposited area, Fe-related defect concentration was identified in a thin layer near the surface. The defect transients in this area were measured both in macroscopic Schottky junctions and by scanning tip DLTS and were detected by bias modulation frequency dependence in SCM.

  15. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  16. Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated

  17. Determining the impact of smoking point of sale legislation among youth (Display) study: a protocol for an evaluation of public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Sally; Amos, Amanda; Eadie, Douglas; Frank, John; MacDonald, Laura; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; MacGregor, Andy; Miller, Martine; Pearce, Jamie; Sharp, Clare; Stead, Martine; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried

    2014-03-14

    Tobacco advertising and product promotions have been largely banned in the UK but point of sale (POS) tobacco advertising is one of the few places where tobacco products may be legitimately advertised. POS displays have been shown to increase susceptibility to smoking, experimentation and initiation into smoking. These displays may also influence perceived prevalence of smoking and the perception that tobacco products are easily obtained and are a 'normal' product. A ban of POS tobacco advertising was introduced in Scotland in large tobacco retail outlets of over 280 m2 internal sales floor areas (mainly supermarkets) in April 2013 and will be extended to include smaller tobacco retail outlets in April 2015. However, the impact of POS bans on smoking attitudes, behaviours and prevalence has yet to be determined. This study has a multi-modal before and after design and uses mixed methods to collect data, at baseline and then with longitudinal follow-up for 4 years, in four purposively selected communities. For the purposes of the study, community is defined as the catchment areas of the secondary schools selected for study. There are four main components to the on-going study. In each of the four communities, at baseline and in follow-up years, there will be: mapping and spatial analyses of tobacco retail outlets; tobacco advertising and marketing audits of tobacco retail outlets most used by young people; cross-sectional school surveys of secondary school pupils; and focus group interviews with purposive samples of secondary school pupils. The tobacco audit is supplemented by interviews and observations conducted with a panel of tobacco retailers recruited from four matched communities. This study examines the impact of the implementation of both a partial and comprehensive ban on point of sale (POS) tobacco advertising on attitudes to smoking, brand awareness, perceived ease of access to tobacco products and youth smoking prevalence. The results will be of

  18. Determining the impact of smoking point of sale legislation among youth (Display) study: a protocol for an evaluation of public health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco advertising and product promotions have been largely banned in the UK but point of sale (POS) tobacco advertising is one of the few places where tobacco products may be legitimately advertised. POS displays have been shown to increase susceptibility to smoking, experimentation and initiation into smoking. These displays may also influence perceived prevalence of smoking and the perception that tobacco products are easily obtained and are a ‘normal’ product. A ban of POS tobacco advertising was introduced in Scotland in large tobacco retail outlets of over 280m2 internal sales floor areas (mainly supermarkets) in April 2013 and will be extended to include smaller tobacco retail outlets in April 2015. However, the impact of POS bans on smoking attitudes, behaviours and prevalence has yet to be determined. Methods/design This study has a multi-modal before and after design and uses mixed methods to collect data, at baseline and then with longitudinal follow-up for 4 years, in four purposively selected communities. For the purposes of the study, community is defined as the catchment areas of the secondary schools selected for study. There are four main components to the on-going study. In each of the four communities, at baseline and in follow-up years, there will be: mapping and spatial analyses of tobacco retail outlets; tobacco advertising and marketing audits of tobacco retail outlets most used by young people; cross-sectional school surveys of secondary school pupils; and focus group interviews with purposive samples of secondary school pupils. The tobacco audit is supplemented by interviews and observations conducted with a panel of tobacco retailers recruited from four matched communities. Discussion This study examines the impact of the implementation of both a partial and comprehensive ban on point of sale (POS) tobacco advertising on attitudes to smoking, brand awareness, perceived ease of access to tobacco products and youth smoking

  19. Hiding the tobacco power wall reduces cigarette smoking risk in adolescents: using an experimental convenience store to assess tobacco regulatory options at retail point-of-sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadel, William G; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Scharf, Deborah M; Kusuke, Daniela; Sicker, Angela; Gong, Min

    2015-11-23

    This experiment tested whether changing the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall in a life sized replica of a convenience store had any effect on adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking. The study was conducted in the RAND StoreLab (RSL), a life sized replica of a convenience store that was developed to experimentally evaluate how changing aspects of tobacco advertising displays in retail point-of-sale environments influences tobacco use risk and behaviour. A randomised, between-subjects experimental design with three conditions that varied the location or visibility of the tobacco power wall within the RSL was used. The conditions were: cashier (the tobacco power wall was located in its typical position behind the cash register counter); sidewall (the tobacco power wall was located on a sidewall away from the cash register); or hidden (the tobacco power wall was located behind the cashier but was hidden behind an opaque wall). The sample included 241 adolescents. Hiding the tobacco power wall significantly reduced adolescents' susceptibility to future cigarette smoking compared to leaving it exposed (ie, the cashier condition; p=0.02). Locating the tobacco power wall on a sidewall away from the cashier had no effect on future cigarette smoking susceptibility compared to the cashier condition (p=0.80). Hiding the tobacco power wall at retail point-of-sale locations is a strong regulatory option for reducing the impact of the retail environment on cigarette smoking risk in adolescents. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Harmonic measure geometric and analytic points of view

    CERN Document Server

    Capogna, Luca; Lanzani, Loredana

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in geometric measure theory and harmonic analysis have led to new and deep results concerning the regularity of the support of measures which behave "asymptotically" (for balls of small radius) as the Euclidean volume. A striking feature of these results is that they actually characterize flatness of the support in terms of the asymptotic behavior of the measure. Such characterizations have led to important new progress in the study of harmonic measure for non-smooth domains. This volume provides an up-to-date overview and an introduction to the research literature in this area. The presentation follows a series of five lectures given by Carlos Kenig at the 2000 Arkansas Spring Lecture Series. The original lectures have been expanded and updated to reflect the rapid progress in this field. A chapter on the planar case has been added to provide a historical perspective. Additional background has been included to make the material accessible to advanced graduate students and researchers in h...

  1. Calibrating Self-Reported Measures of Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy via Bioassays Using a Monte Carlo Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren S. Wakschlag

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a major public health problem that has been associated with numerous short- and long-term adverse health outcomes in offspring. However, characterizing smoking exposure during pregnancy precisely has been rather difficult: self-reported measures of smoking often suffer from recall bias, deliberate misreporting, and selective non-disclosure, while single bioassay measures of nicotine metabolites only reflect recent smoking history and cannot capture the fluctuating and complex patterns of varying exposure of the fetus. Recently, Dukic et al. [1] have proposed a statistical method for combining information from both sources in order to increase the precision of the exposure measurement and power to detect more subtle effects of smoking. In this paper, we extend the Dukic et al. [1] method to incorporate individual variation of the metabolic parameters (such as clearance rates into the calibration model of smoking exposure during pregnancy. We apply the new method to the Family Health and Development Project (FHDP, a small convenience sample of 96 predominantly working-class white pregnant women oversampled for smoking. We find that, on average, misreporters smoke 7.5 cigarettes more than what they report to smoke, with about one third underreporting by 1.5, one third under-reporting by about 6.5, and one third underreporting by 8.5 cigarettes. Partly due to the limited demographic heterogeneity in the FHDP sample, the results are similar to those obtained by the deterministic calibration model, whose adjustments were slightly lower (by 0.5 cigarettes on average. The new results are also, as expected, less sensitive to assumed values of cotinine half-life.

  2. Comparative discussion on some measurements of the atmospheric natural radioactivity and pollution with coal smoke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, M.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measuring the natural radioactivity and coal smoke pollution are discussed for two sites in an industrial town, as well as for two heights at the same site, in connection with large scale and local atmospheric stability. The effects of the radiation fog upon the radon daughters acumulation near the ground are examined in some detail. By comparing the pollutant diurnal variations during two periods of similar atmospheric stability in autumn, respectively in winter, the contribution from the dwelling coal heating has been estimated to be about half of the total pollution in the town. (author)

  3. The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, Lotus Sofie

    2016-01-01

    -based smoking prevention programs have been launched over the past three decades, and generally multi component initiatives are recommended. The effects have been inconclusive, though, which may partly be due to lack of implementation, but little evidence exists on the implementation of school-based smoking....... Methods: My three papers were based on the school-randomized X:IT study, which tested a multi component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention and 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age: 12.5 years). We collected data......Title: The measurement and effect of implementation fidelity in the multi component smoking intervention: The X:IT study Background: Careful measurement of implementation fidelity is crucial in the examination of whether an intervention worked as intended or not. A large number of school...

  4. Implementing the ban on smoking in Israeli pubs: measuring airborne nicotine and enforcement by local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satran, Carmit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat; Hammond, S Katharine; Baron-Epel, Orna

    2014-06-01

    In 2007 an amendment to the law restricting smoking in pubs and bars (P&Bs) was enacted in Israel. However, a year after the ban only slight decreases in airborne smoke in P&Bs in one city have been reported. We aimed to assess levels of airborne nicotine in Israeli P&Bs and to measure ifself-reported enforcement of the law by local officials was associated with levels of airborne nicotine in P&Bs. Airborne nicotine levels were measured in 72 P&Bs in 29 towns in Israel; this consisted of 90% of eligible towns. In addition, 73 local authority officials were interviewed in 25 of these towns. The officials were asked to assess the local authority's level of enforcement of the law banning smoking in P&Bs. The association of levels of airborne nicotine with the levels of enforcement of the law was calculated. Data were collected during 2009-2010 and analyzed in 2010-2011. Levels of airborne nicotine were comparatively high in P&Bs. No association was detected between levels of nicotine and the P&Bs' characteristics. In the larger towns, levels of airborne nicotine were higher. In 16% of towns the local authority officials reported high levels of law enforcement. Generally, levels of reported enforcement by local authorities were low and did not predict levels of airborne nicotine in the P&Bs. Self-reported local authorities' law enforcement was not associated with levels of airborne nicotine in P&Bs in these towns. There is a need to develop ways to increase law enforcement by the local authorities or other agencies.

  5. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine 125I-radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based 125 I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays

  6. Measuring Operational Success: Establishing Criteria to Benchmark the Point of Culmination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caraccilo, Dominic

    1997-01-01

    ... has for the establishment of criteria that measure operational success on the battlefield. This void, in-turn, impacts directly on the operational commander's capability to identify his point(s) of culmination...

  7. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  8. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina

    2009-03-01

    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  9. PWR severe accident mitigation measures, the french point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.; L'Homme, A.; Queniart, D.

    1990-01-01

    French studies have early considered the fact that, despite all the precautions taken, the possibility of severe accidents cannot be absolutely excluded; these accidents include core meltdown and a more or less significant loss, at an early or later stage, of the confinement of the radioactive substances in the containment. For a given scenario, one can almost always imagine a more severe scenario by postulating additional failures, but it is obvious that, as the severity of the imagined scenario increases, the probability of its occurrence tends towards zero. However, it does not appear reasonable to attempt to set a probability threshold below which the scenarios should be excluded. First of all, the higher the improbability of the scenarios, the greater the uncertainty in the calculation of their probability, with the result that the calculation is not very meaningful. Secondly, and more importantly, this approach ignores the essential problem of accident situation management. From the outset, French studies have been focused on controlling the development of these situations and mitigating their consequences by means of a series of appropriate actions involving, on the one hand, optimum use of the resources available in the installation during the course of the accident and, on the other hand, the taking of protective measures for the population. To attempt to prevent an initial event to degenerate into a severe accident leading to core meltdown if the proper actions are not taken, Electricite de France has proposed a new operating procedure based on the characterization of every possible cooling state of the core

  10. A Comparison of Survey Measures and Biomarkers of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure causes several adverse physical health outcomes. Conceptual differences in survey measures of 'psychosocial' (SHS exposure from smokers in an individual's life) and 'physical' (environments where an individual is exposed to SHS) SHS exposure exist. Few studies have examined the association between psychosocial and physical SHS exposures measures in comparison to biomarkers of SHS exposure. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was examined among a convenience sample of 20 adults. Data included survey items on SHS exposure and hair nicotine and saliva cotinine levels. Spearman analysis was used to assess correlations among variables. Medium and strong correlations were found among SHS exposure measures with the exception of saliva cotinine levels. Strong correlations were found among and between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. Hair nicotine levels had medium strength associations with only perceived frequency of SHS exposure. As psychosocial measures of exposure were associated with biomarkers, such measures (particularly perceived frequency of SHS exposure) should be added to surveys in addition to physical SHS exposure measures to enhance accuracy of SHS measurement. Future explorations with robust sample sizes should further examine the strength of relationship between psychosocial and physical SHS exposure measures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  12. Prospective comparison of liver stiffness measurements between two point wave elastography methods: Virtual ouch quantification and elastography point quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.

  13. A comparison of peer influence measures as predictors of smoking among predominately hispanic/latino high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W; Fujimoto, Kayo; Soto, Daniel; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Unger, Jennifer B

    2013-03-01

    Consistent evidence has shown that one of the most significant influences on adolescent smoking is peer influence. There is considerable variation, however, in how peer influence is measured. This study constructs social network influence and selection variables from egocentric and sociometric data to compare their associations with smoking, with considerations of perceived smoking norms and adolescent popularity. Longitudinal data were collected in the 9th and 10th grades in October 2006 and 2007 from predominantly Hispanic/Latino adolescents in seven Southern California schools; among these adolescents, 1,950 completed surveys at both waves. Both cross-sectional (separately for 9th and 10th graders) and longitudinal models were estimated. An egocentric measure of perceived friend smoking was strongly and consistently associated with individual smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ≈ 1.80, p peer influence and underscores the importance of perceptions and popularity as mechanisms that influence adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accurate dew-point measurement over a wide temperature range using a quartz crystal microbalance dew-point sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Su-Yong; Kim, Jong-Chul; Choi, Buyng-Il

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) dew-point sensors are based on frequency measurement, and so have fast response time, high sensitivity and high accuracy. Recently, we have reported that they have the very convenient attribute of being able to distinguish between supercooled dew and frost from a single scan through the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator as a function of the temperature. In addition to these advantages, by using three different types of heat sinks, we have developed a QCM dew/frost-point sensor with a very wide working temperature range (−90 °C to 15 °C). The temperature of the quartz surface can be obtained effectively by measuring the temperature of the quartz crystal holder and using temperature compensation curves (which showed a high level of repeatability and reproducibility). The measured dew/frost points showed very good agreement with reference values and were within ±0.1 °C over the whole temperature range

  15. Noise temperature measurements for the determination of the thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, F.; Kuhne, M.; Tegeler, E. [Bundesanstalt Physikalisch-Technische, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamic temperature of the melting point of palladium in air was measured by noise thermometric methods. The temperature measurement was based on noise comparison using a two-channel arrangement to eliminate parasitic noises of electronic components by cross correlation. Three miniature fixed points filled with pure palladium (purity: {approx}99.99%, mass: {approx}90 g) were used to realize the melts of the fixed point metal. The measured melting temperature of palladium in air amounted to 1552.95 deg C {+-} 0.21 K (k = 2). This temperature is 0.45 K lower than the temperature of the melting point of palladium measured by radiation thermometry. (authors)

  16. Validation of self-reported smoking status by measuring serum cotinine levels: an Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeemon, P; Agarwal, S; Ramakrishnan, L; Gupta, R; Snehi, U; Chaturvedi, V; Reddy, K S; Prabhakaran, D

    2010-01-01

    Serum cotinine levels are a reliable marker of tobacco use. Few studies have validated questionnaires assessing smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) against serum levels. We undertook such a study in industrial workers in India. We chose 426 individuals by stratified random sampling from a database of 3397 individuals surveyed at New Delhi for the cardiovascular disease surveillance programme in a large industrial setting. Questionnaires assessing details of smoking practices and duration of exposure to ETS (if any) were administered. Cotinine levels were measured in the blood samples of these individuals. The study population comprised 142 nonsmokers not exposed to ETS, 142 non-smokers exposed to ETS and 142 active smokers. Cotinine levels among nonsmokers not exposed to ETS were non-detectable; and for non-smokers exposed to ETS and active smokers, the median (interquartile range) levels were non-detectable (non-detectable to 46.1 ng/ml) and 336 ng/ml (204-500 ng/ml), respectively. The best combined sensitivity (91%) and specificity (87.2%) yielded a cotinine cut-off level of 40.35 ng/ml to differentiate active smokers from non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS (area under the curve 0.902). The cut-off cotinine level was estimated at 10.95 ng/ml using a similar analysis (sensitivity 43%, specificity 82%; area under the curve 0.64) to distinguish non-smokers not exposed to ETS from those exposed to ETS. The misclassification rate was estimated at 19% and 57.1% among self-reported non-smokers not exposed to ETS and those exposed to ETS, respectively. Obtaining a history of tobacco use is an accurate method of detecting smokers in epidemiological studies whereas serum cotinine levels accurately differentiate smokers from non-smokers. However, a brief questionnaire assessing passive exposure to smoke has poor sensitivity in distinguishing non-smokers exposed to ETS from those not exposed to ETS.

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of MODIS Fire Radiative Power Measurement for Global Smoke Emissions Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing is providing us tremendous opportunities to measure the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) from open biomass burning, which affects many vegetated regions of the world on a seasonal basis. Knowledge of the biomass burning characteristics and emission source strengths of different (particulate and gaseous) smoke constituents is one of the principal ingredients upon which the assessment, modeling, and forecasting of their distribution and impacts depend. This knowledge can be gained through accurate measurement of FRP, which has been shown to have a direct relationship with the rates of biomass consumption and emissions of major smoke constituents. Over the last decade or so, FRP has been routinely measured from space by both the MODIS sensors aboard the polar orbiting Terra and Aqua satellites, and the SEVIRI sensor aboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellite. During the last few years, FRP has steadily gained increasing recognition as an important parameter for facilitating the development of various scientific studies and applications relating to the quantitative characterization of biomass burning and their emissions. To establish the scientific integrity of the FRP as a stable quantity that can be measured consistently across a variety of sensors and platforms, with the potential of being utilized to develop a unified long-term climate data record of fire activity and impacts, it needs to be thoroughly evaluated, calibrated, and validated. Therefore, we are conducting a detailed analysis of the FRP products from MODIS to evaluate the uncertainties associated with them, such as those due to the effects of satellite variable observation geometry and other factors, in order to establish their error budget for use in diverse scientific research and applications. In this presentation, we will show recent results of the MODIS FRP uncertainty analysis and error mitigation solutions, and demonstrate

  18. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafie Asrul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.

  19. Prescribed Grassland Burning Smoke Emission Measurements in the Northern Flint Hills Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. L.; Baker, K. R.; Landis, M.; Aurell, J.; Gullett, B.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, frequent wildfires were essential for the maintenance of native prairie fire adapted ecosystems. Today prescribed fires are used to control invasive woody species and potentially improve forage production in these same prairie ecosystems for the beef-cattle industry. The emission of primary particulate matter, secondary aerosol, ozone precursors, and air toxics from prescribed grassland burning operations has been implicated as drivers of downwind air quality problems across a multi-state area. A field study has been planned to quantify prescribed burn smoke emissions using both surface and aerial sampling platforms to better constrain emissions rates for organic and inorganic pollutants. Multiple prescribed burns on tallgrass prairie fields in the northern Flint Hills ecoregion are planned for March 2017 at the Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas. An array of measurement systems will be deployed to quantify a suite of continuous and integrated air pollution parameters, combustion conditions, meteorological parameters, and plume dynamics to calculate more accurate and condition-specific emission factors that will be used to better predict primary and secondary pollutants both locally and regionally. These emissions measurements will allow for evaluation and improvement of the U.S. Forest Service's Bluesky modeling framework which includes the Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) and Fuel characterization classification system (FCCS). Elucidating grassland prescribed burning emission factors based on fuel type, loading, and environmental conditions is expected to provide an improved understanding of the impact of this land management practice on air quality in the greater Flint Hills region. It is also expected that measurements will be made to help constrain and develop better routines for fire plume rise, vertical allocation, and smoke optical properties.

  20. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    , quickly adsorbed on unconditioned surfaces so that nicotine concentrations in these rooms remained very low, even during smoking episodes. These findings suggest that using nicotine as a tracer of ETS particle concentrations may yield misleading concentration and/or exposure estimates. The results of the solanesol analyses were compromised, apparently by exposure to light during collection (lights in the chambers were always on during the experiments). This may mean that the use of solanesol as a tracer is impractical in ''real-world'' conditions. In the final phase of the project we conducted measurements of ETS particles and tracers in three residences occupied by smokers who had joined a smoking cessation program. As a pilot study, its objective was to improve our understanding of how ETS aerosols are transported in a small number of homes (and thus, whether limiting smoking to certain areas has an effect on ETS exposures in other parts of the building). As with the chamber studies, we examined whether measurements of various chemical tracers, such as nicotine, solanesol, FPM and UVPM, could be used to accurately predict ETS concentrations and potential exposures in ''real-world'' settings, as has been suggested by several authors. The ultimate goal of these efforts, and a future larger multiple house study, is to improve the basis for estimating ETS exposures to the general public. Because we only studied three houses no firm conclusions can be developed from our data. However, the results for the ETS tracers are essentially the same as those for the chamber experiments. The use of nicotine was problematic as a marker for ETS exposure. In the smoking areas of the homes, nicotine appeared to be a suitable indicator; however in the non-smoking regions, nicotine behavior was very inconsistent. The other tracers, UVPM and FPM, provided a better basis for estimating ETS exposures in the ''real world''. The use of

  1. Influence of temporally variable groundwater flow conditions on point measurements and contaminant mass flux estimations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Bauer, S; Dietrich, P

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of contaminant concentrations, e.g., for the estimation of mass discharge or contaminant degradation rates. often is based on point measurements at observation wells. In addition to the problem, that point measurements may not be spatially representative. a further complication may ari...

  2. Direct measurement of resistance of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren; Mølhave, Kristian; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    -point resistance at specific positions along the nanotubes, was measured by microprobes with different microelectrocle spacings. Individual nanotubes were investigated in more detail by measuring current as a function of bias voltage until the point of failure and the results are compared to previously reported...

  3. Indoor particulate matter measurement as a tool in the process of the implementation of smoke-free hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, S; Cagnin, R; Invernizzi, G; Ruprecht, A; Boffi, R; Formentini, S

    2004-01-01

    There are International and National standards that requires hospitals and health premises to be smoke-free. According to recent data from Italy and other European Countries, smoking is a widespread habit in hospitals. To get smoke-free hospitals in an Italian region, we have adopted the European Code for smoke-free hospitals, which sets standards and provides instruments for its implementation. According to the Code, whenever possible, each step towards a smoke-free hospital, should be shared by all staff. As a mean for achieving this goal, in our region the certification of single units as smoke-free units has been chosen. For getting the certification, besides implementing the Code, we planned to use ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) monitoring, as ETS should not be present in hospitals. As a marker of ETS we have chosen Particulate Matter (PM), as it can easily be measured in real-time with a portable instrument and, when other even outdoor--sources of combustion can be ruled out, it is an accurate detector of cigarette smoke. Here the first experience of measuring PM in hospitals for monitoring ETS and certificating smoke-free health premises, is described. PM measurements were carried out without any previous notification in different areas of two Network hospitals of the Veneto Region, during a single working day. A real time laser-operated aerosol mass analyser was used. Several classes of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, TSP Total Suspended Particles) were measured. Outdoor PM levels were found to be repeatedly lower than the annual official limits of 65 mcg/m3 and around the 24 hour official limits of 15 mcg/m3 [15 to 20 mcg/m3, with an overall mean (+/-SD) of 17.8 (1.9)] throughout the whole day. Very good indoor air quality was found in the operating theaters and isolation department, where PM2.5 concentrations were much lower than outdoor levels [1.6 (0.9) and 5.9 (0.6) mcg/m3, respectively]. No increase in PM pollution was found in the surveyed medical

  4. Measure of departure from marginal point-symmetry for two-way contingency tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Yamamoto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For two-way contingency tables, Tomizawa (1985 considered the point-symmetry and marginal point-symmetry models, and Tomizawa, Yamamoto and Tahata (2007 proposed a measure to represent the degree of departure from point-symmetry. The present paper proposes a measure to represent the degree of departure from marginal pointsymmetry for two-way tables. The proposed measure is expressed by using Cressie-Read power-divergence or Patil-Taillie diversity index. This measure would be useful for comparing the degrees of departure from marginal point-symmetry in several tables. The relationship between the degree of departure from marginal point-symmetry and the measure is shown when it is reasonable to assume underlying bivariate normal distribution. Examples are shown.

  5. An example of measurement and reporting of periodontal loss of attachment (LOA) in epidemiological studies: smoking and periodontal tissue destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidi, S; Pack, A R; Thomson, W M

    1999-12-01

    The measurement and reporting of periodontal disease in epidemiological studies can be complex, with the common indices having well-recognised shortcomings. The aim of this study was to illustrate the use of the periodontal loss of attachment (LOA) approach in investigating the association between cigarette smoking and loss of periodontal attachment in a convenience sample of adults, in order to determine whether or not smoking was a risk indicator for periodontal disease. All participants were given a detailed periodontal clinical examination in two randomly assigned contralateral diagonal quadrants, with LOA measurements made at six sites per tooth. Information was also collected on participants' socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, smoking history, and attitudes towards smoking. The 240 participants examined comprised 81 current smokers (CS), 79 former smokers (FS) and 80 nonsmokers (NS). Substantial differences and a gradient in disease existed for LOA among the three groups. CS exhibited the greatest (and NS the least) prevalence, extent, and severity of LOA. CS had more plaque and calculus than either of the other two groups, but the groups did not differ with respect to bleeding on probing. Overall, smoking was associated with the disease outcome, and this persisted after potential confounders were controlled using multivariate analysis. Although the observed differences may have been due to the self-selected nature of the sample, the gradient evident across the three smoking exposure groups suggests that smoking cessation can slow the progression of the disease. The LOA approach appears to be a versatile and informative method for recording, analysing, and presenting data on periodontitis in epidemiological studies.

  6. A new diagnostic accuracy measure and cut-point selection criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tuochuan; Attwood, Kristopher; Hutson, Alan; Liu, Song; Tian, Lili

    2017-12-01

    Most diagnostic accuracy measures and criteria for selecting optimal cut-points are only applicable to diseases with binary or three stages. Currently, there exist two diagnostic measures for diseases with general k stages: the hypervolume under the manifold and the generalized Youden index. While hypervolume under the manifold cannot be used for cut-points selection, generalized Youden index is only defined upon correct classification rates. This paper proposes a new measure named maximum absolute determinant for diseases with k stages ([Formula: see text]). This comprehensive new measure utilizes all the available classification information and serves as a cut-points selection criterion as well. Both the geometric and probabilistic interpretations for the new measure are examined. Power and simulation studies are carried out to investigate its performance as a measure of diagnostic accuracy as well as cut-points selection criterion. A real data set from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative is analyzed using the proposed maximum absolute determinant.

  7. A FAST METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN 3D MODEL AND 3D POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC. It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.

  8. Enhancement of precision and reduction of measuring points in tomographic reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H.; Hirschfeld, J.A.; Reissel, M.; Steffen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate external measurements are required in tomographic problems to obtain a reasonable knowledge of the internal structures. Crucial is the distribution of the external measuring points. We suggest a procedure how to systematically optimize this distribution viz. to increase the precision (i.e. to shrink error bars) of the reconstruction by detecting the important and by eliminating the irrelevant measuring points. In a realistic numerical example we apply our scheme to magnetotomography of fuel cells. The result is striking: Starting from a smooth distribution of measuring points on a surface of a cuboid around the fuel cell, the number of measuring points can systematically be reduced by more than 90%. At the same time the precision increases by a factor of nearly 3.

  9. FBX dosimetry for point dose measurements in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balraj, A.; Thakur, P.K.; Bhatnagar, S.; Vidyasagar, P.B.; Nirhali, Amit; Semwal, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    FBX dosimeter is mainly based on the determination of the radiation dose from the chemical changes produced in an irradiated medium, which can be measured by Spectrophotometry or Colorimetry, for which adequate FBX solution of 2 ml required for measuring the optical density (OD). To measure the point dose using 2 ml solution may lead to error in the measured dose since the solution may occupy 2 cc volume of the point measured. In head and neck carcinoma patients, the treatment area involves curvatures. Fixing 2 ml vial at the body surface is difficult and leads to give wrong readings. In this study we have measured the entrance and exit dose by filling 0.5 ml solution in a flexible catheter and placed at a point in the patient body surface during the radiation treatment. The solution was diluted adding 1.5 ml distilled water to measure the OD in the colorimeter

  10. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  11. Continuous acid dew point measurement in coal-fired power plants; Kontinuierliche Saeuretaupunktmessung in Braunkohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foedisch, Holger; Schulz, Joerg; Schengber, Petra; Dietrich, Gabriele [Dr. Foedisch Umweltmesstechnik AG, Markranstaedt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The reduction of flue gas losses is one option to increase power plant efficiency. The target is the optimised low waste gas temperature. When applying lignite and other high-sulphur fuels the temperature of the flue gas is mainly determined by the acid dew point. Temperature of the flue gas system is to amount some 10 to 20 K above the assumed acid dew point. The acid dew point measuring system AMD 08 is able to detect the real acid dew point in a quasi-continuous way. Thus, it is possible to deliberately decrease waste gas temperature. (orig.)

  12. Electrical conduction through surface superstructures measured by microscopic four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanabe, F.

    2003-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of the local electrical conductivity of well-defined crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum, we have developed two kinds of microscopic four-point probe methods. One involves a "four-tip STM prober," in which four independently driven tips of a scanning tunneling microscope...... (STM) are used for measurements of four-point probe conductivity. The probe spacing can be changed from 500 nm to 1 mm. The other method involves monolithic micro-four-point probes, fabricated on silicon chips, whose probe spacing is fixed around several mum. These probes are installed in scanning...

  13. Surface-sensitive conductivity measurement using a micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkins, Edward; Barreto, Lucas; Wells, Justin

    2013-01-01

    An instrument for microscale electrical transport measurements in ultra-high vacuum is presented. The setup is constructed around collinear lithographically-created multi-point probes with a contact spacing down to 500 nm. Most commonly, twelve-point probes are used. These probes are approached...... measurements with an equidistant four-point probe for a wide range of contact spacings. In this way, it is possible to distinguish between bulk-like and surface-like conduction. The paper describes the design of the instrument and the approach to data and error analysis. Application examples are given...

  14. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Pandit, Deepak; Das, S. K.; Chowdhury, A.; Das, P.; Banerjee, D.; Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The β - γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in 106Rh →106Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in 106Rh →106Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  15. Boiling point measurement of a small amount of brake fluid by thermocouple and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Kazunari

    2002-09-01

    This study describes a new method for measuring the boiling point of a small amount of brake fluid using a thermocouple and a pear shaped flask. The boiling point of brake fluid was directly measured with an accuracy that was within approximately 3 C of that determined by the Japanese Industrial Standards method, even though the sample volume was only a few milliliters. The method was applied to measure the boiling points of brake fluid samples from automobiles. It was clear that the boiling points of brake fluid from some automobiles dropped to approximately 140 C from about 230 C, and that one of the samples from the wheel cylinder was approximately 45 C lower than brake fluid from the reserve tank. It is essential to take samples from the wheel cylinder, as this is most easily subjected to heating.

  16. Full-scale measurements of smoke transport and deposition in ventilation system ductwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.

    1985-07-01

    This study is part of an effort to obtain experimental data in support of the fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC, which was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. FIRAC can predict the transient movement of aerosolized or gaseous material throughout the complex ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. We conducted a preliminary set of full-scale material depletion/modification experiments to help assess the accuracy of the code's aerosol depletion model. Such tests were performed under realistic conditions using real combustion products in full-sized ducts at typical airflow rates. To produce a combustion aerosol, we burned both polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate, the most and least smoky fuels typically found in fuel cycle plants, under varied ventilation (oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich) conditions. Aerosol mass deposition, size, and concentration measurements were performed. We found that as much as approx.25% of polystyrene smoke mass and as little as 2% of the polymethyl methacrylate generated at the entrance to a 15.2-m duct is deposited on the duct walls. We also compared our experimental results with theoretical equations currently used in FIRAC. 28 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Interferometry with flexible point source array for measuring complex freeform surface and its design algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Shen, Hua; Zhu, Rihong; Gao, Jinming; Sun, Yue; Wang, Jinsong; Li, Bo

    2018-06-01

    The precision of the measurements of aspheric and freeform surfaces remains the primary factor restrict their manufacture and application. One effective means of measuring such surfaces involves using reference or probe beams with angle modulation, such as tilted-wave-interferometer (TWI). It is necessary to improve the measurement efficiency by obtaining the optimum point source array for different pieces before TWI measurements. For purpose of forming a point source array based on the gradients of different surfaces under test, we established a mathematical model describing the relationship between the point source array and the test surface. However, the optimal point sources are irregularly distributed. In order to achieve a flexible point source array according to the gradient of test surface, a novel interference setup using fiber array is proposed in which every point source can be independently controlled on and off. Simulations and the actual measurement examples of two different surfaces are given in this paper to verify the mathematical model. Finally, we performed an experiment of testing an off-axis ellipsoidal surface that proved the validity of the proposed interference system.

  18. The succinonitrile triple-point standard: a fixed point to improve the accuracy of temperature measurements in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, B W

    1983-07-01

    In an investigation of the melting and freezing behavior of succinonitrile, the triple-point temperature was determined to be 58.0805 degrees C, with an estimated uncertainty of +/- 0.0015 degrees C relative to the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS-68). The triple-point temperature of this material is evaluated as a temperature-fixed point, and some clinical laboratory applications of this fixed point are proposed. In conjunction with the gallium and ice points, the availability of succinonitrile permits thermistor thermometers to be calibrated accurately and easily on the IPTS-68.

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  20. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E. Klepeis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting. The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  1. Measuring Indoor Air Quality and Engaging California Indian Stakeholders at the Win-River Resort and Casino: Collaborative Smoke-Free Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Dhaliwal, Narinder; Hayward, Gary; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Ott, Wayne R; Read, Nathan; Layton, Steve; Jiang, Ruoting; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Hildemann, Lynn M; Repace, James L; Taylor, Stephanie; Ong, Seow-Ling; Buchting, Francisco O; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S

    2016-01-20

    Most casinos owned by sovereign American Indian nations allow smoking, even in U.S. states such as California where state laws restrict workplace smoking. Collaborations between casinos and public health workers are needed to promote smoke-free policies that protect workers and patrons from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and risks. Over seven years, a coalition of public health professionals provided technical assistance to the Redding Rancheria tribe in Redding, California in establishing a smoke-free policy at the Win-River Resort and Casino. The coalition provided information to the casino general manager that included site-specific measurement of employee and visitor PM2.5 personal exposure, area concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM2.5, visitor urinary cotinine, and patron and staff opinions (surveys, focus groups, and a Town Hall meeting). The manager communicated results to tribal membership, including evidence of high SHS exposures and support for a smoke-free policy. Subsequently, in concert with hotel expansion, the Redding Rancheria Tribal Council voted to accept a 100% restriction of smoking inside the casino, whereupon PM2.5 exposure in main smoking areas dropped by 98%. A 70% partial-smoke-free policy was instituted ~1 year later in the face of revenue loss. The success of the collaboration in promoting a smoke-free policy, and the key element of air quality feedback, which appeared to be a central driver, may provide a model for similar efforts.

  2. Water pipe (Shisha, Hookah, Arghile) Smoking and Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Effects on CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 Phenotypes as Measured by Caffeine Urine Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Llerena, Adrián; De Andrés, Fernando; Karakaş, Ümit; Gündoğar, Hasan; Erciyas, Kamile; Kimyon, Sabit; Mete, Alper; Güngör, Kıvanç; Özdemir, Vural

    2017-03-01

    Public policies to stop or reduce cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and associated diseases have yielded successful results over the past decade. Yet, the growing worldwide popularity of another form of tobacco consumption, water pipe smoking, has received relatively less attention. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the effects of water pipe smoking on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities and drug interaction potential in humans, whereas only limited information is available on the impact of secondhand smoke on drug metabolism. In a sample of 99 healthy volunteers (28 water pipe smokers, 30 secondhand tobacco smoke exposed persons, and 41 controls), we systematically compared CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 enzyme activities in vivo using caffeine urine test. The median self-reported duration of water pipe smoking was 7.5 h/week and 3 years of exposure in total. The secondhand smoke group had a median of 14 h of self-reported weekly exposure to tobacco smoke indoor where a minimum of five cigarettes were smoked/hour for a total of 3.5 years (median). Analysis of variance did not find a significant difference in CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities among the three study groups (p > 0.05). Nor was there a significant association between the extent of water pipe or secondhand smoke exposure and the CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities (p > 0.05). Further analysis in a subsample with smoke exposure more than the median values also did not reveal a significant difference from the controls. Although we do not rule out an appreciable possible impact of water pipe smoke and secondhand smoke on in vivo activities of these two drug metabolism pathways, variability in smoke constituents from different tobacco consumption methods (e.g., water pipe) might affect drug metabolism in ways that might differ from that of cigarette smoke. Further studies in larger prospective samples are recommended to evaluate water pipe and secondhand tobacco smoke effects

  3. Analytical expressions for correction factors for noise measurements with a four-point probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandamme, L.K.J.; Leroy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The linear four-point probe method is useful to measure the resistivity, by passing a current I14 through the outer probes and by measuring the voltage V23 between the inner probes. The contacts are on a line and denoted by 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively. The sheet resistance for thin layers with

  4. Optimization of Control Points Number at Coordinate Measurements based on the Monte-Carlo Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, A. A.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Improving the quality of products causes an increase in the requirements for the accuracy of the dimensions and shape of the surfaces of the workpieces. This, in turn, raises the requirements for accuracy and productivity of measuring of the workpieces. The use of coordinate measuring machines is currently the most effective measuring tool for solving similar problems. The article proposes a method for optimizing the number of control points using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the measurement of a small sample from batches of workpieces, statistical modeling is performed, which allows one to obtain interval estimates of the measurement error. This approach is demonstrated by examples of applications for flatness, cylindricity and sphericity. Four options of uniform and uneven arrangement of control points are considered and their comparison is given. It is revealed that when the number of control points decreases, the arithmetic mean decreases, the standard deviation of the measurement error increases and the probability of the measurement α-error increases. In general, it has been established that it is possible to repeatedly reduce the number of control points while maintaining the required measurement accuracy.

  5. New look at displacement factor and point of measurement corrections in ionization chamber dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.; Ten Haken, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique is presented for determination of the effective point of measurement when cavity ionization chambers are used to measure the absorbed dose due to ionizing radiation in a dense medium. An algorithm is derived relating the effective point of measurement to the displacement correction factor. This algorithm relates variations of the displacement factor to the radiation field gradient. The technique is applied to derive the magnitudes of the corrections for several chambers in a p(66)Be(49) neutron therapy beam. 30 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  6. Mass measurement on the rp-process waiting point {sup 72}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kolhinen, V.S. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (FR)] [and others

    2004-06-01

    The mass of one of the three major waiting points in the astrophysical rp-process {sup 72}Kr was measured for the first time with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The measurement yielded a relative mass uncertainty of {delta}m/m=1.2 x 10{sup -7} ({delta}m=8 keV). Other Kr isotopes, also needed for astrophysical calculations, were measured with more than one order of magnitude improved accuracy. We use the ISOLTRAP masses of{sup 72-74}Kr to reanalyze the role of the {sup 72}Kr waiting point in the rp-process during X-ray bursts. (orig.)

  7. A novel method of measuring the concentration of anaesthetic vapours using a dew-point hygrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, A R; Mapleson, W W; Mecklenburgh, J S

    1994-02-01

    The Antoine equation relates the saturated vapour pressure of a volatile substance, such as an anaesthetic agent, to the temperature. The measurement of the 'dew-point' of a dry gas mixture containing a volatile anaesthetic agent by a dew-point hygrometer permits the determination of the partial pressure of the anaesthetic agent. The accuracy of this technique is limited only by the accuracy of the Antoine coefficients and of the temperature measurement. Comparing measurements by the dew-point method with measurements by refractometry showed systematic discrepancies up to 0.2% and random discrepancies with SDS up to 0.07% concentration in the 1% to 5% range for three volatile anaesthetics. The systematic discrepancies may be due to errors in available data for the vapour pressures and/or the refractive indices of the anaesthetics.

  8. Four-point probe measurements of a direct current potential drop on layered conductive cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R

    2012-01-01

    We have determined the steady state electric field due to direct current flowing via point contacts at the cylindrical surface of a uniformly layered conductive rod of finite length. The solution allows one to use four-point probe potential drop measurements to estimate the conductivity or thickness of the layer assuming that the other parameters are known. The electrical potential in the rod has a zero radial derivative at its surface except at the injection and extractions points. This means that the required solution can be expressed in terms of a Green’s function satisfying a Neumann boundary condition. Four-point measurements have been made to demonstrate the validity of theoretical results. (paper)

  9. Four-point probe measurements of a direct current potential drop on layered conductive cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Bowler, John R.

    2012-11-01

    We have determined the steady state electric field due to direct current flowing via point contacts at the cylindrical surface of a uniformly layered conductive rod of finite length. The solution allows one to use four-point probe potential drop measurements to estimate the conductivity or thickness of the layer assuming that the other parameters are known. The electrical potential in the rod has a zero radial derivative at its surface except at the injection and extractions points. This means that the required solution can be expressed in terms of a Green’s function satisfying a Neumann boundary condition. Four-point measurements have been made to demonstrate the validity of theoretical results.

  10. Measuring the exhaust gas dew point of continuously operated combustion plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, D.

    1985-07-16

    Low waste-gas temperatures represent one means of minimizing the energy consumption of combustion facilities. However, condensation should be prevented to occur in the waste gas since this could result in a destruction of parts. Measuring the waste-gas dew point allows to control combustion parameters in such a way as to be able to operate at low temperatures without danger of condensation. Dew point sensors will provide an important signal for optimizing combustion facilities.

  11. Measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codier, Estelle; Odell, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    For most schools of nursing, grade point average is the most important criteria for admission to nursing school and constitutes the main indicator of success throughout the nursing program. In the general research literature, the relationship between traditional measures of academic success, such as grade point average and postgraduation job performance is not well established. In both the general population and among practicing nurses, measured emotional intelligence ability correlates with both performance and other important professional indicators postgraduation. Little research exists comparing traditional measures of intelligence with measured emotional intelligence prior to graduation, and none in the student nurse population. This exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken to explore the relationship between measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average of first year nursing students. The study took place at a school of nursing at a university in the south central region of the United States. Participants included 72 undergraduate student nurse volunteers. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, version 2, an instrument for quantifying emotional intelligence ability. Pre-admission grade point average was reported by the school records department. Total emotional intelligence (r=.24) scores and one subscore, experiential emotional intelligence(r=.25) correlated significantly (>.05) with grade point average. This exploratory, descriptive study provided evidence for some relationship between GPA and measured emotional intelligence ability, but also demonstrated lower than average range scores in several emotional intelligence scores. The relationship between pre-graduation measures of success and level of performance postgraduation deserves further exploration. The findings of this study suggest that research on the relationship between traditional and nontraditional

  12. Note: A dual-channel sensor for dew point measurement based on quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2017-05-01

    A new sensor with dual-channel was designed for eliminating the temperature effect on the frequency measurement of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in dew point detection. The sensor uses active temperature control, produces condensation on the surface of QCM, and then detects the dew point. Both the single-channel and the dual-channel methods were conducted based on the device. The measurement error of the single-channel method was less than 0.5 °C at the dew point range of -2 °C-10 °C while the dual-channel was 0.3 °C. The results showed that the dual-channel method was able to eliminate the temperature effect and yield better measurement accuracy.

  13. Current algebras, measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphism groups, and infinite quantum systems with accumulation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Takao

    The approach to quantum physics via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group is established. This thesis studies possible infinite Bose gas systems using this approach. Systems of locally finite configurations and systems of configurations with accumulation points are considered, with the main emphasis on the latter. In Chapter 2, canonical quantization, quantization via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group are reviewed. In Chapter 3, a new definition of the space of configurations is proposed and an axiom for general configuration spaces is abstracted. Various subsets of the configuration space, including those specifying the number of points in a Borel set and those specifying the number of accumulation points in a Borel set are proved to be measurable using this axiom. In Chapter 4, known results on the space of locally finite configurations and Poisson measure are reviewed in the light of the approach developed in Chapter 3, including the approach to current algebra in the Poisson space by Albeverio, Kondratiev, and Rockner. Goldin and Moschella considered unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of the line based on self-similar random processes, which may describe infinite quantum gas systems with clusters. In Chapter 5, the Goldin-Moschella theory is developed further. Their construction of measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphisms is reviewed, and a rigorous proof of their conjectures is given. It is proved that their measures with distinct correlation parameters are mutually singular. A quasi-invariant measure constructed by Ismagilov on the space of configurations with accumulation points on the circle is proved to be singular with respect to the Goldin-Moschella measures. Finally a generalization of the Goldin-Moschella measures to the higher-dimensional case is studied, where the notion of covariance matrix and the notion of condition number play important roles. A

  14. Wildfire smoke in the Siberian Arctic in summer: source characterization and plume evolution from airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present airborne measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, equivalent black carbon (EBC and ultra fine particles over North-Eastern Siberia in July 2008 performed during the YAK-AEROSIB/POLARCAT experiment. During a "golden day" (11 July 2008 a number of biomass burning plumes were encountered with CO mixing ratio enhancements of up to 500 ppb relative to a background of 90 ppb. Number concentrations of aerosols in the size range 3.5–200 nm peaked at 4000 cm−3 and the EBC content reached 1.4 μg m−3. These high concentrations were caused by forest fires in the vicinity of the landing airport in Yakutsk where measurements in fresh smoke could be made during the descent. We estimate a combustion efficiency of 90 ± 3% based on CO and CO2 measurements and a CO emission factor of 65.5 ± 10.8 g CO per kilogram of dry matter burned. This suggests a potential increase in the average northern hemispheric CO mixing ratio of 3.0–7.2 ppb per million hectares of Siberian forest burned. For BC, we estimate an emission factor of 0.52 ± 0.07 g BC kg−1, comparable to values reported in the literature. The emission ratio of ultra-fine particles (3.5–200 nm was 26 cm−3 (ppb CO−1, consistent with other airborne studies.

    The transport of identified biomass burning plumes was investigated using the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Based on sampling of wildfire plumes from the same source but with different atmospheric ages derived from FLEXPART, we estimate that the e-folding lifetimes of EBC and ultra fine particles (between 3.5 and 200 nm in size against removal and growth processes are 5.1 and 5.5 days respectively, supporting lifetime estimates used in various modelling studies.

  15. Fast and direct measurements of the electrical properties of graphene using micro four-point probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klarskov, M B; Dam, H F; Petersen, D H; Hansen, T M; Loewenborg, A; Booth, T J; Schmidt, M S; Boeggild, P; Lin, R; Nielsen, P F

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of the electronic properties of graphene using a repositionable micro four-point probe system, which we show here to have unique advantages over measurements made on lithographically defined devices; namely speed, simplicity and lack of a need to pattern graphene. Measurements are performed in ambient, vacuum and controlled environmental conditions using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results are comparable to previous results for microcleaved graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ). We observe a pronounced hysteresis of the charge neutrality point, dependent on the sweep rate of the gate voltage; and environmental measurements provide insight into the sensor application prospects of graphene. The method offers a fast, local and non-destructive technique for electronic measurements on graphene, which can be positioned freely on a graphene flake.

  16. Verification of adolescent self-reported smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentala, Jukka; Utriainen, Pekka; Pahkala, Kimmo; Mattila, Kari

    2004-02-01

    Smoking and the validity of information obtained on it is often questioned in view of the widespread belief that adolescents tend to under- or over-report the habit. The aim here was to verify smoking habits as reported in a questionnaire given in conjunction with dental examinations by asking participants directly whether they smoked or not and performing biochemical measurements of thiocyanate in the saliva and carbon monoxide in the expired air. The series consisted of 150 pupils in the ninth grade (age 15 years). The reports in the questionnaires seemed to provide a reliable estimate of adolescent smoking, the sensitivity of the method being 81-96%, specificity 77-95%. Biochemical verification or control of smoking proved needless in normal dental practice. Accepting information offered by the patient provides a good starting point for health education and work motivating and supporting of self-directed breaking of the habit.

  17. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1....../15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...

  18. Contactless measurement of muscles fatigue by tracking facial feature points in a video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    their exercises when the level of the fatigue might be dangerous for the patients. The current technology for measuring tiredness, like Electromyography (EMG), requires installing some sensors on the body. In some applications, like remote patient monitoring, this however might not be possible. To deal...... with such cases, in this paper we present a contactless method based on computer vision techniques to measure tiredness by detecting, tracking, and analyzing some facial feature points during the exercise. Experimental results on several test subjects and comparing them against ground truth data show...... that the proposed system can properly find the temporal point of tiredness of the muscles when the test subjects are doing physical exercises....

  19. Radiation effects in polyolefins below the gel point as measured by torque rheometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.; Babic, D.; Silverman, J.

    1981-01-01

    Torque rheometry is used to obtain information about radiation effects on polymers (crosslinking, degradation) below the gel point. It is shown that rheometric melt viscosity measurements at different shear rates are related changes in the relaxation spectrum. In particular there is a significant radiation effect on low shear rate viscosities but a negligible effect on high shear rate viscosities. The fact that the shear rate in the torque rheometer oscillates about a mean value is utilized to relate torque amplitude measurements to entanglements at zero dose and to crosslink density at absorbed doses below or close to the gel point. (author)

  20. Freezing Point Depressions of Aqueous MEA, MDEA, and MEA−MDEA Measured with a New Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Pedersen, Mikkel Gielsager; Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Freezing points for aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA), and MEA−MDEA solutions were measured in the concentration range from 0 to 0.4 mass fractions of the alkanolamines. For the aqueous MEA−MDEA system, freezing points for 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1 molar ratios of MEA....../MDEA were determined. The experimental values indicate that the MDEA−water interaction is stronger than the MEA−water interaction. Measurements were carried out by a new modified Beckmann apparatus, which has not previously been described. The apparatus and method proved to have good repeatability...

  1. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Bowler, N; Bowler, J R; Huang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  2. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Bowler, N.; Bowler, J. R.; Huang, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  3. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  4. The smoke sensor and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng

    1998-01-01

    The authors have introduced the working principle of a new smoke sensor. Good prospects of the photoelectricity smoke detector are described. It has been pointed out that the photoelectrical smoke detector will become the major products of the fire detecting

  5. Simultaneous measurement of passage through the restriction point and MCM loading in single cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, T. W.; Boye, E.; Stokke, T.; Grallert, B.; Syljuåsen, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Passage through the Retinoblastoma protein (RB1)-dependent restriction point and the loading of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) are two crucial events in G1-phase that help maintain genome integrity. Deregulation of these processes can cause uncontrolled proliferation and cancer development. Both events have been extensively characterized individually, but their relative timing and inter-dependence remain less clear. Here, we describe a novel method to simultaneously measure MCM loading and passage through the restriction point. We exploit that the RB1 protein is anchored in G1-phase but is released when hyper-phosphorylated at the restriction point. After extracting cells with salt and detergent before fixation we can simultaneously measure, by flow cytometry, the loading of MCMs onto chromatin and RB1 binding to determine the order of the two events in individual cells. We have used this method to examine the relative timing of the two events in human cells. Whereas in BJ fibroblasts released from G0-phase MCM loading started mainly after the restriction point, in a significant fraction of exponentially growing BJ and U2OS osteosarcoma cells MCMs were loaded in G1-phase with RB1 anchored, demonstrating that MCM loading can also start before the restriction point. These results were supported by measurements in synchronized U2OS cells. PMID:26250117

  6. Design of an omnidirectional single-point photodetector for large-scale spatial coordinate measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Mao, Chensheng; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Wang, Chao; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    In high precision and large-scale coordinate measurement, one commonly used approach to determine the coordinate of a target point is utilizing the spatial trigonometric relationships between multiple laser transmitter stations and the target point. A light receiving device at the target point is the key element in large-scale coordinate measurement systems. To ensure high-resolution and highly sensitive spatial coordinate measurement, a high-performance and miniaturized omnidirectional single-point photodetector (OSPD) is greatly desired. We report one design of OSPD using an aspheric lens, which achieves an enhanced reception angle of -5 deg to 45 deg in vertical and 360 deg in horizontal. As the heart of our OSPD, the aspheric lens is designed in a geometric model and optimized by LightTools Software, which enables the reflection of a wide-angle incident light beam into the single-point photodiode. The performance of home-made OSPD is characterized with working distances from 1 to 13 m and further analyzed utilizing developed a geometric model. The experimental and analytic results verify that our device is highly suitable for large-scale coordinate metrology. The developed device also holds great potential in various applications such as omnidirectional vision sensor, indoor global positioning system, and optical wireless communication systems.

  7. What measurable zero point fluctuations can(not) tell us about dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, M.

    2006-05-01

    We show that laboratory experiments cannot measure the absolute value of dark energy. All known experiments rely on electromagnetic interactions. They are thus insensitive to particles and fields that interact only weakly with ordinary matter. In addition, Josephson junction experiments only measure differences in vacuum energy similar to Casimir force measurements. Gravity, however, couples to the absolute value. Finally we note that Casimir force measurements have tested zero point fluctuations up to energies of ∝ 10 eV, well above the dark energy scale of ∝ 0.01 eV. Hence, the proposed cut-off in the fluctuation spectrum is ruled out experimentally. (Orig.)

  8. Equilibrium-point control hypothesis examined by measured arm stiffness during multijoint movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, H; Kawato

    1996-04-05

    For the last 20 years, it has been hypothesized that well-coordinated, multijoint movements are executed without complex computation by the brain, with the use of springlike muscle properties and peripheral neural feedback loops. However, it has been technically and conceptually difficult to examine this "equilibrium-point control" hypothesis directly in physiological or behavioral experiments. A high-performance manipulandum was developed and used here to measure human arm stiffness, the magnitude of which during multijoint movement is important for this hypothesis. Here, the equilibrium-point trajectory was estimated from the measured stiffness, the actual trajectory, and the generated torque. Its velocity profile differed from that of the actual trajectory. These results argue against the hypothesis that the brain sends as a motor command only an equilibrium-point trajectory similar to the actual trajectory.

  9. Measurement of β-decay end point energy with planar HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, T., E-mail: btumpa@vecc.gov.in [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Pandit, Deepak [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Das, S.K. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Chowdhury, A.; Das, P. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Banerjee, D. [RCD-BARC, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Saha, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, S.R. [Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-12-11

    The β–γ coincidence measurement has been performed with a segmented planar Hyper-Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector and a single coaxial HPGe detector to determine the end point energies of nuclear β-decays. The experimental end point energies have been determined for some of the known β-decays in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd. The end point energies corresponding to three weak branches in {sup 106}Rh→{sup 106}Pd decay have been measured for the first time. The γ ray and β particle responses for the planar HPGe detector were simulated using the Monte Carlo based code GEANT3. The experimentally obtained β spectra were successfully reproduced with the simulation.

  10. Accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples: A probe spacing dependence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a probe spacing dependence study in order to estimate the accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples. Based on sensitivity calculations, both sheet resistance and Hall effect measurements are studied for samples (e.g. laser annealed samples...... the probe spacing is smaller than 1/40 of the variation wavelength, micro four-point probes can provide an accurate record of local properties with less than 1% measurement error. All the calculations agree well with previous experimental results.......) with periodic variations of sheet resistance, sheet carrier density, and carrier mobility. With a variation wavelength of ¿, probe spacings from 0.0012 to 1002 have been applied to characterize the local variations. The calculations show that the measurement error is highly dependent on the probe spacing. When...

  11. Measurement standards and the general problem of reference points in chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.; Dube, G.

    2002-01-01

    Besides the measurement standards available in general metrology in the form of the realisations of the units of measurement, measurement standards of chemical composition are needed for the vast field of chemical measurement (measurements of the chemical composition), because it is the main aim of such measurements to quantify non-isolated substances, often in complicated matrices, to which the 'classical' measurement standards and their lower- level derivatives are not directly applicable. At present, material artefacts as well as standard measurement devices serve as chemical measurement standards. These are measurement standards in the full metrological sense only, however, if they are firmly linked to the SI unit in which the composition represented by the standard is expressed. This requirement has the consequence that only a very restricted number of really reliable chemical measurement standards exist at present. Since it is very difficult and time consuming to increase this number substantially and, on the other hand, reliable reference points are increasingly needed for all kinds of chemical measurements, primary methods of measurement and high-level reference measurements will play an increasingly important role for the establishment of worldwide comparability and hence mutual acceptance of chemical measurement results. (author)

  12. Two-point method uncertainty during control and measurement of cylindrical element diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, V. I.; Shalay, V. V.; Radev, H.

    2018-04-01

    The topic of the article is devoted to the urgent problem of the reliability of technical products geometric specifications measurements. The purpose of the article is to improve the quality of parts linear sizes control by the two-point measurement method. The article task is to investigate methodical extended uncertainties in measuring cylindrical element linear sizes. The investigation method is a geometric modeling of the element surfaces shape and location deviations in a rectangular coordinate system. The studies were carried out for elements of various service use, taking into account their informativeness, corresponding to the kinematic pairs classes in theoretical mechanics and the number of constrained degrees of freedom in the datum element function. Cylindrical elements with informativity of 4, 2, 1 and θ (zero) were investigated. The uncertainties estimation of in two-point measurements was made by comparing the results of of linear dimensions measurements with the functional diameters maximum and minimum of the element material. Methodical uncertainty is formed when cylindrical elements with maximum informativeness have shape deviations of the cut and the curvature types. Methodical uncertainty is formed by measuring the element average size for all types of shape deviations. The two-point measurement method cannot take into account the location deviations of a dimensional element, so its use for elements with informativeness less than the maximum creates unacceptable methodical uncertainties in measurements of the maximum, minimum and medium linear dimensions. Similar methodical uncertainties also exist in the arbitration control of the linear dimensions of the cylindrical elements by limiting two-point gauges.

  13. Direct measurement of α2F in normal metals using point-contacts: noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, A.G.M.; Mueller, F.M.; Wyder, P.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique of forming tiny point junctions, first discussed by Sharvin, is described. By measuring the second derivative of voltage with respect to current, using techniques similar to tunnel junction spectroscopy, structure is found which is consistent with bulk phonon densities of states derived from neutron scattering. The same results were reported at LT 14 by Yanson using a shorted film technique

  14. Fast and direct measurements of the electrical properties of graphene using micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Mikkel Buster; Dam, Henrik Friis; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2011-01-01

    . Measurements are performed in ambient, vacuum and controlled environmental conditions using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results are comparable to previous results for microcleaved graphene on silicon dioxide (SiO2). We observe a pronounced hysteresis of the charge neutrality point...

  15. On a Use Case Points Measurement Tool for Effective Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Katsuro; Kusumoto, Shinji; Tsuda, Michio

    2007-01-01

    Use case point (UCP) method has been proposed to estimate software development effort in early phase of software project and used in a lot of software organizations. This paper briefly describes an automatic use case measurement tool, called U-EST.

  16. Estimation and prediction of convection-diffusion-reaction systems from point measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, D.

    2008-01-01

    Different procedures with respect to estimation and prediction of systems characterized by convection, diffusion and reactions on the basis of point measurement data, have been studied. Two applications of these convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) systems have been used as a case study of the

  17. Investigation of potential factors affecting the measurement of dew point temperature in oil-soaked transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam H.

    Moisture within a transformer's insulation system has been proven to degrade its dielectric strength. When installing a transformer in situ, one method used to calculate the moisture content of the transformer insulation is to measure the dew point temperature of the internal gas volume of the transformer tank. There are two instruments commercially available that are designed for dew point temperature measurement: the Alnor Model 7000 Dewpointer and the Vaisala DRYCAPRTM Hand-Held Dewpoint Meter DM70. Although these instruments perform an identical task, the design technology behind each instrument is vastly different. When the Alnor Dewpointer and Vaisala DM70 instruments are used to measure the dew point of the internal gas volume simultaneously from a pressurized transformer, their differences in dew point measurement have been observed to vary as much as 30 °F. There is minimal scientific research available that focuses on the process of measuring dew point of a gas inside a pressurized transformer, let alone this observed phenomenon. The primary objective of this work was to determine what effect certain factors potentially have on dew point measurements of a transformer's internal gas volume, in hopes of understanding the root cause of this phenomenon. Three factors that were studied include (1) human error, (2) the use of calibrated and out-of-calibration instruments, and (3) the presence of oil vapor gases in the dry air sample, and their subsequent effects on the Q-value of the sampled gas. After completing this portion of testing, none of the selected variables proved to be a direct cause of the observed discrepancies between the two instruments. The secondary objective was to validate the accuracy of each instrument as compared to its respective published range by testing against a known dew point temperature produced by a humidity generator. In a select operating range of -22 °F to -4 °F, both instruments were found to be accurate and within their

  18. Two-point concrete resistivity measurements: interfacial phenomena at the electrode–concrete contact zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarter, W J; Taha, H M; Suryanto, B; Starrs, G

    2015-01-01

    Ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are used to critically examine the end-to-end (two-point) testing technique employed in evaluating the bulk electrical resistivity of concrete. In particular, this paper focusses on the interfacial contact region between the electrode and specimen and the influence of contacting medium and measurement frequency on the impedance response. Two-point and four-point electrode configurations were compared and modelling of the impedance response was undertaken to identify and quantify the contribution of the electrode–specimen contact region on the measured impedance. Measurements are presented in both Bode and Nyquist formats to aid interpretation. Concretes mixes conforming to BSEN206-1 and BS8500-1 were investigated which included concretes containing the supplementary cementitious materials fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag. A measurement protocol is presented for the end-to-end technique in terms of test frequency and electrode–specimen contacting medium in order to minimize electrode–specimen interfacial effect and ensure correct measurement of bulk resistivity. (paper)

  19. Technical aspects of acid dew point measurement in furnace exhaust. Messtechnik fuer die Saeuretaupunktmessung in Feuerungsabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-01-01

    SO/sub 3/ formation in flue gases and the effect of furnace parameters, furnace type and design on the efficiency of SO/sub 2/ conversion were investigated in a detailed bibliographic study. Phase equilibrium data for the binary system H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and equations for calculating the acid dew point are presented, and the available wet chemical methods for SO/sub 3/ concentration measurements in flue gases are reviewed. The SM1 acid dew point measuring instrument availabe at the authors' institute was modified by installing a new measuring probe, an external thermoelement intensifier, and a new PD control element for temperature control in the measuring surfaces. Acid dew point measurements were carried out in two different furnaces, i.e. a domestic boiler for light fuel oil and an industrial furnace fuelled with heavy oil at the Stuttgart University heat- and power plant. The measurements are compared with data from relevant publications. (orig./RB) With 80 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Coordinate alignment of combined measurement systems using a modified common points method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, P.; Xiao, W.

    2018-03-01

    The co-ordinate metrology has been extensively researched for its outstanding advantages in measurement range and accuracy. The alignment of different measurement systems is usually achieved by integrating local coordinates via common points before measurement. The alignment errors would accumulate and significantly reduce the global accuracy, thus need to be minimized. In this thesis, a modified common points method (MCPM) is proposed to combine different traceable system errors of the cooperating machines, and optimize the global accuracy by introducing mutual geometric constraints. The geometric constraints, obtained by measuring the common points in individual local coordinate systems, provide the possibility to reduce the local measuring uncertainty whereby enhance the global measuring certainty. A simulation system is developed in Matlab to analyze the feature of MCPM using the Monto-Carlo method. An exemplary setup is constructed to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method associated with laser tracker and indoor iGPS systems. Experimental results show that MCPM could significantly improve the alignment accuracy.

  1. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    consistent evidence that smoking bans reduced exposure to SHS in workplaces, restaurants, pubs and in public places. There was a greater reduction in exposure to SHS in hospitality workers compared to the general population. We failed to detect any difference in self-reported exposure to SHS in cars. There was no change in either the prevalence or duration of reported exposure to SHS in the home as a result of implementing legislative bans. Twenty-three studies reported measures of active smoking, often as a co-variable rather than an end-point in itself, with no consistent evidence of a reduction in smoking prevalence attributable to the ban. Total tobacco consumption was reduced in studies where prevalence declined. Twenty-five studies reported health indicators as an outcome. Self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms were measured in 12 studies, with lung function measured in five of them. There was consistent evidence of a reduction in hospital admissions for cardiac events as well as an improvement in some health indicators after the ban. AUTHORS\\' CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to a reduction in exposure to passive smoking. Hospitality workers experienced a greater reduction in exposure to SHS after implementing the ban compared to the general population. There is limited evidence about the impact on active smoking but the trend is downwards. There is some evidence of an improvement in health outcomes. The strongest evidence is the reduction seen in admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is an increase in support for and compliance with smoking bans after the legislation.

  2. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  3. Dew-point hygrometry system for measurement of evaporative water loss in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Glotzbach, S F; Baldwin, R B; Rector, D M; Bowley, S M; Moffat, R J

    1997-03-01

    Evaporation of water from the skin is an important mechanism in thermal homeostasis. Resistance hygrometry, in which the water vapor pressure gradient above the skin surface is calculated, has been the measurement method of choice in the majority of pediatric investigations. However, resistance hygrometry is influenced by changes in ambient conditions such as relative humidity, surface temperature, and convection currents. We have developed a ventilated capsule method that minimized these potential sources of measurement error and that allowed second-by-second, long-term, continuous measurements of evaporative water loss in sleeping infants. Air with a controlled reference humidity (dew-point temperature = 0 degree C) is delivered to a small, lightweight skin capsule and mixed with the vapor on the surface of the skin. The dew point of the resulting mixture is measured by using a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer. The system indicates leaks, is mobile, and is accurate within 2%, as determined by gravimetric calibration. Examples from a recording of a 13-wk-old full-term infant obtained by using the system give evaporative water loss rates of approximately 0.02 mgH2O.cm-2.min-1 for normothermic baseline conditions and values up to 0.4 mgH2O.cm-2. min-1 when the subject was being warmed. The system is effective for clinical investigations that require dynamic measurements of water loss.

  4. Null-point titration measurements of free magnesium in stored erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.L.; Yusuf, Y.; Puntillo, E.

    1987-01-01

    Free intracellular magnesium concentration (Mg/sub i/) was measured in stored human erythrocytes, using null-point titration with ionophore A23187. For cells stored 31 P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a decrease in Mg/sub i/ with storage. However, the NMR measurements are performed with no pretreatment of the cells, while the null-point method requires an initial washing step, which alters pH/sub i/ and may also alter Mg/sub i/. The titration-measured Mg/sub i/ values are still surprisingly low for long-stored cells, considering that depletion of ATP and 2,3-DPG should release bound Mg. Using the titration-measured Mg/sub i/ values along with measurements of total Mg, ATP, and 2,3-DPG, they estimate that an additional buffer contains about 47% of total Mg in cells stored 21 days. Mg/sub i/ determinations by both 31 P NMR and null-point titration thus indicate that erythrocyte Mg is largely bound to a high-capacity, low-affinity buffer whose relative importance increases during cell storage. Discrepancies between the methods require further investigation

  5. Prospects for direct neutron capture measurements on s-process branching point isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Kaeppeler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Palomo, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria Electronica, Sevilla (Spain); Reifarth, R. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of several unstable key isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure directly due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, where high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. At present there are about 21 relevant s-process branching point isotopes whose cross section could not be measured yet over the neutron energy range of interest for astrophysics. However, the situation is changing with some very recent developments and upcoming technologies. This work introduces three techniques that will change the current paradigm in the field: the use of γ-ray imaging techniques in (n, γ) experiments, the production of moderated neutron beams using high-power lasers, and double capture experiments in Maxwellian neutron beams. (orig.)

  6. New algorithm using only one variable measurement applied to a maximum power point tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, V.; Olias, E.; Lazaro, A.; Barrado, A. [University Carlos III de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electronic Technology

    2005-05-01

    A novel algorithm for seeking the maximum power point of a photovoltaic (PV) array for any temperature and solar irradiation level, needing only the PV current value, is proposed. Satisfactory theoretical and experimental results are presented and were obtained when the algorithm was included on a 100 W 24 V PV buck converter prototype, using an inexpensive microcontroller. The load of the system used was a battery and a resistance. The main advantage of this new maximum power point tracking (MPPT), when is compared with others, is that it only uses the measurement of the photovoltaic current, I{sub PV}. (author)

  7. High Response Dew Point Measurement System for a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1996-01-01

    A new high response on-line measurement system has been developed to continuously display and record the air stream dew point in the NASA Lewis 10 x 10 supersonic wind tunnel. Previous instruments suffered from such problems as very slow response, erratic readings, and high susceptibility to contamination. The system operates over the entire pressure level range of the 10 x 10 SWT, from less than 2 psia to 45 psia, without the need for a vacuum pump to provide sample flow. The system speeds up tunnel testing, provides large savings in tunnel power costs and provides the dew point input for the data-reduction subroutines which calculate test section conditions.

  8. Displacement correction factor versus effective point of measurement in depth dose curve measurements at {sup 60}Co gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruna, A [Universidad Nacional, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica; Velez, G R [Hospital San Roque, Cordoba (Argentina). Dept. de Radioterapia; Brunetto, M [Centro Medico Rivado Dean Funes, Cordoba (Argentina)

    1996-08-01

    The discrepancies in data sets of values of the Displacement Factor p{sub d} recommended by different codes of practices for calibration purpose still demand further investigation to clarify this point. In this paper, we propose an experimental method to determine the displacement factor for cylindrical ionization chambers (thimble chambers) in photon beams. Measurements of p{sub d} for several depths were performed for {sup 60}Co gamma rays. From these results we calculated the shift of the effective point of measurement (z-z{sub eff}) for different depths. The results obtained in this work shown: (a) there is no significant change in p{sub d} from 2 cm to 17 cm of depth in water; (b) the value of p{sub d} for a ion-chamber Farmer type (inner radius r = 3.15 cm) is p{sub d} 0.988; (c) the shift of the effective point of measurement has a smooth variation with depth; (d) the value of (z-z{sub eff}) at the recommended calibration depth for {sup 60}Co beams (5 cm) is 0.6r (with r: inner radius of the chamber). The result (b) confirms the value of p{sub d} suggested by the SEFM and NACP protocols and differs with that of the AAPM. The value obtained for (z - z{sub eff}) (d) is very closed to that recommended by the IAEA TRS-277. Finally, the results (a) and (c) suggest that it should be preferable to use the displacement factor instead of effective point of measurement to perform measurements of depth dose curves, since the use of z{sub eff} should take into account its dependence on depth. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs.

  9. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih Ratna; Cahyantari Anggaina Elfandora; Ariyani Zulfaida; Susanty Aries; Arvianto Ary; Santoso Haryo

    2018-01-01

    Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME) of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS) method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1) Environment, (2) Socio-cultural and (3) Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sust...

  10. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation

  11. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation.

  12. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam C; Torous, John; Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-02-10

    There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their own assessments of apps, in conjunction with

  13. Measurement Back-Action in Quantum Point-Contact Charge Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Küng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charge sensing with quantum point-contacts (QPCs is a technique widely used in semiconductor quantum-dot research. Understanding the physics of this measurement process, as well as finding ways of suppressing unwanted measurement back-action, are therefore both desirable. In this article, we present experimental studies targeting these two goals. Firstly, we measure the effect of a QPC on electron tunneling between two InAs quantum dots, and show that a model based on the QPC’s shot-noise can account for it. Secondly, we discuss the possibility of lowering the measurement current (and thus the back-action used for charge sensing by correlating the signals of two independent measurement channels. The performance of this method is tested in a typical experimental setup.

  14. Automated and continuously operating acid dew point measuring instrument for flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckmann, D.; Naundorf, G.

    1986-06-01

    Design and operation is explained for a sulfuric acid dew point indicator for continuous flue gas temperature control. The indicator operated successfully in trial tests over several years with brown coal, gas and oil combustion in a measurement range of 60 to 180 C. The design is regarded as uncomplicated and easy to manufacture. Its operating principle is based on electric conductivity measurement on a surface on which sulfuric acid vapor has condensed. A ring electrode and a PtRh/Pt thermal element as central electrode are employed. A scheme of the equipment design is provided. Accuracy of the indicator was compared to manual dew point sondes manufactured by Degussa and showed a maximum deviation of 5 C. Manual cleaning after a number of weeks of operation is required. Fly ash with a high lime content increases dust buildup and requires more frequent cleaning cycles.

  15. Chiral measurements with the Fixed-Point Dirac operator and construction of chiral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Hauswirth, S.; Holland, K.; Joerg, T.; Niedermayer, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we examine the chiral properties of the parametrized Fixed-Point Dirac operator D FP , see how to improve its chirality via the Overlap construction, measure the renormalized quark condensate Σ-circumflex and the topological susceptibility χ t , and investigate local chirality of near zero modes of the Dirac operator. We also give a general construction of chiral currents and densities for chiral lattice actions

  16. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  17. Selective processing of smoking-related cues in smokers: manipulation of deprivation level and comparison of three measures of processing bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2002-12-01

    Recent theories of addiction suggest that an attentional bias for drug-related cues plays an important role in maintaining drug-taking behaviours. A key feature of the present study is that it used three different measures of processing bias for linguistic and pictorial smoking-related cues: masked and unmasked conditions of the modified Stroop task, and a pictorial version of the visual probe task. Participants were smokers (n = 27), who were tested twice, with deprivation level manipulated as a within-subjects variable. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 h before one session, and to smoke normally before the other. Results were consistent with an attentional bias for smoking-related pictures on the visual probe task, and for smoking-related words in the unmasked condition of the modified Stroop task. The latter bias was most strongly predicted by self-reported urge to smoke, rather than by the deprivation manipulation. There was no evidence of a preconscious bias for smoking cues. The three measures of cognitive bias (from masked and unmasked Stroop and visual probe tasks) were not significantly correlated with each other, which suggests they may tap different underlying mechanisms. We discuss the results with respect to conceptualizations of selective attention, addiction and motivational states in general.

  18. End-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands and robotic assistance with directional damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Mustafa Suphi; Billard, Aude

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to perform end-point impedance measurements across dominant and nondominant hands while doing airbrush painting and to use the results for developing a robotic assistance scheme. We study airbrush painting because it resembles in many ways manual welding, a standard industrial task. The experiments are performed with the 7 degrees of freedom KUKA lightweight robot arm. The robot is controlled in admittance using a force sensor attached at the end-point, so as to act as a free-mass and be passively guided by the human. For impedance measurements, a set of nine subjects perform 12 repetitions of airbrush painting, drawing a straight-line on a cartoon horizontally placed on a table, while passively moving the airbrush mounted on the robot's end-point. We measure hand impedance during the painting task by generating sudden and brief external forces with the robot. The results show that on average the dominant hand displays larger impedance than the nondominant in the directions perpendicular to the painting line. We find the most significant difference in the damping values in these directions. Based on this observation, we develop a "directional damping" scheme for robotic assistance and conduct a pilot study with 12 subjects to contrast airbrush painting with and without robotic assistance. Results show significant improvement in precision with both dominant and nondominant hands when using robotic assistance.

  19. EXAMINATION ABOUT INFLUENCE FOR PRECISION OF 3D IMAGE MEASUREMENT FROM THE GROUND CONTROL POINT MEASUREMENT AND SURFACE MATCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results

  20. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  1. Optimal distribution of temperature points in μSR measurement of local field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pełka, R.; Zieliński, P.M.; Konieczny, P.; Wasiutyński, T.

    2013-01-01

    Three possible distributions of temperature points in the μSR measurement of local field (order parameter) are discussed. The least square method is applied to estimate the scale of the deviations of the fitted parameters from the true values. It indicates that the distribution corresponding to a uniform section of the order parameter values (uniform-in-signal) incurs the smallest errors. The distribution constructed on the basis of the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomials yields comparable uncertainties, while the uniform-in-temperature distribution turns out to be least effective incurring considerably larger errors. These findings can be useful while planning an order parameter measurement in the μSR experiment

  2. Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    For in situ measurements of local electrical conductivity of well defined crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, we have developed microscopic four-point probes with a probe spacing of several micrometres, installed in a scanning-electron - microscope/electron-diffraction chamber. The probe...... is precisely positioned on targeted areas of the sample surface by using piezoactuators. This apparatus enables conductivity measurement with extremely high surface sensitivity, resulting in direct access to surface-state conductivity of the surface superstructures, and clarifying the influence of atomic steps...

  3. Statistical MOSFET Parameter Extraction with Parameter Selection for Minimal Point Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Alisjahbana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to statistically extract MOSFET model parameters from a minimal number of transistor I(V characteristic curve measurements, taken during fabrication process monitoring. It includes a sensitivity analysis of the model, test/measurement point selection, and a parameter extraction experiment on the process data. The actual extraction is based on a linear error model, the sensitivity of the MOSFET model with respect to the parameters, and Newton-Raphson iterations. Simulated results showed good accuracy of parameter extraction and I(V curve fit for parameter deviations of up 20% from nominal values, including for a process shift of 10% from nominal.

  4. In situ optoacoustic measurement of the pointing stability of femtosecond laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, D.; Mitina, E.; Uryupina, D.; Volkov, R.; Karabytov, A.; Savel'ev, A.

    2018-02-01

    A new method for the in situ acoustic measurement of the beam pointing stability (BPS) of powerful pulsed lasers is tested. A broadband (~6 MHz) piezoelectric transducer placed a few millimeters from the laser spark produces an electric pulse. We show that variation in time of the position of this pulse can be used to assess the BPS down to 1 µrad in a few hundred laser shots. The estimated value coincides well with the BPS estimated using standard measurement in the far field.

  5. Measurement and account method for the available standing time of a smoke screen applying the diffusion equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Guang, Zhu; Gong-Pei, Pan; Xiao-Yun, Wu; Hua, Guan [308, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094 (China)

    2006-06-15

    The available shielding area of a smoke screen is an important parameter to evaluate its protection capability. It varies with time according to a parabola equation, which could be obtained by the diffusion equation and a few measured data. The available standing time which could satisfy the request of rating area can be calculated. The process of deriving the equation, the experimental procedure and the method of data collecting and processing is presented in detail in this paper. The calculated result is compared with engineering experience to verify the method. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Measurement and analysis of pressure tube elongation in the Douglas Point reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causey, A.R.; MacEwan, S.R.; Jamieson, H.C.; Mitchell, A.B.

    1980-02-01

    Elongations of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors, which occur as a result of neutron-irradiation-induced creep and growth, have been measured over the past 6 years, and the consequences of thses elongations have recently been analysed. Elongation rates, previously deduced from extensive measurements of elongations of cold-worked Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in the Pickering reactors, have been modified to apply to the pressure tubes in the Douglas Point (DP) reactor by taking into account measured diffences in texture and dislocation density. Using these elongation rates, and structural data unique to the DP reactor, the analysis predicts elongation behaviour which is in good agreement with pressure tube elongations measured during the ten years of reactor operation. (Auth)

  7. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Benowitz, N L; Feyerabend, C

    1988-01-01

    Cotinine elimination from plasma, saliva, and urine was studied over 11 days in five subjects (three nonsmokers and two occasional smokers). Half-lives for cotinine averaged 16-19 hours in the different body fluids (range 10 to 27 hours between subjects). There was no tendency for the half-life in saliva to be longer than in plasma or urine. We conclude that choice of body fluid for cotinine assay in smoking studies should depend on practical rather than pharmacokinetic considerations. PMID:3369603

  8. An Equipment to Measure the Freezing Point of Soils under Higher Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayan; Guan, Hui; Wen, Zhi; Ma, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Soil freezing point is the highest temperature at which ice can be presented in the system and soil can be referred to as frozen. The freezing temperature of soil is an important parameter for solving many practical problems in civil engineering, such as evaluation of soil freezing depth, prediction of soil heaving, force of soil suction, etc. However, as the freezing temperature is always affected by many factors like soil particle size, mineral composition, water content and the external pressure endured by soils, to measure soil freezing point is a rather difficult task until now, not to mention the soil suffering higher pressure. But recently, with the artificial freezing technology widely used in the excavation of deep underground space, the frozen wall thickness is a key factor to impact the security and stability of deep frozen wall. To determine the freeze wall thickness, the location of the freezing front must be determined firstly, which will deal with the determination of the soil freezing temperature. So how to measure the freezing temperature of soil suffering higher pressure is an important problem to be solved. This paper will introduce an equipment which was developed lately by State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering to measure the freezing-point of soils under higher pressure. The equipment is consisted of cooling and keeping temperature system, temperature sensor and data collection system. By cooling and keeping temperature system, not only can we make the higher pressure soil sample's temperature drop to a discretionary minus temperature, but also keep it and reduce the heat exchange of soil sample with the outside. The temperature sensor is the key part to our measurement, which is featured by high precision and high sensitivity, what is more important is that the temperature sensor can work in a higher pressure condition. Moreover, the major benefit of this equipment is that the soil specimen's loads can be loaded by any microcomputer

  9. Measurements of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity at Hinkley Point 'B': 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, T.A.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity made at Hinkley Point 'B' AGR in 1981 are described. These measurements follow earlier tests reported in e.g. RD/B/N4846 and are part of a series of measurements designed to support theoretical estimates of the change of fuel temperature coefficient as a function of core irradiation. Low and high power measurements were made at a mean core irradiation of 1170GWD. As previously, the measurements at both power levels show agreement with theoretical predictions to within the estimated experimental errors. Recent measurements (mean core irradiation >500GWD) show evidence of a small systematic difference between measured and theoretical values with the experimental values being approximately equal to 0.1mN/ 0 C more positive than the theoretical ones. The measured value of αsub(U) at high power was -0.64+-0.10mN/ 0 C and the low power value, corrected theoretically to normal operating conditions, was also -0.64+-0.10mN/ 0 C. (author)

  10. Measurement of factors that negatively influence the outcome of quitting smoking among patients with COPD: psychometric analyses of the Try To Quit Smoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Lena; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Törnkvist, Lena; Gilljam, Hans; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-12-01

    To test internal consistency and factor structure of a brief instrument called Trying to Quit smoking. The most effective treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to quit smoking. Constant thoughts about quitting and repeated quit attempts can generate destructive feelings and make it more difficult to quit. Development and psychometric testing of the Trying to Quit smoking scale. The Trying to Quit smoking, an instrument designed to assess pressure-filled states of mind and corresponding pressure-relief strategies, was tested among 63 Swedish patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among these, the psychometric properties of the instrument were analysed by Exploratory Factor Analyses. Fourteen items were included in the factor analyses, loading on three factors labelled: (1) development of pressure-filled mental states; (2) use of destructive pressure-relief strategies; and (3) ambivalent thoughts when trying to quit smoking. These three factors accounted for more than 80% of the variance, performed well on the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test and had high internal consistency.

  11. Dew point fast measurement in organic vapor mixtures using quartz resonant sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Liu, Jia; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    A fast dew point sensor has been developed for organic vapor mixtures by using the quartz crystal with sensitive circuits. The sensor consists of the quartz crystal and a cooler device. Proactive approach is taken to produce condensation on the surface of the quartz crystal, and it will lead to a change in electrical features of the quartz crystal. The cessation of oscillation was measured because this phenomenon is caused by dew condensation. Such a phenomenon can be used to detect the dew point. This method exploits the high sensitivity of the quartz crystal but without frequency measurement and also retains the stability of the resonant circuit. It is strongly anti-interfered. Its performance was evaluated with acetone-methanol mixtures under different pressures. The results were compared with the dew points predicted from the universal quasi-chemical equation to evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor. Though the maximum deviations of the sensor are less than 1.1 °C, it still has a fast response time with a recovery time of less than 10 s, providing an excellent dehumidifying performance.

  12. Space Technology 5 Multi-point Measurements of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. L.; Wang, Y.; Boardsen, S.A.; Moldwin, M. B.; Spence, H. E.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) mission successfully placed three micro-satellites in a 300 x 4500 km dawn-dusk orbit on 22 March 2006. Each spacecraft carried a boom-mounted vector fluxgate magnetometer that returned highly sensitive and accurate measurements of the geomagnetic field. These data allow, for the first time, the separation of temporal and spatial variations in field-aligned current (FAC) perturbations measured in low-Earth orbit on time scales of approximately 10 sec to 10 min. The constellation measurements are used to directly determine field-aligned current sheet motion, thickness and current density. In doing so, we demonstrate two multi-point methods for the inference of FAC current density that have not previously been possible in low-Earth orbit; 1) the "standard method," based upon s/c velocity, but corrected for FAC current sheet motion, and 2) the "gradiometer method" which uses simultaneous magnetic field measurements at two points with known separation. Future studies will apply these methods to the entire ST-5 data set and expand to include geomagnetic field gradient analyses as well as field-aligned and ionospheric currents.

  13. Product-service system method to measure sustainability level of traditional smoked fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Ratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Medium Enterprise’s (SME of traditional fish processing at Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia still focus their business on gain more profits. Sustainability aspect has not received enough attention yet. This study aims to review the sustainability level of SME smoked fish Semarang using product service system (PSS method. PSS consists of three dimensions (1 Environment, (2 Socio-cultural and (3 Economic. Each dimension consists of 6 criteria's. PSS not only assess the level of sustainability but also formulated the recommendation to increase the industries sustainability level. Sustainability assessment and recommendations formulation is guided by a check-list form. Then, the portfolio diagram used to select these recommendations according to its feasibility to be implemented and its importance for the industries. The result of sustainability assessment for traditional fish processing is 0.44, categorized as medium level. The recommendations for the environmental dimension are (1 use of liquid smoke on fish processing and (2 use of wastewater treatment with anaerobic ponds Recommendation for the socio-cultural dimension is use personal protective tool to reduce worker risk on safety and health. Recommendation for the economic dimension is used social media for product marketing and increasing the economic value of fish lung wastes. Recommendations are then illustrated in a diagram in the form of radar sustainability.

  14. The design of visible system for improving the measurement accuracy of imaging points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qiu-sha; Li, Gang; Zeng, Luan; Liu, Kai; Yan, Pei-pei; Duan, Jing; Jiang, Kai

    2018-02-01

    It has a widely applications in robot vision and 3D measurement for binocular stereoscopic measurement technology. And the measure precision is an very important factor, especially in 3D coordination measurement, high measurement accuracy is more stringent to the distortion of the optical system. In order to improving the measurement accuracy of imaging points, to reducing the distortion of the imaging points, the optical system must be satisfied the requirement of extra low distortion value less than 0.1#65285;, a transmission visible optical lens was design, which has characteristic of telecentric beam path in image space, adopted the imaging model of binocular stereo vision, and imaged the drone at the finity distance. The optical system was adopted complex double Gauss structure, and put the pupil stop on the focal plane of the latter groups, maked the system exit pupil on the infinity distance, and realized telecentric beam path in image space. The system mainly optical parameter as follows: the system spectrum rangement is visible light wave band, the optical effective length is f '=30mm, the relative aperture is 1/3, and the fields of view is 21°. The final design results show that the RMS value of the spread spots of the optical lens in the maximum fields of view is 2.3μm, which is less than one pixel(3.45μm) the distortion value is less than 0.1%, the system has the advantage of extra low distortion value and avoids the latter image distortion correction; the proposed modulation transfer function of the optical lens is 0.58(@145 lp/mm), the imaging quality of the system is closed to the diffraction limited; the system has simply structure, and can satisfies the requirements of the optical indexes. Ultimately, based on the imaging model of binocular stereo vision was achieved to measuring the drone at the finity distance.

  15. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  16. Point Measurements of Fermi Velocities by a Time-of-Flight Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, David S.; Henningsen, J. O.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1972-01-01

    The present paper describes in detail a new method of obtaining information about the Fermi velocity of electrons in metals, point by point, along certain contours on the Fermi surface. It is based on transmission of microwaves through thin metal slabs in the presence of a static magnetic field...... applied parallel to the surface. The electrons carry the signal across the slab and arrive at the second surface with a phase delay which is measured relative to a reference signal; the velocities are derived by analyzing the magnetic field dependence of the phase delay. For silver we have in this way...... obtained one component of the velocity along half the circumference of the centrally symmetric orbit for B→∥[100]. The results are in agreement with current models for the Fermi surface. For B→∥[011], the electrons involved are not moving in a symmetry plane of the Fermi surface. In such cases one cannot...

  17. Measurement of the point spread function of a pixelated detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritzer, Christian; Hallen, Patrick; Schug, David; Schulz, Volkmar [Department of Physics of Molecular Imaging Systems, Institute for Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    In order to further understand the PET/MRI scanner of our group, we measured the point spread function of a preclinical scintillation crystal array with a pitch of 1 mm and a total size of 30 mm ~ 30 mm ~ 12 mm. It is coupled via a lightguide to a dSiPM from Philips Digital Photon Counting, used on the TEK-setup. Crystal identification is done with a centre of gravity algorithm and the whole data analysis is performed with the same processing software as for the PET insert, giving comparable results. The beam is created with a 22 NA-Point-Source and a lead collimator, with 0.5 mm bore diameter. The algorithm sorted 62 % of the coincidences into the correct crystal.

  18. Measurement of the point spread function of a pixelated detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzer, Christian; Hallen, Patrick; Schug, David; Schulz, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand the PET/MRI scanner of our group, we measured the point spread function of a preclinical scintillation crystal array with a pitch of 1 mm and a total size of 30 mm ~ 30 mm ~ 12 mm. It is coupled via a lightguide to a dSiPM from Philips Digital Photon Counting, used on the TEK-setup. Crystal identification is done with a centre of gravity algorithm and the whole data analysis is performed with the same processing software as for the PET insert, giving comparable results. The beam is created with a 22 NA-Point-Source and a lead collimator, with 0.5 mm bore diameter. The algorithm sorted 62 % of the coincidences into the correct crystal.

  19. A rapid and robust gradient measurement technique using dynamic single-point imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungseok; McMillan, Alan B

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new gradient measurement technique based on dynamic single-point imaging (SPI), which allows simple, rapid, and robust measurement of k-space trajectory. To enable gradient measurement, we utilize the variable field-of-view (FOV) property of dynamic SPI, which is dependent on gradient shape. First, one-dimensional (1D) dynamic SPI data are acquired from a targeted gradient axis, and then relative FOV scaling factors between 1D images or k-spaces at varying encoding times are found. These relative scaling factors are the relative k-space position that can be used for image reconstruction. The gradient measurement technique also can be used to estimate the gradient impulse response function for reproducible gradient estimation as a linear time invariant system. The proposed measurement technique was used to improve reconstructed image quality in 3D ultrashort echo, 2D spiral, and multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging. In multi-echo bipolar gradient-echo imaging, measurement of the k-space trajectory allowed the use of a ramp-sampled trajectory for improved acquisition speed (approximately 30%) and more accurate quantitative fat and water separation in a phantom. The proposed dynamic SPI-based method allows fast k-space trajectory measurement with a simple implementation and no additional hardware for improved image quality. Magn Reson Med 78:950-962, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Surface electronic transport measurements: A micro multi-point probe approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    This work is mostly focused on the study of electronic transport properties of two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene and topological insulators. To study these, we have improved a unique micro multi-point probe instrument used to perform transport measurements. Not only the experimental...... quantities are extracted, such as conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility. • A method to insulate electrically epitaxial graphene grown on metals, based on a stepwise intercalation methodology, is developed and transport measurements are performed in order to test the insulation. • We show...... a direct measurement of the surface electronic transport on a bulk topological insulator. The surface state conductivity and mobility are obtained. Apart from transport properties, we also investigate the atomic structure of the Bi2Se3(111) surface via surface x-ray diraction and low-energy electron...

  1. Measurement of evaporative water loss in small animals by dew-point hygrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M H; Hudson, D M; Stearns, J M; Hoyt, R W

    1977-08-01

    This paper presents the procedures and equations to be utilized for measurement of evaporative water loss (mw), by use of the dew-point hygrometer, in small animals exposed to air containing water vapor in an open-flow system. The system accounted accurately for the water evaporated from a bubble flask. In addition, hygrometric measurements of pulmocutaneous mw in pigeons (Columba livia, mean mass 0.31 kg) agreed closely with simultaneous gravimetric measurements, utilizing a desiccant in the sample stream, in a manner independently of air temperature (Ta, 20 or 40 degrees C), ambient water vapor pressure (PW, 4-16 10(2) Pa), or mw (5-66 mg-min-1). Evaporation in pigeons was independent of PW at 20 degrees C, but increased with decreasing PW at 40 degrees C, suggesting differences in ventilatory adjustments to changes in PW at the two temperatures.

  2. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, M.C.; Hillard, R.J.; Borland, J.O.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (R S ) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations

  3. Radon and daughters in cigarette smoke measured with SSNTD and corresponding committed equivalent dose to respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Flata, K.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium ( 238 U) and Thorium ( 232 Th) contents were measured inside various tobacco samples by using a method based on determining detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) for the emitted alpha particles. Alpha and beta activities per unit volume, due to radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn) and their decay products, were evaluated inside cigarette smokes of tobacco samples studied. Annual committed equivalent doses due to short-lived radon decay products from the inhalation of various cigarette smokes were determined in the thoracic and extrathoracic regions of the respiratory tract. Three types of cigarettes made in Morocco of black tobacco show higher annual committed equivalent doses in the extrathoracic and thoracic regions of the respiratory tract than the other studied cigarettes (except one type of cigarettes made in France of yellow tobacco); their corresponding annual committed equivalent dose ratios are larger than 1.8. Measured annual committed equivalent doses ranged from 1.8x10 -9 to 1.10x10 -3 Sv yr -1 in the extrathoracic region and from 1.3x10 -10 to 7.6x10 -6 Sv yr -1 in the thoracic region of the respiratory tract for a smoker consuming 20 cigarettes a day

  4. DNA methylation changes measured in pre‐diagnostic peripheral blood samples are associated with smoking and lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto, Laura; Ponzi, Erica; Haycock, Philip; Hodge, Allison; Bianca Assumma, Manuela; Jung, Chol‐Hee; Chung, Jessica; Fasanelli, Francesca; Guida, Florence; Campanella, Gianluca; Chadeau‐Hyam, Marc; Grankvist, Kjell; Johansson, Mikael; Ala, Ugo; Provero, Paolo; Wong, Ee Ming; Joo, Jihoon; English, Dallas R.; Kazmi, Nabila; Lund, Eiliv; Faltus, Christian; Kaaks, Rudolf; Risch, Angela; Barrdahl, Myrto; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Polidoro, Silvia; Relton, Caroline L.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation changes are associated with cigarette smoking. We used the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 array to determine whether methylation in DNA from pre‐diagnostic, peripheral blood samples is associated with lung cancer risk. We used a case‐control study nested within the EPIC‐Italy cohort and a study within the MCCS cohort as discovery sets (a total of 552 case‐control pairs). We validated the top signals in 429 case‐control pairs from another 3 studies. We identified six CpGs for which hypomethylation was associated with lung cancer risk: cg05575921 in the AHRR gene (p‐valuepooled = 4 × 10−17), cg03636183 in the F2RL3 gene (p‐valuepooled = 2 × 10 − 13), cg21566642 and cg05951221 in 2q37.1 (p‐valuepooled = 7 × 10−16 and 1 × 10−11 respectively), cg06126421 in 6p21.33 (p‐valuepooled = 2 × 10−15) and cg23387569 in 12q14.1 (p‐valuepooled = 5 × 10−7). For cg05951221 and cg23387569 the strength of association was virtually identical in never and current smokers. For all these CpGs except for cg23387569, the methylation levels were different across smoking categories in controls (p‐valuesheterogeneity ≤ 1.8 x10 − 7), were lowest for current smokers and increased with time since quitting for former smokers. We observed a gain in discrimination between cases and controls measured by the area under the ROC curve of at least 8% (p‐values ≥ 0.003) in former smokers by adding methylation at the 6 CpGs into risk prediction models including smoking status and number of pack‐years. Our findings provide convincing evidence that smoking and possibly other factors lead to DNA methylation changes measurable in peripheral blood that may improve prediction of lung cancer risk. PMID:27632354

  5. Outdoor fine and ultrafine particle measurements at six bus stops with smoking on two California arterial highways--results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    As indoor smoking bans have become widely adopted, some U.S. communities are considering restricting smoking outdoors, creating a need for measurements of air pollution near smokers outdoors. Personal exposure experiments were conducted with four to five participants at six sidewalk bus stops located 1.5-3.3 m from the curb of two heavily traveled California arterial highways with 3300-5100 vehicles per hour. At each bus stop, a smoker in the group smoked a cigarette. Gravimetrically calibrated continuous monitors were used to measure fine particle concentrations (aerodynamic diameter bus stop, ultrafine particles (UFP), wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and traffic counts were also measured. For 13 cigarette experiments, the mean PM2.5 personal exposure of the nonsmoker seated 0.5 m from the smoker during a 5-min cigarette ranged from 15 to 153 microg/m3. Of four persons seated on the bench, the smoker received the highest PM2.5 breathing-zone exposure of 192 microg/m3. There was a strong proximity effect: nonsmokers at distances 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m from the smoker received mean PM2.5 personal exposures of 59, 40, and 28 microg/m3, respectively, compared with a background level of 1.7 microg/m3. Like the PM2.5 concentrations, UFP concentrations measured 0.5 m from the smoker increased abruptly when a cigarette started and decreased when the cigarette ended, averaging 44,500 particles/cm3 compared with the background level of 7200 particles/cm3. During nonsmoking periods, the UFP background concentrations showed occasional peaks due to traffic, whereas PM2.5 background concentrations were extremely low. The results indicate that a single cigarette smoked outdoors at a bus stop can cause PM2.5 and UFP concentrations near the smoker that are 16-35 and 6.2 times, respectively, higher than the background concentrations due to cars and trucks on an adjacent arterial highway. Rules banning smoking indoors have been widely adopted in the United States and in

  6. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300 % over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were  ∼  40–60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq and various biomass burning tracers (BBt across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI  =  (1∕3 × dln(Nliq∕dln(BBt to be  ∼  0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ∼  0.02 g m−3 and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm−3 in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m−2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the

  7. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-01-01

    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed in this paper to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. Finally, the spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  8. A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweardy, Matthew C.; McConchie, Seth; Hayward, Jason P.

    2017-07-01

    An extension of the point kinetics model is developed to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium-tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (n, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. The spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.

  9. Industrial point source CO2 emission strength estimation with aircraft measurements and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenuto, Federico; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Miglietta, Franco; Riccio, Angelo; Toscano, Piero; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gioli, Beniamino

    2018-02-22

    CO 2 remains the greenhouse gas that contributes most to anthropogenic global warming, and the evaluation of its emissions is of major interest to both research and regulatory purposes. Emission inventories generally provide quite reliable estimates of CO 2 emissions. However, because of intrinsic uncertainties associated with these estimates, it is of great importance to validate emission inventories against independent estimates. This paper describes an integrated approach combining aircraft measurements and a puff dispersion modelling framework by considering a CO 2 industrial point source, located in Biganos, France. CO 2 density measurements were obtained by applying the mass balance method, while CO 2 emission estimates were derived by implementing the CALMET/CALPUFF model chain. For the latter, three meteorological initializations were used: (i) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by ECMWF reanalyses; (ii) WRF-modelled outputs initialized by CFSR reanalyses and (iii) local in situ observations. Governmental inventorial data were used as reference for all applications. The strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches and how they affect emission estimation uncertainty were investigated. The mass balance based on aircraft measurements was quite succesful in capturing the point source emission strength (at worst with a 16% bias), while the accuracy of the dispersion modelling, markedly when using ECMWF initialization through the WRF model, was only slightly lower (estimation with an 18% bias). The analysis will help in highlighting some methodological best practices that can be used as guidelines for future experiments.

  10. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  11. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  12. Measures of association of some air pollutants. Natural ionizing radiation and cigarette smoking with mortality rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwing, R C; McDonald, G C

    1976-03-01

    Two methods are employed to estimate the association of hydrocarbons, sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, natural ionizing radiation, and cigarette smoking with some age stratified and disease specific United States mortality rates for white males. The first method is based on a ridge regression technique and the second on a sign constrained least squares analysis. It is concluded that increased concentration of sulfur compounds and increased consumption of cigarettes are associated with increases in the total white male mortality rate. Associations for nitrogen compounds, the hydrogen index, and ionizing radiation are dependent on methodology and data stratification. The estimated elasticities are not directly comparable to those from other studies. Most estimates are fairly close except for the associations of heart disease with sulfur compounds. (JTE)

  13. Carrier accumulation and depletion in point-contact capacitance-voltage measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitou, Yuichi

    2017-11-01

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) is a variation of atomic force microscopy in which a conductive probe tip detects the bias modulated capacitance for the purpose of measuring the nanoscale semiconductor carrier concentration. SCM can be regarded as a point-contact capacitance-voltage system, and its capacitance-voltage properties are different from those of a conventional parallel-plate capacitor. In this study, the charge accumulation and depletion behavior of a semiconductor sample were closely investigated by SCM. By analyzing the tip-sample approach curve, the effective probe tip area and charge depletion depth could be quantitatively determined.

  14. Quantum qubit measurement by a quantum point contact with a quantum Langevin equation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Bing; Lei, X.L.; Horing, N.J.M.; Cui, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a microscopic quantum Heisenberg-Langevin equation approach to establish a set of quantum Bloch equations for a two-level system (coupled quantum dots) capacitively coupled to a quantum point contact (QPC). The resulting Bloch equations facilitate our analysis of qubit relaxation and decoherence in coupled quantum dots induced by measurement processes at arbitrary bias-voltage and temperature. We also examine the noise spectrum of the meter output current for a symmetric qubit. These results help resolve a recent debate about a quantum oscillation peak in the noise spectrum. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Measurement of gamma quantum interaction point in plastic scintillator with WLS strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyrski, J., E-mail: smyrski@if.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dulski, K.; Gajos, A.; Głowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); Gorgol, M.; Jasińska, B. [Department of Nuclear Methods, Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Kajetanowicz, M.; Kamińska, D.; Korcyl, G. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); Kowalski, P. [Świerk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Krzemień, W. [High Energy Department, National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedźwiecki, Sz. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, S. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Cracow (Poland); and others

    2017-04-11

    The feasibility of measuring the aśxial coordinate of a gamma quantum interaction point in a plastic scintillator bar via the detection of scintillation photons escaping from the scintillator with an array of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is demonstrated. Using a test set-up comprising a BC-420 scintillator bar and an array of sixteen BC-482A WLS strips we achieved a spatial resolution of 5 mm (σ) for annihilation photons from a {sup 22}Na isotope. The studied method can be used to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic-scintillator-based PET scanner which is being developed by the J-PET collaboration.

  16. Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAughey John

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many recent developments of in vitro cigarette smoke systems closely replicating in vivo exposures. The Borgwaldt RM20S smoking machine (RM20S enables the serial dilution and delivery of cigarette smoke to exposure chambers for in vitro analyses. In this study we have demonstrated reliability and robustness testing of the RM20S in delivering smoke to in vitro cultures using an in-house designed whole smoke exposure chamber. Results The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells, exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2 demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber. Conclusions These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  17. Measurement Uncertainty of Dew-Point Temperature in a Two-Pressure Humidity Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L. Lages; Ribeiro, A. Silva; Alves e Sousa, J.; Forbes, Alistair B.

    2012-09-01

    This article describes the measurement uncertainty evaluation of the dew-point temperature when using a two-pressure humidity generator as a reference standard. The estimation of the dew-point temperature involves the solution of a non-linear equation for which iterative solution techniques, such as the Newton-Raphson method, are required. Previous studies have already been carried out using the GUM method and the Monte Carlo method but have not discussed the impact of the approximate numerical method used to provide the temperature estimation. One of the aims of this article is to take this approximation into account. Following the guidelines presented in the GUM Supplement 1, two alternative approaches can be developed: the forward measurement uncertainty propagation by the Monte Carlo method when using the Newton-Raphson numerical procedure; and the inverse measurement uncertainty propagation by Bayesian inference, based on prior available information regarding the usual dispersion of values obtained by the calibration process. The measurement uncertainties obtained using these two methods can be compared with previous results. Other relevant issues concerning this research are the broad application to measurements that require hygrometric conditions obtained from two-pressure humidity generators and, also, the ability to provide a solution that can be applied to similar iterative models. The research also studied the factors influencing both the use of the Monte Carlo method (such as the seed value and the convergence parameter) and the inverse uncertainty propagation using Bayesian inference (such as the pre-assigned tolerance, prior estimate, and standard deviation) in terms of their accuracy and adequacy.

  18. Drop size distribution measured by imaging: determination of the measurement volume by the calibration of the point spread function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fdida, Nicolas; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of drop size distributions in a spray depends on the definition of the control volume for drop counting. For image-based techniques, this implies the definition of a depth-of-field (DOF) criterion. A sizing procedure based on an imaging model and associated with a calibration procedure is presented. Relations between image parameters and object properties are used to provide a measure of the size of the droplets, whatever the distance from the in-focus plane. A DOF criterion independent of the size of the drops and based on the determination of the width of the point spread function (PSF) is proposed. It allows to extend the measurement volume to defocused droplets and, due to the calibration of the PSF, to clearly define the depth of the measurement volume. Calibrated opaque discs, calibrated pinholes and an optical edge are used for this calibration. A comparison of the technique with a phase Doppler particle analyser and a laser diffraction granulometer is performed on an application to an industrial spray. Good agreement is found between the techniques when particular care is given to the sampling of droplets. The determination of the measurement volume is used to determine the drop concentration in the spray and the maximum drop concentration that imaging can support

  19. A sensorless method for measuring the point mobility of mechanical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Herzog, P.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a convenient and cost-effective experimental tool for measuring the mobility characteristics of a mechanical structure. The objective is to demonstrate that the point mobility measurement can be performed using only an electrodynamic inertial exciter. Unlike previous work based on voice coil actuators, no load cell or accelerometer is needed. Instead, it is theoretically shown that the mobility characteristics of the structure can be estimated from variations in the electrical input impedance of the actuator fixed onto it, provided that the electromechanical parameters of the actuator are known. The proof of concept is made experimentally using a cheap commercially available actuator on a simply supported plate, leading to a good dynamic range from 100 Hz to 1 kHz. The methodology to assess the basic parameters of the actuator is also given. Measured data are compared to a standard shaker testing and the strengths and weaknesses of the sensorless mobility measuring device are discussed. It is believed that this sensorless mobility measuring device can be a convenient experimental tool to determine the dynamic characteristics of a wide range of mechanical structures.

  20. Analytical validation and reference intervals for freezing point depression osmometer measurements of urine osmolality in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Samantha; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José Joaquín; Balestra, Graziano; Caldin, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Urine osmolality (UOsm) is considered the most accurate measure of urine concentration and is used to assess body fluid homeostasis and renal function. We performed analytical validation of freezing point depression measurement of canine UOsm, to establish reference intervals (RIs) and to determine the effect of age, sex, and reproductive status on UOsm in dogs. Clinically healthy dogs ( n = 1,991) were retrospectively selected and stratified in groups by age (young [0-12 mo], adults [13-84 mo], and seniors [>84 mo]), sex (females and males), and reproductive status (intact and neutered). RIs were calculated for each age group. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were dogs, and 366-2,178 mOsm/kg in seniors. Senior dogs had a significantly lower UOsm than young and adult dogs ( p dogs ( p dogs.

  1. Use of dew-point detection for quantitative measurement of sweating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring sweat rate (SR) based on detection of dew point (DP) is proposed which has advantages that may be attractive to other laboratories concerned with recording SR from selected areas of skin. It is similar to other methods in that dry gas is passed through a capsule which isolates several square centimeters of skin surface. The difference is in the means of determining how much gaseous water is carried off in the effluent moist gas. The DP detector used is free of the drawbacks of previous devices. DP is obtained through the fundamental technique of determining the temperature at which condensate forms on a mirror. Variations in DP are tracked rapidly, and accurately (+ or - 0.8 C nominal, sensitivity + or - 0.05 C) over a wide range ( -40 C to +50 C) without measurable hysteresis. The detector asembly is rugged and readily opened for cleaning and inspection.

  2. A measured-ZMP(Zero-Moment-Point)-referenced control of biped locomotion robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Etsuo; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1994-01-01

    For the control of biped locomotion, the model-referenced-control or programmed control method is widely used. In this method, the instantaneous torque of actuator equipped at each joint is controlled so as to equalize measured angle to input joint angle based on the prescribed motion. The drawback is that this method can not deal with the dynamic change of walking such as that due to unknown external force. To resolve such the drawback, we propose a new control method as follows: given a prescribed motion as a set of gait, namely gait of starting walk, cyclic walk, and stopping walk including a standard trajectory of the Zero-Moment-Point (ZMP), the trunk motion to compensate the legs' motion is generated in real time using the current ZMP measured by sensing device. The proposed method will be validated through some numerical simulations. (author)

  3. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  4. Prediction uncertainty of plume characteristics derived from a small number of measuring points

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, H. K.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.

    A small number of measuring points may inflict a bias on the characterisation of flow and transport based on field experiments in the unsaturated zone. Simulation of pure advective transport of a Gaussian plume through a setup of 30 regularly placed measuring points revealed regular temporal fluctuations about the real spatial moments. An irregular setup predicted both irregular fluctuations and larger discrepancies from the real value. From these considerations, a regular setup is recommended. Spatial moments were sensitive to the plume size relative to the distance between individual measuring points. To reduce prediction errors of the variance, the distance between the measuring points should be less than twice the standard deviation of the examined plume. The total size of the setup should cover several standard deviations of the plume to avoid mass being lost from the monitored area. Numerical simulations of a dispersing plume (comparing calculations based on 9000 nodes with 30 measuring points) revealed that vertical and horizontal centres of mass were predicted well at all degrees of heterogeneity, and the same was the case for horizontal variances. Vertical variances were more susceptible to prediction errors, but estimates were of the same order of magnitude as the real values. Résumé Lorsque l'on cherche à caractériser l'écoulement et le transport à partir d'expériences de terrain dans la zone saturée, il arrive qu'un petit nombre de points introduisent un biais. La simulation d'un transport purement advectif d'un panache gaussien au travers d'un ensemble de 30 points de mesures espacés régulièrement fait apparaître des variations temporelles régulières autour des moments spatiaux réels. Un ensemble irrégulier conduit à prédire à la fois des variations irrégulières et de plus grandes divergences par rapport à la valeur réelle. A partir de ces constations, un ensemble régulier est recommandé. Les moments spatiaux sont apparus

  5. A consideration of a measuring point of ventricular dilatation on CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Koichi; Miyake, Kazuo

    1980-01-01

    Ventricular dilatation has been judged by pneumo-ventricurography, pneumo-encepharography and carotid angiography (CAG), though all these procedures are very uncomfortable for patients. On the other hand, the CT scan is very easy as a follow-up study of ventricular dilatation for a weak patient. We carried out the CT scan (Hitachi CT-H 250 Scanner, NaI detector) and CAG on 84 cases. The ventricular dilatation was judged by the degree of outstretch of the strio-thalamic vein on an AP view of the phrebogram, classified into 3 types. For all three types classified by the phrebogram, we studied various measuring points of the ventricle on the CT scan. The portions measured on the CT scan were: (1) the frontal cerebro-ventricular index (F-CVI), (2) the bicaudate cerebro-ventricular index (Bicaud-CVI), and (3) the maximum Monro's cerebro-ventricular index (M-CVI), the width of the frontal horn, and the thickness of the ventricular body. The following results were obtained: (1) In measuring the ventricular size on the CT scan, the most interrelated point with the ventricular dilatation is the M-CVI - the ratio of the largest width of the body through the Monro foramen to the width of the brain. In this case, however, the width of the frontal horn and of the body should also be considered. (2) Voltage and electric current changed the EMI-number, but did not alter the measuring value. In this case, the width and the level should be kept constant. (3) The group with the marked ventricular dilatation has a larger value of the CT scan than its value of GAG. (4) The normal value of the M-CVI is 24 +- 3%, moreover, the width of the frontal horn is less than 10 mm, and the thickness of the ventricular body is less than 17 mm. (author)

  6. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT for enhancing spatial significance of hydrometric point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides floodplains, hillslopes are basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments of subdued mountain ranges. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in the knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. This study presents a robust multi-method framework of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in addition to hydrometric point measurements, transferring hydrometric data into higher spatial scales to obtain additional patterns of distribution and dynamics of soil moisture on a hillslope. A geoelectrical monitoring in a small catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains was carried out at weekly intervals from May to December 2008 to image seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To link water content and electrical resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data. The results from ERT measurements show a strong correlation with the hydrometric data. The response is congruent to the soil tension data. Water content calculated from the ERT profile shows similar variations as that of water content from soil moisture sensors. Consequently, soil moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale may be determined not only by expensive invasive punctual hydrometric measurements, but also by minimally invasive time-lapse ERT, provided that pedo-/petrophysical relationships are known. Since ERT integrates larger spatial scales, a combination with hydrometric point measurements improves the understanding of the ongoing hydrological processes and better suits identification of heterogeneities.

  7. Comparisons of Satellite Soil Moisture, an Energy Balance Model Driven by LST Data and Point Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Paola; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Puca, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a fundamental role in the partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between land surface and atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather, and it is important in determining the rainfall-runoff response of catchments; moreover, in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting, a correct definition of moisture conditions is a key factor for accurate predictions. Different sources of information for the estimation of the soil moisture state are currently available: satellite data, point measurements and model predictions. All are affected by intrinsic uncertainty. Among different satellite sensors that can be used for soil moisture estimation three major groups can be distinguished: passive microwave sensors (e.g., SSMI), active sensors (e.g. SAR, Scatterometers), and optical sensors (e.g. Spectroradiometers). The last two families, mainly because of their temporal and spatial resolution seem the most suitable for hydrological applications In this work soil moisture point measurements from 10 sensors in the Italian territory are compared of with the satellite products both from the HSAF project SM-OBS-2, derived from the ASCAT scatterometer, and from ACHAB, an operative energy balance model that assimilate LST data derived from MSG and furnishes daily an evaporative fraction index related to soil moisture content for all the Italian region. Distributed comparison of the ACHAB and SM-OBS-2 on the whole Italian territory are performed too.

  8. Measuring sensitivity in pharmacoeconomic studies. Refining point sensitivity and range sensitivity by incorporating probability distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuijten, M J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe a refinement of a previously presented method, based on the concept of point sensitivity, to deal with uncertainty in economic studies. The original method was refined by the incorporation of probability distributions which allow a more accurate assessment of the level of uncertainty in the model. In addition, a bootstrap method was used to create a probability distribution for a fixed input variable based on a limited number of data points. The original method was limited in that the sensitivity measurement was based on a uniform distribution of the variables and that the overall sensitivity measure was based on a subjectively chosen range which excludes the impact of values outside the range on the overall sensitivity. The concepts of the refined method were illustrated using a Markov model of depression. The application of the refined method substantially changed the ranking of the most sensitive variables compared with the original method. The response rate became the most sensitive variable instead of the 'per diem' for hospitalisation. The refinement of the original method yields sensitivity outcomes, which greater reflect the real uncertainty in economic studies.

  9. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Friel, Brenda; Snelgrove, Vicki

    2012-11-01

    To measure levels of fine particulate matter in the rear passenger area of cars where smoking does and does not take place during typical real-life car journeys. Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was used as a marker of secondhand smoke and was measured and logged every minute of each car journey undertaken by smoking and non-smoking study participants. The monitoring instrument was located at breathing zone height in the rear seating area of each car. Participants were asked to carry out their normal driving and smoking behaviours over a 3-day period. 17 subjects (14 smokers) completed a total of 104 journeys (63 smoking journeys). Journeys averaged 27 min (range 5-70 min). PM(2.5) levels averaged 85 and 7.4 μg/m(3) during smoking and non-smoking car journeys, respectively. During smoking journeys, peak PM(2.5) concentrations averaged 385 μg/m(3), with one journey measuring over 880 μg/m(3). PM(2.5) concentrations were strongly linked to rate of smoking (cigarettes per minute). Use of forced ventilation and opening of car windows were very common during smoking journeys, but PM(2.5) concentrations were still found to exceed WHO indoor air quality guidance (25 μg/m(3)) at some point in the measurement period during all smoking journeys. PM(2.5) concentrations in cars where smoking takes place are high and greatly exceed international indoor air quality guidance values. Children exposed to these levels of fine particulate are likely to suffer ill-health effects. There are increasing numbers of countries legislating against smoking in cars and such measures may be appropriate to prevent the exposure of children to these high levels of secondhand smoke.

  12. Multi-Point Measurements to Characterize Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Multipoint measurements in the inner magnetosphere allow the spatial and temporal evolution of various particle populations and wave modes to be disentangled. To better characterize and quantify radiation belt precipitation loss, we utilize multi-point measurements both to study precipitating electrons directly as well as the potential drivers of this loss process. Magnetically conjugate CubeSat and balloon measurements are combined to estimate of the temporal and spatial characteristics of dusk-side precipitation features and quantify loss due to these events. To then understand the drivers of precipitation events, and what determines their spatial structure, we utilize measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes to estimate spatial and temporal scales of various wave modes in the inner magnetosphere, and compare these to precipitation characteristics. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of waves are compared to those of MeV electron precipitation during a few individual events to determine when and where EMIC waves cause radiation belt electron precipitation. Magnetically conjugate measurements provide observational support of the theoretical picture of duskside interaction of EMIC waves and MeV electrons leading to radiation belt loss. Finally, understanding the drivers controlling the spatial scales of wave activity in the inner magnetosphere is critical for uncovering the underlying physics behind the wave generation as well as for better predicting where and when waves will be present. Again using multipoint measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we estimate the spatial and temporal extents and evolution of plasma structures and their gradients in the inner magnetosphere, to better understand the drivers of magnetospheric wave characteristic scales. In particular, we focus on EMIC waves and the plasma parameters important for their growth, namely cold plasma density and cool and warm ion density, anisotropy, and composition.

  13. Hábitos tabágicos em alunos do 6.º ano de Medicina e medidas anti-tabágicas Smoking habits of sixth year medical students and anti-smoking measures in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectivos: Estudar os hábitos tabágicos, caracterizar o conhecimento, aceitação de medidas anti -tabágicas e as expectativas em relação ao impacto destas na saúde pública em alunos do 6º ano de Medicina, em Portugal. Material e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal, cuja população alvo foram os alunos de Medicina do sexto ano, em Portugal. Foi utilizado um questionário auto -preenchido, anónimo, disponibilizado numa página online, que divulgámos por correio electrónico. Para a análise de algumas variáveis utilizamos tabelas de contingência e a prova do χ², com nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados: Obtivemos 255 questionários válidos. A taxa de fumadores foi de 18,04%. O consumo de cigarros mais frequente foi entre 1 -10 cigarros, sendo mais elevado entre os homens. A idade de início da maioria foi entre 13 -18 anos, com as mulheres a começarem mais tarde. Dos fumadores, 36,96% já fizeram uma tentativa de cessação tabágica. A maioria dos inquiridos concorda com as medidas anti-tabágicas inquiridas e considera que irão diminuir o consumo e a morbimortalidade da população em geral. A formação sobre cessação tabágica foi considerada suficiente por 34,90%. Conclusões: Os resultados obtidos estão de acordo com as características da população em geral, nomeadamente quanto à prevalência de fumadores, idade de início do consumo de tabaco e elevada prevalência de mulheres fumadoras. As medidas anti-tabágicas parecem reunir consenso, segundo a nossa amostra, que também espera uma redução do consumo geral e individual, assim como da morbimortalidade.Objectives: To study the smoking habits of 6th year Portuguese medical students and assess their knowledge and acceptance of anti-smoking measures and how they felt these would impact on public health. Material and methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, in which a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  15. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  16. Measurements of Gun Tube Motion and Muzzle Pointing Error of Main Battle Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. McCall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in 1990, the US Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC began testing a prototype cannon mounted in a non-armored turret fitted to an M1A1 Abrams tank chassis. The cannon design incorporated a longer gun tube as a means to increase projectile velocity. A significant increase in projectile impact dispersion was measured early in the test program. Through investigative efforts, the cause of the error was linked to the increased dynamic bending or flexure of the longer tube observed while the vehicle was moving. Research and investigative work was conducted through a collaborative effort with the US Army Research Laboratory, Benet Laboratory, Project Manager – Tank Main Armament Systems, US Army Research and Engineering Center, and Cadillac Gage Textron Inc. New test methods, instrumentation, data analysis procedures, and stabilization control design resulted through this series of investigations into the dynamic tube flexure error source. Through this joint research, improvements in tank fire control design have been developed to improve delivery accuracy. This paper discusses the instrumentation implemented, methods applied, and analysis procedures used to characterize the tube flexure during dynamic tests of a main battle tank and the relationship between gun pointing error and muzzle pointing error.

  17. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  18. An electrochemical sensor device for measuring blood ammonia at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, N T; Killard, A J

    2017-05-15

    The level of ammonia in blood is relevant in a number of medical conditions. While ammonia is a marker of dysfunction, elevated ammonia is itself a serious medical emergency and can lead to significant and permanent neurological impairment if not addressed quickly. Blood ammonia testing is typically performed in the central laboratory. While a number of point of care devices have been developed, these are based on classical enzymatic or colorimetric principles and have not been widely adopted. In this work, an electrochemical sensor device was developed for measuring blood ammonia. The device was based on the deposition of polyaniline nanoparticle films onto screen printed interdigitated electrodes using inkjet printing and their integration into a polymer microfabricated device with a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. The device required a 52µL serum sample and measured the change in impedance of the sensor with respect to air at 1kHz, 5mV rms. The device was capable of the measurement of ammonia in serum across the physiologically relevant range of 25-200µM (r 2 =0.9984) and had a limit of detection of 12µM (n =3). The device showed no significant issues with common electrochemical interferences in blood. The device was also validated against a commercial spectrophotometric assay which resulted in excellent correlation (r =0.9699, pair (n =12) and could be stored in desiccant for at least five months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MLAOS: A Multi-Point Linear Array of Optical Sensors for Coniferous Foliage Clumping Index Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Qu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The canopy foliage clumping effect is primarily caused by the non-random distribution of canopy foliage. Currently, measurements of clumping index (CI by handheld instruments is typically time- and labor-intensive. We propose a low-cost and low-power automatic measurement system called Multi-point Linear Array of Optical Sensors (MLAOS, which consists of three above-canopy and nine below-canopy optical sensors that capture plant transmittance at different times of the day. Data communication between the MLAOS node is facilitated by using a ZigBee network, and the data are transmitted from the field MLAOS to a remote data server using the Internet. The choice of the electronic element and design of the MLAOS software is aimed at reducing costs and power consumption. A power consumption test showed that, when a 4000 mAH Li-ion battery is used, a maximum of 8–10 months of work can be achieved. A field experiment on a coniferous forest revealed that the CI of MLAOS may reveal a clumping effect that occurs within the canopy. In further work, measurement of the multi-scale clumping effect can be achieved by utilizing a greater number of MLAOS devices to capture the heterogeneity of the plant canopy.

  20. Automatic detection of measurement points for non-contact vibrometer-based diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Jürgen; Kroschel, Kristian; Willersinn, Dieter

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring of the heart rhythm is the cornerstone of the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias. It is done by means of electrocardiography which relies on electrodes attached to the skin of the patient. We present a new system approach based on the so-called vibrocardiogram that allows an automatic non-contact registration of the heart rhythm. Because of the contactless principle, the technique offers potential application advantages in medical fields like emergency medicine (burn patient) or premature baby care where adhesive electrodes are not easily applicable. A laser-based, mobile, contactless vibrometer for on-site diagnostics that works with the principle of laser Doppler vibrometry allows the acquisition of vital functions in form of a vibrocardiogram. Preliminary clinical studies at the Klinikum Karlsruhe have shown that the region around the carotid artery and the chest region are appropriate therefore. However, the challenge is to find a suitable measurement point in these parts of the body that differs from person to person due to e. g. physiological properties of the skin. Therefore, we propose a new Microsoft Kinect-based approach. When a suitable measurement area on the appropriate parts of the body are detected by processing the Kinect data, the vibrometer is automatically aligned on an initial location within this area. Then, vibrocardiograms on different locations within this area are successively acquired until a sufficient measuring quality is achieved. This optimal location is found by exploiting the autocorrelation function.

  1. Accuracy of Handheld Point-of-Care Fingertip Lactate Measurement in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaieski, David G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early recognition of elevated lactate levels in sepsis may hasten the detection of those patients eligible for aggressive resuscitation. Point-of-care (POC testing is now increasingly available for use in the emergency department (ED. We examined the accuracy and time-saving effect of a handheld POC device for the measurement of fingertip and whole blood lactate as compared with reference laboratory testing in critically ill ED patients.Methods: A convenience sample of adult ED patients receiving serum lactate testing was prospectively enrolled at an urban, tertiary care US hospital. Consenting patients underwent fingertip POC lactate measurement with a portable device and simultaneous whole blood sampling for analysis by both the POC device and standard laboratory analyzer (‘‘reference method’’. Lactate measurements were compared by intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland and Altman plots. Differences in time to test result were compared by paired t test.Results: Twenty-four patients, 19 (79% with sepsis and 21 (88% with lactate levels below 4 mmol/L, were included from April 2005 to May 2005. Fingertip POC and whole blood POC lactate measurements each correlated tightly with the reference method (ICC ¼ 0.90 and ICC ¼ 0.92, respectively. Mean time between obtaining fingertip lactate samples and whole blood reference lactate samples was 8 6 13 minutes. Mean time between obtaining POC and reference laboratory lactate results was 65 minutes (95% confidence interval, 30–103.Conclusion: Fingertip POC lactate measurement is an accurate method to determine lactate levels in infected ED patients with normal or modestly elevated lactate values and significantly decreases time to test results. These findings should be verified in a larger, more critically ill, ED population. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(1:58-62.

  2. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, F.R. [CTS-NA, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO{sub 2} gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  3. Application of new point measurement device to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremeans, Mackenzie; Devlin, J.F.; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2018-01-01

    The Streambed Point Velocity Probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe...... hydraulic head and temperature gradient data collected at similar scales. Spatial relationships of water flow through the streambed were found to be similar by all three methods, and indicated a heterogeneous pattern of groundwater-surface water exchange. The magnitudes of estimated flow varied to a greater...... degree. It was found that pollutants enter the stream in localized regions of high flow which do not always correspond to the locations of highest pollutant concentration. The results show the combined influence of flow and concentration on contaminant discharge and illustrate the advantages of adopting...

  4. CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO_2 gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.

  5. Measuring the relative efficiencies of automated telling machines and point of sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farajzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, many people have been interested in purchasing goods and services via point of sales (POS. They have also wished to pay their bills, withdraw cash or transfer funds using automated telling machines (ATMs. These two facilities help banks’ customers carry less amount of cash and do their daily banking activities any time even when the banks are closed. This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of nearly 600 POS and ATM units associated with Bank Melli Iran located in city of Tehran, Iran. Using data envelopment analysis, the study has disclosed that only small portions of POS and ATM are working efficiently.

  6. Instantaneous local wave vector estimation from multi-spacecraft measurements using few spatial points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Carozzi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a technique to determine instantaneous local properties of waves based on discrete-time sampled, real-valued measurements from 4 or more spatial points. The technique is a generalisation to the spatial domain of the notion of instantaneous frequency used in signal processing. The quantities derived by our technique are closely related to those used in geometrical optics, namely the local wave vector and instantaneous phase velocity. Thus, this experimental technique complements ray-tracing. We provide example applications of the technique to electric field and potential data from the EFW instrument on Cluster. Cluster is the first space mission for which direct determination of the full 3-dimensional local wave vector is possible, as described here.

  7. A varying coefficient model to measure the effectiveness of mass media anti-smoking campaigns in generating calls to a Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quang M; Huggins, Richard M; Hwang, Wen-Han; White, Victoria; Erbas, Bircan

    2010-01-01

    Anti-smoking advertisements are an effective population-based smoking reduction strategy. The Quitline telephone service provides a first point of contact for adults considering quitting. Because of data complexity, the relationship between anti-smoking advertising placement, intensity, and time trends in total call volume is poorly understood. In this study we use a recently developed semi-varying coefficient model to elucidate this relationship. Semi-varying coefficient models comprise parametric and nonparametric components. The model is fitted to the daily number of calls to Quitline in Victoria, Australia to estimate a nonparametric long-term trend and parametric terms for day-of-the-week effects and to clarify the relationship with target audience rating points (TARPs) for the Quit and nicotine replacement advertising campaigns. The number of calls to Quitline increased with the TARP value of both the Quit and other smoking cessation advertisement; the TARP values associated with the Quit program were almost twice as effective. The varying coefficient term was statistically significant for peak periods with little or no advertising. Semi-varying coefficient models are useful for modeling public health data when there is little or no information on other factors related to the at-risk population. These models are well suited to modeling call volume to Quitline, because the varying coefficient allowed the underlying time trend to depend on fixed covariates that also vary with time, thereby explaining more of the variation in the call model.

  8. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  9. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  10. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  11. Analytical solutions to compartmental indoor air quality models with application to environmental tobacco smoke concentrations measured in a house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R; Klepeis, Neil E; Switzer, Paul

    2003-08-01

    This paper derives the analytical solutions to multi-compartment indoor air quality models for predicting indoor air pollutant concentrations in the home and evaluates the solutions using experimental measurements in the rooms of a single-story residence. The model uses Laplace transform methods to solve the mass balance equations for two interconnected compartments, obtaining analytical solutions that can be applied without a computer. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) sources such as the cigarette typically emit pollutants for relatively short times (7-11 min) and are represented mathematically by a "rectangular" source emission time function, or approximated by a short-duration source called an "impulse" time function. Other time-varying indoor sources also can be represented by Laplace transforms. The two-compartment model is more complicated than the single-compartment model and has more parameters, including the cigarette or combustion source emission rate as a function of time, room volumes, compartmental air change rates, and interzonal air flow factors expressed as dimensionless ratios. This paper provides analytical solutions for the impulse, step (Heaviside), and rectangular source emission time functions. It evaluates the indoor model in an unoccupied two-bedroom home using cigars and cigarettes as sources with continuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), respirable suspended particles (RSP), and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH). Fine particle mass concentrations (RSP or PM3.5) are measured using real-time monitors. In our experiments, simultaneous measurements of concentrations at three heights in a bedroom confirm an important assumption of the model-spatial uniformity of mixing. The parameter values of the two-compartment model were obtained using a "grid search" optimization method, and the predicted solutions agreed well with the measured concentration time series in the rooms of the home. The door and window positions in

  12. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  13. Characterization of positional errors and their influence on micro four-point probe measurements on a 100 nm Ru film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film sheet resistance measurements at high spatial resolution and on small pads are important and can be realized with micrometer-scale four-point probes. As a result of the small scale the measurements are affected by electrode position errors. We have characterized the electrode position...... errors in measurements on Ru thin film using an Au-coated 12-point probe. We show that the standard deviation of the static electrode position error is on the order of 5 nm, which significantly affects the results of single configuration measurements. Position-error-corrected dual......-configuration measurements, however, are shown to eliminate the effect of position errors to a level limited either by electrical measurement noise or dynamic position errors. We show that the probe contact points remain almost static on the surface during the measurements (measured on an atomic scale) with a standard...

  14. Smoking in context – a multilevel approach to smoking among females in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahkonen Ossi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is associated with disadvantage. As people with lower social status reside in less privileged areas, the extent of contextual influences for smoking remains unclear. The aims were to examine the spatial patterning of daily smoking within the city of Helsinki, to analyse whether contextual variation can be observed and which spatial factors associate with current daily smoking in the employed female population. Methods Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire were collected for municipal employees of Helsinki (aged 40–60 years. The response rate was 69%. As almost 4/5 of the employees are females, the analyses were restricted to women (n = 5028. Measures included smoking status, individual level socio-demographic characteristics (age, occupational social class, education, family type and statistical data describing areas in terms of social structure (unemployment rate, proportion of manual workers and social cohesion (proportions of single parents and single households. Logistic multilevel analysis was used to analyse data. Results After adjusting for the individual-level composition, smoking was significantly more prevalent according to all social structural and social cohesion indicators apart from the proportion of manual workers. For example, high unemployment in the area of domicile increased the risk of smoking by almost a half. The largest observed area difference in smoking – 8 percentage points – was found according to the proportion of single households. Conclusion The large variation in smoking rates between areas appears mainly to result from variation in the characteristics of residents within areas. Yet, living in an area with a high level of unemployment appears to be an additional risk for smoking that cannot be fully accounted for by individual level characteristics even in a cohort of female municipal employees.

  15. Three-point phase correlations: A new measure of non-linear large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Obreschkow, Danail

    2015-01-01

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the non-linear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F_2, which governs the non-linear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a very good agreement for separations r>20 Mpc/h. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the non-linear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly non-linear regime. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the linear bias. Furtherm...

  16. Measuring protein isoelectric points by AFM-based force spectroscopy using trace amounts of sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhu, Xiaoying; Jańczewski, Dominik; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; He, Tao; Teo, Serena Lay Ming; Vancso, G. Julius

    2016-09-01

    Protein charge at various pH and isoelectric point (pI) values is important in understanding protein function. However, often only trace amounts of unknown proteins are available and pI measurements cannot be obtained using conventional methods. Here, we show a method based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine pI using minute quantities of proteins. The protein of interest is immobilized on AFM colloidal probes and the adhesion force of the protein is measured against a positively and a negatively charged substrate made by layer-by-layer deposition of polyelectrolytes. From the AFM force-distance curves, pI values with an estimated accuracy of ±0.25 were obtained for bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, fibrinogen and ribonuclease A over a range of 4.7-9.8. Using this method, we show that the pI of the ‘footprint’ of the temporary adhesive proteins secreted by the barnacle cyprid larvae of Amphibalanus amphitrite is in the range 9.6-9.7.

  17. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  18. Development of Precise Point Positioning Method Using Global Positioning System Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Kyu Choi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise point positioning (PPP is increasingly used in several parts such as monitoring of crustal movement and maintaining an international terrestrial reference frame using global positioning system (GPS measurements. An accuracy of PPP data processing has been increased due to the use of the more precise satellite orbit/clock products. In this study we developed PPP algorithm that utilizes data collected by a GPS receiver. The measurement error modelling including the tropospheric error and the tidal model in data processing was considered to improve the positioning accuracy. The extended Kalman filter has been also employed to estimate the state parameters such as positioning information and float ambiguities. For the verification, we compared our results to other of International GNSS Service analysis center. As a result, the mean errors of the estimated position on the East-West, North-South and Up-Down direction for the five days were 0.9 cm, 0.32 cm, and 1.14 cm in 95% confidence level.

  19. THREE-POINT PHASE CORRELATIONS: A NEW MEASURE OF NONLINEAR LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Bonvin, Camille [Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Obreschkow, Danail [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-10

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F{sub 2}, which governs the nonlinear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a 1σ agreement for separations r ≳ 30 h{sup −1} Mpc. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the nonlinear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly nonlinear regime, where we find a 1σ agreement with the simulations for r ≳ 2 h{sup −1} Mpc. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the bias, in the regime where the bias is local and linear. Furthermore, the variance of the line correlation is independent of the Gaussian variance on the modulus of the density field. This suggests that the line correlation can probe more precisely the nonlinear regime of gravity, with less contamination from the power spectrum variance.

  20. Measuring Total Column Water Vapor by Pointing an Infrared Thermometer at the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III; Chambers, Lin H.; Brooks, David R.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study affirms that the temperature (Tz) indicated by an inexpensive ($20 to $60) IR thermometer pointed at the cloud-free zenith sky provides an approximate indication of the total column water vapor (precipitable water or PW). PW was measured by a MICROTOPS II sun photometer. The coefficient of correlation (r2) of the PW and Tz was 0.90, and the rms difference was 3.2 mm. A comparison of the Tz data with the PW provided by a GPS site 31 km NNE yielded an r2 of 0.79, and an rms difference of 5.8 mm. An expanded study compared Tz from eight IR thermometers with PW at various times during the day and night from 17 May to 18 October 2010, mainly at the Texas site and 10 days at Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO). The best results of this comparison were provided by two IR thermometers models that yielded an r2 of 0.96 and an rms difference with the PW of 2.7 mm. The results of both the ongoing 2-year study and the 5-month instrument comparison show that IR thermometers can measure PW with an accuracy (rms difference/mean PW) approaching 10%, the accuracy typically ascribed to sun photometers.

  1. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  2. Out of Sight and Out of Mind? Evaluating the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans on Smoking-Related Beliefs and Behaviors in a Sample of Australian Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne C; Rissel, Chris; Perez, Donna A; Dessaix, Anita; Cotter, Trish; Bauman, Adrian; Young, Jane; Currow, David

    2015-07-01

    The Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland implemented bans on tobacco pack displays at point-of-sale (PoS) in July 2010 and November 2011, respectively. This study evaluated the medium-term impact of the bans on youth. Data were drawn from the Tobacco Promotion Impact Study, a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth (12-24 years) in NSW and Queensland conducted yearly 2010-2012 (n = 6,014). Regression analyses examined differences in youth's recall of PoS tobacco displays, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking behaviors in relation to the timing of the PoS display bans. Recall of PoS tobacco displays was significantly less likely for youth interviewed after the bans versus before (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.52, p brand awareness (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.92, p < .01), to over-estimate peer smoking (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.96, p < .01), or be current smokers (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.96, p < .05). Stratified analyses showed that these differences were primarily apparent in the group of youth most likely to be affected by tobacco PoS displays: those who visit tobacco retailers most frequently. After the bans, smokers were less likely to report that they think about smoking as a result of seeing PoS tobacco displays (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.97, p < .039). Our findings suggest an immediate impact of display bans on youth's exposure to tobacco pack displays, and likely impacts on smoking-related outcomes. These results suggest that removing tobacco displays from retail environments can positively contribute to the denormalization of smoking among youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Is automated kinetic measurement superior to end-point for advanced oxidation protein product?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Osman; Inal, Berrin Bercik; Emre, Turker; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Altunoglu, Esma; Oguz, Gokce; Topkaya, Cigdem; Guvenen, Guvenc

    2014-01-01

    Advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) was first described as an oxidative protein marker in chronic uremic patients and measured with a semi-automatic end-point method. Subsequently, the kinetic method was introduced for AOPP assay. We aimed to compare these two methods by adapting them to a chemistry analyzer and to investigate the correlation between AOPP and fibrinogen, the key molecule responsible for human plasma AOPP reactivity, microalbumin, and HbA1c in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM II). The effects of EDTA and citrate-anticogulated tubes on these two methods were incorporated into the study. This study included 93 DM II patients (36 women, 57 men) with HbA1c levels > or = 7%, who were admitted to the diabetes and nephrology clinics. The samples were collected in EDTA and in citrate-anticoagulated tubes. Both methods were adapted to a chemistry analyzer and the samples were studied in parallel. In both types of samples, we found a moderate correlation between the kinetic and the endpoint methods (r = 0.611 for citrate-anticoagulated, r = 0.636 for EDTA-anticoagulated, p = 0.0001 for both). We found a moderate correlation between fibrinogen-AOPP and microalbumin-AOPP levels only in the kinetic method (r = 0.644 and 0.520 for citrate-anticoagulated; r = 0.581 and 0.490 for EDTA-anticoagulated, p = 0.0001). We conclude that adaptation of the end-point method to automation is more difficult and it has higher between-run CV% while application of the kinetic method is easier and it may be used in oxidative stress studies.

  4. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-09

    Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents' smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1), daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1), and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05) participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  5. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder stratospheric water vapor measurements by the NOAA frost point hygrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Dale F; Lambert, Alyn; Read, William G; Davis, Sean M; Rosenlof, Karen H; Hall, Emrys G; Jordan, Allen F; Oltmans, Samuel J

    2014-02-16

    Differences between stratospheric water vapor measurements by NOAA frost point hygrometers (FPHs) and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are evaluated for the period August 2004 through December 2012 at Boulder, Colorado, Hilo, Hawaii, and Lauder, New Zealand. Two groups of MLS profiles coincident with the FPH soundings at each site are identified using unique sets of spatiotemporal criteria. Before evaluating the differences between coincident FPH and MLS profiles, each FPH profile is convolved with the MLS averaging kernels for eight pressure levels from 100 to 26 hPa (~16 to 25 km) to reduce its vertical resolution to that of the MLS water vapor retrievals. The mean FPH - MLS differences at every pressure level (100 to 26 hPa) are well within the combined measurement uncertainties of the two instruments. However, the mean differences at 100 and 83 hPa are statistically significant and negative, ranging from -0.46 ± 0.22 ppmv (-10.3 ± 4.8%) to -0.10 ± 0.05 ppmv (-2.2 ± 1.2%). Mean differences at the six pressure levels from 68 to 26 hPa are on average 0.8% (0.04 ppmv), and only a few are statistically significant. The FPH - MLS differences at each site are examined for temporal trends using weighted linear regression analyses. The vast majority of trends determined here are not statistically significant, and most are smaller than the minimum trends detectable in this analysis. Except at 100 and 83 hPa, the average agreement between MLS retrievals and FPH measurements of stratospheric water vapor is better than 1%.

  6. Application of fluorescent tracer agent technology to point-of-care gastrointestinal permeability measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshow, Richard B.; Shieh, Jeng-Jong; Rogers, Thomas E.; Hall-Moore, Carla; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Talcott, Michael; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2016-03-01

    Gut dysfunction, often accompanied by increased mucosal permeability to gut contents, frequently accompanies a variety of human intestinal inflammatory conditions. These disorders include inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g., Crohn's Disease) and environmental enteropathy and enteric dysfunction, a condition strongly associated with childhood malnutrition and stunting in resource poor areas of the world. The most widely used diagnostic assay for gastrointestinal permeability is the lactulose to mannitol ratio (L:M) measurement. These sugars are administered orally, differentially absorbed by the gut, and then cleared from the body by glomerular filtration in the kidney. The amount of each sugar excreted in the urine is measured. The larger sugar, lactulose, is minimally absorbed through a healthy gut. The smaller sugar, mannitol, in contrast, is readily absorbed through both a healthy and injured gut. Thus a higher ratio of lactulose to mannitol reflects increased intestinal permeability. However, several issues prevent widespread use of the L:M ratio in clinical practice. Urine needs to be collected over time intervals of several hours, the specimen then needs to be transported to an analytical laboratory, and sophisticated equipment is required to measure the concentration of each sugar in the urine. In this presentation we show that fluorescent tracer agents with molecular weights similar to those of the sugars, selected from our portfolio of biocompatible renally cleared fluorophores, mimic the L:M ratio test for gut permeability. This fluorescent tracer agent detection technology can be used to overcome the limitations of the L:M assay, and is amenable to point-of-care clinical use.

  7. Effect of Anisotropy on Shape Measurement Accuracy of Silicon Wafer Using Three-Point-Support Inverting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiro; Natsu, Wataru; Kunieda, Masanori

    This paper describes the influences of anisotropy found in the elastic modulus of monocrystalline silicon wafers on the measurement accuracy of the three-point-support inverting method which can measure the warp and thickness of thin large panels simultaneously. Deflection due to gravity depends on the crystal orientation relative to the positions of the three-point-supports. Thus the deviation of actual crystal orientation from the direction indicated by the notch fabricated on the wafer causes measurement errors. Numerical analysis of the deflection confirmed that the uncertainty of thickness measurement increases from 0.168µm to 0.524µm due to this measurement error. In addition, experimental results showed that the rotation of crystal orientation relative to the three-point-supports is effective for preventing wafer vibration excited by disturbance vibration because the resonance frequency of wafers can be changed. Thus, surface shape measurement accuracy was improved by preventing resonant vibration during measurement.

  8. Final Report for SERDP Project RC-1649: Advanced Chemical Measurements of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Timothy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weise, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lincoln, E. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sams, Robert L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cameron, Melanie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Veres, Patrick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokelson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Urbanski, Shawn [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Profeta, Luisa T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilman, Jessica [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuster, W. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akagi, Sheryl [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stockwell, Chelsea E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Albert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wold, Cyle E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Warneke, Carsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); de Gouw, Joost A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burling, Ian R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reardon, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schneider, Matthew D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Griffith, David W.T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roberts, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-17

    Objectives: Project RC-1649, “Advanced Chemical Measurement of Smoke from DoD-prescribed Burns” was undertaken to use advanced instrumental techniques to study in detail the particulate and vapor-phase chemical composition of the smoke that results from prescribed fires used as a land management tool on DoD bases, particularly bases in the southeastern U.S. The statement of need (SON) called for “(1) improving characterization of fuel consumption” and “(2) improving characterization of air emissions under both flaming and smoldering conditions with respect to volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, and reactive gases.” The measurements and fuels were from several bases throughout the southeast (Camp Lejeune, Ft. Benning, and Ft. Jackson) and were carried out in collaboration and conjunction with projects 1647 (models) and 1648 (particulates, SW bases). Technical Approach: We used an approach that featured developing techniques for measuring biomass burning emission species in both the laboratory and field and developing infrared (IR) spectroscopy in particular. Using IR spectroscopy and other methods, we developed emission factors (EF, g of effluent per kg of fuel burned) for dozens of chemical species for several common southeastern fuel types. The major measurement campaigns were laboratory studies at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (FSL) as well as field campaigns at Camp Lejeune, NC, Ft. Jackson, SC, and in conjunction with 1648 at Vandenberg AFB, and Ft. Huachuca. Comparisons and fusions of laboratory and field data were also carried out, using laboratory fuels from the same bases. Results: The project enabled new technologies and furthered basic science, mostly in the area of infrared spectroscopy, a broadband method well suited to biomass burn studies. Advances in hardware, software and supporting reference data realized a nearly 20x improvement in sensitivity and now provide quantitative IR spectra for potential detection of ~60 new

  9. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source (PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (X m ) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (X p ) of the PS, i.e. X m =X p + (X b -X p )/(1+R p /R b ), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, X b the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting. To get accurate measurement, R p must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. R p -independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (X b -X p )/(1 + R p /R b ) by bringing X b closer to X p and by reducing R b . In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=1-(0.5) D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent X p . The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128 x 128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10 cps to 1183 cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01 (mean

  10. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of Methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source(PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (Xm) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (Xp) of the PS, i.e. Xm=Xp+(Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, Xb the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting rate. To get accurate measurement, Rp must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. Rp-independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb) by bringing Xb closer to Xp and by reducing Rb. In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=I-(0.5)D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent Xp. The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128*128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10cps to 1183cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01( mean= 3.01±0.00) as Rp increased

  11. Bridging EOS remote sensing measurements and fire emissions, smoke dispersion, and air quality DSS in the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Ruixin Yang; Swarvanu Dasgupta; Sanjeeb Bhoi; Menas Kafatos

    1999-01-01

    Fire eniissions, smoke dispersiotl. ancl air quality are very important for fire fighting and planing of prescribed burning. BlueskyRATNS (BSR) is a comprehenisive and state-of-the-art Decision Support System (DSS) for fire managers and air quality managers to plan fiiels treatments and support state air qiiality smoke regulatory actions, especially related to...

  12. Evidence brief – Plain packaging of tobacco products: measures to decrease smoking initiation and increase cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2015-01-01

    to women and young people. They also show that, when combined with large pictorial health warnings, plain-packaging measures increase awareness about the risks related to tobacco consumption, encouraging more people to quit and fewer to start. In that these measures merely regulate the use of logos...... or colours for public health purposes, they are in compliance with international trade and intellectual property law....

  13. Educational inequalities in smoking: the role of initiation versus quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Vida

    2013-05-01

    The existing literature on educational inequalities in adult smoking has focused extensively on differences in current smoking and quitting, rather than on differences in never smoking regularly (initiation) by education in the adult population. Knowing the relative contribution of initiation versus quitting is critical for understanding the mechanisms that produce educational gradients in smoking because initiation and quitting occur at different points in the life course. Using data from 31 waves of the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (N = 587,174), the analyses show the relative likelihood of being a never versus former smoker by education, sex, and age from 1966 to 2010 and for birth cohorts from 1920 to 1979. The analyses also describe differences in the cumulative probability of quitting over the life course, and the role of initiation versus quitting in producing educational gaps in smoking. The results show that educational gaps in never smoking explain the bulk of the educational inequality in adult smoking. Differences in former smoking play a small and decreasing role in producing these gaps. This is true across the life course, whether measured at age 25 or age 50, and for both men and women. While the prevalence and age patterns of former smoking by education converge across birth cohorts, differences in never smoking by education increase dramatically. At the population level, educational gaps in adult smoking are produced by the combination of inequalities in initiation and quitting, with differences in initiation playing a larger role in producing the observed gaps. The portion of the gap explained by differences in quitting is itself a function of educational differences in initiation. Thus, educational gradients in adult smoking are tethered to experiences in adolescence. These findings have important implications for both understanding and addressing disparities in this important health behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Peer beliefs and smoking in adolescence: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Peer smoking is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent cigarette use, but less is known about whether other peer characteristics also contribute to this behavior. This study examined the links between adolescent cigarette use and peer beliefs about smoking. It tested whether peer beliefs about smoking are associated with changes in cigarette use, whether this association is a result of changes in individual beliefs about smoking, and how beliefs inform friendship choices. Analyses drew on data collected from 29 school-based networks, each measured at five occasions as students moved from 6th through 9th grade, as part of the study of the PROSPER partnership model. Longitudinal social network models provided estimates of friendship selection and behavior for an average of 6,200 students at each measurement point and more than 9,000 students overall. Peer beliefs about smoking influenced cigarette use both directly and through their impact on individual beliefs. Respondents tended to name friends whose beliefs about smoking were similar to their own, and the likelihood of being named as a friend was higher for those who reported more positive beliefs about smoking. The results from this study suggest that peer beliefs about smoking, in addition to peer cigarette use itself, are associated with adolescent smoking through several mechanisms. Because beliefs favorable to cigarette use are present before adolescents actually smoke, these results underscore the importance of implementing smoking prevention programs in early adolescence.

  15. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  16. Film dosimetry using a smart device camera: a feasibility study for point dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Trent; Jhala, Ekta; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie

    2017-10-03

    In this work, a methodology for using a smartphone camera, in conjunction with a light-tight box operating in reflective transmission mode, is investigated as a proof of concept for use as a film dosimetry system. An imaging system was designed to allow the camera of a smartphone to be used as a pseudo densitometer. Ten pieces of Gafchromic EBT3 film were irradiated to doses up to 16.89 Gy and used to evaluate the effects of reproducibility and orientation, as well as the ability to create an accurate dose response curve for the smartphone based dosimetry system, using all three colour channels. Results were compared to a flatbed scanner system. Overall uncertainty was found to be best for the red channel with an uncertainty of 2.4% identified for film irradiated to 2.5 Gy and digitised using the smartphone system. This proof of concept exercise showed that although uncertainties still exceed a flatbed scanner system, the smartphone system may be useful for providing point dose measurements in situations where conventional flatbed scanners (or other dosimetry systems) are unavailable or unaffordable.

  17. Film dosimetry using a smart device camera: a feasibility study for point dose measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aland, Trent; Jhala, Ekta; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a methodology for using a smartphone camera, in conjunction with a light-tight box operating in reflective transmission mode, is investigated as a proof of concept for use as a film dosimetry system. An imaging system was designed to allow the camera of a smartphone to be used as a pseudo densitometer. Ten pieces of Gafchromic EBT3 film were irradiated to doses up to 16.89 Gy and used to evaluate the effects of reproducibility and orientation, as well as the ability to create an accurate dose response curve for the smartphone based dosimetry system, using all three colour channels. Results were compared to a flatbed scanner system. Overall uncertainty was found to be best for the red channel with an uncertainty of 2.4% identified for film irradiated to 2.5 Gy and digitised using the smartphone system. This proof of concept exercise showed that although uncertainties still exceed a flatbed scanner system, the smartphone system may be useful for providing point dose measurements in situations where conventional flatbed scanners (or other dosimetry systems) are unavailable or unaffordable.

  18. Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest that the scale size of mirror structures is ~ 1500–3000 km along the flow direction, and shortest along the magnetopause normal (< 600 km, which, in this case, is approximately perpendicular to both the mean magnetic field and the magnetosheath flow vector. Variations on scales of ~ 750–1000 km are found along the maximum variance direction. The level of correlation in this direction, however, and the time lag observed, are found to be variable. These first results suggest that variations occur on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation ( ~ 1000 km in at least two directions, but analysis of further examples and a statistical survey of structures observed with different magnetic field orientations and tetrahedral configurations will enable us to describe more fully the size and orientation of mirror structures.Key words. Magnetosphenic physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  19. Cluster magnetic field observations in the magnetosheath: four-point measurements of mirror structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    Full Text Available The Cluster spacecraft have returned the first simultaneous four-point measurements of the magnetosheath. We present an analysis of data recorded on 10 November 2000, when the four spacecrafts observed an interval of strong mirrorlike activity. Correlation analysis between spacecraft pairs is used to examine the scale size of the mirror structures in three dimensions. Two examples are presented which suggest that the scale size of mirror structures is ~ 1500–3000 km along the flow direction, and shortest along the magnetopause normal (< 600 km, which, in this case, is approximately perpendicular to both the mean magnetic field and the magnetosheath flow vector. Variations on scales of ~ 750–1000 km are found along the maximum variance direction. The level of correlation in this direction, however, and the time lag observed, are found to be variable. These first results suggest that variations occur on scales of the order of the spacecraft separation ( ~ 1000 km in at least two directions, but analysis of further examples and a statistical survey of structures observed with different magnetic field orientations and tetrahedral configurations will enable us to describe more fully the size and orientation of mirror structures.

    Key words. Magnetosphenic physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  20. Measurements of the β function near the B0 interaction point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    To successfully provide beam to experiments from the Tevatron requires that we be able to perform many distinct operations on the internal accelerator beam. These include injecting beam, correcting the orbit, accelerating and then squeezing or extracting the beam. To perform many of these operations we depend on a knowledge of the lattice functions at various points in the lattice. The values of the lattice functions used in calculating the value for a bump or for the setting of a corrector come from a computer model of the Tevatron. If the model does not give the correct values of the lattice functions then the desired operation may not be performed correctly. It is therefore important that we be able to experimentally verify our model of the Tevatron. With the installation of the new low-Β magnets at B0, and the modifications of the lattice at D0, it is necessary that we measure the β functions at different locations in the lattice and compare them with the values calculated from our model

  1. Comparison of point-of-care versus central laboratory measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, and electrolyte concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos

    We aimed to investigate the accuracy of certain laboratory examinations obtained by the ABG analyzer (ROCHE AVL OMNI S) as compared to hospital central laboratory (CL). We prospectively collected data obtained from the same arterial blood sample regarding hematocrit, hemoglobin, potassium, and sodium. ABG analyzer results were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) compared to CL values thus values between the two methods are not interchangeable. The mean bias for Hb, Na + and K + were within accepted by US Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (USCLIA) differences (cut-off points) but not for Ht. In 8.0%, 17.5%, 37.5% and 56.0% of Hb, Na + , K + and Ht measurements respectively and 29.75% in sum the differences were over the USCLIA accepted limits. ABG analyzer significantly underestimate the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + , compared to CL and almost 30% of all examined parameters were beyond USCLIA accepted biases. ABG analyzer significantly underestimates the values of Hb, Ht, Na + and K + compared to CL and almost 30% for all examined parameters are beyond USCLIA accepted biases. These data do not support widespread or even careful use of POCT for making diagnostic and treatment decisions until technology improves and results in improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of the “Tar” and Nicotine Yield of Fine-Cut Smoking Articles - The ISO/TC 126 Collaborative Study 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Technical Committee ISO/TC 126 ‘Tobacco and tobacco products’ of the International Organization for Standardization set up Working Group 7 to develop and test a method for the determination of ‘tar’ and nicotine yield when fine-cut smoking articles (FCSAs are smoked by routine-analytical smoking machines. FCSAs are individually made by consumers using tobaccos manufactured for enclosure in paper wrappers (i.e. leaflets and tubes - with or without filters. This paper records the history of method development, defines terms and explains the differences between measurements made on FCSAs and commercially factory made cigarettes. Individual consumer making practices are represented by the specification of four hand-made article types using two wrappers of different physical properties each with either 400 mg or 750 mg tobacco.

  3. Childhood myopia and parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S-M; Chia, K-S; Lindstrom, J M; Tan, D T H; Stone, R A

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relation between exposure to passive parental smoke and myopia in Chinese children in Singapore. 1334 Chinese children from three schools in Singapore were recruited, all of whom were participants in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Information on whether the father or mother smoked, number of years smoked, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day during the child's lifetime were derived. These data were correlated with contemporaneously obtained data available in SCORM. The children's cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius, and biometry measures were compared with reported parental smoking history. There were 434 fathers (33.3%) and 23 mothers (1.7%) who smoked during their child's lifetime. There were no significant trends observed between paternal smoking and refractive error or axial length. After controlling for age, sex, school, mother's education, and mother's myopia, children with mothers who had ever smoked during their lifetime had more "positive" refractions (adjusted mean -0.28 D v -1.38 D) compared with children whose mother did not smoke (p = 0.012). The study found no consistent evidence of association between parental smoking and refractive error. There was a suggestion that children whose mothers smoked cigarettes had more hyperopic refractions, but the absence of a relation with paternal smoking and the small number of mothers who smoked in this sample preclude definite conclusions about a link between passive smoking exposure and myopia.

  4. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  5. Comparability of Results between Point-of-Care and Automated Instruments to Measure B-type Natriuretic Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Kevin; Terracciano, Garrett J.; Jiang, Kevin; Maisel, Alan S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in the U.S. The incorporation of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements when triaging patients presenting with shortness of breath has improved the diagnostic and prognostic ability of physicians. Currently, there are no point-of-care systems for quantifying BNP that can be used without sacrificing accuracy. We compared the analytical performance of the Abbott i-STAT analyzer, a handheld point-of-care system for measuring ...

  6. Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imani, A.; Modarress, H.; Eliassi, A.; Abdous, M.

    2009-01-01

    The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na 2 SO 4 , K 2 SO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

  7. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  8. Comparative study of size dependent four-point probe sheet resistance measurement on laser annealed ultra-shallow junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lin, Rong; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2008-01-01

    have been used to characterize the sheet resistance uniformity of millisecond laser annealed USJs. They verify, both experimentally and theoretically, that the probe pitch of a four-point probe can strongly affect the measured sheet resistance. Such effect arises from the sensitivity (or "spot size......In this comparative study, the authors demonstrate the relationship/correlation between macroscopic and microscopic four-point sheet resistance measurements on laser annealed ultra-shallow junctions (USJs). Microfabricated cantilever four-point probes with probe pitch ranging from 1.5 to 500 mu m......") of an in-line four-point probe. Their study shows the benefit of the spatial resolution of the micro four-point probe technique to characterize stitching effects resulting from the laser annealing process....

  9. Broad frequency band full field measurements for advanced applications: Point-wise comparisons between optical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The progress of optical systems gives nowadays at disposal on lightweight structures complex dynamic measurements and modal tests, each with its own advantages, drawbacks and preferred usage domains. It is thus more easy than before to obtain highly spatially defined vibration patterns for many applications in vibration engineering, testing and general product development. The potential of three completely different technologies is here benchmarked on a common test rig and advanced applications. SLDV, dynamic ESPI and hi-speed DIC are here first deployed in a complex and unique test on the estimation of FRFs with high spatial accuracy from a thin vibrating plate. The latter exhibits a broad band dynamics and high modal density in the common frequency domain where the techniques can find an operative intersection. A peculiar point-wise comparison is here addressed by means of discrete geometry transforms to put all the three technologies on trial at each physical point of the surface. Full field measurement technologies cannot estimate only displacement fields on a refined grid, but can exploit the spatial consistency of the results through neighbouring locations by means of numerical differentiation operators in the spatial domain to obtain rotational degrees of freedom and superficial dynamic strain distributions, with enhanced quality, compared to other technologies in literature. Approaching the task with the aid of superior quality receptance maps from the three different full field gears, this work calculates and compares rotational and dynamic strain FRFs. Dynamic stress FRFs can be modelled directly from the latter, by means of a constitutive model, avoiding the costly and time-consuming steps of building and tuning a numerical dynamic model of a flexible component or a structure in real life conditions. Once dynamic stress FRFs are obtained, spectral fatigue approaches can try to predict the life of a component in many excitation conditions. Different

  10. A complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible monocantilever 12-point probe for conductivity measurements on the nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Lauge; Bøggild, Peter; Wells, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    and a probe pitch of 500 nm. In-air four-point measurements have been performed on indium tin oxide, ruthenium, and titanium-tungsten, showing good agreement with values obtained by other four-point probes. In-vacuum four-point resistance measurements have been performed on clean Bi(111) using different probe...... spacings. The results show the expected behavior for bulk Bi, indicating that the contribution of electronic surface states to the transport properties is very small. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  12. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  13. Analytical evaluation of a new point of care system for measuring cardiac Troponin I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, D.W.; Semjonow, V.; de Theije, F.; Keizer, D.; van Lippen, L.; Mair, J.; Wille, B.; Christ, M.; Geijer, F.; Hausfater, P.; Pariente, D.; Scharnhorst, V.; Curvers, J.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Point-of-care cardiac troponin testing with adequate analytical performances has the potential to improve chest pain patients flow in the emergency department. We present the analytical evaluation of the newly developed Philips Minicare cTnI point-of-care immunoassay. DESIGN & METHODS:

  14. Evaluating 5 and 8 pH-point titrations for measuring VFA in full-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-24

    Feb 24, 2012 ... An evaluation of 5 and 8 pH-point titrimetric methods for determining volatile ... energy source, is of interest, and has been implemented at ... distribution of the carbon produced. ... key indicator in evaluating the operation of anaerobic systems, ... cally distributed around the dissociation points (pKa) of the.

  15. Measurements on pointing error and field of view of Cimel-318 Sun photometers in the scope of AERONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Torres

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity studies indicate that among the diverse error sources of ground-based sky radiometer observations, the pointing error plays an important role in the correct retrieval of aerosol properties. The accurate pointing is specially critical for the characterization of desert dust aerosol. The present work relies on the analysis of two new measurement procedures (cross and matrix specifically designed for the evaluation of the pointing error in the standard instrument of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET, the Cimel CE-318 Sun photometer. The first part of the analysis contains a preliminary study whose results conclude on the need of a Sun movement correction for an accurate evaluation of the pointing error from both new measurements. Once this correction is applied, both measurements show equivalent results with differences under 0.01° in the pointing error estimations. The second part of the analysis includes the incorporation of the cross procedure in the AERONET routine measurement protocol in order to monitor the pointing error in field instruments. The pointing error was evaluated using the data collected for more than a year, in 7 Sun photometers belonging to AERONET sites. The registered pointing error values were generally smaller than 0.1°, though in some instruments values up to 0.3° have been observed. Moreover, the pointing error analysis shows that this measurement can be useful to detect mechanical problems in the robots or dirtiness in the 4-quadrant detector used to track the Sun. Specifically, these mechanical faults can be detected due to the stable behavior of the values over time and vs. the solar zenith angle. Finally, the matrix procedure can be used to derive the value of the solid view angle of the instruments. The methodology has been implemented and applied for the characterization of 5 Sun photometers. To validate the method, a comparison with solid angles obtained from the vicarious calibration method was

  16. Application of new point measurement device to quantify groundwater-surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremeans, M. M.; Devlin, J. F.; McKnight, U. S.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2018-04-01

    The streambed point velocity probe (SBPVP) measures in situ groundwater velocities at the groundwater-surface water interface without reliance on hydraulic conductivity, porosity, or hydraulic gradient information. The tool operates on the basis of a mini-tracer test that occurs on the probe surface. The SBPVP was used in a meander of the Grindsted Å (stream), Denmark, to determine the distribution of flow through the streambed. These data were used to calculate the contaminant mass discharge of chlorinated ethenes into the stream. SBPVP data were compared with velocities estimated from hydraulic head and temperature gradient data collected at similar scales. Spatial relationships of water flow through the streambed were found to be similar by all three methods, and indicated a heterogeneous pattern of groundwater-surface water exchange. The magnitudes of estimated flow varied to a greater degree. It was found that pollutants enter the stream in localized regions of high flow which do not always correspond to the locations of highest pollutant concentration. The results show the combined influence of flow and concentration on contaminant discharge and illustrate the advantages of adopting a flux-based approach to risk assessment at the groundwater-surface water interface. Chlorinated ethene mass discharges, expressed in PCE equivalents, were determined to be up to 444 kg/yr (with SBPVP data) which compared well with independent estimates of mass discharge up to 438 kg/yr (with mini-piezometer data from the streambed) and up to 372 kg/yr crossing a control plane on the streambank (as determined in a previous, independent study).

  17. Rapid Point of Care Analyzer for the Measurement of Cyanide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K.; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H3PO4 and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide Hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (λmax = 510 nm) to violet (λmax = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10x when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improve the limit of detection by 4x to ~ 0.5 μM for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (≥ 10 μM) can be accurately measured in ~ 2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample – smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 μM CN was 1.09% (n=5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r2 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

  18. Measurement of cardiac troponin I utilizing a point of care analyzer in healthy alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Keith A; Kraus, Marc S; Rishniw, Mark; Mann, Sabine; Mitchell, Lisa M; Divers, Thomas J

    2011-12-01

    Myocardial disease in camelids is poorly characterized. Nutritional (selenium deficiency) and toxic (ionophore toxicity) myocardial disease have been reported in camelids. Diagnosis and management of these and other myocardial diseases might be enhanced by evaluating cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations. No information about cTnI reference intervals in camelids is currently available. (A) To determine cTnI concentrations obtained using a point of care i-STAT(®)1 analyzer (Heska Corporation) in healthy alpacas; (B) to compare alpaca cTnI concentrations between heparinized whole blood and plasma samples and between 2 different storage conditions (4 °C for 24 h or -80 °C for 30 days); (C) to examine assay reproducibility using the i-STAT(®)1. 23 healthy alpacas were evaluated. Blood and plasma samples were analyzed by the i-STAT(®)1 within 1 h of collection. Aliquots of plasma were stored at either 4 °C for 24 h or -80 °C for 30 days, and then analyzed. Assay reproducibility was determined by comparing 2 plasma or whole blood cTnI concentrations measured on the same sample over a 10 min period. Analyzer-specific plasma cTnI concentrations in clinically normal alpacas had a median of blood concentrations showed good agreement. Storage did not affect cTnI concentrations (p > 0.75). Plasma cTnI concentrations had coefficient of repeatability of 0.02 ng/mL. The i-STAT(®)1 can measure cTnI in alpacas on both plasma and whole blood and provides similar values for both samples. Storage at 4 °C for 24 h or -80 °C for 30 days does not affect estimates of plasma cTnI. Evaluation of cTnI might be of value in assessing cardiac disease in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is the smoking decision an 'informed choice'? Effect of smoking risk factors on smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, H; Glynn, K; Fleming, R

    1987-06-26

    The argument that people freely choose to smoke assumes that individuals at the point of initiation of smoking (often in adolescence) hold accurate beliefs about smoking. Smoking beliefs and the presence of known smoking risk factors were assessed in interviews with a sample of 895 urban young people. The respondents greatly overestimated the prevalence of adult and peer smoking, negative attitudes of their peers were greatly underestimated, a large proportion believed that they would be less likely than other people to contract a smoking-related illness if they became smokers, and there was a general lack of understanding of the adverse consequences experienced upon smoking cessation. These misperceptions were more common among youngsters who were smokers, who intended to smoke, or who had friends or family members who smoked. Because misinformation among young people is widespread and those at greatest risk for smoking are the most misinformed, the tobacco industry's argument that the decision to smoke reflects an "informed choice" is without merit.

  20. SYSTEM CONTROL OF SMOKING PROCESS AND MEASURING BENZO[A]PYRENE IN TRADITIONAL PRODUCTION OF BOSNIAN DRY CURED HAM (BOSANSKI PRŠUT BY IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Toroman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As it is well known, traditional production of smoked meat products requires technological processes, which carry some food safety hazards (e.g. content of Benzo[a]pyrene. (B[a]P. “OMEGA COMERC Ltd.”, a member of the meat industry in Visoko region, has implemented food safety management system according to the recommendations from Codex Alimentarius CAC-RCP (9, recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene. By implementing HACCP system, the Company established adequate control measures in producing Bosnian dry cured ham (bosanski pršut on traditional way including the smoking process in the chambers. By doing this, they have created conditions to measure B[a]P content in the Bosnian dry cured ham and implement HACCP system without impairing traditional production and food safety of the final product.The aim of this study is to present the effect of the specific production process onto the meat smoking in order to preserve hygienic, nutritional and sensory values, and also to control B[a]P content in the final product.Key words: Bosnian dry cured ham, traditional production, smoking process, Benzo[a]pyrene, HACCP

  1. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  2. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Search Method Using Temperature Measurements in Partial Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroczka Janusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic panels have a non-linear current-voltage characteristics to produce the maximum power at only one point called the maximum power point. In the case of the uniform illumination a single solar panel shows only one maximum power, which is also the global maximum power point. In the case an irregularly illuminated photovoltaic panel many local maxima on the power-voltage curve can be observed and only one of them is the global maximum. The proposed algorithm detects whether a solar panel is in the uniform insolation conditions. Then an appropriate strategy of tracking the maximum power point is taken using a decision algorithm. The proposed method is simulated in the environment created by the authors, which allows to stimulate photovoltaic panels in real conditions of lighting, temperature and shading.

  3. Evaluation of point-of-care analyzers' ability to reduce bias in conductivity-based hematocrit measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Gunnewiek, J.K.; Weerwind, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Most point-of-care testing analyzers use the conductivity method to measure hematocrit (hct). During open-heart surgery, blood-conductivity is influenced by shifts in electrolyte and colloid concentrations caused by infusion media used, and this may lead to considerable bias in the hct measurement.

  4. Scaling point/plot measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes, balances and intensities to whole-farms and landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenstock, T.S.; Rufino, Mariana; Chirinda, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Reidsma, P.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of nutrient stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are typically collected at very local scales (<1 to 30 m2) and then extrapolated to estimate impacts at larger spatial extents (farms, landscapes, or even countries). Translating point measurements to higher levels of aggregation is

  5. Dew point measurements of flue gases in steam generators with brown coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines empirical data on sulfuric acid condensation and resulting internal corrosion in brown coal fired steam generators. Due to the high sulfur content in brown coal (0.5% to 5.0%) and relative short duration of the gases in the combustion chamber the concentrations of sulfur trioxide present in the flue gases can condense at the heat exchange surfaces of the steam generators. A number of diagrams show sulfuric acid dew point temperatures depending on brown coal sulfur content, the influence of combustion air supply on the dew point, and condensing speed and the rate of corrosion in relation to different heat exchange surface temperatures. The conclusion is made that a five-fold increase in corrosion can be caused by a 10 K higher flue gas dew point, a 5 K cooling of heating surfaces can also cause heavy corrosion at a certain dew point. Maximum corrosion results at 20 to 50 K differences between flue gas dew point and heat exchange surfaces. Optimum operation of steam generators with minimal internal corrosion requires the consideration of flue gas and heating surface temperatures as well as flue gas sulfur acid dew points. (10 refs.) (In German)

  6. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  7. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour: analysis of cross sectional data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lis Hentze; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of cross sectional data...... from students in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1515 grade 9 students (mean age 15.8) from 90 classes in 48 Danish schools. Outcome measure: Self reported smoking behaviour; daily smoking and heavy smoking, defined as those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per week. RESULTS: Of the students in this study, 62...... that they had seen other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. Adolescents' perceived exposure to teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises was significantly associated with daily smoking, having adjusted for sex, exposure to teachers smoking indoors at school and pupils smoking outdoors...

  8. Connecting smoke plumes to sources using Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke and fire location data over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Steven J.; Ruminski, Mark; Atwood, Samuel A.; Fischer, Emily V.

    2018-02-01

    Fires represent an air quality challenge because they are large, dynamic and transient sources of particulate matter and ozone precursors. Transported smoke can deteriorate air quality over large regions. Fire severity and frequency are likely to increase in the future, exacerbating an existing problem. Using the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke data for North America for the period 2007 to 2014, we examine a subset of fires that are confirmed to have produced sufficient smoke to warrant the initiation of a U.S. National Weather Service smoke forecast. We find that gridded HMS-analyzed fires are well correlated (r = 0.84) with emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Inventory Database 4s (GFED4s). We define a new metric, smoke hours, by linking observed smoke plumes to active fires using ensembles of forward trajectories. This work shows that the Southwest, Northwest, and Northwest Territories initiate the most air quality forecasts and produce more smoke than any other North American region by measure of the number of HYSPLIT points analyzed, the duration of those HYSPLIT points, and the total number of smoke hours produced. The average number of days with smoke plumes overhead is largest over the north-central United States. Only Alaska, the Northwest, the Southwest, and Southeast United States regions produce the majority of smoke plumes observed over their own borders. This work moves a new dataset from a daily operational setting to a research context, and it demonstrates how changes to the frequency or intensity of fires in the western United States could impact other regions.

  9. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  10. Two-dimensional NMR measurement and point dipole model prediction of paramagnetic shift tensors in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Brennan J.; Davis, Michael C.; Grandinetti, Philip J. [Department of Chemistry, Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Dey, Krishna K. [Department of Physics, Dr. H. S. Gour University, Sagar, Madhya Pradesh 470003 (India); Baltisberger, Jay H. [Division of Natural Science, Mathematics, and Nursing, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky 40403 (United States)

    2015-01-07

    A new two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiment to separate and correlate the first-order quadrupolar and chemical/paramagnetic shift interactions is described. This experiment, which we call the shifting-d echo experiment, allows a more precise determination of tensor principal components values and their relative orientation. It is designed using the recently introduced symmetry pathway concept. A comparison of the shifting-d experiment with earlier proposed methods is presented and experimentally illustrated in the case of {sup 2}H (I = 1) paramagnetic shift and quadrupolar tensors of CuCl{sub 2}⋅2D{sub 2}O. The benefits of the shifting-d echo experiment over other methods are a factor of two improvement in sensitivity and the suppression of major artifacts. From the 2D lineshape analysis of the shifting-d spectrum, the {sup 2}H quadrupolar coupling parameters are 〈C{sub q}〉 = 118.1 kHz and 〈η{sub q}〉 = 0.88, and the {sup 2}H paramagnetic shift tensor anisotropy parameters are 〈ζ{sub P}〉 = − 152.5 ppm and 〈η{sub P}〉 = 0.91. The orientation of the quadrupolar coupling principal axis system (PAS) relative to the paramagnetic shift anisotropy principal axis system is given by (α,β,γ)=((π)/2 ,(π)/2 ,0). Using a simple ligand hopping model, the tensor parameters in the absence of exchange are estimated. On the basis of this analysis, the instantaneous principal components and orientation of the quadrupolar coupling are found to be in excellent agreement with previous measurements. A new point dipole model for predicting the paramagnetic shift tensor is proposed yielding significantly better agreement than previously used models. In the new model, the dipoles are displaced from nuclei at positions associated with high electron density in the singly occupied molecular orbital predicted from ligand field theory.

  11. Smoking in Malaysia: promotion and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon Kee Teoh

    1984-01-01

    packets to include a health warning. New antismoking measures were taken, culminating in a 19-point federal government directive prohibiting government employees from smoking in government offices, and at meeting. Targets for the future include: banning all cigarette advertisements, or at least plugging loopholes on cigarette advertising; stopping all cigarette sponsorship of sports events; publishing tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide levels; expanding nonsmoking areas in public places; and making greater efforts in health education.

  12. Wreaking “Havoc” on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Hong, Juliette S.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 25% of young adult Oklahomans smoked cigarettes in 2012. Tobacco marketing campaigns target young adults in social environments like bars/nightclubs. Social Branding interventions are designed to compete directly with this marketing. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to reduce smoking among young adult “Partiers” in Oklahoma. The Partier social subculture was described as follows: attendance at large nightclubs, fashion consciousness, valuing physical attractiveness, and achieving social status by exuding an image of confidence and financial success. Design Repeated cross-sectional study with three time points. Setting/Participants Randomized time location survey samples of young adult Partier bar and club patrons in Oklahoma City (Time 1 [2010], n=1,383; Time 2 [2011], 1,292; and Time 3 [2012], 1,198). Data were analyzed in 2013. Intervention The “HAVOC” Social Branding intervention was designed to associate a smoke-free lifestyle with Partiers’ values, and included events at popular clubs, brand ambassador peer leaders who transmit the anti-tobacco message, social media, and tailored anti-tobacco messaging. Main outcome measures Daily and nondaily smoking rates, and binge drinking rates (secondary). Results Overall, smoking rates did not change (44.1% at Time 1, 45.0% at Time 2, and 47.4% at Time 3 (p=0.17), but there was a significant interaction between intervention duration and brand recall. Partiers reporting intervention recall had lower odds of daily smoking (OR=0.30 [0.10, 0.95]) and no difference in nondaily smoking, whereas among Partiers without intervention recall had increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.74 [1.04, 2.89], nondaily AOR=1.97 [1.35, 2.87]). Among non-Partiers, those who recalled HAVOC reported no difference in smoking, and those who did not recall HAVOC reported significantly increased odds of smoking (daily AOR=1.53 [1.02, 2.31], nondaily AOR=1.72 [1.26, 2.36]). Binge drinking rates were significantly

  13. “Little Lungs” - using digital platforms, innovative creative, and audience passion points to prevent smoking among U.S. youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Brubach

    2018-03-01

    Teens are already deeply submerged in the digital world-inserting “Little Lungs” in that space presented an opportunity to deliver an impactful message that aligned with passion points to spark initial interest and then seamlessly tie in a tobacco prevention message.

  14. Sex differences in physiological response to the combination of stress and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Michael; Thuras, Paul; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Stressful situations are among the most commonly cited smoking triggers. Smoking and stress exposure each individually increase cardiovascular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal measures with larger increases occurring when stress and smoking are combined. In this analysis, sex differences in the physiological response to the combination of stress and smoking are examined. Smokers (36 males; 34 females) completed a laboratory session in which systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), plasma epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine and cortisol concentrations were measured at rest, while smoking a cigarette, during a speech task occurring immediately after smoking and at several time-points following the stressor. Significant period by sex effects were observed for HR, SBP, DBP and Epi but not for cortisol or norepinephrine concentrations. For SBP (p=0.002), the increase between resting and speech were larger in men than in women, primarily due to a larger increase between smoking and speech occurring in men. A similar pattern was observed for DBP and Epi with a significantly larger Epi increase from smoking to speech observed in men than in women (p=0.016). A different pattern emerged for HR - the total increase was larger in women (psex difference in smoking cessation success rates and in the cardiovascular risks of smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. African biomass burning plumes over the Atlantic: aircraft based measurements and implications for H2SO4 and HNO3 mediated smoke particle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dörnbrack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles have been made in two aged biomass burning (BB plumes over the East Atlantic (Gulf of Guinea. The plumes originated from BB in the Southern-Hemisphere African savanna belt. On the day of our measurements (13 August 2006, the plumes had ages of about 10 days and were respectively located in the middle troposphere (MT at 3900–5500 m altitude and in the upper troposphere (UT at 10 800–11 200 m. Probably, the MT plume was lifted by dry convection and the UT plume was lifted by wet convection. In the more polluted MT-plume, numerous measured trace species had markedly elevated abundances, particularly SO2 (up to 1400 pmol mol−1, HNO3 (5000–8000 pmol mol−1 and smoke particles with diameters larger than 270 nm (up to 2000 cm−3. Our MT-plume measurements indicate that SO2 released by BB had not experienced significant loss by deposition and cloud processes but rather had experienced OH-induced conversion to gas-phase sulfuric acid. By contrast, a significant fraction of the released NOy had experienced loss, most likely as HNO3 by deposition. In the UT-plume, loss of NOy and SO2 was more pronounced compared to the MT-plume, probably due to cloud processes. Building on our measurements and accompanying model simulations, we have investigated trace gas transformations in the ageing and diluting plumes and their role in smoke particle processing and activation. Emphasis was placed upon the formation of sulfuric acid and ammonium nitrate, and their influence on the activation potential of smoke particles. Our model simulations reveal that, after 13 August, the lower plume traveled across the Atlantic and descended to 1300 m and hereafter ascended again. During the travel across the Atlantic, the soluble mass fraction of smoke particles and their mean diameter increased sufficiently to allow the processed smoke particles to act as water vapor condensation nuclei already at very low water

  16. The comparative in vitro assessment of e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols using the γH2AX assay and applied dose measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, David; Larard, Sophie; Baxter, Andrew; Meredith, Clive; Gaҫa, Marianna

    2017-01-04

    ) technology and quantified nicotine delivery were both assessed at the exposure interface. Nicotine was eluted from the QCM surface to give a quantifiable measure of exposure to support deposited mass. Dose measured as deposited mass (μg/cm 2 ) and nicotine (ng/mL) demonstrated that in vitro e-cigarette exposures were conducted at doses up to 12-28 fold to that of cigarette smoke and demonstrated a consistent negative finding. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  18. Point of care creatinine measurement for diagnosis of renal disease using a disposable microchip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ávila Muñoz, Mónica; Floris, J.; Staal, S.S.; Ríos, Ángel; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    A point-of-care device for the determination of elevated creatinine levels in blood is reported. This device potentially offers a new and simple clinical regime for the determination of creatinine that will give huge time savings and removal of several steps of determination. The test employs a

  19. The Mean as the Balance Point: Thought Experiments with Measuring Sticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents activities to help students establish a connection between the mean and the balance point of a lever. The lever and its law are discussed briefly. Thought experiments with a meterstick are presented to emphasize different properties of the mean and weighted averages. (Contains 16 figures.)

  20. Shape measurement system for single point incremental forming (SPIF) manufacts by using trinocular vision and random pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, Francesco; Bini, Ruggero; Lunardelli, Massimo; Bosetti, Paolo; Bruschi, Stefania; De Cecco, Mariolino

    2012-01-01

    Many contemporary works show the interest of the scientific community in measuring the shape of artefacts made by single point incremental forming. In this paper, we will present an algorithm able to detect feature points with a random pattern, check the compatibility of associations exploiting multi-stereo constraints and reject outliers and perform a 3D reconstruction by dense random patterns. The algorithm is suitable for a real-time application, in fact it needs just three images and a synchronous relatively fast processing. The proposed method has been tested on a simple geometry and results have been compared with a coordinate measurement machine acquisition. (paper)

  1. A method for smoke marker measurements and its potential application for determining the contribution of biomass burning from wildfires and prescribed fires to ambient PM2.5 organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. P. Sullivan; A. S. Holden; L. A. Patterson; G. R. McMeeking; S. M. Kreidenweis; W. C. Malm; W. M. Hao; C. E. Wold; J. L. Collett

    2008-01-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of particulate organic carbon (OC) in the atmosphere. Quantifying this contribution in time and space requires a means of routinely apportioning contributions of smoke from biomass burning to OC. Smoke marker (for example, levoglucosan) measurements provide the most common approach for making this determination. A lack of source...

  2. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  3. Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement for various detectors used in photon and electron beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looe, Hui Khee; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn

    2011-07-21

    The subject of this study is the 'shift of the effective point of measurement', Δz, well known as a method of correction compensating for the 'displacement effect' in photon and electron beam dosimetry. Radiochromic EBT 1 films have been used to measure the 'true' TPR curves of 6 and 15 MV photons and 6 and 9 MeV electrons in the solid water-equivalent material RW3. For the Roos and Markus chambers, the cylindrical 'PinPoint', 'Semiflex' and 'Rigid-Stem' chambers, the 2D-Array and the E-type silicon diode (all from PTW-Freiburg), the positions of the effective points of measurement have been determined by direct or indirect comparison between their TPR curves and those of the EBT 1 film. Both for the Roos and Markus chambers, we found Δz = (0.4 ± 0.1) mm, which confirms earlier experimental and Monte Carlo results, but means a shortcoming of the 'water-equivalent window thickness' formula. For the cylindrical chambers, the ratio Δz/r was observed to increase with r, confirming a recent Monte Carlo prediction by Tessier (2010 E2-CN-182, Paper no 147, IDOS, Vienna) as well as the experimental observations by Johansson et al (1978 IAEA Symp. Proc. (Vienna) IAEA-SM-222/35 pp 243-70). According to a theoretical consideration, the shift of the effective point of measurement from the reference point of the detector is caused by a gradient of the fluence of the ionizing particles. As the experiments have shown, the value of Δz depends on the construction of the detector, but remains invariant under changes of radiation quality and depth. Other disturbances, which do not belong to the class of 'gradient effects', are not corrected by shifting the effective point of measurement.

  4. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  5. Influences on adolescent smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Koprivnikar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporated in the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good mental health, indicating the importance of links to programmes outside of the tobacco control.

  6. Noncontact on-machine measurement system based on capacitive displacement sensors for single-point diamond turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingchang; Zhang, Zhiyu; Hu, Haifei; Li, Yingjie; Xiong, Ling; Zhang, Xuejun; Yan, Jiwang

    2018-04-01

    On-machine measurements can improve the form accuracy of optical surfaces in single-point diamond turning applications; however, commercially available linear variable differential transformer sensors are inaccurate and can potentially scratch the surface. We present an on-machine measurement system based on capacitive displacement sensors for high-precision optical surfaces. In the proposed system, a position-trigger method of measurement was developed to ensure strict correspondence between the measurement points and the measurement data with no intervening time-delay. In addition, a double-sensor measurement was proposed to reduce the electric signal noise during spindle rotation. Using the proposed system, the repeatability of 80-nm peak-to-valley (PV) and 8-nm root-mean-square (RMS) was achieved through analyzing four successive measurement results. The accuracy of 109-nm PV and 14-nm RMS was obtained by comparing with the interferometer measurement result. An aluminum spherical mirror with a diameter of 300 mm was fabricated, and the resulting measured form error after one compensation cut was decreased to 254 nm in PV and 52 nm in RMS. These results confirm that the measurements of the surface form errors were successfully used to modify the cutting tool path during the compensation cut, thereby ensuring that the diamond turning process was more deterministic. In addition, the results show that the noise level was significantly reduced with the reference sensor even under a high rotational speed.

  7. Method of Measuring the Coupled Lattice Functions at the Interaction Point in e sup + e sup - Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Y

    2003-01-01

    We have investigate a method of measuring the complete lattice functions including the coupling parameters at any azimuthal position in a periodic an symplectic system. In particular, the method is applied to measure the lattice functions at the interaction point where the beams collide. It has been demonstrate that a complete set of lattice functions can be accurately measured with two adjacent beam position monitors and the known transformation matrix between them. As a by-product, the method also automatically measures the complete one-turn matrix.

  8. Visitor’s Guide to Oliktok Point Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, North Slope of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desilets, Darin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helsel, Fred M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al O. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lucero, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dexheimer, Danielle N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of Oliktok Point, Alaska, as a focal point for climate research in the Arctic continues to grow with the addition of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) Climate Research Facility Mobile Facility (AMF) and the expansion of infrastructure to support airborne measurements. The site hosts a suite of instruments for making multi-year, high-fidelity atmospheric measurements; serves as a base of operations for field campaigns; and contains the only Restricted Airspace and Warning Area in the U.S. Arctic, which enables the use of unmanned aircraft systems. The use of this site by climate researchers involves several considerations, including its remoteness, harsh climate, and location amid the North Slope oilfields. This guide is intended to help visitors to Oliktok Point navigate this unique physical and administrative environment, and thereby facilitate safe and productive operations.

  9. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  10. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  11. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of two simplified 3-point balance measures in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Miau; Huang, Yi-Jing; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, Gong-Hong; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    The 3-point Berg Balance Scale (BBS-3P) and 3-point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS-3P) were simplified from the BBS and PASS to overcome the complex scoring systems. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P were more feasible in busy clinical practice and showed similarly sound validity and responsiveness to the original measures. However, the reliability of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P is unknown limiting their utility and the interpretability of scores. We aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P in patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. The rehabilitation departments of a medical center and a community hospital. A total of 51 chronic stroke patients (64.7% male). Both balance measures were administered twice 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of both the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The MDC and its percentage over the total score (MDC%) of each measure was calculated for examining the random measurement errors. The ICC values of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The MDC% (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 9.1% (5.1 points) and 8.4% (3.0 points), respectively, indicating that both measures had small and acceptable random measurement errors. Our results showed that both the BBS-3P and the PASS-3P had good test-retest reliability, with small and acceptable random measurement error. These two simplified 3-level balance measures can provide reliable results over time. Our findings support the repeated administration of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P to monitor the balance of patients with stroke. The MDC values can help clinicians and researchers interpret the change scores more precisely.

  13. Efficiency of stormwater control measures for combined sewer retrofitting under varying rain conditions: Quantifying the Three Points Approach (3PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Lerer, Sara Maria; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess and communicate the efficiency of stormwater control measures for retrofitting existing urban areas. The tool extends the Three Points Approach to quantitatively distinguish three rainfall domains: (A) rainwater resource utilisation, (B) urban stormwater drainage pip...

  14. Micro-four-point probes in a UHV scanning electron microscope for in-situ surface-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraki, I.; Nagao, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2000-01-01

    For in-situ measurements of surface conductivity in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), we have installed micro-four-point probes (probe spacings down to 4 mum) in a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with scanning reflection-high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). With the aid of piezoactuators...

  15. Efficiency of stormwater control measures for combined sewer retrofitting under varying rain conditions: Quantifying the Three Points Approach (3PA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Hjalte Jomo Danielsen; Lerer, Sara Maria; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to assess and communicate the efficiency of stormwater control measures for retrofitting existing urban areas. The tool extends the Three Points Approach to quantitatively distinguish three rainfall domains: (A) rainwater resource utilisation, (B) urban stormwater drainage pipe......, stormwater drainage and flood risks....

  16. Bibliography of papers, reports, and presentations related to point-sample dimensional measurement methods for machined part evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems

    1996-04-01

    The Dimensional Inspection Techniques Specification (DITS) Project is an ongoing effort to produce tools and guidelines for optimum sampling and data analysis of machined parts, when measured using point-sample methods of dimensional metrology. This report is a compilation of results of a literature survey, conducted in support of the DITS. Over 160 citations are included, with author abstracts where available.

  17. Effects of an anti-smoking program to prevent lung cancer among urban aboriginals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Huang, Sheu-Jen; Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Wang, Pao-Yu; Lin, Li-Hui; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people who leave their hometowns and move to the city to earn a living became urban aboriginals. During the process of adapting to urban living situations, they may use various coping strategies such as smoking to overcome their stress. Therefore, it is crucial to provide health education including smoking prevention, increasing knowledge regarding of tobacco hazard, self-efficacy of anti-smoking, and adjusting smoking behavior so as to empower their anti-smoking motivation to prevent lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an anti-smoking program on urban aboriginals in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental study design with purposeful sampling was employed. A total of 125 aboriginal subjects were recruited from two local churches at Shu Lin area in northern Taiwan. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (n =64 ) and a control group (n = 61). Both took pre-tests in order to set baseline values, and only the experimental group participated for 3-weeks in the anti-smoking program classes. Both groups took post-tests immediately after the intervention in order to evaluate the immediate effects of the teaching program, and a follow-up test was conducted four weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANCOVA, and repeat measure ANCOVA. After controlling for confounding variables, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the self-efficacy of anti-smoking and smoking behavior between experimental and control groups in the immediately post-test and the follow-up test (p smoking at eiter time point. The findings of this study revealed that the anti-smoking program effectively improved self-efficacy of anti-smoking, and decreased the smoking behavior in urban aboriginals. They provide useful information as a reference regarding of aboriginal health promotion to health providers. It is imperative that anti-smoking be reinforced for those regular

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Office on Smoking and Health Page maintained by: Office ...

  19. Retailer opinions about and compliance with family smoking prevention and tobacco control act point of sale provisions: a survey of tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-11

    The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.

  20. Criticism on Jäntti's Three Point Method on curtailing gas adsorption measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massen, C.H.; Poulis, J.A.; Robens, E.

    2000-01-01

    Jäntti introduced a method to reduce the time required for the stepwise measurement of adsorption isotherms (Jäntti et al., Progress in Vacuum Microbalance Techniques, Vol. 1, Heyden, London, pp. 345–353, 1972). After a pressure change he measured the adsorbed mass three times and calculated its

  1. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  2. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  3. PM1 and PM2.5 ionic composition and VOCs measurements in two typical apartments in Athens, Greece: investigation of smoking contribution to indoor air concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, Dikaia E; Maggos, Thomas; Helmis, Constantinos G; Michopoulos, John; Bartzis, John G; Vasilakos, Christos

    2010-08-01

    During the last decades, the air quality of the city of Athens has been quite aggravated. Scientific interest has been focused on health effects caused by both outdoor and indoor air pollution. The purpose of this study was the presentation of results from air quality measurements in two similar typical Athenian apartments in the same suburban area. In addition, smoking contribution is investigated, as it is the main factor which differentiates the two apartments. The results showed that it is the outdoor environment that mainly contributes to the air quality of the non-smokers' house. In the second apartment, PM2.5, PM1, and benzene concentrations were found significantly higher due to smoking activity. In contrast, no clear difference in particulate matter ionic composition between the two areas was observed, although in the smoker's house, ion concentrations were found elevated. This observation amplifies the assumption that in the smoker's apartment, significant outdoor sources' contribution cannot be excluded.

  4. Three-point method for measuring the geometric error components of linear and rotary axes based on sequential multilateration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhenjiu; Hu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The linear and rotary axes are fundamental parts of multi-axis machine tools. The geometric error components of the axes must be measured for motion error compensation to improve the accuracy of the machine tools. In this paper, a simple method named the three point method is proposed to measure the geometric error of the linear and rotary axes of the machine tools using a laser tracker. A sequential multilateration method, where uncertainty is verified through simulation, is applied to measure the 3D coordinates. Three noncollinear points fixed on the stage of each axis are selected. The coordinates of these points are simultaneously measured using a laser tracker to obtain their volumetric errors by comparing these coordinates with ideal values. Numerous equations can be established using the geometric error models of each axis. The geometric error components can be obtained by solving these equations. The validity of the proposed method is verified through a series of experiments. The results indicate that the proposed method can measure the geometric error of the axes to compensate for the errors in multi-axis machine tools.

  5. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  6. Field Measurement and Model Evaluation Program for Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Military Smokes: The Atterbury-87 Field Study of Smoke Dispersion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    satisfies these criteria and is a major3 reason for the enduring popularity of the Prairie Grass database. Taller or slightly less homogeneous vegetation only...by California Measurements, Inc. (Sierra Madre , CA). The cascade impactor of the PC-2 is comprised of ten aerodynamic inertial impactors arranged in

  7. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  8. Measuring global oil trade dependencies: An application of the point-wise mutual information method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Fath, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Oil trade is one of the most vital networks in the global economy. In this paper, we analyze the 1998–2012 oil trade networks using the point-wise mutual information (PMI) method and determine the pairwise trade preferences and dependencies. Using examples of the USA's trade partners, this research demonstrates the usefulness of the PMI method as an additional methodological tool to evaluate the outcomes from countries' decisions to engage in preferred trading partners. A positive PMI value indicates trade preference where trade is larger than would be expected. For example, in 2012 the USA imported 2,548.7 kbpd despite an expected 358.5 kbpd of oil from Canada. Conversely, a negative PMI value indicates trade dis-preference where the amount of trade is smaller than what would be expected. For example, the 15-year average of annual PMI between Saudi Arabia and the U.S.A. is −0.130 and between Russia and the USA −1.596. We reflect the three primary reasons of discrepancies between actual and neutral model trade can be related to position, price, and politics. The PMI can quantify the political success or failure of trade preferences and can more accurately account temporal variation of interdependencies. - Highlights: • We analyzed global oil trade networks using the point-wise mutual information method. • We identified position, price, & politics as drivers of oil trade preference. • The PMI method is useful in research on complex trade networks and dependency theory. • A time-series analysis of PMI can track dependencies & evaluate policy decisions.

  9. HOW DIFFERENT N-POINT LIKERT SCALES AFFECT THE MEASUREMENT OF SATISFACTION IN ACADEMIC CONFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Martín

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction in the segment of academic conferences has not been analysed as much as the hotels in the field of tourism. This paper presents a fuzzy logic approach that evaluates the satisfaction of conferences held at the Technical University of Loja in 2013. The satisfaction experienced by the delegates is measured through triangular fuzzy numbers and the concept of the degree of optimality, via the closeness to ideal solutions. Using different fuzzy numbers representations, and different Likert scales, we test whether the obtained synthetic satisfaction indicators are affected. Results indicate that the indicators are highly robust to the use of different fuzzy numbers representations, clarification methods and Likert scales. Thus, it can be concluded that binary answer formats can be safely used to measure satisfaction in the context of academic conferences. This result is concordant with that obtained by Dolnicar and Grün (2007 in the analysis of brand image measurement.

  10. A novel mechatronic system for measuring end-point stiffness: mechanical design and preliminary tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, L; Sandini, G; Morasso, P G

    2011-01-01

    Measuring arm stiffness is of great interest for many disciplines from biomechanics to medicine especially because modulation of impedance represents one of the main mechanism underlying control of movement and interaction with external environment. Previous works have proposed different methods to identify multijoint hand stiffness by using planar or even tridimensional haptic devices, but the associated computational burden makes them not easy to implement. We present a novel mechanism conceived for measuring multijoint planar stiffness by a single measurement and in a reduced execution time. A novel mechanical rotary device applies cyclic radial perturbation to human arm of a known displacement and the force is acquired by means of a 6-axes commercial load cell. The outcomes suggest that the system is not only reliable but allows obtaining a bi-dimensional estimation of arm stiffness in reduced amount of time and the results are comparable with those reported in previous researches. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking in a smoking and a nonsmoking setting

    OpenAIRE

    Huijding, J.,; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Verkooijen, K.

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo test whether global smoking attitudes may be a driving factor in smoking behavior, Experiment 1 assessed smoking associations with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Although smokers’ attitudes (n = 24) were less negative than those of non-smokers (n = 24) both displayed negative associations with smoking. To test whether these findings may be an artifact of measurement setting and/or the indirect measure that was used, Experiment 2 assessed attitudes in a smoking (n=20) or a...

  12. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson; Oliveira, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  13. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@googlemail.co [Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus L. [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Oliveira, Hugo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  14. Magnetic field gradients inferred from multi-point measurements of Cluster FGM and EDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubenbacher, Robert; Nakamura, Rumi; Giner, Lukas; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Magnes, Werner; Eichelberger, Hans; Steller, Manfred; Torbert, Roy

    2013-04-01

    We use Cluster data from fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) and electron drift instrument (EDI) to determine the magnetic field gradients in the near-Earth magnetotail. Here we use the magnetic field data from FGM measurements as well as the gyro-time data of electrons determined from the time of flight measurements of EDI. The results are compared with the values estimated from empirical magnetic field models for different magnetospheric conditions. We also estimated the spin axis offset of FGM based on comparison between EDI and FGM data and discuss the possible effect in determining the current sheet characteristics.

  15. Phase equilibrium condition measurements in nitrogen and air clathrate hydrate forming systems at temperatures below freezing point of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Keita; Oto, Yuya; Shen, Renkai; Uchida, Tsutomu; Ohmura, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase equilibrium conditions in the nitrogen and modelled air hydrate forming systems are measured. • Measurements are conducted at temperatures below the freezing point of water. • Results have relevance to the air hydrate formation in the ice sheets. • Measured data are quantitatively compared with the previously reported values. • Range of the equilibrium measurements was from (242 to 268) K. -- Abstract: Contained in this paper are the three phase equilibrium conditions of the (ice + clathrate hydrate + guest-rich) vapour in the (nitrogen + water) and the modelled (air + water) systems at temperatures below the freezing point of water. The precise determination of the equilibrium conditions in those systems are of importance for the analysis of the past climate change using the cored samples from the ice sheets at Antarctica and Greenland because the air hydrates keep the ancient climate signals. The mole ratio of the modelled air composed of nitrogen and oxygen is 0.790:0.210. The equilibrium conditions were measured by the batch, isochoric procedure. The temperature range of the measurements in the nitrogen hydrate forming system is (244.05 < T < 266.55) K and the corresponding equilibrium pressure range is (7.151 < p < 12.613) MPa. The temperature range of the measurements in the modelled air hydrate forming system is (242.55 < T < 267.85) K, and the corresponding equilibrium pressure range is (6.294 < p < 12.144) MPa. The data obtained quantitatively compared with the previously reported data

  16. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  17. Technical Note: Stored grain volume measurement using a low density point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mass of stored grain is often determined from volume measurements by crop insurers, government auditors, and stored grain managers conducting inventories. Recent increases in bin size have accentuated the difficulty of accounting for irregularities and variations in surface conditions in calcula...

  18. Sensitivity study of micro four-point probe measurements on small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Torben Mikael

    2010-01-01

    probes than near the outer ones. The sensitive area is defined for infinite film, circular, square, and rectangular test pads, and convergent sensitivities are observed for small samples. The simulations show that the Hall sheet resistance RH in micro Hall measurements with position error suppression...

  19. Point shear wave speed measurement in differentiating benign and malignant focal liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Xu, Yadan; Cao, Jiaying; Mao, Feng; Dietrich, Cristoph F

    2017-06-26

    To investigate the value of ElastPQ measurement for differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs) by using histologic results as a reference standard. A total of 154 patients were included. ElastPQ measurement was performed for each lesion in which the shear wave speed (SWS) was measured. The difference in SWS and SWS ratio of FLL to surrounding liver were evaluated, and the cut off value was investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Histology as a gold standard was obtained by surgery in all patients. A total of 154 lesions including 129 (83.7 %) malignant FLLs and 25 (16.3 %) benign ones were analysed. The SWS of malignant and benign FLLs was significantly different, 2.77±0.68 m/s and 1.57±0.55 m/s (p<0.05). The SWS ratio of each FLL to surrounding liver parenchyma was 2.23±0.49 for malignant and 1.14±0.36 for benign FLLs (p<0.05). The cut off value for differential diagnosis was 2.06 m/s for SWS and 1.67 for SWS ratio.  ElastPQ measurement provides reliable quantitative stiffness information of FLLs and may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign FLLs.

  20. Estimation of magnetic field in a region from measurements of the field at discrete points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, Theodore; Dris, Manolis; Lucas, Demetrios.

    1984-12-01

    A method is given to estimate the magnetic field in a region from measurements of the field in its surface and its interior. The method might be useful in high energy physics and other experiments that use large area magnets. (author)

  1. Full-automatic measurement of the ELSA working point with 'EPOS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, T.

    1990-11-01

    Two years ago the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA came into operation. Although the control system proved to be a valuable tool for operating the machine, there did not exist any high level application software dealing with beam diagnostics, orbit measurement and closed orbit correction. To cover these main fields of machine physics, a new program 'EPOS' was implemented on top of the existing control system. EPOS integrates data aquisition, beam diagnostics, digitial signal processing and automation of measurement and control in one interactive environment. The system is equipped with a new, easy to use programming language for machine physics and data analysis. EPOS is based on X-windows and can generate high quality diagrams and printouts for all kinds of measured or simulated data. The design and implementation of EPOS is sketched in this document. Its functionality is demonstrated by performing automatic measurements of the ELSA tune with high precision. By using a special method for error correction, the obtained precision can be increased by approximately two orders of magnitude, compared to standard Fourier analysis techniques. The resulting tune values for standard ELSA operating modes are discussed in detail. (orig.) [de

  2. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  3. Four-point bend apparatus for in situ micro-Raman stress measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shawn H.; Mann, Adrian B.

    2018-06-01

    A device for in situ use with a micro-Raman microscope to determine stress from the Raman peak position was designed and validated. The device is a four-point bend machine with a micro-stepping motor and load cell, allowing for fine movement and accurate readings of the applied force. The machine has a small footprint and easily fits on most optical microscope stages. The results obtained from silicon are in good agreement with published literature values for the linear relationship between stress and peak position for the 520.8 cm‑1 Raman peak. The device was used to examine 4H–SiC and a good linear relationship was found between the 798 cm‑1 Raman peak position and stress, with the proportionality coefficient being close to the theoretical value of 0.0025. The 777 cm‑1 Raman peak also showed a linear dependence on stress, but the dependence was not as strong. The device examines both the tensile and compressive sides of the beam in bending, granting the potential for many materials and crystal orientations to be examined.

  4. Measuring the distance from saddle points and driving to locate them over quantum control landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qiuyang; Riviello, Gregory; Rabitz, Herschel; Wu, Re-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Optimal control of quantum phenomena involves the introduction of a cost functional J to characterize the degree of achieving a physical objective by a chosen shaped electromagnetic field. The cost functional dependence upon the control forms a control landscape. Two theoretically important canonical cases are the landscapes associated with seeking to achieve either a physical observable or a unitary transformation. Upon satisfaction of particular assumptions, both landscapes are analytically known to be trap-free, yet possess saddle points at precise suboptimal J values. The presence of saddles on the landscapes can influence the effort needed to find an optimal field. As a foundation to future algorithm development and analyzes, we define metrics that identify the ‘distance’ from a given saddle based on the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of the saddles. Algorithms are introduced utilizing the metrics to find a control such that the dynamics arrive at a targeted saddle. The saddle distance metric and saddle-seeking methodology is tested numerically in several model systems. (paper)

  5. Risk management and measuring productivity with POAS--point of act system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masanori; Kondo, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    The concept of our system is not only to manage material flows, but also to provide an integrated management resource, a means of correcting errors in medical treatment, and applications to EBM through the data mining of medical records. Prior to the development of this system, electronic processing systems in hospitals did a poor job of accurately grasping medical practice and medical material flows. With POAS (Point of Act System), hospital managers can solve the so-called, "man, money, material, and information" issues inherent in the costs of healthcare. The POAS system synchronizes with each department system, from finance and accounting, to pharmacy, to imaging, and allows information exchange. We can manage Man, Material, Money and Information completely by this system. Our analysis has shown that this system has a remarkable investment effect - saving over four million dollars per year - through cost savings in logistics and business process efficiencies. In addition, the quality of care has been improved dramatically while error rates have been reduced - nearly to zero in some cases.

  6. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurement in diabetic foot ulcers: mean values and cut-point for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Weng, Huan; Chen, Lihong; Yang, Haiyun; Luo, Guangming; Mai, Lifang; Jin, Guoshu; Yan, Li

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate mean values and cut-point of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) measurement in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective, descriptive study. Sixty-one patients with diabetes mellitus and foot ulcers comprised the sample. The research setting was Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of SunYat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Participants underwent transcutaneous oxygen (TcPO2) measurement at the dorsum of foot. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to clinical outcomes: (1) ulcers healed with intact skin group, (2) ulcer improved, and (3) ulcer failed to improve. TcPO2 was assessed and cut-points for predicting diabetic foot ulcer healing were calculated. Thirty-six patients healed with intact skin, 8 experienced improvement, and 17 showed no improvement. Mean TcPO2 levels were significantly higher (Pfoot ulcers. In contrast, all patients with TcPO2≥ 40 mmHg achieved wound closure. Measurement of TcPO2 in the supine position revealed a cut-point value of 25 mmHg as the best threshold for predicting diabetic foot ulcer healing; the area under the curve using this cut-point was 0.838 (95% confidence interval = 0.700-0.976). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for TxPO2 were 88.6%, 82.4%, 90.7%, and 72.2%, respectively. TcPO2≥ 40 mmHg was associated with diabetic foot ulcer healing, but a TcPO2≤ 10 mmHg was associated with failure of wound healing. We found that a cut-point of 25 mmHg was most predictive of diabetic foot ulcer healing.

  7. Prevalence of invehicle smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambi, Laura; Barros, Mary; Parodi, Carolina; Pippo, Antonella; Nunez, Virginia; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Goyeneche, Juan J; Aleman, Alicia

    2018-01-19

    Protection from secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the fundamental principles of the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Objective data on SHS exposure in vehicles in South America is scarce. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of smoking inside vehicles. The point prevalence of smoking in vehicles was observed, and a method for estimating smoking prevalence was piloted. We observed 10 011 vehicles. In 219 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.91 to 2.49) of them, smoking was observed, and in 29.2% of these, another person was exposed to SHS. According to the 'expansion factor' we constructed, direct observation detected one of six to one to nine vehicles in which smoking occurred. The observed prevalence of smoking in vehicles (2.2%) could reflect a real prevalence between 12% and 19%. In 29.2% (95% CI 23.6 to 35.5) and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 8.3) of vehicles in which smoking was observed, another adult or a child, respectively, was exposed to SHS. Smoking was estimated to occur in 12%-19% of vehicles, with involuntary exposure in one of three of vehicles observed. These data underscore a need for new public policies to eliminate SHS in vehicles to protect public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Evaluation of bispectrum in the wave number domain based on multi-point measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an estimator of the bispectrum, a measure of three-wave couplings. It is evaluated directly in the wave number domain using a limited number of detectors. The ability of the bispectrum estimator is examined numerically and then it is applied to fluctuations of magnetic field and electron density in the terrestrial foreshock region observed by the four Cluster spacecraft, which indicates the presence of a three-wave coupling in space plasma.

  9. Public risk-reduction measures: cost-effectiveness from a global point-of-view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Motta Barros, E.B. da; Fleming, P.V.; Rosa, L.P.

    1985-05-01

    A review of systemic or global approach to cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures is presented, and its advantages and limitations are discussed. The method is applied for problem of the cost-effectiveness of increasing the Angra 3 reactor containment wall thickness from 60cm to 180cm thick, in case of a direct commercial aircraft crash on it. (Author) [pt

  10. Cross-section requirements for reactor neutron flux measurements from the user's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, P.; Lloret, R.

    1978-01-01

    The dosimetry of testing materials irradiations involves in practice a lot of problems: fluences measurements, knowledge of spectrum, choice of a convenient set of cross section, damage rate determination, transposition from testing reactor to power reactor. From those problems, we consider that a temporary recommandation concerning the differential cross section of some fluence detectors is to be done, and that it is necessary to dispose of more accessible benchmarks in order to correlate cross section and computer codes. (author)

  11. Generator Dynamic Model Validation and Parameter Calibration Using Phasor Measurements at the Point of Connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Du, Pengwei; Kosterev, Dmitry; Yang, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Disturbance data recorded by phasor measurement units (PMU) offers opportunities to improve the integrity of dynamic models. However, manually tuning parameters through play-back events demands significant efforts and engineering experiences. In this paper, a calibration method using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique is proposed. The formulation of EKF with parameter calibration is discussed. Case studies are presented to demonstrate its validity. The proposed calibration method is cost-effective, complementary to traditional equipment testing for improving dynamic model quality.

  12. Airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 to quantify point source emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Thomas; Neininger, Bruno; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krautwurst, Sven; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Lindemann, Carsten; Ruhtz, Thomas; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2018-02-01

    Reliable techniques to infer greenhouse gas emission rates from localised sources require accurate measurement and inversion approaches. In this study airborne remote sensing observations of CO2 by the MAMAP instrument and airborne in situ measurements are used to infer emission estimates of carbon dioxide released from a cluster of coal-fired power plants. The study area is complex due to sources being located in close proximity and overlapping associated carbon dioxide plumes. For the analysis of in situ data, a mass balance approach is described and applied, whereas for the remote sensing observations an inverse Gaussian plume model is used in addition to a mass balance technique. A comparison between methods shows that results for all methods agree within 10 % or better with uncertainties of 10 to 30 % for cases in which in situ measurements were made for the complete vertical plume extent. The computed emissions for individual power plants are in agreement with results derived from emission factors and energy production data for the time of the overflight.

  13. Determination of Measurement Points in Urban Environments for Assessment of Maximum Exposure to EMF Associated with a Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A base station (BS antenna operates in accordance with the established exposure limits if the values of electromagnetic fields (EMF measured in points of maximum exposure are below these limits. In the case of BS in open areas, the maximum exposure to EMF probably occurs in the antenna’s boresight direction, from a few tens to a few hundred meters away. This is not a typical scenery for urban environments. However, in the line of sight (LOS situation, the region of maximum exposure can still be analytically estimated with good results. This paper presents a methodology for the choice of measurement points in urban areas in order to assess compliance with the limits for exposure to EMF.

  14. The point-spread function measure of resolution for the 3-D electrical resistivity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenborger, Greg A.; Routh, Partha S.

    2009-02-01

    The solution appraisal component of the inverse problem involves investigation of the relationship between our estimated model and the actual model. However, full appraisal is difficult for large 3-D problems such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We tackle the appraisal problem for 3-D ERT via the point-spread functions (PSFs) of the linearized resolution matrix. The PSFs represent the impulse response of the inverse solution and quantify our parameter-specific resolving capability. We implement an iterative least-squares solution of the PSF for the ERT experiment, using on-the-fly calculation of the sensitivity via an adjoint integral equation with stored Green's functions and subgrid reduction. For a synthetic example, analysis of individual PSFs demonstrates the truly 3-D character of the resolution. The PSFs for the ERT experiment are Gaussian-like in shape, with directional asymmetry and significant off-diagonal features. Computation of attributes representative of the blurring and localization of the PSF reveal significant spatial dependence of the resolution with some correlation to the electrode infrastructure. Application to a time-lapse ground-water monitoring experiment demonstrates the utility of the PSF for assessing feature discrimination, predicting artefacts and identifying model dependence of resolution. For a judicious selection of model parameters, we analyse the PSFs and their attributes to quantify the case-specific localized resolving capability and its variability over regions of interest. We observe approximate interborehole resolving capability of less than 1-1.5m in the vertical direction and less than 1-2.5m in the horizontal direction. Resolving capability deteriorates significantly outside the electrode infrastructure.

  15. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  16. Comparisons of temperature, pressure and humidity measurements by balloon-borne radiosondes and frost point hygrometers during MOHAVE-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Hurst

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare coincident, in situ, balloon-borne measurements of temperature (T and pressure (P by two radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, Intermet iMet-1-RSB and similar measurements of relative humidity (RH by RS92 sondes and frost point hygrometers. Data from a total of 28 balloon flights with at least one pair of radiosondes are analyzed in 1-km altitude bins to quantify measurement differences between the sonde sensors and how they vary with altitude. Each comparison (T, P, RH exposes several profiles of anomalously large measurement differences. Measurement difference statistics, calculated with and without the anomalous profiles, are compared to uncertainties quoted by the radiosonde manufacturers. Excluding seven anomalous profiles, T differences between 19 pairs of RS92 and iMet sondes exceed their measurement uncertainty limits (2 σ 31% of the time and reveal a statistically significant, altitude-independent bias of 0.5 ± 0.2 °C. Similarly, RS92-iMet P differences in 22 non-anomalous profiles exceed their uncertainty limits 23% of the time, with a disproportionate 83% of the excessive P differences at altitudes >16 km. The RS92-iMet pressure differences increase smoothly from −0.6 hPa near the surface to 0.8 hPa above 25 km. Temperature and P differences between all 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed manufacturer-quoted, reproducibility limits (σ 28% and 11% of the time, respectively. About 95% of the excessive T differences are eliminated when 5 anomalous RS92-RS92 profiles are excluded. Only 5% of RH measurement differences between 14 pairs of RS92 sondes exceed the manufacturer's measurement reproducibility limit (σ. RH measurements by RS92 sondes are also compared to RH values calculated from frost point hygrometer measurements and coincident T measurements by the radiosondes. The influences of RS92-iMet Tand P differences on RH values and water vapor mixing

  17. [Interventions on the exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ting-ting; Chen, Xue-yun; Hu, De-wei; Mao, Zheng-zhong

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the extent of exposure of non-smoking pregnant women to passive smoking; to undertake interventions on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those women toward passive smoking; and to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 128 non-smoking pregnant women participated in the survey. Their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards passive smoking were measured by a self-administered questionnaire. A sixteen-week intervention was undertaken. The knowledge and attitudes of the non-smoking pregnant women towards passive smoking improved significantly, as well as their attempts to avoid exposure to the passive smoking brought by their smoking husbands or other family members. Telephone counseling, booklets and doctors' advices were the most acceptable approaches of health education. The comprehensive interventions are effective for improving the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of non-smoking women toward passive smoking.

  18. [Points of view: the role of quality measurement from the Federal Joint Committee's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klakow-Franck, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) is a central decision-making body that issues binding directives to ensure the quality of both inpatient and outpatient health care services within the German Statutory Health Insurance system. Quality measurement on the basis of quality indicators has proceeded furthest in the field of external quality assurance (QA) of inpatient services. Originally designed for quality development in a "protected environment" through learning from better practices, it has been faced with new expectations since competitive elements have been introduced into the health care system. The economisation of medicine is de facto the driving force of the development of QA measures. In terms of health policy, the 2013 coalition agreement includes "a renaissance of the concept of quality competition". In particular, this is meant to strengthen the decision-making options of insured persons by creating more transparency into the quality of not only inpatient but also outpatient care and, if necessary, to support the possibility of selective agreements with individual health insurance funds. The campaign planned to improve the quality of hospitals also provides for a quality-oriented advancement of hospital planning and funding; and the Federal Joint Committee, supported by the new Institute for Quality Assurance and Transparency in the Healthcare System in accordance with Section 137a of Book V of the Social Code (SGB V) in the GKV-FQWG version will be assigned new tasks within this context, too. On the whole, the measures already agreed upon in the Act to Improve the Financial Structure and Quality of the Statutory Health Insurance System (GKV-FQWG) and—as far as can now be anticipated—the proceedings of the working group set up between the German government and the German federal states indicate that there is a high need to improve the methods and tools of external quality assurance available, starting with questions about the validity of the quality

  19. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  20. Minimization of waste volumes by means of pin-pointed decontamination during decommissioning measures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, K.; Jacobs, W.; Kanitz, L.; Schildbach, T.

    1992-06-01

    This semi-automated equipment is able to remove surface building contamination as well as take radioactive measurements. This equipment is newly developed. The goal of the equipment is to improve the identification of areas of contamination and the compounding decontamination of epoxy layer building construction material by using commercially available components minimizing the waste volume. A system design for decommissioning of building surfaces was developed, selected components were tested and their function certified. With this systems concept the decontamination of fixed epoxy layers up to 20 m in height is possible. Operational data for the system are available. (orig.) [de

  1. Smoking Cessation in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Jimenez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of COPD. Smoking cessation is the only therapeutic measure that can cure COPD and prevent this disorder from its chronic progression. Smoking cessation in COPD patients is difficult because most of these patients have specific characteristics that prevent them to quit. Recently, an ERS Task Force has developed a Consensus Document that contains recommendations for helping COPD smokers to quit.

  2. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Rates from strong Point Sources by Airborne IPDA-Lidar Measurements: Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a new method and on the first demonstration to quantify emission rates from strong greenhouse gas (GHG) point sources using airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Lidar measurements. In order to build trust in the self-reported emission rates by countries, verification against independent monitoring systems is a prerequisite to check the reported budget. A significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emission of CO2 and CH4 originates from localized strong point sources of large energy production sites or landfills. Both are not monitored with sufficiently accuracy by the current observation system. There is a debate whether airborne remote sensing could fill in the gap to infer those emission rates from budgeting or from Gaussian plume inversion approaches, whereby measurements of the GHG column abundance beneath the aircraft can be used to constrain inverse models. In contrast to passive sensors, the use of an active instrument like CHARM-F for such emission verification measurements is new. CHARM-F is a new airborne IPDA-Lidar devised for the German research aircraft HALO for the simultaneous measurement of the column-integrated dry-air mixing ratio of CO2 and CH4 commonly denoted as XCO2 und XCH4, respectively. It has successfully been tested in a serious of flights over Central Europe to assess its performance under various reflectivity conditions and in a strongly varying topography like the Alps. The analysis of a methane plume measured in crosswind direction of a coal mine ventilation shaft revealed an instantaneous emission rate of 9.9 ± 1.7 kt CH4 yr-1. We discuss the methodology of our point source estimation approach and give an outlook on the CoMet field experiment scheduled in 2017 for the measurement of anthropogenic and natural GHG emissions by a combination of active and passive remote sensing instruments on research aircraft.

  3. Mochovce NPP safety measures evaluation from point of view of operational safety enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.; Vrtik, L.

    2000-01-01

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing. (author)

  4. Event-based motion correction for PET transmission measurements with a rotating point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Victor W; Kyme, Andre Z; Meikle, Steven R; Fulton, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is important for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) studies. When performing transmission measurements using an external rotating radioactive source, object motion during the transmission scan can distort the attenuation correction factors computed as the ratio of the blank to transmission counts, and cause errors and artefacts in reconstructed PET images. In this paper we report a compensation method for rigid body motion during PET transmission measurements, in which list mode transmission data are motion corrected event-by-event, based on known motion, to ensure that all events which traverse the same path through the object are recorded on a common line of response (LOR). As a result, the motion-corrected transmission LOR may record a combination of events originally detected on different LORs. To ensure that the corresponding blank LOR records events from the same combination of contributing LORs, the list mode blank data are spatially transformed event-by-event based on the same motion information. The number of counts recorded on the resulting blank LOR is then equivalent to the number of counts that would have been recorded on the corresponding motion-corrected transmission LOR in the absence of any attenuating object. The proposed method has been verified in phantom studies with both stepwise movements and continuous motion. We found that attenuation maps derived from motion-corrected transmission and blank data agree well with those of the stationary phantom and are significantly better than uncorrected attenuation data.

  5. PSA analysis focused on Mochovce NPP safety measures evaluation from operational safety point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cillik, I.; Vrtik, L.

    2001-01-01

    Mochovce NPP consists of four reactor units of WWER 440/V213 type and it is located in the south-middle part of Slovakia. At present first unit operated and the second one under the construction finishing. As these units represent second generation of WWER reactor design, the additional safety measures (SM) were implemented to enhance operational and nuclear safety according to the recommendations of performed international audits and operational experience based on exploitation of other similar units (as Dukovany and J. Bohunice NPPs). These requirements result into a number of SMs grouped according to their purpose to reach recent international requirements on nuclear and operational safety. The paper presents the bases used for safety measures establishing including their grouping into the comprehensive tasks covering different areas of safety goals as well as structural organization of a project management of including participating companies and work performance. More, results are given regarding contribution of selected SMs to the total core damage frequency decreasing.(author)

  6. Uncertainty Evaluation of the New Setup for Measurement of Water-Vapor Permeation Rate by a Dew-Point Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudoklin, D.; Šetina, J.; Drnovšek, J.

    2012-09-01

    The measurement of the water-vapor permeation rate (WVPR) through materials is very important in many industrial applications such as the development of new fabrics and construction materials, in the semiconductor industry, packaging, vacuum techniques, etc. The demand for this kind of measurement grows considerably and thus many different methods for measuring the WVPR are developed and standardized within numerous national and international standards. However, comparison of existing methods shows a low level of mutual agreement. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the necessary uncertainty evaluation for WVPR measurements, so as to provide a basis for development of a corresponding reference measurement standard. This paper presents a specially developed measurement setup, which employs a precision dew-point sensor for WVPR measurements on specimens of different shapes. The paper also presents a physical model, which tries to account for both dynamic and quasi-static methods, the common types of WVPR measurements referred to in standards and scientific publications. An uncertainty evaluation carried out according to the ISO/IEC guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) shows the relative expanded ( k = 2) uncertainty to be 3.0 % for WVPR of 6.71 mg . h-1 (corresponding to permeance of 30.4 mg . m-2. day-1 . hPa-1).

  7. Investigation of Service Quality of Measurement Reference Points for the Internet Services on Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipenbergs, E.; Bobrovs, Vj.; Ivanovs, G.

    2016-10-01

    To ensure that end-users and consumers have access to comprehensive, comparable and user-friendly information regarding the Internet access service quality, it is necessary to implement and regularly renew a set of legislative regulatory acts and to provide monitoring of the quality of Internet access services regarding the current European Regulatory Framework. The actual situation regarding the quality of service monitoring solutions in different European countries depends on national regulatory initiatives and public awareness. The service monitoring solutions are implemented using different measurement methodologies and tools. The paper investigates the practical implementations for developing a harmonising approach to quality monitoring in order to obtain objective information on the quality of Internet access services on mobile networks.

  8. Holographic interferometry applied to the measurement of displacements of the interior points of transparent bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, C A; Gilbert, J A

    1976-09-01

    Utilizing the light scattering property of transparent media, holographic interferometry is applied to the measurement of displacement at the interior planes of three dimensional bodies. The use of a double beam illumination and the introduction of a fictitious displacement make it feasible to obtain information corresponding to components of displacement projected on the scattering plane. When the proposed techniques are invoked, it is possible to eliminate the use of a matching index of refraction fluid in many problems involving symmetrically loaded prismatic bodies. Scattered light holographic interferometry is limited in its use to small changes in the index of refraction and to low values of relative retardation. In spite of these restrictions, a large number of technical problems in both statics and dynamics can be solved.

  9. Measurement of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by neutrons near thermal point (preliminary results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramo; vich, S.N.; Andreev, M.F.; Bol`shakov, Y.M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Measurements have been carried out of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by thermal neutrons. The isotope {sup 238}Np was built up through the reaction {sup 238}U(p,n) on an electrostatic accelerator. Extraction and cleaning of the sample were done by ion-exchange chromatography. Fast neutrons were generated on the electrostatic accelerator through the reaction {sup 9}Be(d,n); a polyethylene block was used to slow down neutrons. Registration of fission fragments was performed with dielectric track detectors. Suggesting that the behavior of {sup 238}Np and {sup 238}U. Westscott`s factors are indentical the fission cross-section of {sup 238}Np was obtained: {sigma}{sub fo}=2110 {plus_minus} 75 barn.

  10. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  11. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  12. Self-perceived ability to cope with stress without smoking predicts successful smoking cessation 12 months later in a quitline setting: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Nohlert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Telephone-based smoking cessation services ('quitlines' are both effective and cost-effective. Knowledge of modifiable baseline factors in real-life settings with heterogeneous participants is essential for the development and improvement of treatment protocols to assist in telephone-based smoking cessation. The aim was to assess self-efficacy as a predictor for abstinence at the 12-month follow-up at the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline (SNTQ. Methods The data were collected from a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of proactive and reactive service at the SNTQ. Included were 612 clients calling the SNTQ between February 2009 and September 2010. Outcome measures were self-reported point prevalence and 6-month continuous abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Plausible predictors of smoking cessation were assessed at the first call and in a baseline questionnaire. Self-efficacy was measured by three questions: (1 the likelihood of being smoking free in 1 year; (2 the ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking; and (3 the likelihood of using medication against craving if necessary. The associations between predictors and outcome were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Results Of the three self-efficacy predictors for abstinence at month 12, only the perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking remained significant in the adjusted analyses (odds ratio, OR, 1.1 for point prevalence and 1.2 for 6-month continuous abstinence. The overall strongest predictor in the adjusted analyses was smoking status in the week before baseline (OR 2.7 for point prevalence and 3.1 for 6-month continuous abstinence. Conclusions The perceived ability to handle stress and depressive mood without smoking at baseline predicted the subjects' abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. An assessment of/adjustment for stress and depressive mood may be appropriate in future smoking cessation

  13. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  14. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  15. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. Application of a two-sinker densimeter for phase-equilibrium measurements: A new technique for the detection of dew points and measurements on the (methane + propane) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLinden, Mark O.; Richter, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new technique for detecting dew points in fluid mixtures is described. • The method makes use of a two-sinker densimeter. • The technique is based on a quantitative measurement of sample mass adsorbed onto the surface of the densimeter sinkers. • The dew-point density and dew-point pressure are determined with low uncertainty. • The method is applied to the (methane + propane) system and compared to traditional methods. - Abstract: We explore a novel method for determining the dew-point density and dew-point pressure of fluid mixtures and compare it to traditional methods. The (p, ρ, T, x) behavior of three (methane + propane) mixtures was investigated with a two-sinker magnetic suspension densimeter over the temperature range of (248.15–293.15) K; the measurements extended from low pressures into the two-phase region. The compositions of the gravimetrically prepared mixtures were (0.74977, 0.50688, and 0.26579) mole fraction methane. We analyzed isothermal data by: (1) a “traditional” analysis of the intersection of a virial fit of the (p vs. ρ) data in the single-phase region with a linear fit of the data in the two-phase region; and (2) an analysis of the adsorbed mass on the sinker surfaces. We compared these to a traditional isochoric experiment. We conclude that the “adsorbed mass” analysis of an isothermal experiment provides an accurate determination of the dew-point temperature, pressure, and density. However, a two-sinker densimeter is required.

  17. Phase space measurements at non-accessible point on the beam path of an accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The optimization of beam lines for particles extracted from accelerator facilities requires the knowledge of beam parameters. A method for the measurement of phase space and beam intensity distribution is represented. This method depends on the setting of quadrupole lenses that allows the imaging of beam profiles at arbitrary positions along the beam path on the same multi-wire proportional chamber, where the intensity distribution can be evaluated. The necessary focusing powers for a certain imaging task are calculated in a thin lens approximation. The corresponding focusing power for thick quadrupole lenses are calculated using the PC transport program. A comparison of the calculated focusing powers for thin and thick lenses reveals deviations at the highest field strengths, due to saturation effect. The position of the beam waist in normal and angular space is directly calculated and visualized. The horizontal and vertical waist positions are found to be rather independent of the beam energy. Extensive calculation was done to study the effect of a reduced aperture on the maximum beam emittances aa x and aa y of the extracted particles. The main result shows that the maximum emittance passing through depends on the waist distant and the diameter of the reduced aperture. (orig.)

  18. The association of measures of the serotonin system, personality, alcohol use, and smoking with risk-taking traffic behavior in adolescents in a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luht, Kadi; Eensoo, Diva; Tooding, Liina-Mai; Harro, Jaanus

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets. The purpose of the present study was to examine how measures of the serotonin system (platelet MAO activity and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism), personality variables, alcohol use and smoking are associated with risk-taking traffic behavior in schoolchildren through late adolescence. The younger cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (originally n = 583) filled in questionnaires about personality traits, smoking status, alcohol use and traffic behavior at age 15 and 18 years. From venous blood samples, platelet MAO activity was measured radioenzymatically and 5-HTTLPR was genotyped. During late adolescence, subjects with lower platelet MAO activity were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group. Male 5-HTTLPRs'-allele carriers were more likely to belong to the high-risk traffic behavior group compared to the l'/l' homozygotes. Other variables predicting risk group were alcohol use, smoking and Maladaptive impulsivity.The results suggest that lower capacity of the serotoninergic system is associated with more risky traffic behavior during late adolescence, but possibly by different mechanisms in boys and girls.

  19. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  20. Improved pointing information for SCIAMACHY from in-flight measurements of the viewing directions towards sun and moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Stone, Thomas C.; Gottwald, Manfred; Noël, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2017-07-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) on Envisat (2002-2012) performed nadir, limb, solar/lunar occultation and various monitoring measurements. The pointing information of the instrument is determined by the attitude information of the Envisat platform with its star trackers together with the encoder readouts of both the azimuth and the elevation scanner of SCIAMACHY. In this work, we present additional sources of attitude information from the SCIAMACHY measurements itself. The basic principle is the same as used by the star tracker: we measure the viewing direction towards celestial objects, i.e. sun and moon, to detect possible mispointings. In sun over limb port observations, we utilise the vertical scans over the solar disk. In horizontal direction, SCIAMACHY's sun follower device (SFD) is used to adjust the viewing direction. Moon over limb port measurements use for both the vertical and the horizontal direction the adjustment by the SFD. The viewing direction is steered towards the intensity centroid of the illuminated part of the lunar disk. We use reference images from the USGS Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) to take into account the inhomogeneous surface and the variations by lunar libration and phase to parameterise the location of the intensity centroid from the observation geometry. Solar observations through SCIAMACHY's so-called sub-solar port (with a viewing direction closely to zenith) also use the SFD in the vertical direction. In the horizontal direction the geometry of the port defines the viewing direction. Using these three type of measurements, we fit improved mispointing parameters by minimising the pointing offsets in elevation and azimuth. The geolocation of all retrieved products will benefit from this; the tangent heights are especially improved. The altitudes assigned to SCIAMACHY's solar occultation measurements are changed in the range of -130 to -330 m, the lunar occultation

  1. Improved pointing information for SCIAMACHY from in-flight measurements of the viewing directions towards sun and moon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bramstedt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY on Envisat (2002–2012 performed nadir, limb, solar/lunar occultation and various monitoring measurements. The pointing information of the instrument is determined by the attitude information of the Envisat platform with its star trackers together with the encoder readouts of both the azimuth and the elevation scanner of SCIAMACHY. In this work, we present additional sources of attitude information from the SCIAMACHY measurements itself. The basic principle is the same as used by the star tracker: we measure the viewing direction towards celestial objects, i.e. sun and moon, to detect possible mispointings. In sun over limb port observations, we utilise the vertical scans over the solar disk. In horizontal direction, SCIAMACHY's sun follower device (SFD is used to adjust the viewing direction. Moon over limb port measurements use for both the vertical and the horizontal direction the adjustment by the SFD. The viewing direction is steered towards the intensity centroid of the illuminated part of the lunar disk. We use reference images from the USGS Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO to take into account the inhomogeneous surface and the variations by lunar libration and phase to parameterise the location of the intensity centroid from the observation geometry. Solar observations through SCIAMACHY's so-called sub-solar port (with a viewing direction closely to zenith also use the SFD in the vertical direction. In the horizontal direction the geometry of the port defines the viewing direction. Using these three type of measurements, we fit improved mispointing parameters by minimising the pointing offsets in elevation and azimuth. The geolocation of all retrieved products will benefit from this; the tangent heights are especially improved. The altitudes assigned to SCIAMACHY's solar occultation measurements are changed in the range of −130 to −330 m, the lunar

  2. Technical Note: Experimental determination of the effective point of measurement of two cylindrical ionization chambers in a clinical proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Yuya, E-mail: yuya.sugama@gmail.com [Proton Therapy Center, Aizawa Hospital, Nagano 390-0821, Japan and Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan); Nishio, Teiji [Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi 409-3898 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: IAEA TRS-398 notes that cylindrical ionization chambers are preferred for reference proton dosimetry. If a cylindrical ionization chamber is used in a phantom to measure the dose as a function of depth, the effective point of measurement (EPOM) must be taken into account. IAEA TRS-398 recommends a displacement of 0.75 times the inner cavity radius (0.75R) for heavy ion beams. Theoretical models by Palmans and by Bhullar and Watchman confirmed this value. However, the experimental results vary from author to author. The purpose of this study is to accurately measure the displacement and explain the past experimental discrepancies. Methods: In this work, we measured the EPOM of cylindrical ionization chambers with high accuracy by comparing the Bragg-peak position obtained with cylindrical ionization chambers (PTW 30013, PTW 31016) to that obtained using a plane-parallel ionization chamber (PTW 34045). Results: The EPOMs of PTW 30013 and 31016 were shifted by 0.92 ± 0.07 R with R = 3.05 mm and 0.90 ± 0.14 R with R = 1.45 mm, respectively, from the reference point toward the source. Conclusions: The EPOMs obtained were greater than the value of 0.75R proposed by the IAEA TRS-398 and the analytical results.

  3. Point of care platelet activity measurement in primary PCI [PINPOINT-PPCI]: a protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas W; Marsden, Debbie; Mumford, Andrew; Pike, Katie; Mundell, Stuart; Butler, Mark; Strange, Julian W; Bowles, Ruth; Rogers, Chris; Baumbach, Andreas; Reeves, Barnaby C

    2014-04-04

    Optimal treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involves rapid diagnosis, and transfer to a cardiac centre capable of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for immediate mechanical revascularisation. Successful treatment requires rapid return of perfusion to the myocardium achieved by thromboaspiration, passivation of the culprit lesion with stent scaffolding and systemic inhibition of thrombosis and platelet activation. A delicate balance exists between thrombosis and bleeding and consequently anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet treatment regimens continue to evolve. The desire to achieve reperfusion as soon as possible, in the setting of high platelet reactivity, requires potent and fast-acting anti-thrombotic/anti-platelet therapies. The associated bleeding risk may be minimised by use of short-acting anti-thrombotic intravenous agents. However, effective oral platelet inhibition is required to prevent recurrent thrombosis. The interaction between baseline platelet reactivity, timing of revascularisation and effective inhibition of thrombosis is yet to be formally investigated. We present a protocol for a prospective observational study in patients presenting with acute STEMI treated with primary PCI (PPCI) and receiving bolus/infusion bivalirudin and prasugrel therapy. The objective of this study is to describe variation in platelet reactivity, as measured by the multiplate platelet function analyser, at presentation, the end of the PPCI procedure and 1, 2, & 24 hours post-procedure. We intend to assess the prevalence of high residual platelet reactivity within 24 hours of PPCI in acute STEMI patients receiving prasugrel and bivalirudin. Additionally, we will investigate the association between high platelet reactivity before and after PPCI and the door-to-procedure completion time.This is a single centre study with a target sample size of 108 participants. The baseline platelet reactivity on presentation with a STEMI may impact on the

  4. Cigarette smoking and perception of a movie character in a film trailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of smoking in a film trailer. Experimental study. Ten secondary schools in Northern Germany. A sample of 1051 adolescents with a mean (SD) age of 14.2 (1.8) years. Main Exposures Participants were randomized to view a 42-second film trailer in which the attractive female character either smoked for about 3 seconds or did not smoke. Perception of the character was measured via an 8-item semantic differential scale. Each item consisted of a polar-opposite pair (eg, "sexy/unsexy") divided on a 7-point scale. Responses to individual items were summed and averaged. This scale was named "attractiveness." The Cronbach alpha for the attractiveness rating was 0.85. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to test the effect of smoking in a film trailer. Smoking in the film trailer did not reach significance in the linear regression model (z = 0.73; P = .47). Smoking status of the recipient (z = 3.81; P film trailer and smoking status of the recipient (z = 2.21; P = .03) both reached statistical significance. Ever smokers and never smokers did not differ in their perception of the female character in the nonsmoking film trailer. In the smoking film trailer, ever smokers judged the character significantly more attractive than never smokers. Even incidental smoking in a very short film trailer might strengthen the attractiveness of smokers in youth who have already tried their first cigarettes.

  5. Comparison of secondhand smoke exposure measures during pregnancy in the development of a clinical prediction model for small-for-gestational-age among non-smoking Chinese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong; Niu, Zhongzheng; Ding, Peng; Liu, Tao; He, Yanhui; Lin, Jianmiao; Yuan, Shixin; Guo, Xiaoling; Jia, Deqin; Chen, Weiqing

    2015-10-01

    To compare predictive values of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) by different measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure during pregnancy and to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA using SHS exposure along with sociodemographic and pregnancy factors. We compared the predictability of different measures of SHS exposure during pregnancy for SGA among 545 Chinese pregnant women, and then used the optimal SHS measure along with other clinically available factors to develop and validate a prediction model for SGA. We fit logistic regression models to predict SGA by single measures of SHS exposure (self-report, serum cotinine and CYP2A6*4) and different combinations (self-report+cotinine, cotinine+CYP2A6*4, self-report+CYP2A6*4 and self-report+cotinine+CYP2A6*4). We found that self-reported SHS exposure alone predicted SGA (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC), 0.578) better than the other two single measures (cotinine, 0.547; CYP2A6*4, 0.529) or as accurately as combined SHS measures (0.545-0.584). The final prediction model that contained self-reported SHS exposure, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain velocity during the second and third trimesters, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and the third-trimester biparietal diameter Z-score could predict SGA fairly accurately (AUROC, 0.698). Self-reported SHS exposure at peribirth performs better in predicting SGA than a single measure of serum cotinine at the same time, although repeated biochemical cotinine assessments throughout pregnancy may be optimal. Our simple prediction model is fairly accurate and can be potentially used in routine prenatal care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Radiological hazards of narghile smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M.; Abd El-Aziz, N.S.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.; Chaouachi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

  7. Does smoking tighten the gut?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prytz, H.; Benoni, C.; Tagesson, C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a low prevalence of smoking in ulcerative colitis. The disease often starts or relapses after stopp of smoking. Increased intestinal permeability for harmful substances has been proposed as one causal factor in ulcerative colitis. The authors therefore wanted to study the relationship between smoking and intestinal permeability in healthy subjects. In 25 smoking and 25 non-smoking healthy persons, urine recoveries of two different oral probes, 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr-EDTA) and low-molecular-weight polymers of polyethylene glycol, were measured. The smokers had significantly lower 24-h urine recoveries of 51 Cr-EDTA than the non-smokers. In contrast, 6-h urine recoveries of PEG 400 were not significantly different in smokers and non-smokers. Thus, smoking appears to tighten the gut either by effects on the paracelluar junctions in the intestinal epithelium, or by decreasing the permeability in the distal small bowel and the colon. 21 refs

  8. Iterative image reconstruction for positron emission tomography based on a detector response function estimated from point source measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohme, Michel S; Qi Jinyi

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of the system model in an iterative reconstruction algorithm greatly affects the quality of reconstructed positron emission tomography (PET) images. For efficient computation in reconstruction, the system model in PET can be factored into a product of a geometric projection matrix and sinogram blurring matrix, where the former is often computed based on analytical calculation, and the latter is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Direct measurement of a sinogram blurring matrix is difficult in practice because of the requirement of a collimated source. In this work, we propose a method to estimate the 2D blurring kernels from uncollimated point source measurements. Since the resulting sinogram blurring matrix stems from actual measurements, it can take into account the physical effects in the photon detection process that are difficult or impossible to model in a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, and hence provide a more accurate system model. Another advantage of the proposed method over MC simulation is that it can easily be applied to data that have undergone a transformation to reduce the data size (e.g., Fourier rebinning). Point source measurements were acquired with high count statistics in a relatively fine grid inside the microPET II scanner using a high-precision 2D motion stage. A monotonically convergent iterative algorithm has been derived to estimate the detector blurring matrix from the point source measurements. The algorithm takes advantage of the rotational symmetry of the PET scanner and explicitly models the detector block structure. The resulting sinogram blurring matrix is incorporated into a maximum a posteriori (MAP) image reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method has been validated using a 3 x 3 line phantom, an ultra-micro resolution phantom and a 22 Na point source superimposed on a warm background. The results of the proposed method show improvements in both resolution and contrast ratio when compared with the MAP

  9. Telomere shortening unrelated to smoking, body weight, physical activity, and alcohol intake: 4,576 general population individuals with repeat measurements 10 years apart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Weischer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional studies have associated short telomere length with smoking, body weight, physical activity, and possibly alcohol intake; however, whether these associations are due to confounding is unknown. We tested these hypotheses in 4,576 individuals from the general population cross-sectionally, and with repeat measurement of relative telomere length 10 years apart. We also tested whether change in telomere length is associated with mortality and morbidity in the general population. Relative telomere length was measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cross-sectionally at the first examination, short telomere length was associated with increased age (P for trend across quartiles = 3 × 10(-77, current smoking (P = 8 × 10(-3, increased body mass index (P = 7 × 10(-14, physical inactivity (P = 4 × 10(-17, but not with increased alcohol intake (P = 0.10. At the second examination 10 years later, 56% of participants had lost and 44% gained telomere length with a mean loss of 193 basepairs. Change in leukocyte telomere length during 10 years was associated inversely with baseline telomere length (P<1 × 10(-300 and age at baseline (P = 1 × 10(-27, but not with baseline or 10-year inter-observational tobacco consumption, body weight, physical activity, or alcohol intake. Prospectively during a further 10 years follow-up after the second examination, quartiles of telomere length change did not associate with risk of all-cause mortality, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or ischemic heart disease. In conclusion, smoking, increased body weight, and physical inactivity were associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not with telomere length change during 10 years observation, and alcohol intake was associated with neither. Also, change in telomere length did not associate prospectively with mortality or morbidity in the general population.

  10. Improving a variation of the DSC technique for measuring the boiling points of pure compounds at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troni, Kelly L.; Damaceno, Daniela S.; Ceriani, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Improvement of a variation of the DSC technique for boiling points at low pressures. • Use of a ballpoint pen ball over the pinhole of the DSC crucible. • Effects of configuration variables of the DSC technique accounted by factorial design. • An optimized region was obtained and tested for selected compounds. - Abstract: This study aims to improve a variation of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique for measuring boiling points of pure compounds at low pressures. Using a well-known n-paraffin (n-hexadecane), experimental boiling points at a pressure of 3.47 kPa with u(P) = 0.07 kPa were obtained by using a variation of the DSC technique, which consists of placing samples inside hermetically sealed aluminum crucibles, with a pinhole (diameter of 0.8 mm) made on the lid and a tungsten carbide ball with a diameter of 1.0 mm over it. Experiments were configured at nine different combinations of heating rates (K·min"−"1) and sample sizes (mg) following a full factorial design (2"2 trials plus a star configuration and three central points). Individual and combined effects of these two independent variables on the difference between experimental and estimated boiling points (NIST Thermo Data Engine v. 5.0 – Aspen Plus v. 8.4) were investigated. The results obtained in this work reveal that although both factors affect individually the accuracy of this variation of the DSC technique, the effect of heating rate is the most important. An optimized region of combinations of heating rate and sample size for determining boiling points of pure compounds at low pressures was obtained using the response-surface methodology (RSM). Within this optimized region, a selected condition, combining a heating rate of 24.52 K·min"−"1 and a sample size of (4.6 ± 0.5) mg, was tested for six different compounds (92.094–302.37 g mol"−"1) comprising four fatty compounds (tributyrin, monocaprylin, octanoic acid and 1-octadecanol), glycerol and n

  11. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  12. Assimilation of concentration measurements for retrieving multiple point releases in atmosphere: A least-squares approach to inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarvesh Kumar; Rani, Raj

    2015-10-01

    The study addresses the identification of multiple point sources, emitting the same tracer, from their limited set of merged concentration measurements. The identification, here, refers to the estimation of locations and strengths of a known number of simultaneous point releases. The source-receptor relationship is described in the framework of adjoint modelling by using an analytical Gaussian dispersion model. A least-squares minimization framework, free from an initialization of the release parameters (locations and strengths), is presented to estimate the release parameters. This utilizes the distributed source information observable from the given monitoring design and number of measurements. The technique leads to an exact retrieval of the true release parameters when measurements are noise free and exactly described by the dispersion model. The inversion algorithm is evaluated using the real data from multiple (two, three and four) releases conducted during Fusion Field Trials in September 2007 at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. The release locations are retrieved, on average, within 25-45 m of the true sources with the distance from retrieved to true source ranging from 0 to 130 m. The release strengths are also estimated within a factor of three to the true release rates. The average deviations in retrieval of source locations are observed relatively large in two release trials in comparison to three and four release trials.

  13. Reliable clinical serum analysis with reusable electrochemical sensor: Toward point-of-care measurement of the antipsychotic medication clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Eunkyoung; Winkler, Thomas E; Banis, George; Liu, Yi; Kitchen, Christopher A; Kelly, Deanna L; Ghodssi, Reza; Payne, Gregory F

    2017-09-15

    Clozapine is one of the most promising medications for managing schizophrenia but it is under-utilized because of the challenges of maintaining serum levels in a safe therapeutic range (1-3μM). Timely measurement of serum clozapine levels has been identified as a barrier to the broader use of clozapine, which is however challenging due to the complexity of serum samples. We demonstrate a robust and reusable electrochemical sensor with graphene-chitosan composite for rapidly measuring serum levels of clozapine. Our electrochemical measurements in clinical serum from clozapine-treated and clozapine-untreated schizophrenia groups are well correlated to centralized laboratory analysis for the readily detected uric acid and for the clozapine which is present at 100-fold lower concentration. The benefits of our electrochemical measurement approach for serum clozapine monitoring are: (i) rapid measurement (≈20min) without serum pretreatment; (ii) appropriate selectivity and sensitivity (limit of detection 0.7μM); (iii) reusability of an electrode over several weeks; and (iv) rapid reliability testing to detect common error-causing problems. This simple and rapid electrochemical approach for serum clozapine measurements should provide clinicians with the timely point-of-care information required to adjust dosages and personalize the management of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  15. The reproducibility of some thermometric fixed points and the accuracy of temperature measurements using platinum resistance thermometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancsin, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for National Measurement Standards; Mendez-Lango, E. [Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), Div. Termometria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The reproducibility of some thermometric fixed points and the accuracy of four platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) were studied. It was found that the fixed points of aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), indium (In) and gallium (Ga) were realized reproducibly within {+-}0.17 mK; {+-}0.11 mK; {+-}0.10 mK; {+-}0.13 mK and {+-}0.12 mK, respectively. Because the actual impurities and their concentration in our samples (of 99.9999 % or 99.999 99 % purity) are unknown, the systematic uncertainly due to impurities cannot be estimated. However, any of the samples of Ga, In, Sn, Zn and Al is consistent with the rest within {+-}0.2 mK, using a cubic or quadratic deviation function, in the temperature range 0 deg C to 660 deg C. This indicates that the effect of impurities is negligible. Four PRTs were selected at random. They were calibrated repeatedly, first up to the Zn point and then up to the Al point. The resistance of each PRT drifted. From time to time, for each PRT, a seemingly well-established resistance drift suddenly and unpredictably changed to a different rate of drift. Occasionally, the resistance of the PRTs shifted. Such unpredictable changes obviously limit the accuracy of temperature measurements using PRTs no matter what the accuracy of their calibrations. In the case of our four PRTs, the uncertainty of temperature measurements near 660 deg C ranged from about {+-}1 mK to about {+-}2,5 mK even though they were all calibrated at all fixed points well within {+-}0.25 mK uncertainty. Possible explanations are offered for the apparently permanent drifts and the erratic shifts in the resistance of the PRTs. Some comments are made concerning the ambiguity of 'immersion tests' in general. The furnaces of the National Research Council of Canada used in this work are high-temperature adiabatic calorimeters. (authors)

  16. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  17. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  18. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  19. Correction of measured Gamma-Knife output factors for angular dependence of diode detectors and PinPoint ionization chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hršak, Hrvoje; Majer, Marija; Grego, Timor; Bibić, Juraj; Heinrich, Zdravko

    2014-12-01

    Dosimetry for Gamma-Knife requires detectors with high spatial resolution and minimal angular dependence of response. Angular dependence and end effect time for p-type silicon detectors (PTW Diode P and Diode E) and PTW PinPoint ionization chamber were measured with Gamma-Knife beams. Weighted angular dependence correction factors were calculated for each detector. The Gamma-Knife output factors were corrected for angular dependence and end effect time. For Gamma-Knife beams angle range of 84°-54°. Diode P shows considerable angular dependence of 9% and 8% for the 18 mm and 14, 8, 4 mm collimator, respectively. For Diode E this dependence is about 4% for all collimators. PinPoint ionization chamber shows angular dependence of less than 3% for 18, 14 and 8 mm helmet and 10% for 4 mm collimator due to volumetric averaging effect in a small photon beam. Corrected output factors for 14 mm helmet are in very good agreement (within ±0.3%) with published data and values recommended by vendor (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). For the 8 mm collimator diodes are still in good agreement with recommended values (within ±0.6%), while PinPoint gives 3% less value. For the 4 mm helmet Diodes P and E show over-response of 2.8% and 1.8%, respectively. For PinPoint chamber output factor of 4 mm collimator is 25% lower than Elekta value which is generally not consequence of angular dependence, but of volumetric averaging effect and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium. Diodes P and E represent good choice for Gamma-Knife dosimetry. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the Solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, J. R.; Claflin, E. S.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Catura, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    A grazing incidence solar X-ray telescope, Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), will be flown on the Solar-A satellite in 1991. Measurements have been conducted to determine the focal length, Point Spread Function (PSF), and effective area of the SXT mirror. The measurements were made with pinholes, knife edges, a CCD, and a proportional counter. The results show the 1/r character of the PSF, and indicate a half power diameter of 4.9 arcsec and an effective area of 1.33 sq cm at 13.3 A (0.93 keV). The mirror was found to provide a high contrast image with very little X-ray scattering.

  1. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  2. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  3. Large Industrial Point Sources in Italy: a focus on mercury concentrations resulting from three seasonal ship-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencardino M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Italy there are 25 Large Industrial Point Sources whose mercury emissions in air exceed the established threshold of 10 kg year−1. Many of these mercury point sources, mostly distributed along the Italian coastal area, are located at sites qualified as National Interest Rehabilitation Sites because of documented contamination in qualitative and/or quantitative terms and of potential health impact. Atmospheric mercury emissions related to Italian Large Industrial Point Sources, with a value of 1.04 Mg·yr−1 for 2007, have a not negligible contribution, accounting, on their own, for more than 10% of the total mercury emissions resulting from all activity sectors at a national level. Among others, thermal power stations, pig iron and steel as well as basic inorganic chemical production, result to be the main contributing industrial activities. In order to assess how mercury species concentrations and distribution in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL change with vicinity to large industrial sites, measurements of atmospheric mercury were performed during three oceanographic campaigns aboard the Research Vessel (R.V. Urania of the Italian CNR. Collection of GEM, GOM and PBM was conducted across the Adriatic sea, during autumn 2004 (27th of October to 12th of November and summer 2005 (17th to 29th of June, and across the Tyrrhenian sea during autumn 2007 (12th of September to 1st October. Analysis were carried out with reference to the period in which the R.V. Urania has stopped close to the main Italian industrial contaminated sites. Explorative statistical parameters of atmospheric mercury species were computed over each single stop-period and then compared with the overall cruise campaign measurements. Results are herein presented and discussed.

  4. A new algorithm combining geostatistics with the surrogate data approach to increase the accuracy of comparisons of point radiation measurements with cloud measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Lindau, R.; Varnai, T.; Simmer, C.

    2009-04-01

    Two main groups of statistical methods used in the Earth sciences are geostatistics and stochastic modelling. Geostatistical methods, such as various kriging algorithms, aim at estimating the mean value for every point as well as possible. In case of sparse measurements, such fields have less variability at small scales and a narrower distribution as the true field. This can lead to biases if a nonlinear process is simulated on such a kriged field. Stochastic modelling aims at reproducing the structure of the data. One of the stochastic modelling methods, the so-called surrogate data approach, replicates the value distribution and power spectrum of a certain data set. However, while stochastic methods reproduce the statistical properties of the data, the location of the measurement is not considered. Because radiative transfer through clouds is a highly nonlinear process it is essential to model the distribution (e.g. of optical depth, extinction, liquid water content or liquid water path) accurately as well as the correlations in the cloud field because of horizontal photon transport. This explains the success of surrogate cloud fields for use in 3D radiative transfer studies. However, up to now we could only achieve good results for the radiative properties averaged over the field, but not for a radiation measurement located at a certain position. Therefore we have developed a new algorithm that combines the accuracy of stochastic (surrogate) modelling with the positioning capabilities of kriging. In this way, we can automatically profit from the large geostatistical literature and software. The algorithm is tested on cloud fields from large eddy simulations (LES). On these clouds a measurement is simulated. From the pseudo-measurement we estimated the distribution and power spectrum. Furthermore, the pseudo-measurement is kriged to a field the size of the final surrogate cloud. The distribution, spectrum and the kriged field are the inputs to the algorithm. This

  5. Can attitudes about smoking impact cigarette cravings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Lauren; Lipsky, Samara; Erblich, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette cravings, especially those in response to environmental stressors and other smoking-related triggers (e.g., passing by a favorite smoking spot), are important contributors to smoking behavior and relapse. Previous studies have demonstrated significant individual differences in such cravings. This study explores the possibility that attitudes about smoking can influence the experience of cigarette craving. Consistent with classical theories of the links between cognition and motivation, we predicted that smokers who exhibit more favorable attitudes towards smoking would have greater cravings. Daily smokers (n=103, mean age=41.8years, 33% female) were instructed to imagine smoking, stress, and neutral scenarios. Cravings were measured prior to and after each exposure. Participants also completed an abridged version of the Smoking Consequence Questionnaire (SCQ) that had them rate the: 1) desirability and 2) likelihood, for eighteen separate negative smoking consequences (e.g., "The more I smoke, the more I risk my health", "People will think less of me if they see me smoking"). Findings revealed that favorable attitudes about the consequences of smoking, as measured by the SCQ-desirability index, significantly predicted cigarette cravings. Findings suggest that individual attitudes toward smoking may play an important role in better understanding cigarette cravings, which may ultimately help identify targets for more efficient and effective cognitive/attitude-based interventions for smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  7. Evaluation of an Electrochemical Point-of-Care Meter for Measuring Glucose Concentration in Blood from Periparturient Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Townsend, J R; Messick, J B; Constable, P D

    2015-01-01

    The Precision Xtra(®) meter is a promising low cost electrochemical point-of-care unit for measuring blood glucose concentration ([gluc]) in cattle blood. The meter uses an algorithm that assumes the intra-erythrocyte [gluc] equals the plasma [gluc] on a molal basis, and that the hematocrit is similar in humans and cattle. The primary objective was to determine the accuracy of the meter for measuring plasma [gluc] in dairy cattle. Secondary objectives were to characterize the influence of hematocrit and sample temperature on the measured value for [gluc]. A total of 106 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cattle. Blood and plasma samples (1,109) were obtained and Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against the reference method (plasma hexokinase assay). Multivariable regression and linear regression were used to determine the effect of hematocrit and sample temperature on the plasma [gluc] measured by the meter. Intra-erythrocyte [gluc] was 18% of plasma [gluc] on a molar basis. Sample temperature had a significant linear effect on plasma [gluc] as measured by the meter for 3/5 plasma samples when measured [gluc] > 160 mg/dL. The meter utilizes an algorithm that is optimized for human blood and is inaccurate when applied to bovine blood. Until a cattle-specific algorithm is developed, we recommend using plasma as the analyte instead of blood and calculating plasma [gluc] using the equation: [gluc] = 0.66 × [gluc]p-meter + 15, where [gluc]p-meter is the value reported by the meter. If blood is measured, then we recommend using the equation: [gluc] = 0.90 × [gluc]b-meter + 15. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Effective smoke-free policies in achieving a high level of compliance with smoke-free law: experiences from a district of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Singh, Rana J; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-07-01

    Compliance survey of smoke-free law is an effective means of measuring progress towards a smoke-free society. They also help policy makers to take action where strengthening measures are required. India has a comprehensive tobacco control law known as Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA 2003) which prohibits smoking in public places and requires display of 'No smoking' signages with proper specifications at conspicuous points. However, its implementation and enforcement are still a matter of concern. To ascertain the level of compliance with smoke-free law in public places of a district of North India. A cross sectional study was conducted in the months of November-December 2011 in district SAS Nagar Mohali of North India. The public places including hotels/restaurants/bars/shopping malls, government offices, educational institutions, healthcare facilities and transit stations were surveyed. The study tool was adapted from the guide on 'Assessing compliance with smoke-free law' developed jointly by the Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. The overall compliance rate towards section 4 of COTPA was 92.3%. No active smoking was observed in 94.2% of the public places. In 90% of the public places 'No Smoking' signage were displayed as per COTPA. Health and educational institutions had maximum compliance with the smoke-free law while transit sites showed the least compliance. Compliance to the smoke-free law was high in the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  10. Analysis of the effective point of measurement of a thimble chamber dosimeter set parallel to the X-ray beam axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimono, Tetsunori; Nanbu, Hidekazu; Koshida, Kichiro; Kikuchi, Yuzo

    2007-01-01

    To measure the narrow beam used in stereotactic irradiation, installation of the ionization chamber parallel to the X-ray beam axis has been used instead of perpendicular installation. However, the definition of the effective point is a major problem in the parallel installation. In this study, we analyzed the effective point in parallel installation, and considered the prediction and evaluation of measurement point displacement. Relative dosimetry was carried out by installing the thimble ionization chamber in both perpendicular and parallel configurations. We then searched for the measurement point that coincided with the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the perpendicular installation by using the displacement of the measurement point of the parallel installation. We found that the effective point of measurement for relative photon beam dosimetry depends on every detail of the chamber design, including the cavity length and the cavity radius. Moreover, the effective point of measurement also depends on the beam quality and the field size. The amount of effective point displacement for the parallel installation was quantified with the linear expression of tissue peak ratio (TPR) 20, 10 . Our results showed that the amount of effective point displacement can be estimated by the ionization volume of the dosimeter and the energy used. (author)

  11. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) direc