WorldWideScience

Sample records for smoke ets research

  1. Scientometric analysis and combined density-equalizing mapping of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vitzthum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is estimated to exert a major burden of disease. Currently, numerous countries have taken legal actions to protect the population against ETS. Numerous studies have been conducted in this field. Therefore, scientometric methods should be used to analyze the accumulated data since there is no such approach available so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: A combination of scientometric methods and novel visualizing procedures were used, including density-equalizing mapping and radar charting techniques. 6,580 ETS-related studies published between 1900 and 2008 were identified in the ISI database. Using different scientometric approaches, a continuous increase of both quantitative and qualitative parameters was found. The combination with density-equalizing calculations demonstrated a leading position of the United States (2,959 items published in terms of quantitative research activities. Charting techniques demonstrated that there are numerous bi- and multilateral networks between different countries and institutions in this field. Again, a leading position of American institutions was found. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive scientometric analysis of data on global scientific activities in the field of environmental tobacco smoke research. The present findings can be used as a benchmark for funding allocation processes.

  2. Where is smoking research published?

    OpenAIRE

    Liguori, A.; Hughes, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify journals that have a focus on human nicotine/smoking research and to investigate the coverage of smoking in "high-impact" journals. DESIGN: The MEDLINE computer database was searched for English-language articles on human studies published in 1988-1992 using "nicotine", "smoking", "smoking cessation", "tobacco", or "tobacco use disorder" as focus descriptors. This search was supplemented with a similar search of the PSYCLIT computer database. Fifty-eight journals ...

  3. Where is smoking research published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A.; Hughes, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify journals that have a focus on human nicotine/smoking research and to investigate the coverage of smoking in "high-impact" journals. DESIGN: The MEDLINE computer database was searched for English-language articles on human studies published in 1988-1992 using "nicotine", "smoking", "smoking cessation", "tobacco", or "tobacco use disorder" as focus descriptors. This search was supplemented with a similar search of the PSYCLIT computer database. Fifty-eight journals containing at least 20 nicotine/smoking articles over the five years were analysed for impact factor (IF; citations per article). RESULTS: Among the journals with the highest percentage of nicotine- or smoking-focused articles (that is, 9-39% of their articles were on nicotine/smoking), Addiction, American Journal of Public Health, Cancer Causes and Control, Health Psychology, and Preventive Medicine had the greatest IF (range = 1.3-2.6). Among the journals highest in impact factor (IF > 3), only American Journal of Epidemiology, American Review of Respiratory Disease, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, and Journal of the American Medical Association published more than 10 nicotine/smoking articles per year (3-5% of all articles). Of these, only Journal of the American Medical Association published a large number of nicotine/smoking articles (32 per year). CONCLUSIONS: Although smoking causes 20% of all mortality in developed countries, the topic is not adequately covered in high-impact journals. Most smoking research is published in low-impact journals. 




 PMID:8795857

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Maria; Salvi, Sundeep

    2009-08-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major risk factor for poor lung health in children. Although parental smoking is the commonest source of ETS exposure to children, they are also exposed to ETS in schools, restaurants, public places and public transport vehicles. Apart from containing thousands of chemicals, the particle size in the ETS is much smaller than the main stream smoke, and therefore has a greater penetrability in the airways of children. Exposure to ETS has been shown to be associated with increased prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections, wheeze, asthma and lower respiratory tract infections. Even developing fetuses are exposed to ETS via the umbilical cord blood if the mother is exposed to tobacco smoke. The placenta also does not offer any barrier to the penetration of ETS into the fetus. The immune system in these babies is more deviated toward the allergic and asthmatic inflammatory phenotype and therefore makes them more prone to develop asthma later in life. An increased awareness of the harmful effects of ETS on children's health is warranted.

  5. Quantification of ETS exposure in hospitality workers who have never smoked

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Stefanie; Br?ckner, Ulrike; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) was classified as human carcinogen (K1) by the German Research Council in 1998. According to epidemiological studies, the relative risk especially for lung cancer might be twice as high in persons who have never smoked but who are in the highest exposure category, for example hospitality workers. In order to implement these results in the German regulations on occupational illnesses, a valid method is needed to retrospectively assess the c...

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  7. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  8. "Conclusions about exposure to ETS and health that will be unhelpful to us": how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the 1997 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council report on passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, L; Chapman, S

    2003-12-01

    Major reviews of the health effects of passive smoking have been subjected to tobacco industry campaigns to refute the scientific evidence. Following the 1992 US Environmental Protection Agency review, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) initiated a review of the health effects of passive smoking. At the time of this review, evidence that environmental tobacco smoke causes disease was being increasingly accepted in courts of law and voluntary adoption of smoking restrictions was rapidly growing. To demonstrate how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the publication of a report on passive smoking that the tobacco industry anticipated to contain recommendations that would be unfavourable to their business. A search of tobacco industry documents on the Master Settlement Agreement websites was conducted using the terms and acronyms representative of the NHMRC review. The tobacco industry sought to impede the progress of the NHMRC Working Party by launching an intensive campaign to delay and discredit the report. The main strategies used were attempts to criticise the science, extensive use of Freedom of Information provisions to monitor all activity of the group, legal challenges, ad hominem attacks on the credibility of the Working Party members, rallying support from industry allies, and influencing public opinion through the media. The Australian tobacco industry deliberately impeded the NHMRC Working Party's progress and successfully prevented the publication of the report's recommendations. The tobacco industry's motivation and capacity to disrupt the advancement of scientific knowledge and policy in tobacco control should be recognised and anticipated.

  9. A Review of Smoking Research In Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, L H; Chan, C M H; Yogarabindranath, S N

    2016-06-01

    Two hundred and seventy one original published materials related to tobacco use were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to Medicine and Health in Malaysia from 1996 - 2015. A total of 147 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance and implications for future research. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to epidemiology, behaviour, clinical features and management of smoking. Most studies are cross-sectional with small sample sizes. Studies on smoking initiation and prevalence showed mixed findings with many small scale studies within the sub-groups. The majority of the studies were related to factors that contribute to initiation in adolescents. Nonetheless, there are limited studies on intervention strategies to curb smoking among this group. There is a lack of clinical studies to analyse tobacco use and major health problems in Malaysia. In addition, studies on the best treatment modalities on the use of pharmacotherapy and behavioural counselling have also remained unexplored. Reasons why smokers do not seek clinic help to quit smoking need further exploration. A finding on the extent of effort carried out by healthcare providers in assisting smokers to make quit attempts is not known. Studies on economic and government initiatives on policies and tobacco use focus mainly on the effects of cigarette bans, increased cigarettes taxes and the influence of the tobacco industry. Recommendations are given for the government to increase efforts in implementing smoke-free legislation, early and tailored interventions. Clinical studies in this area are lacking, as are opportunities to research on ways to reduce smoking initiation age and the most effective quit smoking strategies.

  10. Quantification of ETS exposure in hospitality workers who have never smoked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Stefanie; Brückner, Ulrike; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2010-08-12

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) was classified as human carcinogen (K1) by the German Research Council in 1998. According to epidemiological studies, the relative risk especially for lung cancer might be twice as high in persons who have never smoked but who are in the highest exposure category, for example hospitality workers. In order to implement these results in the German regulations on occupational illnesses, a valid method is needed to retrospectively assess the cumulative ETS exposure in the hospitality environment. A literature-based review was carried out to locate a method that can be used for the German hospitality sector. Studies assessing ETS exposure using biological markers (for example urinary cotinine, DNA adducts) or questionnaires were excluded. Biological markers are not considered relevant as they assess exposure only over the last hours, weeks or months. Self-reported exposure based on questionnaires also does not seem adequate for medico-legal purposes. Therefore, retrospective exposure assessment should be based on mathematical models to approximate past exposure. For this purpose a validated model developed by Repace and Lowrey was considered appropriate. It offers the possibility of retrospectively assessing exposure with existing parameters (such as environmental dimensions, average number of smokers, ventilation characteristics and duration of exposure). The relative risk of lung cancer can then be estimated based on the individual cumulative exposure of the worker. In conclusion, having adapted it to the German hospitality sector, an existing mathematical model appears to be capable of approximating the cumulative exposure. However, the level of uncertainty of these approximations has to be taken into account, especially for diseases with a long latency period such as lung cancer.

  11. Quantification of ETS exposure in hospitality workers who have never smoked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolb Stefanie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS was classified as human carcinogen (K1 by the German Research Council in 1998. According to epidemiological studies, the relative risk especially for lung cancer might be twice as high in persons who have never smoked but who are in the highest exposure category, for example hospitality workers. In order to implement these results in the German regulations on occupational illnesses, a valid method is needed to retrospectively assess the cumulative ETS exposure in the hospitality environment. Methods A literature-based review was carried out to locate a method that can be used for the German hospitality sector. Studies assessing ETS exposure using biological markers (for example urinary cotinine, DNA adducts or questionnaires were excluded. Biological markers are not considered relevant as they assess exposure only over the last hours, weeks or months. Self-reported exposure based on questionnaires also does not seem adequate for medico-legal purposes. Therefore, retrospective exposure assessment should be based on mathematical models to approximate past exposure. Results For this purpose a validated model developed by Repace and Lowrey was considered appropriate. It offers the possibility of retrospectively assessing exposure with existing parameters (such as environmental dimensions, average number of smokers, ventilation characteristics and duration of exposure. The relative risk of lung cancer can then be estimated based on the individual cumulative exposure of the worker. Conclusion In conclusion, having adapted it to the German hospitality sector, an existing mathematical model appears to be capable of approximating the cumulative exposure. However, the level of uncertainty of these approximations has to be taken into account, especially for diseases with a long latency period such as lung cancer.

  12. Epidemiologic studies of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease and ETS exposure from spousal smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Thun, M; Henley, J; Apicella, L

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the epidemiologic studies of the association of ischemic heart disease risk and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure from a spouse who smokes. Seventeen studies (nine cohort, eight case-control) comprising more than 485,000 lifelong nonsmokers and 7,345 coronary heart disease (CHD) events were included in a meta-analysis. Together, these studies include 36% more CHD events and 58% more study subjects than were available for review by the U. S. Occupational Safety an...

  13. Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program: 2013 Research accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Robin J. Innes; Colin C. Hardy; Kristine M. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, focuses on fundamental and applied research in wildland fire, from fire physics and fire ecology to fuels management and smoke emissions. Located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, the scientists, engineers, technicians, and support staff in...

  14. Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program 2015 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Charles W. McHugh; Colin C. Hardy

    2016-01-01

    The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station focuses on fundamental and applied research in wildland fire, from fire physics and fire ecology to fuels management and smoke emissions. Located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, the scientists, engineers, technicians, and support...

  15. Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Program: 2014 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Robin J. Innes; Colin C. Hardy; Kristine M. Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program (FFS) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station focuses on fundamental and applied research in wildland fire, from fire physics and fire ecology to fuels management and smoke emissions. Located at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Montana, the scientists, engineers, technicians, and support staff in FFS...

  16. Bibliographical analysis of research on smoking cessation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J. R.; Liguori, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the growth of research on treatments for smoking with that for similar medical/behavioural disorders. DESIGN: We surveyed Medline for 1967-1994 for articles on smoking, alcohol, anxiety, and obesity disorders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of articles published in two-year intervals. RESULTS: The number of articles per year on smoking/nicotine in humans increased fivefold from 1967 to 1994 compared with twofold for Medline as a whole. The rate of growth of empirical...

  17. Effect of sorption on exposures to organic gases from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sorption processes on dynamic ETS organic gas concentrations and potential exposures were studied in a carpeted and furnished 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at 0.6 h{sup -1}. Ten cigarettes were machine-smoked on six of every seven days over four weeks. Concentrations of ETS-specific tracers and regulated toxic compounds were quantified during daily smoking, post-smoking and background periods. Potential exposures were calculated by period and day. Large sorption effects were observed for the widely used tracers 3-ethenylpyridine and nicotine, and for several toxic compounds including naphthalene and cresol isomers. Short-term adsorption to indoor surfaces reduced concentrations and potential exposures during smoking, while later reemission increased concentrations and exposures hours after smoking ended. Concentrations during nonsmoking periods rose from day to day over the first few weeks, presumably from increased reemission associated with increased sorbed mass concentrations. For sorbing compounds, more than half of daily potential exposures occurred during nonsmoking periods.

  18. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  19. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  20. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  1. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  2. Pathophysiology, research challenges, and clinical management of smoke inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Pruitt, Basil A; Suman, Oscar; Mlcak, Ronald; Wolf, Steven E; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Herndon, David N

    2016-10-01

    Smoke inhalation injury is a serious medical problem that increases morbidity and mortality after severe burns. However, relatively little attention has been paid to this devastating condition, and the bulk of research is limited to preclinical basic science studies. Moreover, no worldwide consensus criteria exist for its diagnosis, severity grading, and prognosis. Therapeutic approaches are highly variable depending on the country and burn centre or hospital. In this Series paper, we discuss understanding of the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, the best evidence-based treatments, and challenges and future directions in diagnostics and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  4. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  5. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Research of the air environment in cafes and restaurants, where a nargile is smoked].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, V F; Ladan, B V; Slepchenko, N I

    2016-01-01

    By means of special devices there was performed research of air in premises of 17 cafes and restaurants where nargile is smoking. In the premises during the day and more there was evaluated a concentration of the following markers of tobacco smoke: carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, tobacco smoke particles PM2,5 andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the air of the examined enterprises the concentration of the major markers of tobacco smoke was established to exceed by several times acceptable and safe levels. At that in cafes and restaurants where nargile smoking the higher concentration of CO and PAHs was on average significantly more frequently than in a cafes with a rare nargile smoking. The data obtained can be used to refute the opinion on the safety of nargile smoking and tobacco smoke from the nargiles. All modern legislative and administrative measures to restrict and ban tobacco smoking should be extend to smoking nargile.

  7. The impact of smoking on clinical features of Behçet's disease patients with glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, H T E; Günesaçar, R; Dinkçi, S; Özbalkan, Z; Yildiz, F; Erken, E

    2012-01-01

    Various cancer studies have suggested that polymorphism of GSTM1 may influence the ability to detoxify chemicals in cigarette smoke. In the present study the effect of smoking on clinical features of Behçet's disease were investigated in patients having GST-M1 and/or -T1 null polymorphisms. Ninety-seven patients meeting International Study Group Criteria for Behçet's disease (63 male, 34 female) and 172 healthy controls (94 male, 78 female) were included into the study. GST-M1 and -T1 polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Frequency of GSTM1- and/or GSTT1-null polymorphisms were comparable between the Behçet and the control groups. Smoking patients with GSTM1 null-polymorphism have decreased risk of developing papulopustuler lesions (OR=0.227 [0.063-0.818], χ2=5.463, p=0.019). Non-smoking patients with GSTM1 null-polymorphism has increased risk for having chronic arthritis (OR=5.988 [0.845-43.478]) but smoking patients with GSTM1 null-polymorphism have decreased risk (OR=0.741 [0.593-0.926]). GSTT1 null-polymorphism is associated with the presence of venous insufficiency (χ2=6.273, p=0.012, OR=2.740 [1.224-6.135]); smoking further increases the risk (χ2=7.840, OR=3.333 [1.412-7.874], p=0.005). GSTM1 null-polymorphism seemed to effect development of large vessel vasculitis (OR=1.158 [0.981-1.367], χ2=4.760, p=0.029). Male smoker Behçet patients even have more risk (OR=1.250 [0.971-1.610]). Several manifestations of Behçet's disease may be influenced by smoking, and this effect can be augmented in patients carrying GST gene polymorphism, which code enzymes crucial for the detoxification of chemicals.

  8. Original Research Article Second-Hand Smoke in a University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    a mid-western university supports these findings. This study found that regardless of gender or tobacco use, the majority of college students supported a smoking ordinance [15]. A survey conducted by Glantz & Jamieson assessed the impact of attitudes toward second-hand smoke among young people and concluded that.

  9. Smoking cessation research via the internet: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jacqueline; Delucchi, Kevin; Muñoz, Ricardo; Collins, Noah; Stable, Eliseo Pérez; Augustson, Erik; Lenert, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    To reverse the present stagnation in progress toward reduced smoking rates, new widely accessible treatment methods for smoking cessation must be developed and evaluated with large groups of smokers. We tested the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study over the Internet using a brief, self-help educational intervention. Through a direct e-mail sent from a large health information web site (WebMD), and with our presence on the Internet, we recruited 538 adult smokers to the study. Most participants (90.5%) completed all baseline questionnaires. Questionnaires showed acceptable to good reliability and were comparable with studies using paper-and-pencil methods. Participants appeared to be highly dependent on nicotine. Forty-two percent indicated being ready to quit smoking at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, 42.8% of baseline participants returned a complete follow-up questionnaire, 40% of whom indicated having made a serious quit attempt, and 8.3% of whom indicated 7-day abstinence. Most follow-up participants rated the site as at least somewhat helpful to quitting (74.9%) and reported at least a slight increased intention to quit smoking over baseline (67.3%). While Internet-enabled self-help interventions for smoking cessation are able to reach large numbers of smokers interested in quitting smoking, additional procedures are needed to retain these users for treatment and follow-up assessments.

  10. Two decades of smoking cessation treatment research on smokers with depression: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M; Morlett, Alejandra; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-06-01

    Adults with depression smoke at higher rates than other adults leaving a large segment of this population, who already incur increased health-related risks, vulnerable to the enormous harmful consequences of smoking. Yet, the impact that depression has on smoking cessation is not clear due to the mixed results of past research. The primary aims of this review were to synthesize the research examining the relationship of depression to smoking cessation outcomes over a 20-year period, to examine the gender and racial composition of these studies, and to identify directions for future research. Potential articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010 were identified through a MEDLINE search of the terms "clinical trial," "depression," and "smoking cessation." 68 studies used all three terms and met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies examined either a past diagnosis of major depression or current depression symptoms. Within the few studies that examined the interaction of gender and depression on smoking cessation, depression had a greater impact on treatment outcomes for women than men. No study reported examining the interactive impact of race and depression on treatment outcomes. Although attention to the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes has increased over the past 20 years, little information exists to inform a treatment approach for smokers with Current Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, and Minor Depression and few studies report gender and racial differences in the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes, thus suggesting major areas for targeted research.

  11. Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation. Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-05-01

    Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers' needs. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, "ultra low tar" cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers' motivations.

  12. Testing familial transmission of smoking with two different research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, Jorien L; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Fedko, Iryna O; de Zeeuw, E.L.; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Classical twin studies show that smoking is heritable. To determine if shared family environment plays a role in addition to genetic factors, and if they interact (GxE), we use a children-of-twins design. In a second sample, we measure genetic influence with polygenic risk scores (PRS)

  13. Nursing research in community-based approaches to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Ashford, Kristin B; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Ridner, S Lee; York, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States and a major source of indoor air pollution, accounting for an estimated 53,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke exposure varies by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The most effective public health intervention to reduce SHS exposure is to implement and enforce smoke-free workplace policies that protect entire populations including all workers regardless of occupation, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. This chapter summarizes community and population-based nursing research to reduce SHS exposure. Most of the nursing research in this area has been policy outcome studies, documenting improvement in indoor air quality, worker's health, public opinion, and reduction in Emergency Department visits for asthma, acute myocardial infarction among women, and adult smoking prevalence. These findings suggest a differential health effect by strength of law. Further, smoke-free laws do not harm business or employee turnover, nor are revenues from charitable gaming affected. Additionally, smoke-free laws may eventually have a positive effect on cessation among adults. There is emerging nursing science exploring the link between SHS exposure to nicotine and tobacco dependence, suggesting one reason that SHS reduction is a quit smoking strategy. Other nursing research studies address community readiness for smoke-free policy, and examine factors that build capacity for smoke-free policy. Emerging trends in the field include tobacco free health care and college campuses. A growing body of nursing research provides an excellent opportunity to conduct and participate in community and population-based research to reduce SHS exposure for both vulnerable populations and society at large.

  14. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  15. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2013-06-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

  16. A multi-city community based smoking research intervention project in the African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darity, William A; Chen, Ted T L; Tuthill, Robert W; Buchanan, David R; Winder, Alvin E; Stanek, Edward; Cernada, George P; Pastides, Harris

    To carry out a community-based research approach to determine the most effective educational interventions to reduce smoking among African-American smokers. The intervention included preparation of the community, planning and developing a model of change, and developing a community-based intervention. The study population consisted of 2,544 randomly selected adult African-American smokers residing in four sites in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the United States. The research design provided a comparison of active intervention sites with passive control sites as well as low income and moderate income areas. Point prevalence of non-smoking at the time of interview; Period prevalence of non-smoking at the time of interview; Period prevalence of quit attempts in the prior six months; Number of smoke-free days in the prior six months; Number of cigarettes smoked daily at the time of interview. Based upon a survey eighteen months after baseline data was collected, all four measures of cigarette smoking behavior showed a strong statistically significant reduction of personal smoking behavior among those receiving active interventions versus the passive group. On the basis of process variable analysis, direct contact with the project staff in the prior six months was significantly higher in the active intervention areas. There was only a small non-significant increase in personal smoking behavior in moderate income groups as opposed to low income groups. An analysis of process variables strongly suggests that, within this African-American Community, "hands on" or "face to face" approaches along with mass media, mailings, and other less personal approaches were more effective in reducing personal smoking behavior than media, mailings, and other impersonal approaches alone addressed to large audiences.

  17. Two Decades of Smoking Cessation Treatment Research on Smokers with Depression: 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adults with depression smoke at higher rates than other adults leaving a large segment of this population, who already incur increased health-related risks, vulnerable to the enormous harmful consequences of smoking. Yet, the impact that depression has on smoking cessation is not clear due to the mixed results of past research. The primary aims of this review were to synthesize the research examining the relationship of depression to smoking cessation outcomes over a 20-year period, to examine the gender and racial composition of these studies, and to identify directions for future research. Methods: Potential articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2010 were identified through a MEDLINE search of the terms “clinical trial,” “depression,” and “smoking cessation.” 68 studies used all three terms and met the inclusion criteria. Results: The majority of studies examined either a past diagnosis of major depression or current depression symptoms. Within the few studies that examined the interaction of gender and depression on smoking cessation, depression had a greater impact on treatment outcomes for women than men. No study reported examining the interactive impact of race and depression on treatment outcomes. Conclusions: Although attention to the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes has increased over the past 20 years, little information exists to inform a treatment approach for smokers with Current Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, and Minor Depression and few studies report gender and racial differences in the relationship of depression and smoking cessation outcomes, thus suggesting major areas for targeted research. PMID:23100459

  18. Research Article Smoking modifies the effect of two independent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sky123.Org

    Center for Genetic Epidemiology and Genomics, School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, P. R. China. 4. Changshu ... overweight men and women will exceed the established market economies by 2030(Kelly et al. 2008). It is known that the higher the body mass index (BMI), the ...

  19. Achieving Smoke-Free Mental Health Services: Lessons from the Past Decade of Implementation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Campion

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The culture of smoking by patients and staff within mental health systems of care has a long and entrenched history. Cigarettes have been used as currency between patients and as a patient management tool by staff. These settings have traditionally been exempt from smoke-free policy because of complex held views about the capacity of people with mental disorder to tolerate such policy whilst they are acutely unwell, with stakeholders’ continuing fierce debate about rights, choice and duty of care. This culture has played a significant role in perpetuating physical, social and economic smoking associated impacts experienced by people with mental disorder who receive care within mental health care settings. The past decade has seen a clear policy shift towards smoke-free mental health settings in several countries. While many services have been successful in implementing this change, many issues remain to be resolved for genuine smoke-free policy in mental health settings to be realized. This literature review draws on evidence from the international published research, including national audits of smoke-free policy implementation in mental health units in Australia and England, in order to synthesise what we know works, why it works, and the remaining barriers to smoke-free policy and how appropriate interventions are provided to people with mental disorder.

  20. Characteristics of women exposed and unexposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a general population sample of North Italy (Po River Delta epidemiological study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, M; Carrozzi, L; Baldacci, S; Pedreschi, M; Di Pede, F; Angino, A; Pistelli, F; Viegi, G

    2001-01-01

    To define qualitative and quantitative categories of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and to assess possible differences for life-style factors between exposed and unexposed women, we studied 867 nonsmoking women (8-73 aged), selected from a general population sample living in the Po Delta area (near Venice, North Italy). Information was collected by a standardized questionnaire. ETS exposure at home, at work or elsewhere was considered. There was a prevalence of ETS exposure of 46% in the whole sample; the rate had a negative association with age. Exposure to ETS occurred more frequently at home, either singly (56%) or in combination with school/work and other places (75%). Exposed women were significantly younger, taller and lighter than those unexposed. Logistic regression on 20+ aged women showed that single-separated-widowed, workers, women living in a rental house, and women with a central forced air heating were significantly more exposed to ETS. Crowding index (n inhabitants/n rooms of the house) was significantly higher in those exposed. These results indicate that ETS exposure is quite frequent in Italian women and that some life-style factors (e.g. marital status or occupational status or some home characteristics), should be considered in the study of relationship between passive smoking and respiratory health.

  1. Le CRDI et Cancer Research UK lancent une nouvelle initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 oct. 2017 ... Politiques de lutte contre l'usage nocif de l'alcool et de réduction de ses méfaits au Liban. L'alcool est le troisième plus important facteur de risque de maladies et d'invalidité dans le monde; il est un facteur de premier plan dans plus d'une soixantaine de maladies. Voir davantagePolitiques de lutte contre ...

  2. An overview of current research on EU ETS: Evidence from its operating mechanism and economic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is supposed to be an important mechanism for addressing climate change. Up to now, the theoretical foundation of EU ETS has been widely acknowledged, but empirical research on its current situation has only been published recently or is forthcoming. Therefore, this paper is aimed to summarize the main arguments of empirical studies on the EU ETS, in terms of two aspects, i.e., the operating mechanism and economic effect of the EU ETS, which are two crucial topics and have been attached much attention. Based on the shortcomings of current research and future requirements of the EU ETS evolution, finally, we also present some further directions of the EU ETS research. Overall, the research overview here may be helpful to recognize the features of the EU ETS and its effect on others. (author)

  3. ETS Research on Cognitive, Personality, and Social Psychology: I. Research Report. ETS RR-13-01. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of a portion of the research on cognitive, personality, and social psychology at ETS since the organization's inception. The topics in cognitive psychology are the structure of abilities; in personality psychology, response styles and social and emotional intelligence; and in social psychology, prosocial behavior and stereotype…

  4. Changing relationships between smoking and psychiatric disorders across twentieth century birth cohorts: clinical and research implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, A; Keyes, K M; Hasin, D S

    2016-04-01

    As the risks of tobacco use become recognized and smoking becomes stigmatized, new smokers may be increasingly driven to smoke by biological or genetic vulnerabilities rather than social desirability. Given that genetic risk for deviant proneness is shared across other psychiatric and addictive disorders, we predicted that as rates of smoking decreased through the latter half of the twentieth century, associations between smoking and psychopathology would increase. Participants (N=25 412) from a large US study-the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC-were interviewed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) and classified into one of five birth cohort decades (1940s to 1980s) and three smoking history (nonsmokers, never-dependent smokers and ever-dependent smokers) groups. We found that the prevalence of smoking decreased across the five birth cohorts, but associations of smoking with drug and AUDs, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder, each increased monotonically in more recently born cohorts, even after adjusting for concurrent demographic and socioeconomic changes. For drug and AUDs, increases were observed among smokers both with and without a history of nicotine dependence; for other outcomes, increases were entirely driven by nicotine-dependent smokers. Findings suggest that smokers in more recent cohorts have disproportionately high psychiatric vulnerability, and may benefit from greater mental health screenings. Differentiating between casual and dependent smokers may further help prioritize those at greatest risk. Researchers should also be aware of potential variation in psychiatric comorbidity based on cohort of birth when defining groups of smokers, to minimize confounding.

  5. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  6. Comments on the research article by Gross et al. (2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guntur, Srinivas; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Letter to the Editor is to present a discussion on the physics of rotational augmentation based on existing work. One of the latest works by Gross et al. (2012) is highlighted here, and its conclusions are discussed. Based on the existing understanding of rotational augmentati...

  7. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  8. The effects of MEK1/2 inhibition on cigarette smoke exposure-induced ET receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Yong-Xiao; Li, Wei; Cai, Yan; Warfvinge, Karin; Edvinsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a major stroke risk factor, upregulates endothelin receptors in cerebral arteries. The present study examined the effects of MEK1/2 pathway inhibition on cigarette smoke exposure-induced ET receptor upregulation. Rats were exposed to the secondhand smoke (SHS) for 8 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 for another 4 weeks. The urine cotinine levels were assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography. Contractile responses of isolated cerebral arteries were recorded by a sensitive wire myograph. The mRNA and protein expression levels of receptor and MEK/ERK1/2 pathway molecules were examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cerebral artery receptor localization was determined with immunohistochemistry. The results showed the urine cotinine levels from SHS exposure group were significantly higher than those from the fresh group. In addition, the MEK1/2 inhibitor, U0126 significantly reduced SHS exposure-increased ET A receptor mRNA and protein levels as well as contractile responses mediated by ET A receptors. The immunoreactivity of increased ET A receptor expression was primarily cytoplasmic in smooth muscle cells. In contrast, ET B receptor was noted in endothelial cells. However, the SHS-induced decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxation was unchanged after U0126 treatment. Furthermore, SHS increased the phosphorylation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 protein in cerebral arteries. By using U0126 could inhibit the phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein but not MEK1/2. Taken together, our data show that treatment with MEK1/2 pathway inhibitor offsets SHS exposure-induced ET A receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure induces ET A receptor upregulation in rat cerebral arteries. • U0126 can alleviate the receptor upregulation. • The mechanism relies on MEK/ERK1/2 pathway activation. • We may provide a new target for the treatment of SHS

  9. Composition and emissions of VOCs in main- and side-stream smoke of research cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Simone M.; Batterman, S. A.; Jia, Chunrong

    It is well known that mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke contains a vast number of chemical substances. Previous studies have emphasized SS smoke rather than MS smoke to which smokers are exposed, and most have used chamber tests that have several disadvantages such as wall losses. Emissions from standard research cigarettes have been measured, but relatively few constituents have been reported, and only the 1R4F (low nicotine) cigarette type has been tested. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of total, MS and SS smoke emissions for the 1R5F (ultra low nicotine), 2R4F (low nicotine), and 1R3F (standard nicotine) research cigarettes research cigarettes, including emission factors for a number of toxic compounds (e.g., benzene) and tobacco smoke tracers (e.g., 2,5-dimethyl furan). Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) are quantified using a dynamic dilution emission measurement system that is shown to produce accurate, rapid and reproducible results for over 30 VOCs and PM. SS and MS emissions were accurately apportioned based on a mass balance of total emissions. As expected, SS emissions greatly exceeded MS emissions. The ultra low nicotine cigarette had lower emissions of most VOCs compared to low and standard nicotine cigarettes, which had similar emissions. Across the three types of cigarettes, emissions of benzene (296-535 μg cig -1), toluene (541-1003 μg cig -1), styrene (90-162 μg cig -1), 2-dimethyl furan (71-244 μg cig -1), naphthalene (15-18 μg cig -1) and other VOCs were generally comparable to or somewhat higher than literature estimates using chamber tests.

  10. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  11. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the...

  12. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactan...

  13. Radiation, smoke and clouds observed in the southeastern Atlantic with the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, K.; Cairns, B.; Stamnes, S.; Chowdhary, J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    The ObseRvations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions (ORACLES) project is making a series of field deployments to the southeastern Atlantic with NASA ER-2 and P3 aircraft to acquire both detailed remote sensing observations and in situ measurements of the aerosols and clouds in that region. This area is home to one of the largest low-level cloud decks on Earth that is seasonally affected by vast plumes of smoke from biomass burning, which in effect provides a natural experiment testing the radiative and microphysical interactions between the smoke and the clouds. The downward solar radiation at the surface, or cloud top, is always reduced by the presence of smoke. However, whether the amount of sunlight reflected back out to space is increased, or decreased by the presence of smoke is sensitively dependent on the brightness of the clouds and the fraction of light that the smoke absorbs each time light hits a smoke particle. In this study we use data from the Research Scanning Polarimeter, an along track scanning instrument, that provides measurements of the Stokes parameters I, Q and U at 410, 470, 555, 670, 865, 960, 1590, 1880 and 2260 nm at 150 viewing angles over a range of ±60° from nadir for each contiguous sub-aircraft pixel ( 300 m in size). A retrieval algorithm is applied to the data acquired with a table look up technique, similar to that of the operational POLDER algorithm, to provide a first guess of the complex refractive index, optical depth and size distribution of the smoke particles together with cloud droplet size and optical depth. A subsequent iterative fitting procedure, where the fact that the doubling/adding method allows the construction of the Green's function for the radiative transfer equation, is used to obtain an efficient and statistically optimal estimate of the aerosol and cloud retrieval parameters. These retrieval parameters are evaluated against in situ observations, when available, and the optical depth and

  14. Challenges in Research on the Pathophysiology of Smoke Inhalation Injury and Its Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Pruitt, Basil A.; Suman, Oscar; Mlcak, Ronald; Wolf, Steven E.; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Herndon, David N.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Smoke inhalation injury is a serious medical problem that increases morbidity and mortality after severe burns. The National Repository of the American Burn Association houses data from 203,422 patients treated at 99 U.S. burn hospitals and centers between 2005 and 2014. These data show that the presence of smoke inhalation injury increases mortality (by nearly 24-fold) in burn patients under 60 years and in those with a total burned surface area between 0.1 and 19.9%.1 The incidence of smoke inhalation injury may increase exponentially in mass casualty, large-scale fires;2,3 14 (78%) of the 18 patients severely burned in the World Trade Center attack who were admitted to one burn center had inhalation injury.4 However, relatively little attention has been paid to this devastating condition, and the bulk of research is limited to preclinical basic science studies. This review discusses our current understanding of the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, the best evidence-based treatments, and challenges and future directions in diagnostics and management. PMID:27707500

  15. Global Research on Smoking and Pregnancy—A Scientometric and Gender Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Mund

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is considered to be amongst the most harmful avoidable risk factors. In this scientometric and gender study scientific data on smoking and pregnancy was analyzed using a variety of objective scientometric methods like the number of scientific contributions, the number of citations and the modified h-index in combination with gender-specific investigations. Covering a time period from 1900 to 2012, publishing activities of 27,955 authors, institutions and countries, reception within the international scientific community and its reactions were analyzed and interpreted. Out of 10,043 publications the highest number of scientific works were published in the USA (35.5%, followed by the UK (9.9% and Canada (5.3%. These nations also achieve the highest modified h-indices of 128, 79 and 62 and the highest citation rates of 41.4%, 8.6% and 5.3%, respectively. Out of 12,596 scientists 6,935 are female (55.1%, however they account for no more than 49.7% of publications (12,470 and 42.8% of citations (172,733. The highest percentage of female experts about smoking and pregnancy is found in Australasia (60.7%, while the lowest is found in Asia (41.9%. The findings of the study indicate an increase in gender equality as well as in quantity and quality of international scientific research about smoking and pregnancy in the future.

  16. Global Research on Smoking and Pregnancy—A Scientometric and Gender Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Mathias; Kloft, Beatrix; Bundschuh, Matthias; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A.; Gerber, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy is considered to be amongst the most harmful avoidable risk factors. In this scientometric and gender study scientific data on smoking and pregnancy was analyzed using a variety of objective scientometric methods like the number of scientific contributions, the number of citations and the modified h-index in combination with gender-specific investigations. Covering a time period from 1900 to 2012, publishing activities of 27,955 authors, institutions and countries, reception within the international scientific community and its reactions were analyzed and interpreted. Out of 10,043 publications the highest number of scientific works were published in the USA (35.5%), followed by the UK (9.9%) and Canada (5.3%). These nations also achieve the highest modified h-indices of 128, 79 and 62 and the highest citation rates of 41.4%, 8.6% and 5.3%, respectively. Out of 12,596 scientists 6,935 are female (55.1%), however they account for no more than 49.7% of publications (12,470) and 42.8% of citations (172,733). The highest percentage of female experts about smoking and pregnancy is found in Australasia (60.7%), while the lowest is found in Asia (41.9%). The findings of the study indicate an increase in gender equality as well as in quantity and quality of international scientific research about smoking and pregnancy in the future. PMID:24879489

  17. Biofuels: stakes, perspectives and researches; Biocarburants: enjeux, perspectives et recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Ballerin, D.; Montagne, X.

    2004-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) is a major intervener of the biofuels sector, from the production to the end-use in engines. In this press conference, the IFP takes stock of the technological, environmental and economical stakes of today and future biofuel production processes and of their impact on transports. This document gathers 2 presentations dealing with: IFP's research strategy on biofuels (transparencies: context; today's processes: ethanol, ETBE, bio-diesel; tomorrows processes: biomass to liquid; perspectives), bio-diesel fuel: the Axens process selected by Diester Industrie company for its Sete site project of bio-diesel production unit. The researches carried out at the IFP on biofuels and biomass are summarized in an appendix: advantage and drawbacks of biofuels, the ethanol fuel industry, the bio-diesel industry, biomass to liquid fuels, French coordinated research program, statistical data of biofuel consumption in France, Spain and Germany. (J.S.)

  18. Comparison of internet and mailing methods to recruit couples into research on unaided smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Jaye L; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K; Hanny, Courtney; Britton, Maggie; Haddad, Sana

    2017-12-01

    In smoking cessation studies with restrictive criteria (e.g., single-smoker couples), thousands of potential participants might need to be screened to obtain a reasonable sample size. Consideration of recruitment methodology is critical because recruitment methods influence both the success and cost effectiveness of recruitment. Although traditional recruitment methods are often used to recruit participants into smoking cessation research, newer technologies, such as paid Facebook advertising, might offer more cost-effective alternatives for recruitment. The current analysis compares two versions of paid Facebook advertising and a specialized mass mailing method used to recruit single-smoker couples into an intensive three-week study of unaided smoking cessation. The three methods are compared in terms of demographic characteristics, eligibility, and cost-effectiveness. Although Facebook's "Promote Your Page" mechanism achieved the fastest recruitment rate (2.75 couples per month; 498 USD per couple), Facebook's "Send People to Your Website" mechanism was the least expensive and provided the most demographically diverse sample (1.64 couples per month; 181 USD per couple). The specialized mailing method was not productive or cost-effective (0.80 couples per month; 454 USD per couple). Paid Facebook advertising fared better as a recruitment method than a specialized mailing method often used in survey research. Studies that have less restrictive eligibility criteria, that draw from a larger local population, or that recruit for a less intense study might find paid Facebook advertising to be quite feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. FULL LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE Iortsuun et al. (2008) SWJ:25 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr AB Ahmed

    INTRODUCTION. Seed mass plays a vital role in reproductive biology (Cordazzo 2002). Research has revealed that there is great variation of seed mass both within and between species and even in an individual plant (Leishman. & Westby 1994). Bonfil (1998) reported that seedling survival was greatly affected by ...

  20. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  1. Smoke-Free Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-07

    34Environmental Smoke in the Workplace," June 1991 (d) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Report, "Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking : Lung Cancer and...8217 (FTý, . kIrcferred to a, secondhand or passive smoke . Exhaled and/or sidestream smoke emitted from smokers and the burning of cigarettes, cigars, and...this - Urutti~. -- 2 / Each DoD Component thall:- 1. Control worker exposure to ETS by eliminatina smoking in the workplace. 2. Provide effective

  2. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  3. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  4. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  5. A review of epidemiologic research on smoking behavior among persons with alcohol and illicit substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Funk, Allison P.; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2016-01-01

    Persons with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) appear to be heavily affected by cigarette smoking. In order to address the consequences of smoking in this population, an understanding of the current state of knowledge is needed. Epidemiologic research provides the opportunity to obtain detailed information on smoking behaviors in large community samples. The aim of this paper was to synthesize the epidemiologic evidence on smoking among persons with AUDs/SUDs and suggest directions for future research. Literature searches of Medline and PubMed were used to identify articles and additional articles were elicited from publication reference lists. To be included in the review, papers had to be published in English, analyze epidemiologic data, and examine an aspect of smoking behavior in persons with AUDs/SUDs. Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. In summary, epidemiologic evidence to date suggests greater lifetime and current smoking, nicotine dependence, and non-cigarette tobacco use; lower quitting; and differences in quit attempts and withdrawal symptoms for persons with AUDs/SUDs compared to other people. Most studies examined nationally representative data and were conducted on persons in the United States and Australia. Few publications examined outcomes by demographics (e.g., gender, age) but these studies suggested that specific patterns differ by demographic subgroups. More research is needed on persons with AUDs/SUDs in order to develop the most effective public health and clinical interventions to reduce smoking behaviors, improve cessation outcomes, and reduce the harmful consequences of smoking for those with AUDs/SUDs. PMID:27196143

  6. Disadvantaged youth and smoking in mature tobacco control contexts: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefler, Marita; Chapman, Simon

    2015-09-01

    To review qualitative research and synthesise findings about socioeconomically disadvantaged and socially marginalised adolescents and young adults in mature tobacco control contexts. Searches of PubMed and MEDLINE, additional purposive searches in Google Scholar, PsycINFO, grey literature, specialist journals and reference lists for English language articles published after 2000. Search terms were qualitative, youth or adolescent or young adult, smoking/tobacco and vulnerable populations or disadvantage or socioeconomic inequality. The most recent update of the search was undertaken in January 2014. Twenty articles, reporting on 17 studies, from 902 initial records were included. Inclusion criteria were: qualitative study undertaken in a country in the final stage of the tobacco epidemic and with comprehensive tobacco control measures in place, participants were youth who were socioeconomically disadvantaged or members of an identified subgroup with higher smoking prevalence and/or resided in a geographical area of low socioeconomic status. The target age range was 10-24. Data were independently extracted by one author, summarised and reviewed, compared and re-reviewed at multiple time points. The majority of studies were from the UK, with the remainder from the USA, Australia and New Zealand. The review used a thematic analysis approach, and started with an open question: 'what does qualitative research tell us about disadvantaged young people and smoking?' The synthesis provides insights into the social context of smoking for marginalised and disadvantaged young people, group affiliation and identity, the role of smoking in social capital and sources of cigarettes. Surprisingly few qualitative studies focused exclusively on smoking and disadvantaged young people were found. Future qualitative studies on the intersection between specific psychosocial characteristics associated with disadvantage and increased smoking risk would be of use to inform approaches to

  7. Theory driven research designs for explaining behavioural health risk transitions: the case of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    Recent social network analyses have suggested that common chronic disease risk factors are more mutable than expected; raising practical considerations for public health interventions. Within this context, it is timely to assess the alternative social science reasoning being offered to explain behavioural health risk transitions. This paper takes up this challenge by critically reviewing the major theories applied to the temporal trends and sub-population variations in affluent country smoking behaviour. Three explanations dominate: a materialist approach; Bourdieu's distinctive class-based cultures; and, the spread of norms and emotions within social networks. We note conceptual tension when integrated theories are adopted. We also report on the relative absence of theoretical interrogation for the persistent adoption of smoking behaviours among present and successive lower socio-economic status (SES) cohorts. While unequal rates of persistence within cohorts has received some attention, the ongoing adoption of a non-innovative and health damaging behaviour is not well understood. To this end, we suggest the incorporation of several underused concepts: namely Bourdieu's 'rules of the game' and 'symbolic violence' and 'mimesis', an aspect of social contagion. We conclude by describing the implications for social action of the alternative theories, and argue that theory driven research designs could deliver more efficacious evidence for interventions than the post hoc application of theories to existing data sets.

  8. Talking About The Smokes: a large-scale, community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzos, Sophia; Nicholson, Anna K; Hunt, Jennifer M; Davey, Maureen E; May, Josephine K; Bennet, Pele T; Westphal, Darren W; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project according to the World Health Organization guiding principles for conducting community-based participatory research (PR) involving indigenous peoples, to assist others planning large-scale PR projects. The TATS project was initiated in Australia in 2010 as part of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, and surveyed a representative sample of 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults to assess the impact of tobacco control policies. The PR process of the TATS project, which aimed to build partnerships to create equitable conditions for knowledge production, was mapped and summarised onto a framework adapted from the WHO principles. Processes describing consultation and approval, partnerships and research agreements, communication, funding, ethics and consent, data and benefits of the research. The TATS project involved baseline and follow-up surveys conducted in 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one Torres Strait community. Consistent with the WHO PR principles, the TATS project built on community priorities and strengths through strategic partnerships from project inception, and demonstrated the value of research agreements and trusting relationships to foster shared decision making, capacity building and a commitment to Indigenous data ownership. Community-based PR methodology, by definition, needs adaptation to local settings and priorities. The TATS project demonstrates that large-scale research can be participatory, with strong Indigenous community engagement and benefits.

  9. 77 FR 16280 - Capital Research and Management Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... investment companies relying on rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments... provided pursuant to the advisory agreement of any investment company in which the Fund of Funds may invest... COMMISSION Capital Research and Management Company, et al.; Notice of Application March 14, 2012. AGENCY...

  10. Building the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) Smoke Emissions Inventory Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) group's new coefficient of emission global gridded product at 1x1 resolution that directly relates fire readiative energy (FRE) to smoke aerosol release, FEERv1.0 Ce, made its public debut in August 2013. Since then, steps have been taken to generate corresponding maps and totals of total particulate matter (PM) emissions using different sources of FRE, and subsequently to simulate the resulting PM(sub 2.5) in the WRF-Chem 3.5 model using emission rates from FEERv1.0 as well as other standard biomass burning emission inventories. An flowchart of the FEER algorithm to calculate Ce is outlined here along with a display of the resulting emissions of total PM globally and also regionally. The modeling results from the WRF-Chem3.5 simulations are also shown.

  11. Use & Misuse of Water-filtered Tobacco Smoking Pipes in the World. Consequences for Public Health, Research & Research Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of an "epidemic" has been revisited by antismoking researchers. After 400 years, Doctors would have realized that one aspect of an ancient cultural daily practice of Asian and African societies was in fact a "global "epidemic". This needed further investigation particularly if one keeps in his mind the health aspects surrounding barbecues. Here, up-to-date biomedical results are dialectically confronted with anthropological findings, hence in real life, in order to highlight the extent of the global confusion: from the new definition of an "epidemic" and "prevalence" to the myth of "nicotine "addiction" and other themes in relation to water filtered tobacco smoking pipes (WFTSPs). We found that over the last decade, many publications, -particularly reviews, "meta-analyses" and "systematic reviews"- on (WFTSPs), have actually contributed to fuelling the greatest mix-up ever witnessed in biomedical research. One main reason for such a situation has been the absolute lack of critical analysis of the available literature and the uncritical use of citations (one seriously flawed review has been cited up to 200 times). Another main reason has been to take as granted a biased smoking robot designed at the US American of Beirut whose measured yields of toxic chemicals may differ dozens of times from others' based on the same "protocol". We also found that, for more than one decade, two other main methodological problems are: 1) the long-lived unwillingness to distinguish between use and misuse; 2) the consistent unethical rejection of biomedical negative results which, interestingly, are quantitatively and qualitatively much more instructive than the positive ones. the great majority of WFTSP toxicity studies have actually measured, voluntarily or not, their misuse aspects, not the use in itself. This is in contradiction with both the harm reduction and public health doctrines. The publication of negative results should be encouraged instead of

  12. Improving Participants’ Retention in a Smoking Cessation Intervention Using a Community-based Participatory Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Estreet, Anthony; Apata, Jummai; Kamangar, Farin; Schutzman, Christine; Buccheri, Jane; O’Keefe, Anne-Marie; Wagner, Fernando; Sheikhattari, Payam

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study compares participant’ sretention in three phases of smoking cessation interventions, one provided in a health clinic and the subsequent two in community-based settings. Methods: Smoking cessation interventions were conducted in three phases from 2008 to 2015 in two underserved urban communities with low socioeconomic profiles and high rates of smoking (n = 951). Phase I was conducted in a clinic; Phases II and III were conducted in community venues. In Phases II and III...

  13. Improving participants' retention in a smoking cessation intervention using a community-based participatory research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Estreet; Jummai Apata; Farin Kamangar; Christine Schutzman; Jane Buccheri; Anne-Marie O'Keefe; Fernando Wagner; Payam Sheikhattari

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study compares participants' retention in three phases of smoking cessation interventions, one provided in a health clinic and the subsequent two in community-based settings. Methods: Smoking cessation interventions were conducted in three phases from 2008 to 2015 in two underserved urban communities with low socioeconomic profiles and high rates of smoking (n = 951). Phase I was conducted in a clinic; Phases II and III were conducted in community venues. In Phases II and III...

  14. Cannabis and smoking research: interviewing young people in self-selected friendship pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, G

    2003-02-01

    This paper will discuss the use of paired interviewing as the main method of generating data in a study exploring the social context of young people's smoking and cannabis use. The research, conducted as part of an on-going PhD, involved 59 participants of both genders, aged 13-15 from different socioeconomic backgrounds, and with a wide range of cigarette and cannabis use experience. Participants were offered the choice of an individual interview or a paired interview with a friend of their choice, most opting for the paired format. The paper will discuss many of the methodological and ethical features of this method. In particular, it will discuss the potential for paired interviewing to access accounts generated within close friendship bonds, making this method distinctive from larger focus groups. It will also explore how paired interviewing facilitates access to interactions between participants, shedding light on many aspects of young people's social relationships and allowing occasional glimpses into more private territory. It will argue that the paired interview method can make a novel and distinctive contribution to health education/promotion research, policy and practice, and to any research that aims more fully to understand aspects of young people's social worlds.

  15. Research2015. A basis for prioritizing strategic research; FORSK2015. Et prioriteringsgrundlag for strategisk forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-05-15

    This catalogue is based on a comprehensive mapping of the strategic research needs created by societal and business development. The mapping resulted in more than 300 contributions to strategic research themes from citizens, organizations, universities, businesses and scientists. The contributions have formed the basis for an extensive analysis and dialogue process, which has resulted in 21 proposals for strategic research themes divided among 6 general areas. Each theme consists of: 1) a significant challenge for society, 2) a research need created by the challenge, 3) Danish prerequisites for addressing the research need, and 4) long term perspectives for a potential strategic research effort in the area. (BA)

  16. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  17. I am your smartphone, and I know you are about to smoke: the application of mobile sensing and computing approaches to smoking research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, F Joseph; Roy Choudhury, Romit

    2013-10-01

    Much is known about the immediate and predictive antecedents of smoking lapse, which include situations (e.g., presence of other smokers), activities (e.g., alcohol consumption), and contexts (e.g., outside). This commentary suggests smartphone-based systems could be used to infer these predictive antecedents in real time and provide the smoker with just-in-time intervention. The smartphone of today is equipped with an array of sensors, including GPS, cameras, light sensors, barometers, accelerometers, and so forth, that provide information regarding physical location, human movement, ambient sounds, and visual imagery. We propose that libraries of algorithms to infer these antecedents can be developed and then incorporated into diverse mobile research and personalized treatment applications. While a number of challenges to the development and implementation of such applications are recognized, our field benefits from a database of known antecedents to a problem behavior, and further research and development in this exciting area are warranted.

  18. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  19. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  20. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Ryan J; Naicker, Sundresan; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Clare, Philip; Martire, Kristy A; Mattick, Richard P

    2015-06-08

    Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES) and disadvantaged population groups. A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000-2004 (TP1) and 2008-2012 (TP2). Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research)); and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types) had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ²=73.13, p<0.001), however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1=23% vs. TP2=33%) or intervention (TP1=77% vs. TP2=67%). The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1=12% vs. TP2=36%). The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  1. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Courtney

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1 and 2008–2012 (TP2. Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research; and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001, however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33% or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%. The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%. Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy.

  2. Smoking Cessation among Low-Socioeconomic Status and Disadvantaged Population Groups: A Systematic Review of Research Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Ryan J.; Naicker, Sundresan; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Clare, Philip; Martire, Kristy A.; Mattick, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation research output should move beyond descriptive research of the health problem to testing interventions that can provide causal data and effective evidence-based solutions. This review examined the number and type of published smoking cessation studies conducted in low-socioeconomic status (low-SES) and disadvantaged population groups. Methods: A systematic database search was conducted for two time periods: 2000–2004 (TP1) and 2008–2012 (TP2). Publications that examined smoking cessation in a low-SES or disadvantaged population were coded by: population of interest; study type (reviews, non-data based publications, data-based publications (descriptive, measurement and intervention research)); and country. Intervention studies were coded in accordance with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care data collection checklist and use of biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence was assessed. Results: 278 citations were included. Research output (i.e., all study types) had increased from TP1 27% to TP2 73% (χ² = 73.13, p < 0.001), however, the proportion of data-based research had not significantly increased from TP1 and TP2: descriptive (TP1 = 23% vs. TP2 = 33%) or intervention (TP1 = 77% vs. TP2 = 67%). The proportion of intervention studies adopting biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence had significantly decreased from TP1 to TP2 with an increased reliance on self-reported abstinence (TP1 = 12% vs. TP2 = 36%). Conclusions: The current research output is not ideal or optimal to decrease smoking rates. Research institutions, scholars and funding organisations should take heed to review findings when developing future research and policy. PMID:26062037

  3. Research and Development of Fully Automatic Alien Smoke Stack and Packaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xudong; Ge, Qingkuan; Peng, Tao; Zuo, Ping; Dong, Weifu

    2017-12-01

    The problem of low efficiency of manual sorting packaging for the current tobacco distribution center, which developed a set of safe efficient and automatic type of alien smoke stack and packaging system. The functions of fully automatic alien smoke stack and packaging system adopt PLC control technology, servo control technology, robot technology, image recognition technology and human-computer interaction technology. The characteristics, principles, control process and key technology of the system are discussed in detail. Through the installation and commissioning fully automatic alien smoke stack and packaging system has a good performance and has completed the requirements for shaped cigarette.

  4. Maternal personality traits associated with patterns of prenatal smoking and exposure: Implications for etiologic and prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of women who smoke during pregnancy beyond demographic factors. We examined the relationship between novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and self-directedness and (a) abstinence from smoking during pregnancy and (b) average daily cigarette consumption during pregnancy. Participants were 826 birth mothers who made adoption placements in the Early Growth and Development Study and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory - Short Form, and interview-based smoking assessments 3-6 months postpartum. Never smokers (n=199), pregnancy abstainers (n=277), pregnancy light smokers (n=184), and pregnancy heavy smokers (n=166) were compared on personality dimensions and smoking-related processes. Using regression analyses we examined relationships between personality and (a) abstinence versus smoking during pregnancy; and (b) average daily cigarette consumption among lifetime smokers, controlling for nicotine dependence, birth father substance dependence, maternal antisocial behavior, and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Smokers with higher self-directedness and lower harm avoidance were more likely to abstain during pregnancy [O.R. 1.380; 95% C.I. (1.065-1.787); B(SE)=.322(.132); p=.015] and [O.R. .713; 95% C.I. (.543-.935); B(SE)=-.339(.138); p=.014], respectively. Novelty seeking differentiated never smokers from lifetime smokers (t=-3.487; p=.001), but was not significant in multivariate models. Lifetime smokers who abstained during pregnancy reported fewer depressive symptoms relative to never smokers. Personality dimensions associated with abstinence from smoking and cigarettes per day during pregnancy may be important to consider in etiologic and intervention research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of research on smoking behavior in three demographic groups of veterans: women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Esan, Hannah; Hunt, Marcia G; Hoff, Rani A

    2016-05-01

    Veterans comprise a large segment of the U.S. population and smoke at high rates. One significant way to reduce healthcare costs and improve the health of veterans is to reduce smoking-related illnesses for smokers who have high smoking rates and/or face disproportionate smoking consequences (e.g. women, racial/ethnic minorities, sexual orientation minorities). We reviewed published studies of smoking behavior in three demographic subgroups of veterans - women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minorities - to synthesize current knowledge and identify areas in need of more research. A MEDLINE search identified papers on smoking and veterans published through 31 December 2014. Twenty-five studies were identified that focused on gender (n = 17), race/ethnicity (n = 6), or sexual orientation (n = 2). Female and sexual orientation minority veterans reported higher rates of smoking than non-veteran women and sexual orientation majority veterans, respectively. Veterans appeared to be offered VA smoking cessation services equally by gender and race. Few studies examined smoking behavior by race/ethnicity or sexual orientation. Little information was identified examining the outcomes of specific smoking treatments for any group. There is a need for more research on all aspects of smoking and quit behavior for women, racial/ethnic minorities, and sexual orientation minority veterans. The high rates of smoking by these groups of veterans suggest that they may benefit from motivational interventions aimed at increasing quit attempts and longer and more intense treatments to maximize outcomes. Learning more about these veterans can help reduce costs for those who experience greater consequences of smoking.

  6. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  7. Carburants de substitution : orientations et recherches françaises Synthetic Fuels: French Orientation and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le programme d'études et de recherches entrepris en France, depuis 1981, dans le domaine des carburants de substitution, porte à la fois sur l'examen des techniques d'obtention et sur les modalités d'utilisation de ces produits. Les travaux concernent essentiellement le méthanol, le système acétono-butylique et, pour les moteurs Diesel, les dérivés d'huiles végétales. On prévoit, dans une première phase, l'incorporation de faibles proportions - moins de 10 % - de produits organiques oxygénés dans le supercarburant sans modifier les spécifications du produit ni les conditions de réglage des véhicules. D'autres études sont effectuées sur des mélanges à teneur moyenne ou élevée en méthanol (30, 50 ou 90 % afin d'examiner les meilleures voies possibles pour une substitution plus importante. The research undertaken in France since 1981 in the field of alternative fuels includes both the ways of producing and the ways of using such products. These research projects mainly concern methanol, butanol-acetone system and, for diesel engines, vegetable-oil derivatives. In the first phase, plans are being made to incorporate small proportions (less then 10% of oxygenated organic products in premium gasoline without modifying either the specifications of the product or vehicle tuning conditions. Other research is being done on mixtures with a moderate or high methanol content (30, 50 or 90% so as to examine the best possible methods for substituting larger amounts.

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and its health impacts: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS), or secondhand smoke, is the combination of side stream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and ... The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health.

  9. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JT, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 284(6): ... of the U.S. Department of Agriculture System. American Journal of Preventive Medicine ... Institute (1998). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9: Cigars: Health Effects ...

  10. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  11. Research opportunities related to establishing standards for tobacco products under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    This paper was written in response to a request from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. The goal is to discuss some research directions related to establishing tobacco product standards under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which empowers the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to regulate tobacco products. Potential research related to tobacco product ingredients, nicotine, and harmful or potentially harmful constituents of tobacco products is discussed. Ingredients, which are additives, require less attention than nicotine and harmful or potentially harmful constituents. With respect to nicotine, the threshold level in tobacco products below which dependent users will be able to freely stop using the product if they choose to do so is a very important question. Harmful and potentially harmful constituents include various toxicants and carcinogens. An updated list of 72 carcinogens in cigarette smoke is presented. A crucial question is the appropriate levels of toxicants and carcinogens in tobacco products. The use of carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers to determine these levels is discussed. The need to establish regulatory standards for added ingredients, nicotine, and other tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents leads to many interesting and potentially highly significant research questions, which urgently need to be addressed.

  12. The urge to smoke depends on the expectation of smoking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, M.; van den Hout, M.; Willems, B.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that an earlier study (M. Dols et al 2000) suggested that cue-induced urge to smoke depends on the expectation of smoking. The present study tried to replicate the findings under stringently controlled conditions. 32 Ss (mean age 22 yrs) who smoked at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 yrs

  13. Tobacco smoking and depression : time to move on to a new research paradigm in medicine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Peter; Bos, Elisabeth Henriette

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper published in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders reported on a study into whether tobacco smoking may serve as a risk factor for depression in patients with heart disease. In the current paper, we discuss several limitations of that study, of which many apply not just to the study itself but

  14. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods; Comportement des dechets et impacts environnementaux, recherches et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 49 - Angers (France); Gin, St. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  15. Cigarette smoke promotes dendritic cell accumulation in COPD; a Lung Tissue Research Consortium study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Eunhee S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal immune responses are believed to be highly relevant in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Dendritic cells provide a critical checkpoint for immunity by their capacity to both induce and suppress immunity. Although evident that cigarette smoke, the primary cause of COPD, significantly influences dendritic cell functions, little is known about the roles of dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of COPD. Methods The extent of dendritic cell infiltration in COPD tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemical localization of CD83+ cells (marker of matured myeloid dendritic cells, and CD1a+ cells (Langerhans cells. The extent of tissue infiltration with Langerhans cells was also determined by the relative expression of the CD207 gene in COPD versus control tissues. To determine mechanisms by which dendritic cells accumulate in COPD, complimentary studies were conducted using monocyte-derived human dendritic cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE, and dendritic cells extracted from mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke. Results In human COPD lung tissue, we detected a significant increase in the total number of CD83+ cells, and significantly higher amounts of CD207 mRNA when compared with control tissue. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to CSE (0.1-2% exhibited enhanced survival in vitro when compared with control dendritic cells. Murine dendritic cells extracted from mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks, also demonstrated enhanced survival compared to dendritic cells extracted from control mice. Acute exposure of human dendritic cells to CSE induced the cellular pro-survival proteins heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and B cell lymphoma leukemia-x(L (Bcl-xL, predominantly through oxidative stress. Although activated human dendritic cells conditioned with CSE expressed diminished migratory CCR7 expression, their migration towards the CCR7 ligand CCL21 was not

  16. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  17. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects

  18. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  19. Research into the usage of integrated jamming of IR weakening and smoke-screen resisting the IR imaging guided missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-tao; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Ming-shan

    2015-10-01

    With the emergence of the anti-ship missle with the capability of infrared imaging guidance, the traditional single jamming measures, because of the jamming mechanism and technical flaws or unsuitable use, greatly reduced the survival probability of the war-ship in the future naval battle. Intergrated jamming of IR weakening + smoke-screen Can not only make jamming to the search and tracking of IR imaging guidance system , but also has feasibility in conjunction, besides , which also make the best jamming effect. The research conclusion has important realistic meaning for raising the antimissile ability of surface ships. With the development of guidance technology, infrared guidance system has expanded by ir point-source homing guidance to infrared imaging guidance, Infrared imaging guidance has made breakthrough progress, Infrared imaging guidance system can use two-dimensional infrared image information of the target, achieve the precise tracking. Which has Higher guidance precision, better concealment, stronger anti-interference ability and could Target the key parts. The traditional single infrared smoke screen jamming or infrared decoy flare interference cannot be imposed effective interference. So, Research how to effectively fight against infrared imaging guided weapons threat measures and means, improving the surface ship antimissile ability is an urgent need to solve.

  20. The relationship between husbands' health belief and environment tobacco smoke exposure among their pregnant wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Zohreh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Loripoor Parizi, Marzieh

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between health belief structures of men and environment tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among pregnant women. This cross-sectional research was conducted on 120 smoking men who had pregnant wives. Data were gathered through a questionnaire that measured health belief structures related to pregnant women's exposure to cigarette's smoke including perceived susceptibility/severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy. Number of exposures to cigarette's smoke was defined by the number of smoked cigarettes in the presence of the pregnant wife. The number of smoked cigarettes in the presence of pregnant wife had a negative relation with perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits and a positive relation with perceived barriers. The number of smoked cigarettes in men had no relation with health belief constructs. Using multiple regression test showed the perceived barrier for not smoking was the strongest factor in men to anticipate the level of women's ETS exposure. Results of this study showed that the level of ETS exposure among pregnant women was dependent on men's health beliefs about the ETS exposure treats among pregnant women.

  1. Legislation on smoking in enclosed public places in Scotland: how will we evaluate the impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Sally J; Gruer, Laurence; Amos, Amanda; Currie, Candace; Fischbacher, Colin; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hastings, Gerard; Malam, Sally; Pell, Jill; Scott, Calum; Semple, Sean

    2006-03-01

    From 26 March 2006, smoking will be prohibited in wholly and substantially enclosed public places in Scotland, and it will be an offence to permit smoking or to smoke in no-smoking premises. We anticipate that implementation of the smoke-free legislation will result in significant health gains associated with reductions in exposure to both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and personal tobacco consumption as well as other social and economic impacts. Health Scotland in conjunction with the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and the Scottish Executive have developed a comprehensive evaluation strategy to assess the expected short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes. Using routine health, behavioural and economic data and commissioned research, we will assess the impact of the smoke-free legislation in eight key outcome areas--knowledge and attitudes, ETS exposure, compliance, culture, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, economic impacts on the hospitality sector and health inequalities. The findings from this evaluation will make a significant contribution to the international understanding of the health effects of exposure to ETS and the broader social, cultural and economic impacts of smoke-free legislation.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: nearly as large as smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-05-24

    Secondhand smoke increases the risk of coronary heart disease by approximately 30%. This effect is larger than one would expect on the basis of the risks associated with active smoking and the relative doses of tobacco smoke delivered to smokers and nonsmokers. We conducted a literature review of the research describing the mechanistic effects of secondhand smoke on the cardiovascular system, emphasizing research published since 1995, and compared the effects of secondhand smoke with the effects of active smoking. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the cardiovascular system--platelet and endothelial function, arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, heart rate variability, energy metabolism, and increased infarct size--is exquisitely sensitive to the toxins in secondhand smoke. The effects of even brief (minutes to hours) passive smoking are often nearly as large (averaging 80% to 90%) as chronic active smoking. The effects of secondhand smoke are substantial and rapid, explaining the relatively large risks that have been reported in epidemiological studies.

  3. A FULL LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE Udeh et al., (2008) SWJ:1-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    malabsorption, malnutrition and anaemia among Nigerians (James et al., 1988). Intestinal protozoans are frequently transmitted by unhygienic habits that include direct transfer of ova or cysts to mouth, eating with unwashed hands, eating and drinking of contaminated food and drink and poor sanitary conditions (Okpala et ...

  4. Moringa, marinade, bacteria, fungi, catfish, smoke-dried

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... the fishes were soaked in the treatments for 2 hours and later hot smoked for 12hours. After smoking, the fishes were stored in netted ... suitable for complementing high carbohydrate diets (Abdullahi et al., 2001). Fish is ... salting, canning, drying and smoking (Kumolu et al., 2010). However, smoking is the ...

  5. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  7. Public Health Impact of Wildfire Emissions: Up-date on the Wildfire Smoke Guide, Public Health Information and Communications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Tools and Resources Webinar: Public Health Impact of Wildfire Smoke Emissions Specific strategies to reduce smoke exposure and the Smoke Sense App As the start of the summer wildfire season approaches, public officials, communities and individuals need up-to-date wildfire smo...

  8. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  9. Research priorities and infrastructure needs of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act: science to inform FDA policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch; Backinger, Cathy L

    2012-01-01

    A new law in the United States gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) wide latitude to regulate tobacco products for the first time. Given the need for science to serve as a foundation for FDA actions, it is critical that a scientific review of the literature relevant to the proposed legislation be undertaken by experts in the field of nicotine and tobacco research in order to develop research priorities. This paper describes an initiative that was implemented to identify research opportunities under "The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act" and summarizes the conclusions and future directions derived from that initiative. Multiple research and surveillance needs were identified, such as characterization of biomarkers and increased analysis of risk perception. It was also recognized that science will play a critical role in policy determinations such as what constitutes "substantial equivalence" and that there will be considerable infrastructure needs (e.g., laboratories for product testing). Science must drive FDA's decision making regarding tobacco regulation. This article provides a summary of research opportunities identified through literature reviews related to various provisions of the new law. However, the science required by the law requires a transdisciplinary approach because of its complexity, so one of the challenges facing the FDA will be to connect the silos of research in recognition that the "system" of tobacco regulation is greater than the sum of its parts.

  10. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably......Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  11. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  12. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  13. Social Representations of Smokers among Smoking Youth

    OpenAIRE

    O V Maslova; V S Tarkhova

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of the empirical research of social representations of smoking abuse among smoking young people. The authors reveal gender differences in the representations of smokers and show the role of psychological factors in smoking abuse.

  14. How does tobacco smoke influence the morphometry of the fetus and the umbilical cord?-Research on pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction exposed to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Bizoń, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Proper structure of the umbilical cord is important for the fetal development. We evaluated effects of toxic factors from tobacco smoke on fetal and umbilical cord morphometry. 109 women in weeks 29-40 of pregnancy (31 smokers with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); 28 non-smoking women with IUGR; 50 healthy pregnancies) were included. In smokers with IUGR, cotinine, cadmium and lead concentrations were significantly higher than in controls (mean 55.23ng/l; 1.52ng/ml; 14.85ng/ml vs 1.07; 0.34; 9.42) and inverse correlation between lead concentration and uncoiled umbilical cord was significant (r=-0.80). In smokers with IUGR, area of Wharton's jelly was increased compared to nonsmokers and controls. Inverse correlations occurred between cotinine and cadmium concentration and fetal percentile in smokers (r=-0.87; r=-0.87) and non-smokers (r=-0.47; r=-0.78) with IUGR. Exposure to tobacco smoke measured by cotinine, cadmium and lead concentration has an impact on fetal growth and umbilical cord morphometry and correlates with intensity of IUGR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. White matter development and tobacco smoking in young adults: A systematic review with recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliettino, Alex R; Potenza, Marc N; Yip, Sarah W

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are critical vulnerability periods for initiation of tobacco smoking. White matter development is ongoing during this time and may be influenced by exposure to nicotine. Synthesis of findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of adolescent and young adult smokers may be helpful in understanding the relationship between neurodevelopment and initiation and progression of tobacco-use behaviors and in guiding further research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify DTI studies comparing adolescent and young adult (mean age adult studies. Directions for further research are also discussed. All identified studies reported increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) among adolescent/young adult smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Increased FA was most frequently reported in regions of the corpus callosum (genu, body and spenium), internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Findings of increased FA among adolescent/young adult smokers are contrary to those from most adult studies and thus raise the possibility of differential effects of nicotine on white matter across the lifespan. Further research including multiple time points is needed to test this hypothesis. Other areas warranting further research include DTI studies of e-cigarette use and studies incorporating measures of pubertal stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Reported Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Avoidance Compared with Cotinine Confirmed Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Pregnant Women and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gregory Gavarkovs

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests, as well as less invasive and lower-cost, self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure, and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks’ gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks’ gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, reports of tobacco smoke avoidance are more valid than reports of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and the biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support the inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measures.

  17. Modeling and Explaining Content: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Leslie; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews the scholarly and research evidence supporting the construct labeled modeling and explaining content (MEC), which is measured via a performance assessment in the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. This construct involves practices at the heart of teaching that deal with how…

  18. Eliciting Student Thinking: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report describes and provides research and scholarly support for a core practice of teaching--eliciting student thinking (EST)--that is the target for a performance assessment contributing one component of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. The purpose of this report is to review the…

  19. Opening the Black Box and Searching for Smoking Guns: Process Causality in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; McWhorter, Rochell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of qualitative research in causality, with particular emphasis on process causality. In one paper, it is not possible to discuss all the issues of causality, but the aim is to provide useful ways of thinking about causality and qualitative research. Specifically, a brief overview of the…

  20. [Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues and benefits of tobacco quitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Paweł; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most common addictions. Epidemiological studies show a significant effect of smoking on oral health and the development of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study is to analyze existing research on the impact of cigarette smoking on periodontal condition and present the benefits of tobacco quitting. In the mouth of a smoker comes to faster loss of connective tissue and bone, increased tooth mobility and greater number of missing teeth than non-smokers. The negative effects of smoking on periodontal tissues correlate with the length and frequency of smoking. Also, people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are at a higher risk of developing periodontal disease than those who had no contact with tobacco smoke. Quitting smoking has a positive effect on periodontal health and is an absolute prerequisite for the health of the entire oral cavity. With the prolongation of tobacco abstinence negative consequences for oral health are gradually reduced. Each patient should be aware of his addiction, the risks arising from exposure to tobacco smoke and be motivated to eliminate it. The role of general practitioners, particularly family doctors and dentists is crucial in evaluation of active and passive smoking as well as motivation and support smokers in quitting the habit and maintaining smoking abstinence.

  1. Association between social climate for smoking and youth smoking behaviors in Taiwan: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hua; Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Wei-Gang; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Chao, Kun-Yu

    2010-10-01

    Social acceptance of smoking is associated with smoking prevalence. Higher smoking rates and ETS exposure might be considered as important indicators for pro-tobacco social norms or social climate. Among studies indicating the association between youth smoking and adult smoking behaviors, most were from individual-level study designs. An ecological study was conducted to determine the role of social climate, i.e., adult smoking behaviors and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), on youth smoking behaviors. Data on the smoking behavior and ETS of 16,688 Taiwanese adults were collected in 2004 by telephone administration of the Taiwan Adult Smoking Survey. Similar data on 22,339 junior high school students were collected in 2004 by school-based administration of the Taiwan Youth Tobacco Survey. City/county-level data were analyzed across 25 counties by descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression. In both adult and youth populations, overall or gender-specific smoking prevalence and ETS varied widely across counties/cities. The current youth smoking rate within counties was significantly positively correlated with the current adult smoking prevalence as well as home ETS exposure in adults or youth. For male youth, a 1% increase in the rate of home ETS exposure reported by youth increased the current male youth smoking rate by 0.20% after controlling the female youth smoking rate and home ETS exposure reported by adults (p=0.0197). For female youth, male youth smoking prevalence was the only variable that contributed significantly (Beta=0.46, psmoke-free environments by decreasing the social acceptability of smoking. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  3. The Agony and The Promise of Higher Education as Seen Through ETS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Henry S.

    Some studies conducted by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) have revealed possible causes of the uprisings on college and university campuses, and others suggest possible remedies for the agony experienced at many institutions. A survey of 5,200 college and university trustees shows that the ambivalence in their beliefs and attitudes, and the…

  4. Conceptualizing Accessibility for English Language Proficiency Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…

  5. FULL LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLE Osue et al. (2008) SWJ:1-4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    because of insensitivity; circulating antigens form complexes with antibodies, and the hazard of working with radioactive substances. Lately, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the DNA probe and subsequently detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Zimmerman et al. 1994) thereby eliminating ...

  6. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  7. Testing a model of avoiding environmental tobacco smoke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, A M

    1999-01-01

    To test an explanatory model of gender, self-efficacy, situational influences, and other health-promoting behaviors on the avoidance of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in young adults. ETS is a cause of lung cancer, pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. Although young adults are at increased risk for ETS exposure, there are few behavioral studies of ETS exposure and no reported studies of ETS exposure in young adults. Although college students are often exposed to ETS, the college environment offers a setting in which the opportunities for change are substantial. Model-testing. Data are reported on a convenience sample of 136 nonsmoking 18- to 25-year old students in one mid-atlantic U.S. university. This sample of nonsmokers was drawn from a larger sample of 241 smokers and nonsmokers in 1995. Model constructs were based on Pender's health promotion model (HPM). The General Self-efficacy Scale, Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile, and ETS Avoidance Scale were used along with items measuring ETS-avoidance efficacy and Living with Smoke. Path analysis was used to test the model. The trimmed explanatory model showed that 26% of the variance in avoiding ETS was accounted for by gender, having self-efficacy, and ETS-avoidance efficacy, not living with people who smoke, and performing other healthy behaviors. Being female and general self-efficacy indirectly influenced ETS avoidance through their effects on related health promoting behaviors. The explanatory model of ETS avoidance can provide useful information for the development of interventions to prevent exposure to passive smoke. Given the occurrence of ETS exposure in young adults, longitudinal research using this explanatory model is yielding promising results. Enhancing the self-efficacy of young adults and encouraging healthy lifestyle behaviors may be an important factor in their avoidance of ETS.

  8. Correlates of household smoking bans among Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee

    2006-01-01

    No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...

  9. Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss After Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Accumbens: Therapeutic and Research Implications: Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantione, Mariska; van den Brink, Wim; Schuurman, P. Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking and overeating are compulsory habits that are difficult to stop. Several studies have shown involvement of the nucleus accumbens in these and other addictive behaviors. In this case report, we describe a patient who quit smoking and lost weight without any effort, and we review

  10. Research performed at the ET-RR-1 reactor using the neutron scattering equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.

    1990-02-01

    This report represents the results of studies and measurements, performed at the ET-RR-1 reactor, using the neutron scattering equipment supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/11/10. The results of these studies, starting in 1980 and continuing to date, are discussed; the use of the equipment, both as a neutron monochromator and fixed scattering angle spectrometer, is also assessed. (author). 19 refs, 17 figs

  11. Cojoncture énergétique et recherches en combustion The Energy Situation and Research on Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaceanu J. -C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les progrès de la combustion ont contribué de façon décisive à l'évolution de la technique humaine. Face à cette importance de la combustion, l'auteur présente un certain nombre d'éléments concernant l'avenir prévisible des combustibles fossiles et de leurs usages. Les différents composants de la conjoncture énergétique en matière de combustibles imposent deux impératifs : le respect de l'environnement et la conservation de l'énergie fossile. De cet ensemble de considérations, on tire des conclusions quant à l'évolution des techniques de combustion et, de là, quant aux thèmes de recherche appliquée et à l'élucidation nécessaire des mécanismes fondamentaux. Advances in combustion have decisively contributed to the evolution of human technology. Concerning the importance of combustion, this article describes various aspects of the foreseeable future of fossil fuels and their uses. The different composants of the energy situation with regard to fuels impose two requirements - respect for the environment and fossil energy conservation. From ail these considerations conclusions are drawn as to the evolution of fuel techniques and thence with regard to topics of applied research and the necessary elucidation of fundamental mechanisms.

  12. Handbook of smoke control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Klote, John H; Turnbull, Paul G; Kashef, Ahmed; Ferreira, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Smoke Control Engineering extends the tradition of the comprehensive treatment of smoke control technology, including fundamental concepts, smoke control systems, and methods of analysis. The handbook provides information needed for the analysis of design fires, including considerations of sprinklers, shielded fires, and transient fuels. It is also extremely useful for practicing engineers, architects, code officials, researchers, and students. Following the success of Principles of Smoke Management in 2002, this new book incorporates the latest research and advances in smoke control practice. New topics in the handbook are: controls, fire and smoke control in transport tunnels, and full-scale fire testing. For those getting started with the computer models CONTAM and CFAST, there are simplified instructions with examples. This is the first smoke control book with climatic data so that users will have easy-to-use weather data specifically for smoke control design for locations in the U.S., Can...

  13. Knowledge, attitude and perception of second-hand smoke and factors promoting smoking in Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, N Zainol; Zulkifli, A; Abidin, E Zainal; Rasdi, I; Ismail, S N Syed; Rahman, A Abd; Hashim, Z; Semple, S

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between knowledge, attitude and perception regarding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and smoking among Malaysian adolescents living in states with complete or partial smoke-free legislation (SFL). A total of 898 respondents aged 13-14 years were randomly selected from 21 secondary schools. The Malay version of the modified Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used. Hierarchical logistic regression was performed in examining predictors of smoking attempt among adolescents. Participants exposed to ETS >5 h/day were more likely to have smoked compared to those exposed to ETS smoking attempts (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.10-3.43) compared to living in a state with complete SFL. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards smoking and ETS exposure were linked to lower smoking attempts in states with complete SFL. Adolescents with limited ETS exposure who lived in a state with complete SFL were less likely to attempt smoking compared to those exposed more regularly to ETS and living in a state with partial SFL. Preventing adolescents from becoming smokers is the key to reducing national prevalence rates in smoking. There is a need to implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation nationally across Malaysia.

  14. Medicinal smokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2006-11-24

    All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients.

  15. Using the Emanuel et al. framework to assess ethical issues raised by a biomedical research ethics committee in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Wassenaar, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    The Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady framework was designed as a universal tool for use in many settings including developing countries. However, it is not known whether the work of African health research ethics committees (RECs) is compatible with this framework. The absence of any normative or empirical weighting of the eight principles within this framework suggests that different health RECs may raise some ethical issues more frequently than others when reviewing protocols. We used the Emanuel et al. framework to assess, code, and rank the most frequent ethical issues considered by a biomedical REC during review of research protocols for the years 2008 to 2012. We extracted data from the recorded minutes of a South African biomedical REC for the years 2008 to 2012, designed the data collection sheet according to the Emanuel et al. framework, and removed all identifiers during data processing and analysis. From the 98 protocols that we assessed, the most frequent issues that emerged were the informed consent, scientific validity, fair participant selection, and ongoing respect for participants. This study represents the first known attempt to analyze REC responses/minutes using the Emanuel et al. framework, and suggests that this framework may be useful in describing and categorizing the core activities of an REC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  17. Refuting tobacco-industry funded research: empirical data shows decline in smoking prevalence following introduction of plain packaging in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal A Diethelm

    2015-11-01

    A significant decline in smoking prevalence in Australia followed introduction of plain packaging after adjustment for the impact of other tobacco control measures. This conclusion is in marked contrast to that from the industry-funded analysis.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure levels in outdoor hospitality venues: a qualitative and quantitative review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Chapman, Simon

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in hospitality venues at high levels enough to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees. Searches in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Sixteen studies were selected that reported measuring any outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). The SHS measurement methods were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect levels or the corroboration of measurements with known standards. The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) depends on the number of smokers present, measurement proximity, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 μg/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates.

  19. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Parental smoking, closeness to parents, and youth smoking. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2007;31:261. Guide to ... cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2015;314:700. ...

  20. 'The industry must be inconspicuous': Japan Tobacco's corruption of science and health policy via the Smoking Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Kaori; Proctor, Robert N

    2018-02-04

    To investigate how and why Japan Tobacco, Inc. (JT) in 1986 established the Smoking Research Foundation (SRF), a research-funding institution, and to explore the extent to which SRF has influenced science and health policy in Japan. We analysed documents in the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents archive, along with recent Japanese litigation documents and published documents. JT's effort to combat effective tobacco control was strengthened in the mid-1980s, following privatisation of the company. While remaining under the protection of Japan's Ministry of Finance, the semiprivatised company lost its 'access to politicos', opening up a perceived need for collaboration with global cigarette makers. One solution, arrived at through clandestine planning with American companies, was to establish a third-party organisation, SRF, with the hope of capturing scientific and medical authority for the industry. Guarded by powerful people in government and academia, SRF was launched with the covert goal of influencing tobacco policy both inside and outside Japan. Scholars funded by SRF have participated in international conferences, national advisory committees and tobacco litigation, in most instances helping the industry to maintain a favourable climate for the continued sale of cigarettes. Contrary to industry claims, SRF was never meant to be independent or neutral. With active support from foreign cigarette manufacturers, SRF represents the expansion into Asia of the denialist campaign that began in the USA in 1953. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Smoking in Hollywood movies: impact on teen smoking with special reference to German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies that have linked exposure to movie smoking and smoking initiation among adolescents. Much of the research linking exposure to smoking to movies with adolescent smoking comes from studies of U.S. children and their exposure to smoking in Hollywood movies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have assessed such exposure and have found a strong, independent association with smoking onset. A first study conduced in Germany reveals that smoking in internationally distributed movies is a risk factor for ever and current smoking among European adolescents, too. It is concluded that limiting exposure of young adolescents to movie smoking could have important world-wide public health implications.

  2. Smoking and risk for psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a potential risk factor for psoriasis. Both psoriasis and smoking habits are partly explained by genetic factors. However, twin studies investigating the association between these traits are limited. METHODS: Questionnaire-based data on smoking habits and psoriasis were...... collected for 34,781 twins, aged 20-71 years, from the Danish Twin Registry. A co-twin control analysis was performed on 1700 twin pairs discordant for lifetime history of smoking. Genetic and environmental correlations between smoking and psoriasis were estimated using classical twin modeling. RESULTS......: After multivariable adjustment, age group (50-71 vs. 20-49 years) and childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were significantly associated with psoriasis in the whole population (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.29 [P = 0.021] and OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49 [P...

  3. Research methods of Talking About The Smokes: an International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project study with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David P; Briggs, Viki L; Couzos, Sophia; Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Panaretto, Kathryn S; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To describe the research methods and baseline sample of the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project. The TATS project is a collaboration between research institutions and Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs) and their state and national representative bodies. It is one of the studies within the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, enabling national and international comparisons. It includes a prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent ex-smokers; a survey of non-smokers; repeated cross-sectional surveys of ACCHS staff; and descriptions of the tobacco policies and practices at the ACCHSs. Community members completed face-to-face surveys; staff completed surveys on paper or online. We compared potential biases and the distribution of variables common to the main community baseline sample and unweighted and weighted results of the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). The baseline survey (Wave 1) was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 35 locations (the communities served by 34 ACCHSs and one community in the Torres Strait), and 645 staff in the ACCHSs. Sociodemographic and general health indicators, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. The main community baseline sample closely matched the distribution of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in the weighted NATSISS by age, sex, jurisdiction and remoteness. There were inconsistent differences in some sociodemographic factors between our sample and the NATSISS: our sample had higher proportions of unemployed people, but also higher proportions who had completed Year 12 and who lived in more advantaged areas. In both surveys, similar percentages of smokers reported having attempted to quit in the past year, and daily smokers reported similar numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. The

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  5. Calculator Use on the "GRE"® Revised General Test Quantitative Reasoning Measure. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-14-02. ETS Research Report. RR-14-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on calculator use in standardized assessments of quantitative ability focused on the effect of calculator availability on item difficulty and on whether test developers can predict these effects. With the introduction of an on-screen calculator on the Quantitative Reasoning measure of the "GRE"® revised General Test, it…

  6. New Perspectives on the Validity of the "GRE"® General Test for Predicting Graduate School Grades. ETS GRE® Board Research Report. ETS GRE®-14-03. ETS Research Report. RR-14-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, David M.; Cline, Frederick A.; Holtzman, Steven L.; Minsky, Jennifer L.; Lorenz, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Given the serious consequences of making ill-fated admissions and funding decisions for applicants to graduate and professional school, it is important to rely on sound evidence to optimize such judgments. Previous meta-analytic research has demonstrated the generalizable validity of the "GRE"® General Test for predicting academic…

  7. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.

  8. A review on research activities using the SANS spectrometer in transmission geometry at ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    1999-01-01

    The phased double rotor facility operating at ET-RR-1 reactor (2MW) was rearranged to operate as SANS spectrometer in transmission geometry. The rotors are suspended in magnetic fields and are spinning up to 16,000 rpm producing bursts of polyenergetic neutrons with wavelengths from 0.2 nm to 6.5 nm and beam divergence of 17' on the sample. The review on research activities using the SANS spectrometer and its applications for powder particle size determination and the long wavelength fluctuation of magnetization of the Fe-Ni alloys are discussed. (author)

  9. Innovativ formidling af førsteårsstuderende som et design-based research-forløb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjælde, Ole Eggers; Najbjerg, Rasmus Brøgger

    2017-01-01

    14 videoproduktioner, 4 tegneserier, 3 filmfortællinger, 2 sange, 2 nyhedsindslag, 2 børnebøger, 2 facebook-sider, 1 novelle og 1 toiletrulle var blandt resultaterne, da 112 førsteårsstuderende i det obligatoriske kursus Astrofysik på fysikuddannelsen på Aarhus Universitet blev deltagere i et...... for design-based research, og publikationen her sætter fokus på intention, implementering, realisering og perspektivering af det underliggende design med henblik på forbedring af designet til fremtidig brug samt på en vurdering af forløbets samlede impact....

  10. Pulmonary effects of passive smoking: the Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are only a few studies done on pulmonary effects of passive smoking from India, which are summarized in this paper. Several vernacular tobacco products are used in India, bidis (beedis being the commonest form of these. Bidis contain a higher concentration of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids compared to the standard cigarettes (e.g., the sum of total nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids was 37.5 mg in bidi compared to 14–16 mg in Indian or American cigarettes in one study. A large study performed on 9090 adolescent school children demonstrated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. The odds ratio for being asthmatic in ETS-exposed as compared to ETS-unexposed children was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.33–2.31. Nearly one third of the children in this study reported non-specific respiratory symptoms and the ETS exposure was found to be positively associated with the prevalence of each symptom. Passive smoking was also shown to increase morbidity and to worsen the control of asthma among adults. Another study demonstrated exposure to ETS was a significant trigger for acute exacerbation of asthma. Increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness was also demonstrated among the healthy nonsmoking adult women exposed to ETS. Passive smoking leads to subtle changes in airflow mechanics. In a study among 50 healthy nonsmoking women passively exposed to tobacco smoke and matched for age with 50 unexposed women, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 and peak expiratory flow (PEF were marginally lower among the passive smokers (mean difference 0.13 L and 0.20 L-1, respectively, but maximal mid expiratory flow (FEF25–75%, airway resistance (Raw and specific conductance (sGaw were significantly impaired. An association between passive smoking and lung cancer has also been described. In a study conducted in association with the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the exposure to ETS

  11. Commentary: Cognitive and emotional empathy in transdiagnostic research - reflections on Klapwijk et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D

    2016-06-01

    Evidence across multiple disorders indicates that empathy is a transdiagnostic dimension of psychopathology. Klapwijk et al.'s (2016) functional MRI study examines whether autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) can be distinguished by the constructs of 'cognitive' and 'emotional' empathy - with the former focusing on accurate emotion perception and the latter on shared affective experience. This commentary examines the implications of the cognitive/emotional empathy distinction, and how it fits with existing accounts of perceptual differences in ASD. Cognitive empathy overlaps substantially with the constructs of emotion perception and Theory of Mind - both well studied among individuals with ASD, but generally viewed as fairly distinct from empathy. CD, on the other hand, is typically not associated with frank perceptual deficits. Although the brain imaging data from this study do not provide strong support for the constructs of cognitive and emotional empathy, the general approach used in this study is precisely the kind needed to test the validity and utility of transdiagnostic mechanisms of psychopathology. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Extending research on parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD: commentary on Stepp et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J

    2012-01-01

    Comments on an article Children of mothers with borderline personality disorder: Identifying parenting behaviors as potential targets for intervention by Stepp, Whalen, Pilkonis, Hipwell, and Levine (see record 2011-05873-001). With this review, Stepp and colleagues have advanced our understanding of parenting and child development within the context of maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD). It is commendable that these authors have initiated the first theoretical description of how a diagnosis of BPD may affect the quality of parenting. At the same time, this article highlights the disheartening lack of research in this area. Given the paucity of prior theoretical and empirical work exploring parenting in mothers diagnosed with BPD, advances in this area could be buttressed by current conceptualizations of parenting and empirical evidence from related parenting research. In this commentary, we highlight two main concerns and provide suggestions for moving the research in this area forward. First, we raise questions about how some of the identified parenting deficits thought to be specific to mothers with BPD will be operationalized in future basic research. Second, we suggest that the use of a behavioral approach to examining parenting in this population will facilitate both basic research and future intervention work.

  13. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  14. Paris 2000 researches and men; Paris 2000 des recherches et des hommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IWA and ISWA congresses organized in Paris in july showed the latest research developments in the field of water and wastes management. The water sector is more mature than the waste sector but for both a closer association of the public and private is increasing. A summary of the presentations in successively the water and the wastes management is proposed bringing an analysis of the international situation and regulations. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy in Ireland: context, strategy and research; Energie en Irlande: contexte, strategie et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saintherant, N.; Lerouge, Ch.; Welcker, A

    2008-01-15

    In the present day situation of sudden awareness about climatic change and announced fossil fuels shortage, Ireland has defined a new strategy for its energy future. Context: Ireland is strongly dependent of oil and gas imports which increase regularly to meet the demand. A small part of the electricity consumed is imported from Ulster. The share of renewable energies remains weak but is increasing significantly. Therefore, from 1990 to 2006, the proportion of renewable energies increased from 1.9% (mainly of hydroelectric origin) to 4.5%. Wind power represents now the main renewable energy source. The transportation sector is the most energy consuming and the biggest source of greenhouse gases. Strategy: the Irish policy is driven by pluri-annual strategic plans which define the objectives and means. Priority is given to the security of supplies at affordable prices: 8.5 billion euros will be invested during the 2007-2013 era for the modernization of existing energy infrastructures and companies, and in a lesser extent for the development of renewable energy sources. During this period, 415 million euros more will be devoted to the research, development and demonstration (RD and D) of new energy solutions. Research: in 2005 the energy RD and D expenses reached 12.8 million euros shared between 54% for R and D and 46% for demonstration projects. Half of the financing is given to higher education schools and is devoted to energy saving purposes (33%) and to renewable energies (29%, mainly wind power and biomass). Academic research gives a particular attention to ocean energy which represents an important potential resource in Ireland and which has already led to the creation of innovative companies. The integration of renewable energy sources to the power grid and the stability of supplies are also the object of active researches. (J.S.)

  16. Environmental policy and public research in Germany; Politique et recherche publique environnementales en Allemange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The german government is highly engaged in the environmental protection at the economic, sociological and industrial level of the society. This document details the environmental political and scientific context of Germany. Facing the multiplicity of the concerned thematic, only particular topics are presented. Then a particular attention is done to the environmental research in the climatic change context with studies on the climate, the ecosystems protection, the energy, the biodiversity and the geoscience. (A.L.B.)

  17. HIV & smoking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ramesh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Flanigan, Timothy; Mayer, K H; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in India - the young being particularly vulnerable. The prevalence of smoking has increased in India especially among rural, lower socio-economic and illiterate men. Studies have shown that HIV-infected smokers may be at additional risk for several infectious and non-infectious complications, including malignancies and cardiovascular events. Smoking alters immunological mechanisms and suppresses host defenses in the alveolar environment. HIV-infected smokers have also been found to have a poorer response to antiretroviral therapy and a higher risk of death. HIV-infected individuals who smoke could be at a greater risk for developing TB and subsequently suffer higher morbidity and mortality than those who do not smoke. Currently available smoking cessation interventions like physician's advice, nicotine replacement therapy and pharmacological agents like bupropion and varenicline have had varying degrees of success. Smoking cessation intervention in the HIV-infected population might be more complex because of associated psychosocial problems like drug addiction, alcoholism, depression, etc. More research including clinical trials testing the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in HIV infected persons is required in India. In addition to public health measures like banning smoking in public places and raising tobacco tax, comprehensive guidelines for health workers can help address this problem. Counselling on smoking cessation should be one of the main components of primary care, especially in the management of HIV-infected persons. This review highlights the importance of smoking cessation among HIV-infected persons in India.

  18. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  19. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  20. Guideline Implementation: Surgical Smoke Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    Research conducted during the past four decades has demonstrated that surgical smoke generated from the use of energy-generating devices in surgery contains toxic and biohazardous substances that present risks to perioperative team members and patients. Despite the increase in information available, however, perioperative personnel continue to demonstrate a lack of knowledge of these hazards and lack of compliance with recommendations for evacuating smoke during surgical procedures. The new AORN "Guideline for surgical smoke safety" provides guidance on surgical smoke management. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel promote smoke-free work environments; evacuate surgical smoke; and develop education programs and competency verification tools, policies and procedures, and quality improvement initiatives related to controlling surgical smoke. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...

  2. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  3. Researches in micro-techniques: realities and perspectives; Recherches en microtechniques: realites et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-03-01

    This book is the result of a collective work which gives a state of the art of the technologies, activities and industrial needs in the domain of micro-techniques. It contains a prospective analysis of the works carried out in European, US and Japanese laboratories about the very innovative domains of micro-actuators, micro-sensors, micro-resonators, micro-optics, micro-generators and sources of energy, micro-robots (chapters 6 to 11). The first chapters (2 to 5) concern the materials used in micro-techniques (thin film piezoelectric materials, silicon) and the mechanical problems encountered with very small dimension materials (deformation, residual stresses, scale effects..). The last chapters (12 to 19) concern other micro-techniques (neuro-mimetic networks, local-probe microscopy, interferometry and measurements, molecular assembly and molecular electronics) and some aspects of research in micro-techniques (international programs, education, trans-regional and international collaborations). Two chapters were selected for ETDE: the first one concerns the micro-actuators (electrostatic and piezoelectric motors, magnetostrictive, levitative, electromagnetic and thermal actuators) and the second one concerns the energy micro-sources and micro-generators: electrical micro-sources (lithium micro-batteries, thermoelectric micro-generators, photoelectric micro-sources and super-capacity storage devices) and direct conversion into mechanical energy starting with a room-temperature or a heated source (Stirling motor, mechanical and other energy sources). (J.S.)

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 Differences in secondhand smoke exposure related to people’s jobs decreased over the past 20 years, but large differences still exist. Some groups continue to have high levels of ...

  5. Building research evidence for policy advocacy: a qualitative evaluation of existing smoke-free policies in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakkash, Rima T; Khalil, Joanna; Chaaya, Monique; Afifi, Rema A

    2010-07-01

    Secondhand smoke is harmful to smokers and nonsmokers, and smoke-free legislation worldwide improves health status. Lebanon has one of the weakest tobacco control regulatory environments in the Eastern Mediterranean region. However, several Lebanese workplaces and hospitality venues have chosen to implement such policies on their own. The objective of this study was to document their experiences. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with management, employees, and clients. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurrent themes. describe the types of bans implemented; the reasons for adopting a policy; and the barriers and facilitators to implementation, enforcement, and compliance. A main facilitator was management support, whereas a main barrier was prosmoking norms. This analysis provides insight and lessons learned that can aid in scaling up tobacco control efforts in Lebanon and the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YouTube, TED and other podcast websites. Other researchers have also documented their procedures. Corl et al.[5] describe the basic process of producing a podcast, and Jham et al.[6] list a number of universities actively doing podcasts. Besides the lecture podcasts, we have also captured numerous clinical.

  7. Determinants and Consequences of Narghile or Waterpipe Smoking ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Papers. Waterpipe tobacco smoking : building the evidence base; part 1: the smoke chemistry. Download PDF. Reports. Determinants and Consequences of Smoking the Narghile : An Extended Research Agenda - Phase II / final technical report. Download PDF ...

  8. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  9. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  10. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Smoking during pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... smoking, tell your health care provider. Why is smoking during pregnancy harmful? Smoking during pregnancy is bad ...

  11. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricard, Damien; Legleye, Stéphane; Khlat, Myriam

    2017-06-07

    The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation) and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP) survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  12. Changes in Smoking Behavior over Family Transitions: Evidence for Anticipation and Adaptation Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bricard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of changes in smoking behaviors over the life course is a promising line of research. This paper aims to analyze the temporal relation between family transitions (partnership formation, first childbirth, separation and changes in smoking initiation and cessation. We propose a discrete-time logistic model to explore the timing of changes in terms of leads and lags effects up to three years around the event in order to measure both anticipation and adaptation mechanisms. Retrospective biographical data from the Santé et Itinéraires Professionnels (SIP survey conducted in France in 2006 are used. Partnership formation was followed for both genders by a fall in smoking initiation and an immediate rise in smoking cessation. Childbirth was associated with increased smoking cessation immediately around childbirth, and additionally, females showed an anticipatory increase in smoking cessation up to two years before childbirth. Couple separation was accompanied by an anticipatory increase in smoking initiation for females up to two years prior to the separation, but this effect only occurred in males during separation. Our findings highlight opportunities for more targeted interventions over the life course to reduce smoking, and therefore have relevance for general practitioners and public policy elaboration.

  13. Is It True That Smoking Causes Wrinkles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes and the facial expressions you make when smoking — such as pursing your lips when inhaling and squinting your eyes to keep out smoke — may contribute to wrinkles. With J. Taylor Hays, M.D. Krutmann J, et al. The skin aging exposome. Journal of Dermatological Science. 2017;85:152. Buchanan D, ...

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  15. Multiple malformations and maternal smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, K

    2000-07-01

    The Swedish health registries were used to investigate a possible effect of maternal smoking on the incidence of multiple malformations. Among 1413811 infants born in 1983-96 and with known smoking exposure in early pregnancy, 26619 with isolated malformations and 1409 with two or more malformations were selected. After controlling for year of birth, maternal age, parity and educational level, a statistically significant association between maternal smoking and multiple malformations was found (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.02, 1.29). Among isolated malformations, the estimated OR for maternal smoking was close to unity (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.99, 1.05), but a strong heterogeneity of the magnitude of the association between maternal smoking and the different malformations was found. Among multimalformed, no such heterogeneity was indicated. The ORs for maternal smoking were calculated for all possible pairwise combinations of 44 selected malformations, but no association between maternal smoking and any specific combination could be detected. The ORs for maternal smoking among probable cases of VATER, CHARGE or OEIS non-random associations, respectively, were estimated, but no association was indicated between maternal smoking and any of the malformation complexes. The results of the present study indicate that maternal smoking is associated with a non-specific increased risk of multiple malformations, but further research is needed before such an inference can be made.

  16. Estimation of compliance with exclusive smoking of very low nicotine content cigarettes using plasma cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, J; Hobkirk, A; Wasserman, E; Richie, J; Veldheer, S; Krebs, N M; Reinhart, L; Muscat, J

    2018-04-04

    Regulations requiring a reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes to minimally addictive levels could significantly reduce the public health impact of cigarette smoking. Clinical trials evaluating this strategy are ongoing and methods have been developed to use nicotine biomarkers to estimate compliance with use of very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNCs). To date, these methods have not considered the potential contribution of nicotine absorption from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among research participants. This study used data from 100 randomly selected study completers in ongoing clinical trials of VLNCs (50 randomized to Usual Nicotine Content Cigarettes (UNCs) and 50 to VLNCs) to assess the use of plasma cotinine to estimate compliance. Plasma cotinine and smoking behavior were recorded at baseline after 2 weeks smoking UNC cigarettes, and then after 18 weeks of either continuing smoking UNCs or reducing the nicotine content such that the last 6 weeks comprised smoking VLNCs. Plasma cotinine remained stable (267 ng/ml) in the UNC group but reduced to 93 ng/ml in the VLNC group (p < 0.01). Compliance with smoking VLNCs was first estimated by comparing the cotinine per cigarette on VLNCs with UNCs after allowing for potential compensatory smoking. We found that 29 (58%) of the VLNC group were compliant. Adjusting for potential ETS exposure estimated 32 (64%) to be compliant. This latter group (n = 32) had a mean plasma cotinine on VLNCs of 7 ng/ml (range = 3-16.4 ng/ml). Adjusting for potential ETS exposure may improve identification of participants who plausibly complied with exclusive VLNC use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Smoke-free hospitals in Greece: Personnel perceptions, compliance and smoking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzilepi Penelope

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoke-free environments in Greece are scarce. Despite existent legislation that forbids smoking in all health care service centers, smoking is still evident. Using a random sample of hospital personnel from a large university hospital in Greece, we evaluated their smoking habits, perceptions and compliance towards hospital smoking regulations. 57.8% of the nursing personnel and 34.5% of medical/research staff were found to be current smokers (p

  19. Innovativ formidling af førsteårsstuderende som et design-based research-forløb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Eggers Bjælde

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 14 videoproduktioner, 4 tegneserier, 3 filmfortællinger, 2 sange, 2 nyhedsindslag, 2 børnebøger, 2 facebook-sider, 1 novelle og 1 toiletrulle var blandt resultaterne, da 112 førsteårsstuderende i det obligatoriske kursus Astrofysik på fysikuddannelsen på Aarhus Universitet blev deltagere i et learning design-forløb, som en del af deres eksamen i kurset. Målet med forløbet var dels at sætte fokus på faglig formidling som en væsentlig kompetence blandt universitetsstuderende, men samtidig også at bringe værdier som kreativitet og innovation i spil. Forløbet var tilrettelagt efter principperne for design-based research, og publikationen her sætter fokus på intention, implementering, realisering og perspektivering af det underliggende design med henblik på forbedring af designet til fremtidig brug samt på en vurdering af forløbets samlede impact.

  20. THYROID FUNCTION Quitting smoking-transient risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for Graves disease. However, Carle et al. have demonstrated that individuals have a transient increased risk of developing overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in the first 2 years after quitting smoking. The mechanisms involved in these two opposing effects of smoking on the

  1. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  2. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  3. Conference on researches and industrial outlooks on fuel cell and hydrogen; Recherches et perspectives industrielles sur la pile a combustible et l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference aimed at presenting a panorama concerning the research and development of fuel cells and hydrogen and the associated regulation landscape. The first sessions concerned the industrial offer: the strategic advantages as a vehicle fuel, the equipment and the technology, the micro-cell. The second part of the conference concerned the society demand, the difficulties and the research and development programs: the parliamentary offer for the scientific and technological choices evaluation, the energy vector choice, the experiments in particular in Germany, the regulations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Climate change and health in the United States of America: impacts, adaptations, and research; Changement climatique et santeaux Etats-Unis: impacts, adaptations et recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, R.; Magaud, M

    2009-11-15

    After a description of the various impacts of climate change on human health, this report describes and comments the impacts of climate change on health in the USA: impacts of heat waves, of air quality degradation, of extreme climate events, of climate change on infectious diseases and allergies, regional impacts of climate change. In a second part, it describes the strategies of adaptation to the 'climate change and health' issue in the USA: mitigation and adaptation to climate change, adaptation challenges, insufficiently prepared public health system, adaptation to heat waves, adaptation to air quality degradation, adaptation to extreme climate events, adaptation to food- and water-based diseases and to vector-based diseases, examples of proactive adaptation. The last part describes the organisation of research on 'climate change and health' in the USA: nowadays and in the future, role of federal agencies, priority research axes. The 'United States Global Change Research Program' is presented in appendix, as well as the most important research centres (mostly in universities)

  5. Distribution of exposure concentrations and doses for constituents of environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; James, A.C. [A.C. James and Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dourson, M.L.; Felter, S.P. [TERA (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the research reported in this series of three articles is to derive distributions of doses of selected environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-related chemicals for nonsmoking workers. This analysis uses data from the 16-City Study collected with personal monitors over the course of one workday in workplaces where smoking occurred. In this article, the authors describe distributions of ETS chemical concentrations and the characteristics of those distributions for the workplace exposure. Next, they present population parameters relevant for estimating dose distributions and the methods used for estimating those dose distributions. Finally, they derive distributions of doses of selected ETS-related constituents obtained in the workplace for people in smoking work environments. Estimating dose distributions provided information beyond the usual point estimate of dose and showed that the preponderance of individuals exposed to ETS in the workplace were exposed at the low end of the dose distribution curve. The results of this analysis include estimations of hourly maxima and time-weighted average (TWA) doses of nicotine from workplace exposures to ETS and doses derived from modeled lung burdens of ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM) and solanesol resulting from workplace exposures to ETS (extrapolated from 1 day to 1 year).

  6. Adolescent environmental tobacco smoke exposure predicts academic achievement test failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Bradley N; Wileyto, E Paul; Murphy, Michael F G; Munafò, Marcus R

    2007-10-01

    Research has linked prenatal tobacco exposure to neurocognitive and behavioral problems that can disrupt learning and school performance in childhood. Less is known about its effects on academic achievement in adolescence when controlling for known confounding factors (e.g., environmental tobacco smoke [ETS]). We hypothesized that prenatal tobacco exposure would decrease the likelihood of passing academic achievement tests taken at 16 and 18 years of age. This study was a longitudinal analysis of birth cohort data including 6,380 pregnant women and offspring from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS). Academic pass/fail performance was measured on British standardized achievement tests ("Ordinary Level" [O-Level] and Advanced Level: [A-Level]). Prenatal tobacco exposure plus controlling variables (ETS, teen offspring smoking and gender, maternal age at pregnancy, maternal smoking before pregnancy, and socioeconomic status) were included in regression models predicting O- and A-Level test failure. Significant predictors of test failure in the O-Level model included exposure to maternal (OR = 0.71, p teen smoking, female gender, and lower SES. Prenatal tobacco exposure did not influence failure. Similar factors emerged in the A-Level model except that male gender contributed to likelihood of failure. Prenatal exposure remained nonsignificant. Our model suggests that adolescent exposure to ETS, not prenatal tobacco exposure, predicted failure on both O- and A-Level achievement tests when controlling for other factors known to influence achievement. Although this study has limitations, results bolster growing evidence of academic-related ETS consequences in adolescence.

  7. Review of Selected Army-Funded Research on Fog Oil Smoke Characteristics as Related to Clean Air Act Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    trials are considered questionable (Policastro and Dunn, 1985) due to problems with quality and accuracy of sampling, as well as a revealed evolution ...surrogate receptors such as filters, which would provide a source of VOCs, but absorbance of FO constituents by dissolution of waxy cuticles of...Cataldo et al. (1989), the effects of varied environmental conditions on ecological effects of FO aerosols on several plant species was conducted in the

  8. Thirdhand Smoke: What Are the Dangers to Nonsmokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Taylor Hays, M.D. Samet JM, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure: Effects in children. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 9, 2017. Samet JM, et al. Control of secondhand smoke exposure. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June ...

  9. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  10. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  11. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  12. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R...... are small and appear to be explicable. The Prevent model can be used for more general scenarios of effective health promotion, but it requires more data than the Peto et al method, which can be used only to estimate mortality related to smoking........ Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer...

  13. Research and Development of Ram/Scramjets and Turboramjets in Russia (La Recherche et le Developpement des Statoreacteurs, des Statoreacteurs a Combustion Supersonique et des Turbostatoreacteurs en Russie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    temperaiUre raase Argon heal capaclt IS constant1n \\\\1de range of lemperalll res. argon as \\\\ ell as ocher men gases ) IS pracucall :r 1deal g; s Inconstant...Uffido dd Delefato Nazionale dl’AG ARD Aeroporto Praika di Marc 00040 Pomeda (Ronu) LUXEMBOURG KrirBdiique NORVEGE Norwegian Defence Research...8217 • ■0- • •’ * - —" — LUXEMBOURG SwBtUwB NETHERLANDS itoAOARD I AMOtptra Laboratory. NLR F.O.Bo«9050i 1006BMA>is< OMfM«,OMMtoKIA0K2

  14. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  15. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Methods Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Results Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Conclusion Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke–associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:27763830

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  17. Racial resentment and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ventilation and separate non-smoking sections can eliminate secondhand smoke exposure. True False 8. A healthy non-smoker must ... limit where a person can smoke and reduce secondhand smoke exposure: a) Hurt only small businesses a) Hurt only ...

  19. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on ... than if you were to stop smoking. Quit Smoking Quitting smoking is the best thing you can ...

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  1. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may be worthwhile targeting this population group when developing smoking cessation strategies. Nicotine dependence. Tobacco products contain nicotine, which is the drug that produces dependence in smokers.6. Nicotine affects the dopaminergic system in the brain, causing a sense of well- being, and also increases ...

  2. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  3. Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Designated Smoking Areas in the Hospitality Industry: Exposure Measurement, Exposure Modelling & Policy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    MCNABOLA, AONGHUS

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to ETS present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas ...

  4. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and after they are born. 1,3 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Pregnancies Women who smoke have more difficulty ... that can harm unborn babies. 1,2 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Babies Mothers who smoke are more likely ...

  5. Data cleaning and management protocols for linked perinatal research data: a good practice example from the Smoking MUMS (Maternal Use of Medications and Safety) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Duong Thuy; Havard, Alys; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-07-11

    Data cleaning is an important quality assurance in data linkage research studies. This paper presents the data cleaning and preparation process for a large-scale cross-jurisdictional Australian study (the Smoking MUMS Study) to evaluate the utilisation and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy. Perinatal records for all deliveries (2003-2012) in the States of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia were linked to State-based data collections including hospital separation, emergency department and death data (mothers and babies) and congenital defect notifications (babies in NSW) by State-based data linkage units. A national data linkage unit linked pharmaceutical dispensing data for the mothers. All linkages were probabilistic. Twenty two steps assessed the uniqueness of records and consistency of items within and across data sources, resolved discrepancies in the linkages between units, and identified women having records in both States. State-based linkages yielded a cohort of 783,471 mothers and 1,232,440 babies. Likely false positive links relating to 3703 mothers were identified. Corrections of baby's date of birth and age, and parity were made for 43,578 records while 1996 records were flagged as duplicates. Checks for the uniqueness of the matches between State and national linkages detected 3404 ID clusters, suggestive of missed links in the State linkages, and identified 1986 women who had records in both States. Analysis of content data can identify inaccurate links that cannot be detected by data linkage units that have access to personal identifiers only. Perinatal researchers are encouraged to adopt the methods presented to ensure quality and consistency among studies using linked administrative data.

  6. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ - the protocol of a new study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM. Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration.

  7. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Elliott

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung

  8. Health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and during the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Flemming

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing smoking in pregnancy is a policy priority in many countries and as a result there has been a rise in the development of services to help pregnant women to quit. A wide range of professionals are involved in providing these services, with midwives playing a particularly pivotal role. Understanding professionals’ experiences of providing smoking cessation support in pregnancy can help to inform the design of interventions as well as to improve routine care. Methods A synthesis of qualitative research of health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and the post-partum period was conducted using meta-ethnography. Searches were undertaken from 1990 to January 2015 using terms for maternity health professionals and smoking cessation advisors, pregnancy, post-partum, smoking, and qualitative in seven electronic databases. The review was reported in accordance with the ‘Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research’ (ENTREQ statement. Results Eight studies reported in nine papers were included, reporting on the views of 190 health professionals/key informants, including 85 midwives and health visitors. The synthesis identified that both the professional role of participants and the organisational context in which they worked could act as either barriers or facilitators to an individual’s ability to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant or post-partum women. Underpinning these factors was an acknowledgment that the association between maternal smoking and social disadvantage was a considerable barrier to addressing and supporting smoking cessation Conclusions The review identifies a role for professional education, both pre-qualification and in continuing professional development that will enable individuals to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant women. Key to the success of this education

  9. Smoking media literacy in Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Huong, Nguyen T; Chi, Hoang K; Tien, Truong Q

    2011-01-01

    Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the association with smoking behavior and susceptibility to future smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 high school students completed the SML scale, which is based on an integrated theoretical framework of media literacy, and items assessing cigarette use. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the association of SML with smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Ordinal logistic regression was also to determine whether smoking in the past 30 days was associated with the 8 domains/core concepts of media literacy which comprise the SML. Smoking media literacy was lower among the Vietnamese adolescents than what has been previously reported in American adolescents. Ordinal logistic regression analysis results showed that in the total sample SML was associated with reduced smoking, but there was no association with susceptibility to future smoking. Further analysis showed that results differed according to school and grade level. There did not appear to be association of smoking with the specific domains/concepts that comprise the SML. The association of SML with reduced smoking suggests the need for further research involving SML, including the testing of media literacy training interventions, in Vietnamese adolescents and also other populations of adolescents. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  10. Building "e-rater"® Scoring Models Using Machine Learning Methods. Research Report. ETS RR-16-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Fife, James H.; Bejar, Isaac I.; Rupp, André A.

    2016-01-01

    The "e-rater"® automated scoring engine used at Educational Testing Service (ETS) scores the writing quality of essays. In the current practice, e-rater scores are generated via a multiple linear regression (MLR) model as a linear combination of various features evaluated for each essay and human scores as the outcome variable. This…

  11. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  12. Vaccines to combat smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Rick A; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Sanderson, Sam D

    2008-04-01

    Current US FDA-approved biological therapies for treating smoking target central nervous system processes. Although these therapies have had some success, relapse within a year is still high. Clearly additional strategies are needed to aid individuals in maintaining abstinence. We briefly discuss promising research using vaccines to combat smoking and then identify some potentially important directions for future research. Immunization with a nicotine vaccine generates drug-specific antibodies that sequester some of the nicotine in the peripheral circulation preventing it from entering the brain, thus decreasing its addictive effects. Albeit promising, much more research is necessary to identify more efficacious vaccine designs and formulations, as well as optimal immunization regimens. A further understanding of the factors contributing to the substantial individual differences in immunogenicity to these vaccines and how to best use vaccines in combination with other treatment strategies will increase the success of intervention efforts.

  13. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  14. A Prospective Study of Perception in Adolescent Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This prospective study examined how environmental smoking affects the perception of lifetime smoking prevalence and thereby the likelihood of subsequent regular smoking. Methods - A longitudinal design (N = 6769) with three waves was used to test our research questions. Exposure to smoking

  15. Setting the Record Straight: Secondhand Smoke is a Preventable Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  16. Smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among 6th-grade students in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K; Forster-Cox, Sue; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Buckingham, Robert W

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adolescents in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. We used a cross-sectional method to examine the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and ETS exposure of 6th-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years, attending six randomly selected middle schools. Schools were classified by school setting (i.e., public vs. private) and socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., low, middle, or high). The results indicated that 6th-grade students attending a public, low-SES school setting in Ciudad Juárez not only exhibited significantly higher rates of ETS exposure at home and in public places (p<.01) but also were more likely to have tried smoking (p<.01) and to be current smokers (p<.01), and were less likely to support a ban on smoking in public places (p<.01), compared with students who attended a private school or a public, middle- or high-SES school setting. These results provide further evidence that public health interventions to prevent initiation of smoking and to assist in smoking cessation among adolescents and to reduce their ETS exposure at home and in public need to target all school-aged students, especially those attending school in a low-SES settings.

  17. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-06-01

    Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imagery in video games (n = 6), video game playing and smoking behavior (n = 11), video game addiction and tobacco addiction (n = 5) and genre-specific game playing and smoking behavior (n = 3). Tobacco content was present in a subset of video games. The literature is inconclusive as to whether exposure to video games as a single construct is associated with smoking behavior. Four of five studies found an association between video game addiction and smoking. For genre-specific game playing, studies suggest that the type of game played affected association with smoking behavior. Research on how playing video games influences adolescents' perceptions of smoking and smoking behaviors is still in its nascence. Further research is needed to understand how adolescents respond to viewing and manipulating tobacco imagery, and whether engaging in game smoking translates into changes in real-world attitudes or behavior. Smoking imagery in video games may contribute to normalizing adolescent smoking. A large body of research has shown that smoking imagery in a variety of media types contributes to adolescent smoking uptake and the normalization of smoking behavior, and almost 90% of adolescents play video games, yet there has never been a published systematic review of the literature on this important topic. This is the first systematic review to examine the research on tobacco and video games.We found that tobacco imagery is indeed present in video games, the relationship between video game playing and smoking

  18. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  19. Changes in Smoking-Related Norms in Bars Resulting from California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2012-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act--CA Labor Code Sec. 6404.5(a)--was extended to bars in 1998. This article analyzes changes in normative beliefs and behaviors related to bar smoking in the decade following the adoption of the Act. In a series of studies evaluating the smoke-free workplace law in bars, researchers conducted extensive…

  20. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  1. Smoking-specific communication and children's smoking behaviour: an extension of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.M.; Otten, R.; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Smoking starts and progresses rapidly during adolescence. Therefore, it is important to prevent youths from smoking. Previous research is mostly conducted on adolescent samples. This innovative study will focus on smoking of children aged 9–11 years old. The aim is to test whether

  2. Practical research on junior high school mathematics about students' learning processes : using 'reflective sheet' (the Math Journal) et al.

    OpenAIRE

    吉岡, 睦美; 重松, 敬一

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the case study of mathematics education for Junior High School students' learning processes focusing students' metacognition and knowledge using 'Reflective Sheet' (the Math Journal) et al.. The metacognition is rather than direct action on the environment and the perception that target cognitive function and cognitive recognition of that, and say what happens in the mind. Especially, we use Reflective Sheet which is formed to check students' cognitive and metacognit...

  3. Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

  4. Smoke and mirrors: Magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight

    OpenAIRE

    White, Marney A.; McKee, Sherry A.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that for some smokers, weight concerns interfere with smoking cessation. Studies with individuals with eating disorders and weight concerns have indicated that weight-concerned individuals place undue faith in the effectiveness of certain weight control strategies; i.e., adopt a brand of magical thinking pertaining to food rules and dieting behaviors. The current study investigated whether weight-concerned smokers endorsed exaggerated beliefs in the ability of smoking to sup...

  5. Next-Generation Summative English Language Proficiency Assessments for English Learners: Priorities for Policy and Research. Research Report. ETS RR-16-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Hauck, Maurice Cogan

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series concerning English language proficiency (ELP) assessments for K-12 English learners (ELs). The series, produced from Educational Testing Service (ETS), is intended to provide theory- and evidence-based principles and recommendations for improving next-generation ELP assessment systems, policies, and practices…

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Methods. Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] was employed. Settings: The study was based on data from the midterm evaluation that was conducted between August-December 2012 involving ...

  7. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  8. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  9. Consumer facial expression in relation to smoked ham with the use of face reading technology. The methodological aspects and informative value of research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyra, Eliza; Rambuszek, Michał; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena; Laskowski, Wacław; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-09-01

    The study determined the emotional reactions of consumers in relation to hams using face visualization method, which was recorded by FaceReader (FR). The aims of the research were to determine the effect of the ham samples on the type of emotion, to examine more deeply the individual emotional reactions of consumers and to analyse the emotional variability with regard to the temporal measurement of impressions. The research involved testing the effectiveness of measuring emotions in response to the ongoing flavour impression after consumption of smoked hams. It was found that for all of the assessed samples, neutral and negative emotions prevailed as the overall emotions recorded during the assessment of the taste/flavour impression. The range of variability of the overall emotions depended more on the consumer reactions and less on the properties of the assessed product. Consumers expressed various emotions in time and the ham samples evoked different emotional reactions as an effect of duration of the impression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L.; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. Purpose The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Methods Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3 days, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Results Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Conclusions Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction. PMID:26743533

  11. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2016-06-01

    Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction.

  12. A survey of restaurant smoking restrictions in a Japanese city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2005-09-01

    Japan has been behind the times in terms of promoting smoking control. The health-promotion law, which included the aim of preventing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in public places, was newly introduced in Japan in 2003. The community-based survey on the present state of restaurant smoking restrictions and restaurant owners' concern of smoking is important as it is a reflection of the community's desire to prevent ETS. Data on the smoking restrictions in 163 restaurants in Yonago, one Japanese community, and the owners' smoking-related awareness were collected just one month after the law was enacted. This study revealed that only 6 (3.6%) restaurants were under sufficient conditions: 3 with totally smoke-free and 3 with complete non-smoking sections. The styles (e.g., Western-, Japanese- and Chinese-styles) and kinds of restaurants (e.g., family restaurants and tearooms) were not related to the state of smoking restrictions. Rates of smokers were relatively high among owners, and smoking owners significantly provided insufficient smoking restrictions. 26.4% of owners knew about the new law. However, there were no restaurants that started their smoking restrictions due to the law. Owners' knowledge of the law did not correlate with smoking restrictions. The owners especially feared the negative effects on business due to smoking restrictions. These survey findings suggested little protection from ETS in a sample of restaurants and a large gap in restaurant smoking restrictions compared to other countries. More widespread adoption of the health-promotion law in restaurants is an issue.

  13. Smoking, Labor, & Delivery: It's Complicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.

  14. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to three years of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baker, R. J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J. A.; Nožička, J.; Kotěšovec, F.; Dejmek, Jan; Loomis, D.; Šrám, Radim

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2006), s. 1126-1132 ISSN 0091-6765 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : ETS-environmental tobacco smoke * respiratory diseases * children health Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.861, year: 2006

  15. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Eman M; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals with hazardous adverse effects on almost every organ in the body of smokers as well as of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). There has been increasing interest in the effects of passive smoking on the health of children. In order to detect the magnitude of passive smoking in children, parental questionnaires, measuring nicotine and cotinine body levels, and evaluating expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, have been used. Passive smoking causes respiratory illness, asthma, poor growth, neurological disorders, and coronary heart diseases. Herein, we focused on the deleterious influences of passive smoking on immunity and liver. Besides, its effects on the concentrations of various biomarker levels related to the oxidant/antioxidant status were considered. Understanding these effects may help clinicians to counsel parents on smoking cessation and smoke exposure elimination. It may also help to develop interventions to improve the health of children. This review potentially demonstrated some nutraceuticals with a promising role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Smoking and Soldier Performance: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    suggest the subjective calming during smoking may be related to increased activity in the right hemisphere that balances a relatively overactive left...Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Newell et al. (1985) found 52 percent of male homosexuals with AIDS smoked more than half a pack of cigarettes...more problems with nerves, more worrying thoughts, more depression, more bladder and menstrual diffi- culties, more weight loss, more use of

  17. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  18. Smoking Patterns among Primary School Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Uncu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking continues to be a threat to global health. The number of cigarettes smoked per person tends to increase each year, and the age of starting seems to be dropping. The research related to cigarette smoking conducted among young people generally studied high school or university students. However, studies have shown that students usually start smoking during the primary school period out of curiosity or imitation. The purpose of the present study was to find the prevalence of cigarette smoking among primary school students and the reasons for starting smoking, and to determine the characteristics of cigarette smoking of their parents. This study was conducted among 17 primary schools chosen according to their socioeconomic situations in different municipality districts in Turkey, with 9,408 students participating. Data were obtained by questionnaire. The mean age to start smoking was 11.7 ± 1.6; 82.9% of the students who took part in this study had never smoked before, 13.4% had tried smoking at least once, and 3.7% had been smoking regularly. The biggest reason for smoking was just curiosity or imitation. It was determined that a risk factor for students to start smoking was parents who smoke. The 17% smoking rate among primary school students was high in our opinion and prevention studies initiated. In addition, the effects of cigarette-smoking parents on students who start smoking should also be considered.

  19. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  20. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a word, is addiction. Once You Start, It's Hard to Stop Smoking is a hard habit to ... less active than nonsmokers because smoking affects lung power. Smoking can also cause fertility problems and can ...

  1. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  2. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  3. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  4. Dynamic Associations of Negative Mood and Smoking across the Development of Smoking in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Self-medication models of smoking posit that the emotional benefits of smoking reinforce and maintain cigarette use, yet research demonstrates both positive and adverse affective consequences of smoking. The current study examined longitudinal changes in adolescent mood variability and overall negative mood at various stages of smoking behavior to inform understanding of the etiology of adolescent smoking. Method Participants included 461 adolescents (mean age = 15.67 years, SD = 0.61; 55% girls; 56.8% white) drawn from a longitudinal study of adolescent smoking. Youth provided data on smoking behavior at baseline and a 15-month follow-up wave. Ecological momentary assessments (EMA) were used to measure overall levels of negative mood as well as within-person mood fluctuations (i.e., negative mood variability) at each wave. Results Findings revealed that smoking-mood relations vary across different stages of smoking behavior. Youth who rapidly escalated in their smoking during the study experienced improved mood regulation (for girls) and improved overall mood (for boys) as smoking increased. However, mood improvements were not observed among youth with sustained heavy use and symptoms of dependence. Conclusions The current data argue for a model of smoking that accounts for changes in risk and maintenance factors at different points along the developmental trajectory of smoking, involving elements of both self-medication and dependence. PMID:23682640

  5. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; DiFranza, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to

  6. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Voi. 6 No. 2. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa. Brine treatment, smoking and storage techniques: their effects on the microbial quality of smoked mackerel. Eyabi Eyabi G. D. Research Station for Fisheries and Marine Science of the Institute of Agriculture Research for Development (IRAD). PMB77 Limbe, Cameroon.

  7. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-10-21

    smoking, by 1.5-fold, whereas the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy was not statistically significant. This study was supported by a grant in aid for scientific research 26860415. The authors have no competing interests or additional data to share. © Tanaka et al 2015.

  8. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  9. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  10. Evidence of the Value of the Smoking Media Literacy Framework for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda C.; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Susceptibility to future smoking, positive beliefs about smoking, and perceptions of antismoking norms are all factors that are associated with future smoking. In previous research, smoking media literacy (SML) has been associated with these variables, even when controlling for other known risk factors for smoking. However, these…

  11. Prevention of Adolescent Tobacco Smoking: the Social Pressure Resistance Training Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Joel D.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for smoking prevention programs that help adolescents resist social pressure and that use the results of current smoking prevention research. Theoretical foundations of current smoking prevention programs are also provided. (AS)

  12. An ET-CURE pilot project supporting undergraduate training in cancer research, emerging technology, and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Danyell S; Fang, Bin; Dalton, William S; Meade, Cathy D; Koomen, John M

    2012-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute's Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities has created pilot training opportunities under the "Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences" program that focus on emerging technologies. In this pilot project, an 18-month cancer biology research internship was reinforced with: instruction in an emerging technology (proteomics), a transition from the undergraduate laboratory to a research setting, education in cancer health disparities, and community outreach activities. A major goal was to provide underrepresented undergraduates with hands-on research experiences that are rarely encountered at the undergraduate level, including mentoring, research presentations, and participation in local and national meetings. These opportunities provided education and career development for the undergraduates, and they have given each student the opportunity to transition from learning to sharing their knowledge and from being mentored to mentoring others. Here, we present the concepts, curriculum, infrastructure, and challenges for this training program along with evaluations by both the students and their mentors.

  13. Comment on "Most computational hydrology is not reproducible, so is it really science?" by Christopher Hutton et al.: Let hydrologists learn the latest computer science by working with Research Software Engineers (RSEs) and not reinvent the waterwheel ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Drost, N.

    2017-05-01

    The suggestions by Hutton et al. might not be enough to guarantee reproducible computational hydrology. Archiving software code and research data alone will not be enough. We add to the suggestion of Hutton et al. that hydrologists not only document their (computer) work, but that hydrologists use the latest best practices in designing research software, most notably the use of containers and open interfaces. To make sure hydrologists know of these best practices, we urge close collaboration with Research Software Engineers (RSEs).

  14. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  15. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  17. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...

  18. Do Expectancies for Reinforcement from Smoking Change After Smoking Initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Schweizer, C. Amanda; Myers, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Expectancies are important predictors of smoking behavior. Recent research suggests that expectancies are not stable, and vary across internal and external states and levels of cigarette consumption. Expectancies may also vary between individuals as a function of temperamental characteristics such as behavioral undercontrol (BU). While pre-initiation expectancies have been linked to subsequent smoking behaviors, no study has assessed the effect of smoking initiation on expectancies. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that both positive (PRE) and negative (NRE) reinforcement expectancies would increase following initiation, and that these changes would be moderated by BU. College students were interviewed 12–15 months apart. Those who initiated smoking between assessments (n = 69) were included in the present study. Linear mixed models showed a significant increase in PRE but not NRE from pre- to post-initiation. The relationship between NRE and time was moderated by BU, such that higher BU was associated with significantly larger post-initiation increases in NRE. Findings suggest that PRE and NRE change significantly following experience with smoking. Further, undercontrolled, impulsive individuals may be particularly vulnerable to smoking with the intention of alleviating aversive states. PMID:20822193

  19. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 12, September 2015. Soils: from characterising different types of pollution to tackling climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    The research led by ADEME has evolved from characterising different types of pollution to providing a better understanding of complex mechanisms, such as the relationship between soils and climate change. The results of this research have focused on evaluating carbon stocks, their vulnerability to climate change and the impact of land-use change. This letter is the second of a 'triptych' of research letters put together as part of the lead up to COP21. Content: - Soils: from characterising different types of pollution to tackling climate change; - Significant results: GHG flux from soil systems and climate change; - Meeting... Jean-Francois Soussana scientific director (environment) at the French national institute for agricultural research (INRA) and Isabelle Feix national soils expert at ADEME

  20. Research on multi-level decision game strategy of electricity sales market considering ETS and block chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjie

    2017-08-01

    In order to fully consider the impact of future policies and technologies on the electricity sales market, improve the efficiency of electricity market operation, realize the dual goal of power reform and energy saving and emission reduction, this paper uses multi-level decision theory to put forward the double-layer game model under the consideration of ETS and block chain. We set the maximization of electricity sales profit as upper level objective and establish a game strategy model of electricity purchase; while we set maximization of user satisfaction as lower level objective and build a choice behavior model based on customer satisfaction. This paper applies the strategy to the simulation of a sales company's transaction, and makes a horizontal comparison of the same industry competitors as well as a longitudinal comparison of game strategies considering different factors. The results show that Double-layer game model is reasonable and effective, it can significantly improve the efficiency of the electricity sales companies and user satisfaction, while promoting new energy consumption and achieving energy-saving emission reduction.

  1. Didactique des langues et TIC : les aides à l’apprentissage Language learning research and ICT: learning aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Demaizière

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Le texte propose un parcours de la problématique des aides à l'apprentissage dans leur lien avec les TIC (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication. La première partie s'appuie sur quelques repères de l'histoire du domaine depuis l'EAO (Enseignement Assisté par Ordinateur pour mettre en évidence la variété des aides possibles. La seconde partie met l'accent sur quelques décisions à prendre pour aider l'apprenant au mieux.The text focuses on learning aids in ICT (Information and Communication Technologies environments in order to show the connection between engineering, didactics and pedagogical practice. In the first part a historical survey of the field going back to classical CAL (Computer Assisted Learning helps point out the variety of possible learning aids. The second part pinpoints a few key decisions one has to make in order to try and best help the learner.

  2. Smoke Sense Study Supported by Citizen Scientists Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are conducting a citizen science study called Smoke Sense to determine the extent to which exposure to wildland fire smoke affects health and productivity, and develop health risk communication strategies that protect public health.

  3. Both environmental tobacco smoke and personal smoking is related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Linnéa; Bjerg, Anders; Sundberg, Sigrid; Forsberg, Bertil; Rönmark, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported as a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. Among adults, personal smoking is a major cause of respiratory symptoms and diseases. The effects of these exposures on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among teenagers are less well known. The aim was to study the independent and combined effects of ETS and personal smoking on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in teenagers. A longitudinal study of asthma and allergic diseases in schoolchildren has been in progress in Northern Sweden since 1996. All children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities were invited and 3430 (97%) participants have been followed by annual questionnaires. At the age 16-17 years, 82% of the initial participants took part in the 2005 survey. Prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, ever wheeze and current wheeze was significantly higher among those exposed to maternal ETS and among daily smokers. In multivariate analyses, maternal ETS was a significant risk factor for physician-diagnosed asthma and ever wheeze (OR 1.3-1.5) and personal daily smoking for current wheeze (OR 2.0). ORs for asthma and ever wheeze were highest among daily smokers who were also exposed to maternal ETS with ORs of 1.7 and 2.5, respectively. A significant dose-response association between number of cigarettes/day and the prevalence of wheeze was also found. Both ETS and personal smoking were significantly related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers. Maternal ETS exposure was associated with lifetime symptoms, but daily smoking among the teenagers was more strongly related to current symptoms.

  4. Effect of Smoking on Pharmacokinetics of Clopidogrel, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Smoking behavior may not be a significant determinant of the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel following oral administration .... LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; RBC, red blood cell;. WBC, white blood cell; Hgb, hemoglobin ..... Montalescot G, Hacke W, Fox KA, Lincoff AM, Topol. EJ et al. Smoking, clopidogrel, and ...

  5. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tang R, Posner MI. Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013;110(34):13971-13975. Walker N, Howe C, Glover M, et al. Cytisine versus nicotine for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(25): ...

  6. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  7. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  8. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  9. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 13, December 2015. Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This Research letter is the last in a series of three letters dedicated to climate change, produced in the run up to COP21. It covers the research carried out and the results obtained, with the support of ADEME, in terms of air quality and climate change. Content: - Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues; - Significant Results: Implementing solutions to improve air quality in a wider context of climate change; - Meeting...: Vincent-Henri Peuch and Nathalie Poisson: 'Air and climate quality - developing joint solutions: a necessity'

  10. [Laboratory of Pharmacognosy of Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (Portugal): teaching and et research (1902-1980)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Célia; Lígia Salgueiro; Pita, João Rui

    2016-03-01

    In this article the authors present a brief history of the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Portugal (1902-1980). The authors refer the importance of pharmacognosy in the study plans, the scientific research and the scientific collection of pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra. This heritage consists of collection of drugs prepared in the laboratory of pharmacognosy, a collection Drogen-Lehrsammlung purchased to E. Merck and a collection of botanic-didactic models of the XIXth century of the famous German manufacturer R. Brendel. The authors study the relationship between research and teaching, highlighting the importance of the collections of drugs.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  12. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Lesage

    2011-01-01

    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  13. Defining and Operationalizing the Construct of Pragmatic Competence: Review and Recommendations. Research Report. ETS RR-15-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe Laughlin, Veronika; Wain, Jennifer; Schmidgall, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This review paper constitutes the first step within a larger research effort to develop an interactive pragmatics learning tool for second and foreign language (L2) learners and users of English. The tool will primarily endeavor to support pragmatics learning within the language use domain "workplace." Given this superordinate objective,…

  14. Automated Subscores for TOEFL iBT[R] Independent Essays. Research Report. ETS RR-11-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    The e-rater[R] automated essay scoring system is used operationally in the scoring of TOEFL iBT[R] independent essays. Previous research has found support for a 3-factor structure of the e-rater features. This 3-factor structure has an attractive hierarchical linguistic interpretation with a word choice factor, a grammatical convention within a…

  15. An Exploratory Study of Teaching Tasks in English as a Foreign Language Education. Research Report. ETS RR-17-56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Timpe-Laughlin, Veronika; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    Due to rising demand for qualified teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL), interest in issues pertaining to the language proficiency of these teachers has increased. However, research focusing on the teaching tasks that EFL teachers engage in for the purposes of EFL instruction is scant. The present study aims to address this gap in the…

  16. Machines a Comprendre la Parole: Methodologie et Bilan de Recherche (Automatic Speech Recognition: Methodology and the State of the Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haton, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Still no decisive result has been achieved in the automatic machine recognition of sentences of a natural language. Current research concentrates on developing algorithms for syntactic and semantic analysis. It is obvious that clues from all levels of perception have to be taken into account if a long term solution is ever to be found. (Author/MSE)

  17. Preschoolers' Executive Function: Importance, Contributors, Research Needs and Assessment Options. Policy Information Report and ETS Research Report Series No. RR-17-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2017-01-01

    The early education field increasingly is recognizing the key role played by young children's executive function (EF) skills, generally defined as the cognitive abilities that consciously support goal-directed behaviors. To provide the field with an overview of research conducted on this topic over the past 15 years, we review research on the…

  18. Overview of thermal-stimulation production-test results for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dallimore, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Huenges, E.; Henninges, J. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The production data obtained during a thermal stimulation test program at the Mallik 5L-38 research test well was presented. The test was used to observe the dissociation of a well-defined and constrained hydrate interval at temperatures above the hydrate stability point and at constant pressure. Tests results were used to calibrate numerical simulation models to determine the in-situ kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the hydrate. The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well study involved the collection of surface and downhole data as well as the use of several advanced monitoring and investigation tools. The thermal stimulation test resulted in increased bottom hole temperature which remained constant above 50 degrees C. Dissociated gas was produced, sampled, and flared at surface. In addition, large amounts of real-time downhole temperature and pressure data was obtained.

  19. Attentional bias for smoking-related information in pregnant women: relationships with smoking experience, smoking attitudes and perceived harm to foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Rebecca; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P

    2012-09-01

    According to recent models of drug dependence, attentional bias for drug cues provides an index of vulnerability to drug-taking and relapse. The present study examined attentional bias for smoking-related information in pregnant women and its relationship with smoking experience and attitudes. Participants were 71 pregnant women (35 without smoking experience; 36 with experience of smoking, of whom 16 reported currently smoking). Attentional bias was assessed from the interference index of smoking-related words on a modified Stroop task. The attentional bias for smoking cues was positively associated with smoking experience, and with more favourable general attitudes to smoking (i.e. incentive-related bias). The bias was also greater in women who perceived greater harm of passive smoking to their foetus (i.e. threat-related bias), which was independent of smoking experience. Results indicate that attentional bias for smoking-related cues is independently associated with both incentive-related (reward) and threat-related (aversive) evaluations of cigarette smoking in pregnant women. This work highlights the need for longitudinal research to investigate whether the attentional bias provides a cognitive index of vulnerability for persistent smoking behaviour both during and after pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motives underlying smoking in college students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kerrie Glass; Flory, Kate

    2017-05-01

    The positive association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and smoking in youth has been well documented. Less research has examined why individuals with ADHD, particularly college students, are at increased risk for smoking. This longitudinal study examined whether smoking motives [cognitive enhancement, tolerance, negative reinforcement (smoking to reduce negative affect or stress), craving, social influences, and weight control] helped to explain the relation between ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and cigarette smoking among college students. Participants were 889 undergraduates (21% men) and their parents who completed online surveys at the beginning and end of the Fall semester regarding their smoking behaviors, ADHD symptoms, and smoking motives. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data and answer research questions. Nineteen percent of students reported smoking, while 20% reported one or more inattentive symptoms, 35% reported one or more hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, and 3.3% met criteria for ADHD. All smoking motives significantly moderated the relation between inattentive symptoms and smoking, while most smoking motives (negative reinforcement, tolerance, craving, cognitive enhancement, and weight control) moderated the link between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and smoking. Results remained significant after controlling for stimulant medication use and conduct disorder symptoms. Conclusions/Importance. Addressing negative reinforcement, craving, social influences, and tolerance in prevention and intervention efforts on college campuses may reduce smoking. Results also highlight the importance of assessing a range of ADHD symptoms in college students as ADHD symptoms, even at subthreshold levels, were associated with increased smoking rates among college students.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailaku, SI; Syakir, M.; Mulyawanti, I.; Syah, ANA

    2017-06-01

    Coconut shell liquid smoke is produced from the pyrolysis and condensation of smoke from the burning process of coconut shell. It is known to have considerably high content of polyphenol. Beside acting as antioxidant, polyphenol is also a good antimicrobial. This research was conducted in order to study the antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke. Coconut shell liquid smoke used in this study was produced from three different processing stages, which obtained three different grades of liquid smoke (grade 1, 2 and 3). Each sample of coconut shell liquid smoke was extracted using ethyl alcohol and petroleum ether. The extract was then analyzed for its antimicrobial activity against S. aereus, E. coli and C. albicans using well diffusion method. Total phenol and microbial microscopic structure of the liquid smoke were also examined. The results showed that there was influence of coconut shell liquid smoke on the inhibition of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albican growth. This fact was marked by the forming of clear area surrounding the well on the dish agar media. The highest percentage of inhibition showed by the extract of grade 3 coconut shell liquid smoke. This may be explained by the highest total phenol content in grade 3 liquid smoke. Microscopic examination showed that there was a breakage of microbial cell walls caused by the antimicrobial property of the liquid smoke. It was concluded that coconut shell liquid smoke was beneficial as antimicrobial agent, and while all grades of liquid smoke contains polyphenol, the content was influenced by the processing stage and thus influenced its level of microbial growth inhibition.

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  4. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Seo, Shinya; Sasaki, Yuichiro.

    1985-01-01

    The chronic effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), and on serum lipids and lipoprotein levels in neurologically normal subjects from 25 to 85 years old were studied. CBF was studied by the 133-Xenon inhalation method and gray matter flow was calculated following the method of Obrist et al. A hundred and twentyfive subjects who had no abnormalities in neurological examinations nor in CT scan, were divided into two groups smokers (48) and non-smokers (77). Those who had a smoking index (Number of cigarettes/day) x (years of smoking history)>200 were designated as smokers. The mean smoking index of smokers was 697. sixty-five of the 77 subjects in the non-smoking group had never smoked, and the mean smoking index of non-smokers was 16. Increased reduction of CBF with advancing age was clearly observed. In the male, CBF was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (mean CBF 15% lower in smokers, p<0.001). Compared to non-smokers, CBF in smokers was found to be significantly lower than the expected age matched value. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol values in smokers were significantly lower, and total cholesterol levels significantly higher than in non-smokers. We concluded that smoking chronically reduced CBF. Age dependent decrease of CBF was deteriorated by chronic smoking. Then, chronic smoking was suggested to be a risk factor for brain aging. Decrease of CBF in smokers was probably due to advanced atherosclerosis which produces vascular narrowing and raised resistance in cerebral blood vessels. (author)

  5. Research and photovoltaic industry at the United States; Recherche et industrie photovoltaique (PV) aux Etats-Unis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, Ch.; Herino, R.; Delville, R.; Allegre, R

    2006-06-15

    For a big country as the United States, the solar energy can be a solution for the air quality improvement, the greenhouse gases fight and the reduction of the dependence to the imported petroleum and also for the economic growth by the increase of the employment in the solar industry sector. This document takes stock on the photovoltaic in the United States in the industrial and research domains. The american photovoltaic industry is the third behind the Japan and the Germany. (A.L.B.)

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke and childhood asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Jin Song

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has become an important worldwide public health issue. Children are particularly vulnerable to ETS because they are still developing. ETS exposure causes a wide range of adverse health effects on childhood asthma. There is convincing evidence that ETS exposure is causally associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, increased severity of asthma and worsening asthma control in children who already have the disease, even though a causal relationship with asthma onset is not yet established for asthma incidence. Mechanisms underlying these adverse effects of ETS are not clearly elucidated but e studies on this issue suggest that genetic susceptibility, impaired lung function, and augmented airway inflammation and remodeling may be involved. Children with asthma are just as likely to be exposed to ETS as children in general and there is no risk-free level of exposure. Therefore, providing a smoke-free environment may be of particular importance to the asthmatic children exposed to ETS who have adverse asthma outcomes, as well as to children with genetic susceptibility who are at increased risk of developing asthma upon exposure to ETS in early childhood.

  7. Bi-directional relations between anti-smoking parenting practices and adolescent smoking in a Dutch sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vermulst, Ad A; de Vries, Hein

    2007-11-01

    Parenting is generally regarded a determinant of adolescent behavior, whereas the reverse is seldom considered. Reported effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking are inconsistent. Cross-sectional results may have been misinterpreted and child effects have been overlooked. The main goal of this study was to explain previous inconsistent effects of anti-smoking parenting practices, by examining bi-directional relations between parenting and adolescent smoking. Bi-directional relations were studied using a cross-lagged model where anti-smoking house rules, communication about smoking, and adolescent smoking were assessed at three subsequent years. The most prominent finding was that adolescent smoking behavior was a stronger predictor of parenting than vice versa. Anti-smoking house rules decreased as a result of adolescent smoking behavior, while communication increased. The reduction in house rules was more pronounced if parents smoked, while the increase in communication was greater for non-smoking parents. Results were independent of adolescent sex. Further research is needed to establish which aspects of parenting can be effective in deterring adolescent smoking. This study emphasizes the need for caution in interpreting cross-sectional research findings relating parenting to adolescent smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Smoke from Colorado Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Hayman fire, situated about 65 kilometers southwest of Denver, Colorado, is the largest fire ever recorded in that state. The amount and distribution of smoke from the Hayman fire and from the Ponil Complex fires south of the New Mexico-Colorado border are portrayed in these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were captured on June 9, 2002, on the second day of the Hayman fire, when only about 13 percent of the total 137,000 acres eventually consumed had been scorched.The image at top-left was acquired by MISR's most oblique (70-degree) forward-viewing camera, and the view at bottom-left was captured by MISR's 26-degree forward-viewing camera. Both left-hand panels are 'false color' views, utilizing near-infrared, red, and blue spectral bands displayed as red, green and blue respectively. With this spectral combination, highly vegetated areas appear red. At top right is a map of aerosol optical depth. This map utilizes the capability of the oblique view angles to measure the abundance of particles in the atmosphere. Haze distributed across the eastern part of the state is indicated by a large number of green pixels, and areas where no retrieval occurred are shown in dark grey. The more oblique perspective utilized within the top panels enhances the appearance of smoke and reveals the haze. In the lower left-hand panel the view is closer to nadir (downward-looking). Here the smoke plumes appear more compact and the haze across eastern Colorado is not detected. The lower right-hand panel is a stereoscopically derived height field that echoes the compact shape of the smoke plumes in the near-nadir image. Results indicate that the smoke plumes reached altitudes of a few kilometers above the surface terrain, or about the same height as the small clouds that appear orange along the bottom edge to the left of center.Data used in these visualizations were generated as part of operational processing at the Atmospheric Sciences Data

  9. Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Widome, Rachel; Perry, Cheryl L.; Forster, Jean L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify distinct smoking trajectories during adolescence and assess how smoking-related factors relate to trajectory membership. Methods The sample includes 3637 youth from across the state of Minnesota. Measures include tobacco use, smoking behaviors of parents and friends, youth smoking-related attitudes and beliefs, and home smoking policies. A cohort-sequential design was used to identify smoking trajectories, including five cohorts of youth (ages 12–16) followed for 3 years. Results Six distinct trajectories of tobacco use were found: nonsmokers (54%), triers (17%), occasional users (10%), early established (7%), late established (8%), and decliners (4%). Several factors were associated with increased likelihood of being in a smoking trajectory group (vs. the nonsmoking group): parental smoking, friend smoking, greater perceptions of the number of adults and teenagers who smoke, and higher functional meaning of tobacco use. In contrast, higher perceived difficulty smoking in public places, negative perceptions of the tobacco industry, and home smoking policies were associated with less likelihood of being in one of the smoking trajectories (vs. the nonsmoking trajectory). Conclusions Adolescents exhibit diverse patterns of smoking during adolescence and tobacco-related influences were strong predictors of trajectory membership. PMID:18809130

  10. Review of the Relationships Among Psychosocial Stress, Secondhand Smoke, and Perinatal Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Karen R

    To summarize and evaluate the recently published literature in which the relationships among psychosocial stress, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke during the perinatal period are examined, and to describe the characteristics and demographics of the samples. Electronic databases MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and PsychINFO. In addition, hand searches of reference lists supplemented the electronic search. English language, peer-reviewed studies published between 2010 and 2015 on the relationships of self-reported or perceived stress, smoking, and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and postpartum were included. Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Data that specified the relationships among smoking, stress, and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy and postpartum were extracted from the studies. A table matrix, available as supplemental material, to summarize the literature and sample characteristics and demographics was created. Evidence from the included studies supported an association between psychosocial stress specific to pregnancy or from other sources and smoking or smoking relapse during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. In the studies in which it was included, exposure to secondhand smoke was cited as a barrier to abstinence. It is probable that women who persistently smoke in pregnancy experience elevated stress. Further research with longitudinal designs and inclusion of secondhand smoke as a variable are needed. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultra-hard materials: brief presentation and prospective research; Materiaux ultra-durs. Generalites et demarche prospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betranhandy, E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie et Physique de Bordeaux, 33 (France); Matar, S.F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, 33 (France)

    2006-02-15

    During the last twenty years, the needs of the abrasives and cutting tools industry have led to an intensive research on ultra-hard materials (such as diamond). As a consequence, their exceptional mechanical characteristics were linked with their chemical compositions (based on light elements: B, C, N) and their crystal structures (tri-dimensionality). These reports had led to new developments: mostly in theory on one hand, in the 80's and 90's, and, on the other hand, in synthesis, essentially since the beginning of this century. Then, the various remarks make us wonder about other questions induced by those materials: about chemistry (oxides), physical chemistry (new phases) and physics (polycrystalline materials). (authors)

  12. Keith F. Durkin et al., Pathological internet communities: A new direction for sexual deviance research in a post modern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEITH F. DURKIN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of the Internet and related technologies on the nature of deviant behavior, deviant communities, and the future of deviance research. The idea that pathological communities, once largely suppressed by time, space, and societal restraints, can now create and use virtual communities is focal. Those new communities may expand their numbers and/or pathology, while reinforcing their rationales for rule violations. Investigation of these new virtual communities is especially complex for both conceptual and methodological reasons: identity is hard to ascertain in cyber-settings; nationality, ethnicity and other background traits and standard (e.g., random sampling methods are not feasible. Nonetheless, the impact of communications technology on the creation and expansion of pathologically deviant communities requires exploration to determine whether, for example, immersion and social support lead to satiation-catharsis, more aggressive real-time behavior, and/or increases in the depth and number of pathological sexual preferences.

  13. [Smoking and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Satoshi

    2007-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, numerous investigations have demonstrated epidemiologically and biologically that smoking is one of the most significant risk factors with respect to the development and progression of periodontal disease. In terms of the mechanism via which smoking influences periodontitis progression, various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Furthermore, since it is well known that smoking is also a risk factor of osteoporosis, the combination of smoking with osteoporosis further enhances the risk of periodontal disease. Recent investigations reported that passive smoking exposure may be a risk factor of periodontal disease and may stimulate inflammatory responses of periodontal tissue.

  14. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  15. Epidemiology and etiology of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, Ty S; Rao, Uma

    2005-10-01

    Despite the socioeconomic and personal health costs directly attributed to smoking, over one-half of high school seniors have used cigarettes, and over 15% of seniors are daily smokers. This review summarizes the recent research concerning the psychosocial and physiologic risk and protective factors associated with adolescent smoking. Studies of the psychosocial risk factors have added to the evidence that stress, peers and family influences, ethnicity, and depression all serve as risk factors for the development and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Protective factors include parental expectations and monitoring, religious activity, and sociopolitical factors, such as tobacco-related marketing bans and higher cigarette taxes. Adolescent smoking trajectories have been further defined and can be used to classify smokers in terms of dependence symptoms. Finally, neurobiological research has focused to a large extent on the concept of disinhibition as a risk factor for smoking in adolescents. While rates of smoking in adolescents have declined since 1997, millions of adolescents initiate or continue smoking each year, with deleterious health and psychosocial consequences. Research into the risk and protective factors for adolescent smoking, particularly that which ties psychosocial and neurobiological factors together, is necessary to inform the development of tailored and maximally efficacious treatments for this population.

  16. How do we determine the impact of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking cessation or reduction? Review and recommendations for answering the research question with scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Feirman, Shari P; Niaura, Raymond S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Glasser, Allison M; Collins, Lauren K; Abrams, David B

    2018-03-01

    To propose a hierarchy of methodological criteria to consider when determining whether a study provides sufficient information to answer the question of whether e-cigarettes can facilitate cigarette smoking cessation or reduction. A PubMed search to 1 February 2017 was conducted of all studies related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation or reduction. Australia, Europe, Iran, Korea, New Zealand and the United States. 91 articles. Coders organized studies according to six proposed methodological criteria: (1) examines outcome of interest (cigarette abstinence or reduction), (2) assesses e-cigarette use for cessation as exposure of interest, (3) employs appropriate control/comparison groups, (4) ensures that measurement of exposure precedes the outcome, (5) evaluates dose and duration of the exposure and (6) evaluates the type and quality of the e-cigarette used. Twenty-four papers did not examine the outcomes of interest. Forty did not assess the specific reason for e-cigarette use as an exposure of interest. Twenty papers did not employ prospective study designs with appropriate comparison groups. The few observational studies meeting some of the criteria (duration, type, use for cessation) triangulated with findings from three randomized trials to suggest that e-cigarettes can help adult smokers quit or reduce cigarette smoking. Only a small proportion of studies seeking to address the effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation or reduction meet a set of proposed quality standards. Those that do are consistent with randomized controlled trial evidence in suggesting that e-cigarettes can help with smoking cessation or reduction. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Comment on "Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Chen and colleagues describe social factors that are related with Chinese adolescent smoking behaviors [Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al., 2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.009]. These types of studies in China are very much needed given the fact that smoking is a significant health problem in China. Environmental factors may be more important than sometimes thought, since some studies suggest that smoking onset may not be such a 'reasoned' process by youngsters (Kremers, S.P., Mudde, A.N., de Vries, N.K., Brug, J., de Vries, H., 2004. Unplanned smoking initiation: new insights and implications for interventions. Patient Educ. Couns. 55 (3), 345-52.). Studies indicate that a multitude of factors are related to smoking onset, and thus deserve attention in a smoking prevention approach (see, e.g., [Tyas, S., Pederson, L., 1998. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. Tob. Control 7, 409-420; Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, K., et al., 2000. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tob. Control 9, 47-63]). The study conclusions were derived from a cross-sectional report. Consequently, one needs to be careful in making conclusions about causal pathways [Bauman, K., Fisher, L., 1986. On the measurement of friend behavior in research on friend influence and selection: findings from longitudinal studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. J. Youth Adolesc. 15 (4), 345-353]. Longitudinal studies also suggest the impact of selection mechanisms implying that adolescents were not pressured to start to smoke, but selected smoking friends. Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al.'s [2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10

  18. Production-test planning for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Dallimore, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Hancock, S.H.; Weatherill, B. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    The development of the gas hydrate production-test experiments for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 well was reviewed. The research well was drilled to confirm the feasibility of natural gas production from gas hydrate deposits by depressurization and thermal stimulation, and to collect enough data to determine relevant gas hydrate formation properties. The production of the free-gas interval at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone was examined along with other tests for gas hydrate accumulation at the Mallik well. This perforated the hydrate interval to allow for both small and large-scale pressure drawdown tests directly in a gas hydrate zone. Other gas hydrate accumulation tests included inhibitor stimulations; horizontal wells; complex multiple-well experiments; and thermal stimulations. Modern pressure transient analysis techniques were also used to analyze the bottomhole data.

  19. Young Women's Responses to Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Carey, Joanne; Haines, Rebecca; Okoli, Chizimuzo; Johnson, Kenneth C.; Easley, Julie; Ferrence, Roberta; Baillie, Lynne; Ptolemy, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence confirms that young women who smoke or who have regular long-term exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) have an increased risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this research was to examine the responses of young women to health information about the links between active smoking and SHS exposure and breast cancer…

  20. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  1. Universal smoking installation of rotary type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminov V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the research carried out by the authors the most technological installations for producing meat and fish products are oriented only on one type of raw material (meat or fish, as well as the kind of smoking (cold or hot. Limitations are related to the maximum temperature of the drying agent that affects the product; presence of the system for maintaining the relative humidity of the air mixture; presence of the smoke cooling system coming from the smoke generator and a number of other factors. Enterprises expanding the range of products are forced to purchase new equipment. With a limited production area especially for small businesses this is not convenient. In the paper, a universal smoking installation of the rotor type (USIRT is considered for the production of both meat and fish products using cold or hot smoking. The installation is oriented to a wide range of products. The presence of the smoke cooling system will allow the production of cold smoking products, the presence of the dehumidification and humidification system for the smoke-air mixture will ensure the maintenance of the required technological regime for producing fish and meat products. Based on the example of cold smoking studies have shown that the duration of the process should be reduced while maintaining the quality of the product. For this purpose, ultrasonic (US vibrations have been applied to the smoke-air mixture in USIRT. The studies have been carried out to identify the best type of ultrasound radiators capable of transmitting vibrations of the installation metal surface and from it to pass into the smoke-air mixture in order to intensify the process of cold smoking. The necessary power of ultrasonic generators has been determined. Comparative results of technological processes with the application of ultrasound in the production of fish products have been presented.

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure and family's home smoking policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Gabriele; Fromme, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have analysed the impact of different socioeconomic indicators on the prevalence of children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at several indoor environments and on family's home smoking policy. Data on 12 422 pre-school children (48% female) from two cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-06 in Germany were analysed. Exposure assessment was based on parental report. Independent effects of socioeconomic indicators were determined by mutually adjustment in logistic regression analyses. Low parental education, unemployment, low household equivalent income, non-German nationality, single-parent family and family size were independently associated with children's ETS exposure at home and in cars. The strongest associations were observed for low parental education [at home: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-4.49; in cars: 5.00; 3.84-6.50]. Indicators of material living conditions (relative poverty: 0.48; 0.39-0.57, parental unemployment: 0.55; 0.46-0.65), as well as single-parent family, non-German nationality and family size, but not parental education, were independently associated with ETS exposure at hospitality venues. Smoking households with low parental education, unemployment, poverty, single-parent family and non-German nationality were less likely to have the rule of exclusively smoking on the balcony or terrace. Low parental education and unemployment were negatively associated with no smoking in presence of the child in households with smoking inside the flat. Several dimensions of socioeconomic position have to be considered in explanations of social inequalities in children's ETS exposure and family's home smoking policy as well as in development of targeted interventions.

  3. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  4. School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.

  5. The case for investigating social context in laboratory studies of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimoff, John D; Sayette, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    With increasing frequency, addiction is conceived of as a brain disease, and such accounts seem especially pertinent with regard to the rapid delivery of nicotine to the brain via cigarette smoke. Moreover, drug administration trials (cigarette puffs) suggest that the behavior of smoking becomes automatized, with individuals developing prototypical approaches to smoking a cigarette. Compared with presumably more social activities, such as drinking alcohol, there may be little opportunity for social processes to influence smoking behavior. However, survey research examining smoking motivation often reveals a broadly defined 'social' factor and field research suggests that social context does influence smoking. We posit that laboratory smoking research has largely ignored social contextual factors that may help to understand better the precise mechanisms underlying smoking behavior and smoking motivation. We reviewed laboratory studies examining the effect of social context (operationalized as modeling) on smoking behavior. Studies were identified by searching PsychInfo and Medline using the following keywords: smoking, nicotine, tobacco, cigarette, consumption, topography, puff, smoking behavior, cigarettes smoked, modeling, imitation, social context, social influence and peer pressure. The reference and citation lists of these studies were then searched to identify additional studies. Few laboratory smoking studies target social context. Those few studies indicate that smoking behavior can be influenced by the presence of others. There is also some evidence that social context influences the effects of smoking as well as processes related to self-perception and self-regulation that reinforce smoking and hamper smoking cessation efforts. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Manufacture of the Futuristic Castable Type of Screening Smoke Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Amarjit Singh; U. K. Patil; P. K. Mishra

    1986-01-01

    The present trend abroad is to replace conventional smoke compositions with castable type of smoke compositions because of superior performance of the latter over the former. The technology of castable screening smokes has been recently developed for the first time in India by the Explosives Research & Development Laboratory, Pune. This paper discusses the various advantages in large scale manufacture of castable type of screening smoke composition. A comparison is also made with the conv...

  7. Effects of plasma lipids and smoking on cognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİN, Oğuz; ÖZKARA, Adem; YANIK, Burcu; YİĞİTOĞLU, M. Ramazan; İLHAN, Atilla; KIBRISLI, Erkan; ŞENCAN, İrfan; CANBAL, Metin

    2011-01-01

    To research the relations between plasma lipids and smoking as they affect cognitive functions. Some studies have suggested a relationship between plasma cholesterol concentration, smoking, and the frequency of cognitive disturbances. Our hypothesis was that plasma lipids and smoking are related to cognitive impairment. Materials and methods: The plasma lipid profiles and cognitive functions of the subjects were measured and the relations among plasma lipid levels, smoking, and cognitive fu...

  8. The Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Advertising on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising on youth smoking. NRT advertising could decrease smoking by informing smokers that the product can make quitting easier and thus inducing more smokers to try and quit. However, a moral hazard is created because NRT advertising increases the expectation that cessation is relatively easy. NRT advertising could thus induce youth to smoke, to smoke more and/or to delay quit attempts. Data from Nielsen Media Research ...

  9. A longitudinal study on the effects of maternal smoking and secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija Val, Victoria; Escribano Subías, Joaquín; Canals Sans, Josefa

    2012-06-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72 h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15 cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. School smoking policies and educational inequalities in smoking behaviour of adolescents aged 14-17 years in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; de Korte, Rosaline; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Richter, Matthias; Moor, Irene; Rimpelä, Arja H.; Perelman, Julian; Federico, Bruno; Kunst, Anton E.; Lorant, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effects of school smoking policies are inconclusive and there is no research on whether the effects of school policies vary by educational level. We examined the association between school smoking policies and smoking behaviour among adolescents aged 14-17 years in Europe and assessed

  11. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States.

  12. Teenagers and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The Coalition on Smoking OR Health was established to coordinate education programs to discourage young people from smoking. Projects that could be undertaken by parent associations are suggested. (MT)

  13. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  14. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  15. [Smoking and stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoichiro

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the brain infarction (lacunar and atherothrombotic brain infarction) and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Not only active smoking but also passive smoking and smokeless tobacco products pose a risk. The risk after smoking cessation for 5-10 years is equal to that faced by a non-smoker. Many patients continue smoking even after an attack of stroke; therefore, support measures to enforce nonsmoking are required in this high-risk population. We offer nonsmoking support using the 5A approach, and assess the nonsmoking stage (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). We also administer medical therapy for smoking cessation when the patients find it difficult to quit smoking on their own accord. Nicotine dependency needs a follow-up like that required for other risk factors in the primary and secondary prevention of the stroke because smoking is a chronic disease that tends to recur.

  16. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzaban; Khalili; Ziaei

    2013-01-01

    Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspe...

  17. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its association with tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuramalu, B G; Huliraj, N; Prashanth Kumar, S P; Ramesh Masthi, N R; Srinivasa Babu, C R

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) epidemiology in the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India, which covers a population of 44,387 to find out the prevalence of COPD in adult subjects of 35 years and above using cluster sampling technique and to determine the association of tobacco smoking, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS) exposure and type of cooking fuel used with COPD. The overall prevalence of COPD was 4.36%. The prevalence among males and females were 5.32% and 3.41% respectively. The prevalence was found to be increasing with an increase in age. The tobacco smoke and exposure to ETS was significantly associated with higher odds of COPD with adjusted odds ratio 2.97 and 2.67 respectively. Thus, there was a significant association between tobacco smoking and ETS exposure with COPD.

  18. et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    experienced (Bath, 2006), while indications are that no new drenches are in the process of being developed. Existing strategies for the control of these pathogens are thus challenged (Bath, 2006), and alternative strategies need to be formulated (Vatta et al., 2000). A possible avenue for dealing with the challenge of ...

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the home or outside the home and the following variables: sex; parental smoking status; and whether best friend was a smoker or not. Results: Of the 2427 non-smoker teenagers who participated in this study, 52.8% were females, 17.9% were exposed to ETS at home while 48.7% were exposed to ETS outside of the ...

  20. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...

  1. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S.; Godfrey, C.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  2. Wildfire Smoke Emissions webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presented by Wayne Cascio will highlight updates to the Wildfire Smoke Guide, as well as the Smoke Sense app, which is a mobile application that gets air quality information to people impacted by wildfire smoke, and helps those affected learn

  3. Sharp v Port Kembla RSL Club: establishing causation of laryngeal cancer by environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bernard W; Semmler, Peter C B

    2002-02-04

    A New South Wales Supreme Court jury has decided that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) can cause or materially contribute to the development of laryngeal cancer. Evidence presented that ETS may cause or materially contribute to laryngeal cancer included the molecular genetics of tobacco-smoke-induced carcinogenesis, and two relevant epidemiological studies. The plaintiff's exposure to ETS was established indirectly, on the basis of occupational history involving work as a bar attendant in licensed premises. The jury's decision seems likely to encourage other "passive smoking" cases, and may result in measures to reduce occupational exposure to ETS.

  4. Model of unplanned smoking initiation of children and adolescents: an integrated stage model of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, S P J; Mudde, A N; De Vries, H

    2004-05-01

    Two lines of psychological research have attempted to spell out the stages of adolescent smoking initiation. The first has focused on behavioral stages of smoking initiation, while the second line emphasized motivational stages. A large international sample of European adolescents (N = 10,170, mean age = 13.3 years) was followed longitudinally. Self-reported motivational and behavioral stages of smoking initiation were integrated, leading to the development of the Model of Unplanned Smoking Initiation of Children and Adolescents (MUSICA). The MUSICA postulates that youngsters experiment with smoking while they are in an unmotivated state as regards their plans for smoking regularly in the future. More than 95% of the total population resided in one of the seven stages distinguished by MUSICA. The probability of starting to smoke regularly during the 12 months follow-up period increased with advanced stage assignment at baseline. Unique social cognitive predictors of stage progression from the various stages were identified, but effect sizes of predictors of transitions were small. The integration of motivational and behavioral dimensions improves our understanding of the process of smoking initiation. In contrast to current theories of smoking initiation, adolescent uptake of smoking behavior was found to be an unplanned action.

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  6. Rapid smoking may not be aversive in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jill M; Gandhi, Kunal K; Lu, Shou-En; Steinberg, Marc L; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-01-01

    Aversive smoking has been investigated as a smoking cessation technique that involves rapid smoking in a clinic or laboratory and typically involves (a) puffing every 6-10 s or (b) smoking 3 or more cigarettes sequentially in 8-20 min. Rapid smoking usually results in dizziness, sore throat, nausea, and other unpleasant feelings. To explore rapid smoking, 161 smokers (75 with schizophrenia [SS]; 86 controls [CON]) were assessed in a single day (24 ± 2 hr), ad libitum smoking topography session using the Clinical Research Support System micro portable topography device. SS smoked significantly more cigarettes in the 24-hr period versus CON and the time between puffs, or interpuff interval (IPI) was shorter in SS versus CON by an average of 6.5 s (p smoke 3 or more cigarettes in any 20 min during a 24-hr topography session (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.44; p smoking was associated with baseline characteristics of smoking more cigarettes per day, higher Fagerström score, and higher carbon monoxide level but not with serum cotinine values or trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratios. Using either definition, SS exhibit patterns of rapid smoking that they seemingly do not experience as aversive, since it reflects their naturalistic pattern of smoking, outside of the laboratory.

  7. Smoking at school: views of Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Nazmiye; Erdogan, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    The recent interest in cigarette smoking among university students has brought attention to problems concerning opinions, attitudes, prevention, health education, policy formulation and implementation. This survey research tested five hypotheses on the views of college students about smoking in school hallways and cafeteria, compliance with anti smoking laws, considering cigarette smoking as an expression of freedom of choice, teachers' smoking in classrooms and in their offices, and school administration's policy on enforcing the law. Hypothesized differences between students' views on the issues according to gender, smoking status and years at school were investigated. Data were obtained from 3,659 students attending six universities in Ankara, Turkey. The study findings provided support for all the hypothesized differences (except a single issue). Males and females differed significantly on all the issues studied. The majority of nonsmoking students have anti-smoking views in regards of the studied issues as compared to regular and occasional smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers markedly disagree on banning cigarette smoking in the cafeteria and hallways. However, the majority of students are against teachers' smoking in classrooms and in their offices with the doors open. Although most students want a smoke free environment, there is no active-anti smoking policy on smoking by universities. Findings point out the need for campus-wide effective smoking prevention programs, as well as cessation programs and services for the students.

  8. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    persistent smoking (ARR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15, P<0.001. Within the HIV cohort, having a detectable HIV RNA was significantly associated with all three smoking outcomes.HIV was independently associated with both smoking and not quitting smoking, using a novel algorithm to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data and accounting for multiple confounding clinical factors. Further research is needed to identify HIV-related barriers to smoking cessation and develop aggressive interventions specific to HIV-infected patients.

  9. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  10. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollina, U

    2015-08-01

    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Adolescent Social Networks: General and Smoking-Specific Characteristics Associated With Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E.; Nargiso, Jessica E.; Gaitonde, Linda Brazil; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Converging lines of research suggest that adolescents’ smoking behaviors are strongly influenced by the characteristics of their social network and the social processes their network facilitates. The primary goal of this study was to conduct a detailed comparison of the social networks of adolescent smokers and nonsmokers to determine what aspects relate the most to smoking status. A secondary goal was to conduct within-group analyses to examine relationships between key measures of behavior-specific social support and (a) smoking susceptibility among nonsmokers, and (b) readiness to quit smoking among smokers. Method: A matched sample of 190 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers (Mage = 16.8 years; 51% female) completed a questionnaire in which they nominated and reported on up to 10 important people in their lives. This measure allowed us to examine adolescents’ overall networks (both peers and family) and to investigate numerous aspects, including general network characteristics (e.g., size of network, average contact with network members), social support (e.g., importance of people in the network), and the pervasiveness of smoking in the network (e.g., percentage of smoking peers). Results: The pervasiveness of smoking in adolescents’ social network was the strongest distinguisher of smokers versus nonsmokers. In addition, behavior-specific social support was strongly associated with susceptibility to initiate smoking among nonsmokers and readiness to quit among smokers. Conclusions: This research offers insight into potential targets for prevention and early intervention by demonstrating how social networks can both promote and attenuate risk for smoking. PMID:25785800

  12. Visibility of smoking among school­teachers in Spain and associations with student smoking: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escario, José Julián; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2018-01-01

    Objective Limited research has examined the association between smoking among schoolteachers and student smoking. This paper seeks to assess whether smoking visibility on school grounds among schoolteachers is associated with student smoking. We examine both smoking behaviour and the number of cigarettes consumed. Methods We use a school-based cross-sectional survey carried out by the Spanish Government’s Delegation for the National Plan on Drugs. A total of 27 503 students between 14 and 18 years of age completed an anonymous survey in 2013. Count data regressions were used to assess the association between observed teacher smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour. Results High levels of visibility of teacher smoking on school grounds increased the odds of being a smoker among students (OR=2.09 and OR=1.64, for the highest levels of visibility), but the impact on the quantity of cigarettes smoked, although positive, was not significant. Conclusion Teacher smoking on school grounds is associated with student smoking behaviour. Consequently, smoking policies designed to prevent adolescent smoking should address this important social environment. PMID:29306888

  13. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  14. Why do Danish adolescents take up smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Klavs; Kremers, Stef P J; de Vries, Hein

    2003-03-01

    For the first time a comprehensive international research-based smoking prevention programme addressing adolescents has been launched in Denmark. The ESFA cohort study started in 1997, and this article presents baseline findings. Factors that relate to the initiation of adolescent smoking are found among the concepts of attitude, social norms, social pressure and self-efficacy beliefs. Baseline findings from Danish adolescents (n = 1770) in secondary school (mean age 13.8 years). The cross-sectional baseline data show that the attitude-social influence-efficacy-model proves to be of value in highlighting the associations of adolescent smoking behaviour. Social self-efficacy, peer smoking behaviour and the intention to smoke proved to have the strongest associations with smoking. It is recommended that self-efficacy beliefs and the individual intentions to smoke should be included in the future in smoking prevention programmes in Denmark. Furthermore, a distinction between the roles of parents and peers should be emphasized when addressing the social environment of adolescents in health promotion.

  15. Status of Geothermal Research and Development in the World Situation mondiale de la Recherche et du Développement géothermiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli M.

    2006-11-01

    world (1979 is 2,063 MWe. Nowadays the most advanced countries where geothermal energy is concerned are the USA (908 MWe, Italy (421 MWe, New Zealand (202 MWe and Japon (171 MWe. Research is under way in various countries, directed at begining production or increasing present levels. By 1985 the installed geothermoelectric capacity should be around 6,500 MWe. b For non-electric uses. There are various applications of geothermal energy, the main ones being in space-heating and agriculture (especially greenhouses. Iceland and Hungary have developed these uses on a particularly large scale, but the situation in the USA, France and several other countries is also interesting. It is difficult to evaluate the capacity involved in this type of exploitation but the 1977 estimate was given as 6,200 MWt. Le flux de chaleur observé à la surface de la terre (59 mW/m2 en moyenne provient en majeure partie de la désintégration d'éléments radioactifs (U238, 0235, Th232, K40 dans la croûte. La répartition des intensités de flux de chaleur est liée intimement aux phénomènes décrits par la théorie dite tectonique des plaques : la plupart des anomalies géothermiques de surface, et en conséquence la plupart des régions exploitables industriellement pour la géothermie, se situent à proximité des rides d'expansion (champs géothermiques d'Islande, du Kenya, d'Éthiopie ou des zones de subduction (Indonésie, Japon, Himalaya chinois ou indien, Chili, etc. . On peut aussi trouver des champs géothermiques dans des bassins au sein des continents avec des flux de chaleur normaux (par exemple bassin de Paris ou un peu plus élevés (par exemple dépression hongroise. En général ces champs produisent des fluides de moyenne température destinés à des usages non électriques. Le système géothermique le mieux connu, et le seul exploité jusqu'à maintenant, appartient au type dit deconvection géothermique . II se produit lorsqu'une circulation d'eaux, principalement m

  16. Antioxidant status of neonates exposed in utero to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, L; Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Calaf, R; Simeoni, U; Millet, V

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal smoke exposure on neonatal and maternal antioxidant status, 39 mothers who were active smokers, 14 mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 17 controls, and their newborns were included in a prospective, controlled study. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, measured as total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and concentrations of specific antioxidants were measured in cord and in maternal blood. A similar, significant increase in ceruloplasmin concentration was observed in neonates born to actively smoking mothers and in those born to ETS exposed mothers. Uric acid and TRAP concentrations were significantly increased in ETS-exposed newborns and their mothers, compared to newborns and mothers from the active smoking and no-exposure groups with a trend towards increased uric acid, TRAP and FRAP concentrations being observed in the active smokers group. Neonatal and maternal antioxidant concentrations correlated significantly, except for ceruloplasmin. Cord blood vitamin A, E and C concentrations were unaffected by smoke exposure. These results show that maternal active smoking as well as ETS exposure significantly affect neonatal and maternal antioxidant status. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  18. Parents as friendship-formation gatekeepers: Parental smoking-specific communication and adolescents' friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Scholte, R.H.J.; Harakeh, Z.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Research Question: The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental smoking-specific communication and parental smoking affect adolescents in their friendship-selection processes (i.e., their affiliation with smoking or non-smoking friends). Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents

  19. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... intervals and a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. Date of death and cause of death were obtained by record linkage with nationwide registers. By means of Cox proportional hazards models, heavy smokers (>or=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their daily tobacco intake by at least 50% without quitting between...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...

  20. Direct health costs of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and indirect health benefits due to smoking ban introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Dimitri D; Lieb, Christoph M; Rajkumar, Sarah; Kooijman, Cornelis; Sommer, Heini L; Röösli, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Introducing comprehensive smoke-free policies to public places is expected to reduce health costs. This includes prevented health damages by avoiding environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure as well as indirect health benefits from reduced tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate direct health costs of ETS exposure in public places and indirect health benefits from reduced tobacco consumption. We calculated attributable hospital days and years of life lost (YLL), based on the observed passive smoking and disease rates in Switzerland. The exposure-response associations of all relevant health outcomes were derived by meta-analysis from prospective cohort studies in order to calculate the direct health costs. To assess the indirect health benefits, a meta-analysis of smoking ban studies on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction was conducted. ETS exposure in public places in Switzerland causes 32,000 preventable hospital days (95% CI: 10,000-61,000), 3000 YLL (95% CI: 1000-5000), corresponding to health costs of 330 Mio CHF. The number of hospital days for ischaemic heart disease attributable to passive smoking is much larger if derived from smoking ban studies (41,000) than from prospective cohort studies (3200), resulting in additional health costs of 89 Mio CHF, which are attributed to the indirect health benefits of a smoking ban introduction. The example of smoking ban studies on ischaemic heart disease hospitalization rates suggests that total health costs that can be prevented with smoking bans are considerably larger than the costs arising from the direct health impact of ETS exposure in public places.

  1. brabez et bedrani et guettafi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    marché au niveau international est une option stratégique parmi d'autres, offerte à ces entreprises. En effet, Thiétart et Xuereb. (2005, p. 249) expliquent ce choix de stratégie des entreprises en phase de maturité par le fait «qu'un marché peut arriver en maturité sur un secteur géographique donné alors qu'il existe.

  2. Analysis and interpretation of the thermal test of gas hydrate dissociation in the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Collett, T.S. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dallimore, S.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre, Sidney, BC (Canada); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Mroz, T. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab.

    2005-07-01

    Field data acquired during a thermal stimulation test in the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well was analyzed to determine the thermally induced dissociation of gas hydrate. In particular, an understanding of the field behaviour of natural gas hydrate during dissociation under controlled conditions led to the determination and quantification of the corresponding processes and thermodynamic parameters that affect gas production and dissociation from gas hydrate. The field data was used to validate and calibrate a numerical model. Long-term production involving different dissociation methods were predicted along with alternative production-system configurations. Geological and geophysical data was used to determine the primary conditions and properties of the gas hydrate deposit. The boundary conditions were determined through direct measurement. The numerical model was calibrated against the cumulative volumes of produced gas, which increased the credibility of the model. Two possible scenarios of thermal dissociation were proposed to interpret the field-test results. Inverse modelling was used to estimate the parameters of the dominant physical processes. Results were in good agreement with previously published data. Estimates of long-term production were made along with alternative well production-system configurations to significantly improve gas recovery.

  3. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  4. Déterminants et conséquences de l'usage du narguilé (pipe à eau ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Papers. Waterpipe tobacco smoking : building the evidence base; part 1: the smoke chemistry. 132376.pdf. Reports. Determinants and Consequences of Smoking the Narghile : An Extended Research Agenda - Phase II / final technical report. Download PDF ...

  5. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  6. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  7. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  8. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  9. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  10. Secondhand Smoke From Multiple Sources, Thirdhand Smoke and Respiratory Symptoms in Hong Kong Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lok Tung; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-01-05

    Reports on involuntary tobacco smoke exposure in children have focused mostly on secondhand smoke (SHS) from smoking inside the home. We studied the separate and combined prevalence of SHS exposure from multiple sources and thirdhand smoke (THS) and the associations with respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong adolescents. In 2010-2011, 61 810 Secondary 1 (US Grade 7) to seven students reported their smoking status, respiratory symptoms, and exposure to four sources of tobacco smoke in the past 7 days. Weighted prevalence of exposure was calculated. Associations with respiratory symptoms were analyzed in 50 762 never smokers using logistic regression. Tobacco smoke exposure at home was 23.2% considering SHS exposure from inside the home, but increased to 33.2% including SHS from neighbors and 36.2% further including THS. Including SHS outside home (55.3%), 63.3% of adolescents were exposed to SHS anywhere or THS at home. In never smokers, SHS from each source and THS at home were linearly associated with respiratory symptoms. Exposure to more sources yielded stronger associations with respiratory symptoms (p for trendsmoke from one or more sources with a linear association with respiratory symptoms in never smokers. More stringent policies are needed to protect adolescents from tobacco smoke. In a high-density urban setting, involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke in adolescents can be much higher than the smoking prevalence of the general population, especially if SHS exposure from multiple sources and THS are also considered. Such exposures have important health implications as demonstrated by their linear associations with respiratory symptoms. Tobacco control measures effective in reducing smoking prevalence may have little effect in reducing adolescent exposure to tobacco smoke, especially in the private home, in which other public health strategies are urgently needed. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research

  11. Mining twitter to understand the smoking cessation barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-26

    Smoking cessation is challenging and lack of positive support is a known major barrier to quitting cigarettes. Previous studies have suggested that social influences might increase smokers' awareness of social norms for appropriate behavior, which might lead to smoking cessation. Although social media use is increasing among young adults in the United States, research on the relationship between social media use and smoking cessation is lacking. Twitter has provided a rich source of information for researchers, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in smoking cessation research. To the best of our knowledge, this study conducted a data mining analysis of Twitter to assess barriers to smoking cessation. In conclusion, Twitter is a cost-effective tool with the potential to disseminate information on the benefits of smoking cessation and updated research to the Twitter community on a global scale.

  12. Diasporas, transnationalisme et engagement : tamouls et cinghalais ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diasporas, transnationalisme et engagement : tamouls et cinghalais au Canada et leurs liens avec le Sri Lanka. Ce projet examinera le rôle du financement et des réseaux de la diaspora dans le conflit ethnopolitique au Sri Lanka, en étudiant les réseaux des collectivités transnationales tamoule et cinghalaise au Canada ...

  13. Preventing exposure to second-hand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia; Lam, Tai Hing

    2003-11-01

    To report the effectiveness of a health education intervention provided by nurses to prevent second-hand smoke exposure in sick children in Hong Kong. A clinical trial, international and national government reports, and research studies. Exposure to second-hand smoke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nursing interventions to reduce exposure are critical and need further study. Nurses are in a vital position to carry out health education about the health risks associated with second-hand smoke exposure and to protect the child from such exposure.

  14. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jesse; Fry, Bridget; Smith, Tara; Okawa, Ken; Chakrabarti, Anannya; Ah-Yen, Damien; Yi, Jesse; Townsend, Simon; Carroll, Rebecca; Stockwell, Alannah; Sievwright, Andrea; Dew, Kevin; Thomson, George

    2006-10-04

    Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents). There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  15. Smoking in film in New Zealand: measuring risk exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Alannah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in film is a risk factor for smoking uptake in adolescence. This study aimed to quantify exposure to smoking in film received by New Zealand audiences, and evaluate potential interventions to reduce the quantity and impact of this exposure. Methods The ten highest-grossing films in New Zealand for 2003 were each analysed independently by two viewers for smoking, smoking references and related imagery. Potential interventions were explored by reviewing relevant New Zealand legislation, and scientific literature. Results Seven of the ten films contained at least one tobacco reference, similar to larger film samples. The majority of the 38 tobacco references involved characters smoking, most of whom were male. Smoking was associated with positive character traits, notably rebellion (which may appeal to adolescents. There appeared to be a low threshold for including smoking in film. Legislative or censorship approaches to smoking in film are currently unlikely to succeed. Anti-smoking advertising before films has promise, but experimental research is required to demonstrate cost effectiveness. Conclusion Smoking in film warrants concern from public health advocates. In New Zealand, pre-film anti-smoking advertising appears to be the most promising immediate policy response.

  16. Relationships Between Social Anxiety and Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Noreen L; Heffner, Jaimee L; McClure, Jennifer B; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2017-01-01

    Although social anxiety is associated with higher prevalence of smoking and lower cessation rates, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of these relationships. Research suggests that socially anxious smokers have higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance and are inclined to smoke to avoid internal smoking cues. However, it is unknown which types of internal smoking cues they avoid. Thus, this study aimed to address this gap in the literature. Participants (N = 450) were adult smokers from a group-based trial for smoking cessation. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regression models examined relationships between baseline levels of social anxiety and acceptance of internal smoking cues-physical sensations, emotions, and cognitions. Social anxiety was associated with lower levels of acceptance of thoughts, sensations, and emotions that cue smoking. After controlling for levels of nicotine dependence, depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder, social anxiety still explained unique variability in overall acceptance of internal smoking cues and in acceptance of physical sensations and emotions that serve as smoking cues. Social anxiety no longer explained unique variability in acceptance of thoughts that trigger smoking. Smokers with high levels of social anxiety are less accepting of internal smoking cues. For physical and emotional cues, this effect was independent of level of dependence and mental health comorbidity. Results help explain why smokers with social anxiety are less likely to quit and can inform the development of targeted cessation treatments for smokers with social anxiety.

  17. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and seventeen non-smokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowd us to keep both smoking and non-smoking participants naïve to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by scenes of movie smoking was contrasted with non-smoking control scenes which were matched for frequency and duration. Compared to non-smokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, both regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking vs. control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

  18. Does the workplace-smoking ban eliminate differences in risk for environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Tan, Frans E S; Willemsen, Marc C; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2009-10-01

    A workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands was introduced on January 1, 2004. Before the ban male and low educated employees were at higher risk for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Effective implementation of the ban should result not only in an overall decline of exposure, but also in the disappearance of systematic differences in exposure between subgroups of employees. Data from a Dutch continuous Internet survey were used. From July 2003 through June 2005, 200 respondents were randomly selected each week. The sample consisted of 11,291 non-smoking, working respondents, aged 16-65 years. ETS exposure decreased among all employees and among subgroups at higher risk before the ban. However, also after the ban, males and low educated employees were still most likely to be exposed to ETS. The workplace-smoking ban was effective in reducing ETS exposure among employees. However, after the ban still 52.2% of non-smoking workers reported to be exposed. We did not find the expected stronger effect among employees who were at higher risk. Both before and after implementation of the ban, males and lower educated employees were about two times more likely to be exposed to ETS.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2 nov. 2015 ... plupart des patients dépistés étaient traités symptomatiquement pour un syndrome douloureux abdominal (36%), suivi de l'HTA, et de l'hématurie macroscopique respectivement dans 33 et 19% des cas. La masse abdominale et l'infection urinaire ont permis de poser le diagnostic dans 6% et 3% des cas.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    12 mars 2013 ... 1Service d'endocrinologie, diabétologie et maladies métaboliques, Laboratoire de recherche de pneumo-cardio-immunopathologie et métabolisme. PCIM, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Marrakech, Université cadi Ayyad. CHU Mohamed VI. Rue el mostachfa, Gueliz, 40 000, Marrakech,. Maroc ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    10 avr. 2012 ... objectifs d'explorer la qualité de la communication entre les adolescentes et leurs parents sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et de recueillir leurs suggestions pour l'amélioration ..... de leurs parents. Les moyens de communications (radio, télévision, internet) véhiculent de nombreuses informations et peuvent être des.

  2. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  3. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. T...

  4. What parents can do to keep their children from smoking: A systematic review on smoking-specific parenting strategies and smoking onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Marieke; de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy

    2017-07-01

    To provide a systematic overview of longitudinal studies on different smoking-specific parenting practices (i.e., perceived parental norms and influences, smoking-specific monitoring, availability of cigarettes at home, household smoking rules, non-smoking agreements, smoking-specific communication, and parental reactions) as useful tools in the prevention of youth smoking. MEDLINE and PsychINFO search identified 986 studies published from 1990 to December 2016. Two independent researchers identified eligible studies. Study quality was assessed using Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). The systematic search resulted in 1 to 14 longitudinal studies per parenting practice. Studies scored between 4 and 9 on the NOS, indicating an overall moderate quality. The results of complete smoking house rules showed a preventive effect on smoking onset. Furthermore, availability of cigarettes, frequency and quality of communication, parental reaction (i.e., conflict engagement) and norms showed significant and non-significant effects. Significant results were in line with expectations: availability of cigarettes and frequent communication about smoking predicted smoking, whereas a high quality of communication, negative reactions or punishments and setting norms by parents showed a preventive effect. No effects were found for non-smoking agreements. The number of studies was too limited to draw conclusions about other parenting strategies. More research on (1) reliable and valid instruments, (2) other stages of smoking in addition to onset, and (3) potential moderators and mediators is warranted. While evidence supports the effectiveness of smoking-specific parenting, further research is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  6. Posttraumatic stress and emotion dysregulation: Relationships with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nicole A; Oglesby, Mary E; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-01

    Many cigarette smokers have experienced a traumatic event, and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are associated with increased smoking levels. Previous research has found that elevated PTSS are associated with smoking to cope with negative affect, and it has been posited that perceptions of being unable to cope with the consequences of smoking cessation interfere with smoking cessation in this population. However, the mechanism of the relationship between PTSS and these smoking maintenance factors (i.e., smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation) has not been established. Emotion dysregulation is one potential mechanism as it is associated with PTSS as well as addictive behavior aimed at avoiding and reducing negative emotional states. We cross-sectionally tested the hypotheses that 1) PTSS and emotion dysregulation would be incrementally associated with smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and 2) that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relationships between PTSS, smoking to reduce negative affect, and barriers to cessation among a community sample of trauma-exposed individuals presenting for smoking cessation treatment (N=315). Results demonstrated that elevated PTSS were associated with increased smoking to reduce negative affect and barriers to cessation, and that emotion dysregulation mediated these relationships. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism between PTSS and psychological smoking maintenance factors, and suggest that emotion dysregulation may be a useful target for smoking cessation interventions among trauma-exposed individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of media campaigns and smoke-free ordinance on public awareness and secondhand smoke exposure in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Teh-Wei; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-Yu; Hsiao, Mei-Ling

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Taiwan's smoke-free ordinance and media campaigns on public awareness and secondhand smoke exposure. The authors conducted 3 waves of research--in July 2008 (before media campaigns), in December 2008 (during media campaigns), and in March 2009 (3 months after implementation of the smoke-free law). National representative samples of 1074, 1084, and 1094 people, respectively, were interviewed successfully by telephone in the 3 surveys. The results showed that general awareness of smoke-free workplace legislation rose dramatically from 28.5% in July 2008 to 87.6% in December 2008 to 93.6% in March 2009. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace fell from 28.5% in July 2008 to 24.9% in December 2008 to 7.3% in March 2009, and household secondhand smoke exposure decreased from 36.8% to 34.3% to 21.3%, respectively, during the same period. Multivariate analyses results indicated that media campaigns, smoke-free ordinance implementation, having higher education, and having higher income were associated with more awareness of the smoke-free workplace legislation. In addition, smoke-free ordinance implementation, being female, having higher education, and having higher income were associated with less likelihood of reporting secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace. In conclusion, smoke-free ordinance implementation and media campaigns were effective in raising public awareness of the new law and reducing secondhand smoke exposure in workplaces, in public places, and at home.

  8. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  9. Beliefs about smoking-related lung cancer risk among low socioeconomic individuals: the role of smoking experience and interpersonal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has documented that smoking prevalence is generally high among low socioeconomic groups and that tobacco industries continue to target these population groups. However, little research has investigated the beliefs of individuals with low socioeconomic position (SEP) about the association between smoking and cancer risks. In this study, we examined beliefs about smoking-related lung cancer risk and the role of smoking experience, mass media exposure and health-related interpersonal communication among a sample of low SEP population. Data were gathered from 324 urban poor recruited from adult education centers in the greater Boston area, Massachusetts, USA as part of a larger project called Click to Connect. While we collected a variety of data at baseline and follow-up, the data for this study come from the baseline survey alone. We found that individuals with smoking experience tend to be better than those without in perceiving the lung cancer risks of smoking. Moreover, we found that health-related interpersonal communication with friends and family members is positively associated with beliefs about the link between smoking and lung cancer. Our findings suggest that low SEP individuals with smoking experience might be more exposed to anti-tobacco messages than are low SEP individuals without smoking experience. This could suggest that anti-tobacco interventions thus far may have done very little in raising the awareness of low SEP nonsmokers about the dangers of smoking and that they may have little potential to avert the initiation of smoking in this population.

  10. Régler le conflit entre santé publique et production de tabac

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2. Mendez, D., O. Alshanqeety et K. E. Warner (2013). « The Potential. Impact of Smoking Control Policies on Future Global Smoking. Trends », Tobacco Control, vol. ... paquets de cigarettes, l'interdiction de publicité, de promotion et de commandite, et la création d'environnements sans fumée. Il n'en va pas de même des ...

  11. First-Run Smoking Presentations in U.S. Movies 1999-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Polansky, Jonathan R.; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD

    2004-01-01

    Smoking among American adults fell by half between 1950 and 2002, yet smoking on U.S. movie screens reached historic heights in 2002, topping levels observed a half century earlier. Tobacco’s comeback in movies has serious public health implications, because smoking on screen stimulates adolescents to start smoking,2,3 accounting for an estimated 52% of adolescent smoking initiation. Equally important, researchers have observed a dose-response relationship between teens’ exposure to ...

  12. Spousal Effects in Smoking Cessation: Matching, Learning, or Bargaining?

    OpenAIRE

    Kerry Anne McGeary

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studying the correlation in smoking behavior between spouses has discounted the role of bargaining or learning. Using the Health and Retirement Study, which contains information on smoking cessation and spouse’s preferences, this paper presents an essential investigation of the impact of spousal bargaining or learning on the decision to cease smoking. We find that, regardless of gender, when one member of a couple ceases smoking this induces the other member to cease smoking...

  13. MDMA is certainly damaging after 25 years of empirical research: a reply and refutation of Doblin et al. (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C

    2014-03-01

    Human Psychopharmacology recently published my review into the increase in empirical knowledge about the human psychobiology of MDMA over the past 25 years (Parrott, 2013a). Deficits have been demonstrated in retrospective memory, prospective memory, higher cognition, complex visual processing, sleep architecture, sleep apnoea, pain, neurohormonal activity, and psychiatric status. Neuroimaging studies have shown serotonergic deficits, which are associated with lifetime Ecstasy/MDMA usage, and degree of neurocognitive impairment. Basic psychological skills remain intact. Ecstasy/MDMA use by pregnant mothers leads to psychomotor impairments in the children. Hence, the damaging effects of Ecstasy/MDMA were far more widespread than was realized a few years ago. In their critique of my review, Doblin et al. (2014) argued that my review contained misstatements, omitted contrary findings, and recited dated misconceptions. In this reply, I have answered all the points they raised. I have been able to refute each of their criticisms by citing the relevant empirical data, since many of their points were based on inaccurate summaries of the actual research findings. Doblin and colleagues are proponents of the use of MDMA for drug-assisted psychotherapy, and their strongest criticisms were focused on my concerns about this proposal. However, again all the issues I raised were based on sound empirical evidence or theoretical understanding. Indeed I would recommend potentially far safer co-drugs such as D-cycloserine or oxytocin. In summary, MDMA can induce a wide range of neuropsychobiological changes, many of which are damaging to humans. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  15. Determining smoking level of hospital employees and the evaluation of the smoke-free air zone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Meltem Koç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study is to define the health knowledge, cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts and successes to quit smoking and obstacles indicated by the ones who still smoke among a Training and Research Hospital staff four years after the application of the law “Smoke Free Air Zone”. Methods: A questionnaire developed by the researchers is used for this cross sectional research. It questions the sociodemographic features and thoughts and attitudes about the “Smoke Free Air Zone” and “Smoke Free Hospital” applications. Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test is also applied to the smoking attendants to define the level of dependence. Results:It was found that 29.6% of the participants still smoke. Among the still smoking ones; 29.4% did not ever attempt to quit, 28.2% attempted before starting work in the hospital, 20% attempted after starting work in the hospital and 22.4% attempted on both periods. Regarding the questions about application of “Smoke Free Hospital” it was found that 70.7% of the hospital staff support the application, 53.3% think that violators should be punished with a penalty, 48.1% think that it should be punished by the administration, 30.1% think that passive smoking is an intrusion to the personal rights and 59.1% think that quitters increased with this application. Conclusion: Reducing the smoking rates among healthcare staff is extremely important in the struggle against smoking. Establishment of applications with institutional education programs and easing access to the related services may be helpful for healthcare personnel quit smoking. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1: 33-39

  16. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  17. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Susan; Meigs, James B; Grinspoon, Steven K; Triant, Virginia A

    2016-01-01

    quitting smoking, using a novel algorithm to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data and accounting for multiple confounding clinical factors. Further research is needed to identify HIV-related barriers to smoking cessation and develop aggressive interventions specific to HIV-infected patients.

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  19. Les activités de conservation des lémuriens par le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar (GERP Conservation activities of lemurs by the Madagascar Primate Research Group (GERP- Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Randrianarison

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Le Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar, une association de conservation, a été créée en 1994 grâce à l’initiative des Enseignants Chercheurs et étudiants du Département de Paléontologie et d’Anthropologie Biologique et du Département de Biologie Animale de l’Université d’Antananarivo. Le GERP regroupe actuellement des membres scientifiques multidisciplinaires Malgaches et étrangers dont la majorité d’entre eux est constituée par des primatologues. Les principales actions du GERP se focalisent sur les travaux de recherche sur les Primates Prosimiens de Madagascar, l’établissement de leur plan de conservation, la découverte de nouvelles espèces de lémuriens, la translocation et le transfert des lémuriens vivant dans des milieux défrichés ou précaires, le suivi et l’abondance des lémuriens ainsi que la révision de leurs aires de distribution. Les résultats des recherches effectuées sur la conservation ont permis de publier des articles dans des revues de renommée nationale et internationale sur la Primatologie. En outre, le renforcement de capacité et l’éducation de la communauté de base, des systèmes éducatifs primaires et supérieurs sur la conservation des lémuriens et l’appui aux activités de développement durable de la population locale s’avèrent nécessaires pour que la conservation des lémuriens soit pérenne.The Madagascar Primate Research Group (GERP - Groupe d’Etude et de Recherche sur les Primates de Madagascar is a conservation-focused association created in 1994 by the initiative of researcher lecturers and students from the Department of Paleontology and Biological Anthropology and the Department of Animal Biology of the University of Antananarivo. The GERP membership consists of multidisciplinary scientists, both Malagasy and foreign, the majority of whom are primatologists. The principle actions of the association are focused on research on the

  20. Smoke-Free School Policy and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke: A Quasi-Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Kennedy, Ryan David; Baskerville, Neill Bruce

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco control prevention efforts are important to protect people from exposure to dangerous tobacco smoke, support cessation, and reduce tobacco-use initiation. While smoke-free laws have been a widespread tobacco control strategy, little work has been done to examine the impact of smoke-free school policies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of provincial smoke-free school ground policies on youth-reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) on school property. This study used a nationally representative sample of 20 388 youth aged 15-18 from the 2005-2012 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smoke-free school policies on SHS exposure. Approximately over half (52%) of respondents reported SHS exposure on a school property in the past month. Smoke-free school policy had a statistically significant effect on SHS exposure. Specifically, the adoption of smoke-free school reduced the probability of SHS exposure by about 8 percentage points. Respondents who were smokers were more likely to report being exposed to SHS than nonsmokers. Likewise, those living in urban areas had higher probability of being exposed to SHS than those living in rural parts of Canada. Reported exposure to tobacco smoke did decrease after the introduction of smoke-free ground policies; however, almost half of high-school aged youth report exposure in the last month. Across Canada, provincial health authorities as well as school administers may need to assess the implementation of these smoke-free policies and improve enforcement strategies to further reduce exposure to dangerous SHS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  1. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  2. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  3. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  4. Smoke Signals: Adolescent Smoking and School Continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Rebecca Hutchinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis using NLSY97 data of the relationship between the likelihood of school continuation and the choices of whether to smoke or drink. We demonstrate that in the United States as of the late 1990s, smoking in 11th grade was a uniquely powerful predictor of whether the student finished high school, and if so whether the student matriculated in a four-year college. For economists the likely explanation for this empirical link would be based on interpersona...

  5. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes in this U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance document How tobacco smoke causes disease in this Centers for Disease ... affects cigarette smoke from this Surgeon General report FDA's work to ensure tobacco products are labeled properly The definitions of common ...

  6. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  7. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  8. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health, but is social position is cause of smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    The paper by Hart and colleagues describes occupational class differences in cause specific mortality among women who had never smoked.1 In the accompanying commentary smoking is discussed as if it was a mediator of the relationship between social position and health.2 But the uptake of smoking...... will likely take place many years before the individual's own social position has formed. For example, this author moved into occupational class I at age 26, but ceased being a never smoker around age 14. A similar argument can be made for weight gains over the life course that, in the end, result in obesity...... (for an elaborate example of these misconceptions, see e.g. Mortensen et al.).3 I think this highlights the need for great caution when we apply prescriptive interpretations to descriptive studies. Smoking is a cause of social inequality in health: If smoking was eliminated social differences would...

  9. Social Capital and Smoking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Rocco; Beatrice d'Hombres

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore one mechanism that may underlie the negative relationship between social capital and smoking: whether social capital strengthens the effect of anti-smoking regulations. We use data on smoking behaviors collected immediately before and after the implementation of smoking bans in public places in Germany in order to determine whether the impact of these bans on smoking prevalence and intensity is greater among individuals richer in social capital. We find that smoking ...

  10. Metacognitions about smoking: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary research has indicated that metacognitions are involved in smoking. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether specific facets of metacognition play a role in explaining smoking initiation and perseveration. Twelve individuals, self-identified as regular smokers and scoring a positive value on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence, were assessed using a semi-structured interview to investigate the following: (1) whether they held positive and/or negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking; (2) what their main goal in smoking was, and how they knew if they had achieved their goal; (3) how they directed their focus of attention when smoking; and (4) what they perceived the advantages and disadvantages of these attentional strategies to be. Results indicated that participants endorsed both positive and negative metacognitive beliefs about smoking and that the goal of smoking was to regulate negative emotion and/or to enhance cognitive functioning. Participants reported that they relied either on an internal signal, such as improvement in the emotional/cognitive state, or on a physical sign, in the form of a finished cigarette, to determine if they had achieved their goal. During an episode of smoking, half of the participants reported focusing their attention internally on thoughts and feelings or the sensations of smoking. The remainder of participants reported either an exclusively external focus of attention (e.g., the environment) or a varied focus of attention. Most participants were able to identify advantages to their attentional strategies, whereas two reported perceived disadvantages. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Peer influence and selection effects on adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Pollard, Michael; Tucker, Joan S

    2010-06-01

    Studies showing that adolescents are more likely to smoke if they have friends who smoke typically infer that this is the result of peer influence. However, it may also be due to adolescents choosing friends who have smoking behaviors similar to their own (i.e., selection). One of the most influential studies of influence and selection effects on smoking concluded that these processes contribute about equally to peer group homogeneity in adolescent smoking (Ennett and Bauman, 1994). The goal of this study was to conduct a partial replication of these findings. Data are from 1223 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Spectral decomposition techniques identified friendship cliques, which were then used as the unit of analysis to examine influence and selection effects over a one-year period. Non-smokers were more likely to become smokers if they initially belonged to a smoking (vs. non-smoking) group, and smokers were more likely to become non-smokers if they initially belonged to a non-smoking (vs. smoking) group, indicating an influence effect on both initiation and cessation. Further, group members who changed groups between waves were more likely to select groups with smoking behavior congruent to their own, providing evidence of a selection effect. While our results generally replicate the group analyses reported by Ennett and Bauman (1994), they suggest that peer influence and selection effects on adolescent smoking may be much weaker than assumed based on this earlier research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    8 mars 2012 ... Abstract. Introduction: La péritonite infectieuse (PI) est une des complications les plus sévères et les plus fréquentes de la dialyse péritonéale (DP). But : Déterminer le taux des PI et les germes en causes, et évaluer l'efficacité des protocoles thérapeutiques entrepris chez les patients traités par DP au.

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    3 sept. 2015 ... infiltration du scalp par un anesthésique local [6-8], médicaments comme alpha ou bétabloquants et lidocaine ... tensiomètre automatique pour mesure de la pression non invasive et invasive, un saturomètre et un ... Plusieurs techniques ont été utilisées pour les atténuer: (1) L'administration des doses ...

  14. Research

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    abp

    15 sept. 2017 ... In countries like DRC where majority of population are in the low income bracket, very few studies about this disease, usually diagnosed at a very ... collagénoses et le vieillissement de la population;et du coût élevé de sa prise en charge au stade terminal .... [32] en Haïti et Sumaili. E K [16, 17] à Kinshasa ...

  15. Research

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    abp

    9 mai 2013 ... Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Casablanca, Maroc, 4Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Fès, Maroc, 5Service d'Hématologie, Centre. Hospitalier-Universitaire ... Les médicaments génériques représentent 27% du marché ... choisis au hasard dans divers hôpitaux publics et polycliniques.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    29 juin 2013 ... Nous avons évalué l'activité physique de nos patients à l'aide du Questionnaire de Baecke traduit en dialectal Marocain et adapté au contexte ... 16,4% des patients déclarent avoir une activité physique et sportive régulière (marche, ... prises en charge dans les 157 centres d'hémodialyse publics et.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    4 déc. 2017 ... d'asthme et la bronchiolite aigüe, lesquelles étaient plus fréquentes chez le garçon. Les infections respiratoires, représentées par les pneumopathies aigües et la coqueluche, étaient plus fréquentes en période automnohivernale et touchaient plus le nourrisson. Pan African Medical Journal. 2017; 28:288 ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    18 déc. 2011 ... fréquence du contentieux entre représentants de la loi et médecins à propos des certificats médicaux descriptifs de coups et blessures volontaires. Les objectifs ... certificats, d'autres pièces telles que les procès-verbaux de police, les rapports circonstanciés des faits relatés par la victime, l'agresseur et les.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    7 sept. 2017 ... objectif, l'évaluation des aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques et étiologiques dans les services de références en endocrinologie au. Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Dakar. Méthodes. Il s'agissait d'une étude multicentrique, transversale, descriptive et analytique réalisée au Centre Hospitalier National ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 févr. 2015 ... Google Scholar. 9. Rapport de progrès N° 11-septembre 2008: Vers l'accès universel aux traitements et soins en faveur des adultes et enfants vivant avec le VIH/SIDA au Cameroun. Comité National de Lutte Contre le SIDA. Google Scholar. 10. L'impact du VIH et du sida au Cameroun à l'horizon 2020,.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    13 avr. 2016 ... infectieux transmissibles par transfusion tels que le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB), le virus de l'hépatite. C (VHC) et la .... l'instar des autres pays à faible revenu, la République Démocratique du Congo ... et du Programme National de Lutte contre le Sida et IST qui.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    12 oct. 2015 ... touchées par les difficulté d'observance a savoir les dermatoses bulleuses et le psoriasis, et l'intérêt du pharmacien. Conclusion: Cette analyse de la fréquence de ce phénomène et des facteurs essentiels qui l'influencent permet de cibler la prise en charge à travers une personnalisation de l'entretien ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    9 juil. 2015 ... de Katana sous six dimensions (honnêteté, compétence, comportement relationnel, discipline dans le travail et niveau de rendement). La Figure 1 en donne l'aperçu. Observation participante des attitudes et comportements des médecins et des infirmiers. L'observation participante avait été effectuée à ...

  4. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  5. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  7. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim Penberthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers, 1 4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.

  8. Heterosexual gender relations and masculinity in fathers who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the role of masculinity and heterosexual gender relations in new and expectant fathers' explanations of their continued smoking. We conducted a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 fathers. Two themes were identified: (1) reconciling with partners to maintain a smoke-free family home; and (2) smoking to self-regulate emotions and maintain relationships. Fathers' decisions to smoke and changes in smoking behavior were shaped by ideals of masculinity and by partner relationships and family and social contexts, including division of domestic duties and childcare. Recognizing the influence of both masculinity and gender relations could provide new directions for supporting men's smoking cessation efforts during early parenthood. © 2014 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Psoriasis and smoking: links and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naldi L

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Naldi1,2 1Department of Dermatology, Azienda Ospedaliera Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy; 2Study Centre of the Italian Group for Epidemiologic Research in Dermatology (GISED, Bergamo, Italy Abstract: Smoking is a complex environmental exposure influenced by genetic, environmental, and social factors. Nicotine is the principal alkaloid in tobacco that mediates the addicting effects of tobacco products. Tobacco is a mixture of more than 7,000 chemicals, and smoking is recognized as a risk factor for many diseases in humans, including cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and several cancers, and is the single most preventable cause of mortality worldwide. A number of inflammatory immune-related conditions have been associated with smoking, including psoriasis. Smoking affects the onset of psoriasis. In a pooled analysis of 25 case–control studies, the odds ratio of psoriasis among smokers was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–2.06. A dose–effect relationship is also documented. In a pooled analysis of three cohort studies, the risk of incident psoriasis was 1.81 (95% CI: 1.38–2.36 in those who smoked 1–14 cigarettes per day, and 2.29 (95% CI: 1.74–3.01 in those who smoked ≥25 cigarettes per day. Smoking also impacts on the clinical severity of psoriasis, its response to treatment, and explains some of the associated comorbidities, eg, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and several cancers (especially those of the respiratory tract. Data on the role of smoking in psoriatic arthritis are less consistent compared with those concerning psoriasis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms may explain the association of psoriasis with smoking, including oxidative stress, interaction with signaling pathways active in psoriasis, and vascular influences. In conclusion, psoriasis is just one of the many diseases associated with smoking, but it is visible and disabling. Dermatologists could play a major role in

  10. Association between prenatal and postnatal tobacco smoke exposure and allergies in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2011-06-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and allergic disorders, whereas epidemiological evidence of the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on allergic diseases is inconsistent. We investigated the independent and joint effects of in utero exposure to maternal smoking and postnatal ETS exposure at home on allergic disorders among Japanese children. Study subjects were 1951 children aged 3 years. Data on maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal exposure to ETS at home, allergic symptoms, and potential confounders were collected through the use of a questionnaire. Outcomes were defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). The prevalence values of symptoms of wheeze, asthma, and eczema in the previous 12 months were 22.0%, 8.8%, and 17.2%, respectively. We found that postnatal ETS exposure at home in the absence of in utero exposure to maternal smoking was associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.67). In contrast, in utero exposure without subsequent postnatal ETS exposure at home or exposure to postnatal ETS at home in addition to in utero exposure to maternal smoking was not associated with the prevalence of wheeze. No measurable associations were observed between fetal, postnatal, or joint exposure and the prevalence of asthma or eczema. Data from this study indicate that ETS at home may be associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze among young Japanese children.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-17

    Dec 17, 2015 ... implemented to improve the general knowledge of HIV, with the hypothesis that increasing HIV knowledge will reduce risky sexual behavior (RSB). However, HIV ... work is properly cited. Pan African Medical Journal .... Other factors associated with higher RSB are smoking and alcohol. [13-15], as well as ...

  12. Exploring the EU ETS beyond 2020. A first assessment of the EU Commission's proposal for Phase IV of the EU ETS (2021-2030). COPEC Research Program: the Coordination of EU Policies on Energy and CO2 with the EU ETS by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie; Afriat, Marion; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Dahan, Lara; Cail, Sylvain; Cassisa, Cyril; Keramidas, Kimon; Coussy, Paula; Portenart, Philomene

    2015-11-01

    This report, written in partnership with I4CE and IFPen, provides the first complete and comprehensive assessment of the EU Commission's proposal and its coherence with the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy policies, demonstrating that: 1 - Re-calibrating the EU ETS requires considering its interactions with complementary climate and energy policies by 2030. Interactions between different policies may induce additional costs vis-a-vis an optimal transition to a low-carbon economy. 2 - Introducing the Market Stability Reserve is necessary to support the ambition of the EU ETS. Guaranteeing MSR effectiveness calls for a governing framework to be established before 2030. 3 - The free allocation mechanism for Phase IV requires more flexible and targeted allocation to sectors most exposed to carbon leakage risk. 4 - Expanding the EU ETS scope with the inclusion of the road transport sector may not necessarily be the most cost-effective way to achieve the GHG 2030 target. 5 - Considering the large scale of ETS auction revenues by 2030, the use of ETS proceeds by the European Commission and by Member States constitutes an increasingly relevant funding source to support decarbonization efforts in non-ETS sectors and to finance R and D in low carbon technologies

  13. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  14. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416851-05$15.00/0.

  15. Low birth weight and prenatal exposure to indoor pollution from tobacco smoke and wood fuel smoke: a matched case-control study in Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusalah, Akram; Gavana, Magda; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Papadakis, Nikos; Papanikolaou, Alexis; Benos, Alexis

    2012-11-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major health hazard as it contains lower doses of the toxins that smokers' inhale. Prenatal exposure to wood fuel smoke has been linked to delivering low birth weight (LBW) infants. The study aims to assess the association between prenatal exposure to ETS and wood fuel smoke and LBW. A case-control study in ratio 1:1 was conducted in two hospitals with obstetric services in Gaza Strip. Subjects were selected during May-June and July-August 2007 from attenders of Mbarak Hospital and Shifa Medical Centre, respectively. 184 (41.2%), and 79 (17.7%) out of 446 participants were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke and wood fuel smoke, respectively. Adjusted maternal exposure to ETS (especially the number of cigarettes smoked, water pipe and wood fuel smoke) was associated with LBW infants. Cigarette smoke exhibits an independent dose-response risk of LBW after adjusting for confounders. Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke indoors is related to a reduction in birth weight of infants of -237 g (95% CI: -415, -58) for pregnant women exposed to 1-20 cigarettes per day and -391 g (95% CI: -642, -140) for exposure to more than 20 cigarettes per day. Exposure to wood fuel smoke exhibits a reduction of infants' adjusted mean birth weight by -186 g (95% CI: -354, -19). Prenatal exposure to passive smoking and wood fuel smoke are independently associated with LBW. Both these factors are modifiable exposures that could possibly lead to a reduction of delivering LBW infants.

  16. Can smoking cause melanization of Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have reported on the ability of Cryptococcus neoformans to synthesize melanin from tobacco extracts / nicotine incorporated in to the medium. However a study on the utilization of components in tobacco smoke by C. neoformans for melanin production was unreported. The present study reports on ability of C. neoformans for melanization using tobacco smoke and therefore substantiate the possible link between smoking and pathogenecity in clinical cryptococcal infections as reported by several researchers.

  17. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    21 janv. 2012 ... les endocrinopathies et aussi les effets secondaires des antihypertenseurs [6,7]. Les recommandations de la JNC VII [8] ... de Lomé, ayant concerné 394 patients hypertendus en traitement régulier (médicaments antihypertenseurs + mesures hygiéno-diététiques) depuis au moins 1 mois et bien observants.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    10 oct. 2017 ... 16. Wells Lloyd C, Smith JC, Weston VC et al. The child with a non- blanching rash: How likely is meningococcal disease? Arch Dis. Child. 2001 Sep; 85(3): 218-22. Google Scholar. 17. Neilsen Hans Erik, Andersen Elizabeth A, Andersen Jesper et al. Diagnostic assessment of haemorrhagic rash and fever.

  20. Research

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    22 sept. 2015 ... Abstract. Introduction: Les maladies chroniques non transmissibles (MCNT) constituent un problème de santé publique. La transition épidémiologique coexiste avec les maladies infectieuses. En Afrique subsaharienne, leur ampleur est peu connue et l'OMS recommande aux pays à faible et moyen.

  1. Research

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    abp

    hypertension artérielle (HTA) est la pathologie et le facteur de risque cardiovasculaire le plus important. Actuellement, on estime qu'environ un milliard de personnes dans le monde souffre d'. HTA et ce chiffre devrait encore augmenter ...

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    2 déc. 2015 ... le manque d'hygiène des téléphones et des mains. Donc, il faut conseiller et sensibiliser à tous le .... pourrions facilement éviter la propagation des infections bactériennes en utilisant simplement les ... Bacterial Contamination and Resistance to Commonly Used. Antimicrobials of Healthcare Workers' ...

  3. Research

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    21 juin 2013 ... Conclusion: L'EEG a un rôle aussi bien dans la confirmation et la caractérisation de divers syndromes épileptiques et suspicions d'épilepsie que dans la discrimination des manifestations paroxystiques non épileptiques chez l'enfant. Les renseignements cliniques sont indispensables pour une lecture ...

  4. Research

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    abp

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... statistical software Epi Info version 2004. Variables were compared by chi-square test. A p value <0.05 was determined significant. ..... Estève J, Faivre J. Épidémiologie descriptive et registres. Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale Pathologie professionnelle et de l'environnement. 2006 ; 16- 860-A-10. 16.

  5. Research

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    ebutamanya

    2 mars 2015 ... Sportive, Université du Sud, France. &Corresponding author: Jean-Marie Falola, Laboratoire de Biomécanique et Performance (Labiop), Institut National de la Jeunesse, de l'Education. Physique et du Sport (INJEPS), Porto-Novo, Benin. Key words: Posture, chevilles, genoux, chaussures à talons.

  6. Research

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    abp

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... PubMed | Google Scholar. 15. Burch JB, Tom J, Zhai Y et al. Shiftwork impacts and adaptation among health care workers. Occup Med (Lond). 2009 May; 59(3): 159-66. PubMed | Google Scholar. 16. Mehrdad R, Mazloumi A, Arshi S et al. Work ability index among health care personnel in a university ...

  7. Research

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    abp

    25 janv. 2014 ... individuelles, mais aussi l'environnement social et physique de l'enfant. Pan African Medical Journal. 2014 .... pendant les jours d´école (p=0,31). Enfin, le temps consacré aux jeux vidéo et le temps passé devant ..... standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    adoption des comportements à moindre risque et viser l'éducation ciblée de la .... comportements de santé, les comportements de santé des individus sont en .... quotidienne de la viande et du poisson est signalée par un tiers des.

  9. Examining the Internal Structure of the Test of English-for-Teaching ("TEFT"™). Research Report. ETS RR-15-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Turkan, Sultan; Gomez, Pablo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    ELTeach is an online professional development program developed by Educational Testing Service (ETS) in collaboration with National Geographic Learning. The ELTeach program consists of two courses: English-for-Teaching and Professional Knowledge for English Language Teaching (ELT). Each course includes a coordinated assessment leading to a score…

  10. Exploring the Relationships among Teacher Confidence, Learning, and Test Performance within the English-for-Teaching Course. Research Report. ETS RR-16-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    In responding to the increasingly expanded emphasis on English language teaching (ELT) around the globe, Educational Testing Service (ETS) collaborated with National Geographic Learning to develop the "ELTeach"™ program (http://www.elteach.com), an online professional development program consisting of two courses, English-for-Teaching…

  11. Should we bother with second-hand smoke exposure if smoking is on track?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the serious health-damaging effects of tobacco smoke exposure has initiated several preventive programmes on the national and international levels worldwide. In the last decade, a considerable decrease in the prevalence of active smoking was observed in Denmark, changing...... the country from a poor to a favourable position in comparison to other EU countries. However, second-hand tobacco smoke exposure, especially in homes, still ranks Denmark among the problematic countries in Europe. This poorly recognised and studied discrepancy calls for further research and effective...

  12. Where there's smoke : health effects of wood smoke and risk reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, B. [New Brunswick Lung Association, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of a discussion at a former workshop on smoke from both forest fires and wood stoves. Climate change is forecasted to increase the occurrence of forest fires in Canada and climate change mitigation measures may increase the use of wood stoves for home heating, resulting in an increase in respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms in the Canadian population. These health effects of wood smoke include: headaches and allergies; breathing difficulties; reduced lung function; aggravated heart disease; and increased susceptibility to lower respiratory tract infections. This paper also presented information on health effects of wood smoke and research recommendations for improved policies to protect human health. tabs., figs.

  13. Assessing the role of impulsivity in smoking & non-smoking disordered gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Célina A; Kim, Hyoun S; Romanow, Nicole K; Hodgins, David C; McGrath, Daniel S

    2017-07-01

    Co-morbidity with other addictive behaviors is common in disordered gambling (DG). In particular, tobacco dependence has been found to be among the most prevalent disorders co-morbid with DG. While the extant literature has firmly established the co-occurrence of DG and smoking, there is a paucity of research examining factors that differentiate DGs who smoke from those who do not. To address this empirical gap, the current study tested whether dimensions of trait impulsivity as measured by the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking), discriminated between non-DGs and DGs based on their present smoking status: non-smoker, occasional smoker, and daily smoker. To this end, 564 community gamblers were recruited through a crowdsourcing platform (Amazon's Mechanical Turk) and completed an online survey, assessing problem gambling severity, tobacco use, and trait impulsivity. MANOVA analyses revealed significant main effects for both gambling severity and smoking status groups. Importantly, a significant gambling by smoking interaction was also found. Pairwise comparisons revealed that DGs who were daily smokers scored higher on negative urgency than those who smoked occasionally or not all. Furthermore, among non-DGs, smoking status failed to discriminate between mean scores on negative urgency. No other significant interaction effects were found for the remaining UPPS-P impulsivity facets. Results suggest that individual components of trait impulsivity, and more specifically negative urgency, successfully differentiate DGs who do not smoke, or just smoke occasionally, from DGs who smoke daily. These findings suggest that the degree of trait impulsivity may potentially distinguish between DGs and DGs who are dually addicted to other substances such as tobacco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  15. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Labor and Population Program: The Dangers of Smoke Haze. Mortality in Malaysia from Indonesian Forest Fires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... All told, about 70 million people lived in areas affected by the smoke haze. An important research and policy concern is whether the smoke haze caused by the forest fires had significant health or mortality...

  17. Relationship between Caregivers’ Smoking at Home and Urinary Levels of Cotinine in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of different smoking behaviors of caregivers on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in children aged 5–6 years in Changsha, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, random digit-dial telephone survey of caregivers (n = 543 between August and October 2013. Caregivers’ smoking behaviors were collected by a questionnaire. Exposure assessment was based upon determination of urinary cotinine levels in children employing gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS. Results: In children not living with a smoker, children living with one smoker, and children living with more than one smoker at home, median urinary cotinine concentrations (ng/mL were 0.72, 2.97, and 4.46, respectively. For children living with one smoker, median urinary cotinine levels of children exposed to ETS were associated with caregiver smoking behaviors, i.e., if a caregiver consumed more cigarettes (>20 compared with ≤10; 7.73 versus 2.29 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The magnitude of ETS exposure in children is correlated with the smoking behaviors of the caregiver. Counseling for smoking cessation and educational interventions are needed urgently for smoking caregivers to increase their awareness about ETS exposure and to encourage smoking cessation at home or to take precautions to protect children’s health.

  18. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke can trigger an asthma attack in a child. Children with asthma who are around secondhand smoke ... more severe and frequent asthma attacks. A severe asthma attack can put a child's life in danger. Children whose parents smoke around ...

  19. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  20. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  1. Perception of parents about second hand smoke on the health of their children: an ethnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Alves de Carvalho Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the perception of parents about secondhand smoking in their children's health. Methods: Ethnographic qualitative and quantitative study. We sought the point of view and understanding of the parents who were active smokers in relation to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and secondhand smoking. Mothers and fathers who are active smokers and that live with their children from seven different public schools in the city of Anápolis, Midwest Brazil, were interviewed in the first semester of in a reserved room in the schools. A descriptive and qualitative analysis was carried out through the ethnography. Results: 58 parents with an average time of smoking of 15.3 years and an average quantity of cigarettes smoked per day of 2 were interviewed. Among them, 59% did not know what ETS was, and 60% stated knowing what a secondhand smoker was. However, when questioned about their children as secondhand smokers, 52% did not consider them to be. Some parents knew some of the effects of secondhand smoking in the health of their children. However, the majority (52% of them did not believe that their children would suffer any respiratory impairment or did not know about these impairments. Conclusions: Children were exposed to environmental tobacco pollution in their residence if one considers parental duration of smoking and average of cigarettes smoked per day. There was a lack of knowledge of the parents about ETS, secondhand smoking and the evils that cigarettes could cause in the health of their children.

  2. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoking also is associated with neonatal death from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, the major cause of death ... fluid are the most common cause of children’s hearing loss. When they do not respond to medical treatment, ...

  3. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gas) Cadmium Chromium (a metallic element) Ethylene oxide Nickel (a metallic element) Polonium-210 (a radioactive chemical ... the tobacco is wrapped ( 1 , 3 , 4 ). Does exposure to secondhand smoke cause cancer? Yes. The U.S. ...

  4. Methoxyphenols in smoke from biomass burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaellstrand, J.

    2000-07-01

    Wood and other forest plant materials were burned in laboratory experiments with the ambition to simulate the natural burning course in a fireplace or a forest fire. Smoke samples were taken and analysed with respect to methoxyphenols, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Different kinds of bio pellets, intended for residential heating were studied in the same way. The aim of a first study was to establish analytical data to facilitate further research. Thirty-six specific methoxyphenols were identified, and gas chromatographic retention and mass spectrometric data were determined for these. In a subsequent study, the methoxyphenol emissions from the burning of wood and other forest plant materials were investigated. Proportions and concentrations of specific methoxyphenols were determined. Methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, formed from the decomposition of lignin and cellulose respectively, were the most prominent semi-volatile compounds in the biomass smoke. The methoxyphenol compositions reflected the lignin structures of different plant materials. Softwood smoke contained almost only 2-methoxyphenols, while hardwood smoke contained both 2-methoxyphenols and 2,6-dimethoxyphenols. The methoxyphenols in smoke from pellets, made of sawdust, bark and lignin, reflected the source of biomass. Although smoke from incompletely burned wood contains mainly methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars, there is also a smaller amount of well-known hazardous compounds present. The methoxyphenols are antioxidants. They appear mainly condensed on particles and are presumed to be inhaled together with other smoke components. As antioxidants, phenols interrupt free radical chain reactions and possibly counteract the effect of hazardous smoke components. Health hazards of small-scale wood burning should be re-evaluated considering antioxidant effects of the methoxyphenols.

  5. Health impact of smoking – an unforgiveable omission in a doctor's repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemon TI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas I Lemon Institute of Medical Education, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UKRahman et al1 should be thanked for their discussion-provoking paper investigating the smoking behavior of patients and staff in a hospital based in Melbourne, Australia. The authors hoped to gather epidemiological data surrounding smoking, information on dependence to nicotine, and attitudes toward both the health impact and quitting strategies of smokers. View original paper by Rahman et al

  6. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  7. Smoking and Periodontal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Borojevic, Tea

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth (periodontium). The periodontium consists of four tissues : gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligaments. Tobbaco use is one of the modifiable risk factors and has enormous influance on the development, progres and tretmen results of periodontal disease. The relationship between smoking and periodontal health was investigated as early as the miiddle of last century. Smoking is an independent ri...

  8. Effect of exclusive cigarette smoking and in combination with waterpipe smoking on lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, LDL levels increased relative to nonsmokers, consistent with findings in other populations. In addition, among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, current waterpipe smoking might increase adverse lipid profiles associated with adverse coronary effects more than cigarette smoking alone. The direct cause responsible for these observed variations in our study remains unidentified, with the hope that future research will reveal it.

  9. The Great Recession, Adolescent Smoking, and Smoking Inequalities: What Role Does Youth Unemployment Play in 24 European Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Richter, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    time the impact of the economic recession on young people's smoking and socioeconomic inequalities in smoking. Findings highlight that rather than an increase in youth unemployment, the overall country-level youth unemployment rate is related to young people's tobacco use and particularly to lower odds in smoking among less affluent adolescents across Europe, a finding which is likely to be linked to the affordability of tobacco use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Misclassification of smoking status among Southeast Asian adult immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewers, M E; Dhatt, R K; Moeschberger, M L; Guthrie, R M; Kuun, P; Chen, M S

    1995-12-01

    A total of 1,403 Southeast Asian adult immigrant males (n = 783) and females (n = 620) from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who currently resided in Central Ohio were interviewed to determine the self-reported smoking prevalence among them, and underwent biochemical confirmation of their smoking status. Variables having to do with the subjects' sociodemography, acculturation, and smoking history that were related to the misclassification of smoking status were also investigated. Self-reported current smoking rates were 40.9% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. After verification of the subjects' smoking status by saliva cotinine assay (smoker status > or = 14 ng/ml), the rates of smoking were found to be greater, at 43.7% for males and 14.8% for females. Years of education, self-reported smoking status, country of origin, and method of healthcare payment were significant predictors of misclassification. These findings suggest that the prevalence of smoking is higher among Southeast Asian adult females than has been previously reported. Variables that predict misclassification with regard to smoking status are presented, and their implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed.

  11. WIC providers' perspectives on offering smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mary Lober; Goody, Cynthia M; Lowe, John B

    2003-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of WIC clinic providers on offering smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women. Four focus groups consisting of WIC nurses, dietitians, and social workers (N = 25) were conducted at WIC clinics in eastern Iowa. Researchers developed discussion guidelines to determine how WIC providers currently approached pregnant women who smoke cigarettes and what they considered barriers to providing effective smoking cessation interventions. Code mapping was used to analyze focus group discussions. Factors influencing the ability of WIC staff to provide a smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women included available time, clinic priorities, staff approaches to clients, and staff training. In addition, providers expressed concerns about educational materials for clients as well as additional client issues that prevented smoking cessation. The absence of mechanisms to track clinic outcomes related to smoking cessation was also noted. WIC providers have time limitations that may necessitate minimal or low-intensity interventions for smoking cessation, but did not know that such approaches are actually effective. WIC providers require more education about the entire issue of smoking cessation in order to become more proactive in their attempts to help pregnant women quit. Training that enhances self-efficacy and understanding of the impact of smoking on mothers, infants, and children should be initiated to motivate staff to intervene. Another strategy to motivate WIC staff in this regard could be tracking clinic outcomes in helping women to quit smoking or prevent relapse.

  12. Maternal smoking and the retinoid pathway in the developing lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoli Sara E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking is a risk factor for pediatric lung disease, including asthma. Animal models suggest that maternal smoking causes defective alveolarization in the offspring. Retinoic acid signaling modulates both lung development and postnatal immune function. Thus, abnormalities in this pathway could mediate maternal smoking effects. We tested whether maternal smoking disrupts retinoic acid pathway expression and functioning in a murine model. Methods Female C57Bl/6 mice with/without mainstream cigarette smoke exposure (3 research cigarettes a day, 5 days a week were mated to nonsmoking males. Cigarette smoke exposure continued throughout the pregnancy and after parturition. Lung tissue from the offspring was examined by mean linear intercept analysis and by quantitative PCR. Cell culture experiments using the type II cell-like cell line, A549, tested whether lipid-soluble cigarette smoke components affected binding and activation of retinoic acid response elements in vitro. Results Compared to tobacco-naïve mice, juvenile mice with tobacco toxin exposure had significantly (P  Conclusions A murine model of maternal cigarette smoking causes abnormal alveolarization in association with altered retinoic acid pathway element expression in the offspring. An in vitro cell culture model shows that lipid-soluble components of cigarette smoke decrease retinoic acid response element activation. It is feasible that disruption of retinoic acid signaling contributes to the pediatric lung dysfunction caused by maternal smoking.

  13. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  14. A pilot study of the behavior of gas- and particle-phase ETS tracers in residences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apte, Michael; Gundel, Lara; Dod, Raymond; Chang, Gee-Min; Sextro, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Our previous study of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a three-room environmental chamber showed that smoking history significantly influenced inter-room ETS transport, particularly of gas-phase nicotine. We conducted a three-home pilot study where smoking was limited to one room. Single-smoker residences were monitored during five one-week periods while the smoker participated in a smoking cessation program. Nicotine traced ETS particles were detected reliably in the smoking rooms (SRs) and unreliably in the non-smoking rooms (NSRs). On average, the ventilation- and volume-normalized smoking rate, 0.1 Cigarette-h(sup -1) m(sup -3), added about 17 and 4(micro)g m(sup -3) of ETS particles into the SR and NSR, while average nicotine concentration increases were 2 and 0.06(micro)g m(sup -3), respectively. Thus, nicotine tracers may underestimate ETS particle exposure in a NSR (e.g., a child's bedroom) by a factor of 2 to 8. In other words, ETS exposure predicted from nicotine concentrations could be almost an order of magnitude lower than actual exposure

  15. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek

    2017-02-01

    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    29 oct. 2013 ... nouveau-né et l'âge maternelle situé entre 20 et 34 ans, l'âge gestationnel inférieur à 37 SA, et le score d'APGAR<7, mais aussi le rôle d´autres facteurs tels que les .... mères ayant un âge gestationnel supérieur ou égal à 37 SA, il y a ... les nouveau-nés de poids de naissance normal, le score d'APGAR.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    10 oct. 2017 ... bilan d'hémostase, un dosage de la C-Réactive Protéine et quand c'est possible une ponction lombaire, et démarre une antibiothérapie à base de céphalosporine de 3ème génération. Dans l'objectif de déterminer l'incidence des infections à méningocoque et le profil épidémiologique des enfants admis ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    29 sept. 2017 ... prendre conscience que ce travail collaboratif (check-list) est garant du développement et de la pérennisation d'une réelle culture de la sécurité et de la qualité des soins. L'absence d'investissement et de soutien dans ces démarches expose les établissements à payer les coûts de la non-qualité. A l'heure ...

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    4 août 2015 ... des compétences du personnel et de l'acceptabilité du type d'anesthésie par les patients. Pan African Medical Journal. 2015; 21:240 doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21. ... a 15 IADE (infirmiers anesthésistes diplômés d'Etat, 4 internes en anesthésie et réanimation et un seul anesthésiologiste. Dans l'ensemble ...

  20. Hazardous Compounds in Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Talhout, Reinskje; Schulz, Thomas; Florek, Ewa; van Benthem, Jan; Wester, Piet; Opperhuizen, Antoon

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is a toxic and carcinogenic mixture of more than 5,000 chemicals. The present article provides a list of 98 hazardous smoke components, based on an extensive literature search for known smoke components and their human health inhalation risks. An electronic database of smoke components containing more than 2,200 entries was generated. Emission levels in mainstream smoke have been found for 542 of the components and a human inhalation risk value for 98 components. As components w...

  1. Studying Hostile, Deceptive, and Dangerous Surroundings: Report of a Workshop on Social Research Methods for Non-Permissive Environments (Etudier des Milieux Hostiles, Trompeurs et Dangereux - Rapport Concernant un Atelier sur les Methodes de Recherche Sociale an Milieu non Permissif)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    personnel ont été employés comme « coordonnateurs des effets sur les humains » en utilisant l’observation directe et indirecte, des entrevues, des sondages...gaining access through the processes dictated by elites in the capital , a researcher still has to meet people on their own terms, go to them in the...flow adequacy, capital structure and asset protection, and liquidity. When we understand and apply both corporate and sovereign ratings, we can

  2. [The opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuchowski, Filip; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Bukała-Siedlecka, Iwona; Binkowska-Bury, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is now a serious social problem in Poland and abroad. Unfortunately, adverse effects also affect the businesses in which the crews smoke tobacco. For several years a wide-ranging measures aimed at reducing the population of smoking employees can be observed, unfortunately their results are significantly below expectations. What must be noted is that the effectiveness of these projects to a large extent is determined by the opinion of the smoking part of the crew about the problem of smoking in the workplace. The aim of this work was to analyze the opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace. The selection of study group was expedient. The people tested were permanent employees of a large plant in Rzeszow. The research materials were the answers to the questions given to an anonymous survey. The survey contained 21 questions about their opinions to smokers and 17 questions about their opinions to non-smokers. The perception of risks arising from the smoking of tobacco by smokers and non-smokers was asked for, and their expectations towards the company. They were asked also the willingness to join special programs helping in quitting the addiction of smoking. The individuals who smoke at least one cigarette a day were recognized as daily smokers of tobacco (as defined by WHO). Those who used to smoke every day in the past or occasionally were considered as ex-smokers. (less than one cigarette per day). 4200 surveys were distributed in the plant. The filled - in forms with replies were received from 1412 workers, representing 33.6% of questionnaires distributed. All the surveys were put in order and checked on its merits. 1291 were classified as correct, what represented 30.7% of questionnaires distributed. The latest version of the program Statistica 8.0 was used for the statistical calculations. Test results show that 14.9% of employees smoke tobacco, and every third smoker is worried about the consequences of smoking. As far as opinions on the

  3. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as predisposition factors to acute respiratory infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Jedrychowski, W; Flak, E

    1997-01-01

    This study compared susceptibility to respiratory morbidity in a cohort of 9-year-old children exposed congenitally and postnatally to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to susceptibility in a cohort of unexposed children. The epidemiologic study included 1129 children: 594 boys and 535 girls attending the second grade of grammar schools in Kraków, Poland. We found strong evidence that children exposed to ETS in their homes were more susceptible to acute respiratory tract illnesses than unexpo...

  4. Pathologic Cellular Events in Smoking-Related Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, Edwin [Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Veterans Affairs Connecticut Healthcare, West Haven, CT 06516 (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Pancreatitis, a debilitating inflammatory disorder, results from pancreatic injury. Alcohol abuse is the foremost cause, although cigarette smoking has recently surfaced as a distinct risk factor. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke and its toxins initiate pathological cellular events leading to pancreatitis, have not been clearly defined. Although cigarette smoke is composed of more than 4000 compounds, it is mainly nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which have been extensively studied with respect to pancreatic diseases. This review summarizes these research findings and highlights cellular pathways which may be of relevance in initiation and progression of smoking-related pancreatitis.

  5. Smoking related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: Results of an ERS/ATS Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Kevin R.; Fell, Charlene; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Brown, Kevin; Colby, Thomas; Costabel, Ulrich; Franks, Teri J.; Gross, Barry H; Hansell, David M.; Kazerooni, Ella; Kim, Dong Soon; King, Talmadge E.; Kitachi, Masanori; Lynch, David; Myers, Jeff; Nagai, Sonoko; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Poletti, Venerino; Raghu, Ganesh; Selman, Moises; Toews, Galen; Travis, William; Wells, Athol U.; Vassallo, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases. Methods An international group of clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) to determine unique features of cigarette smoking. Phase 1 (derivation group) identified smoking related features in patients with a history of smoking (n=41). Phase 2 (validation group) determined if these features correctly predicted the smoking status of IIP patients (n=100) to participants blinded to smoking history. Finally, investigators sought to determine if a new smoking-related interstitial lung disease phenotype could be defined. Results Phase 1 suggested that preserved forced vital capacity with disproportionately reduced DLCO, various radiographic and histopathologic findings were smoking related features. In Phase 2 the kappa among clinicians was 0.16 (95% CI 0.11 – 0.21), among the pathologists 0.36 (95% CI 0.32 – 0.34) and among the radiologists 0.43 (95% CI 0.35 – 0.52) for smoking related features. Eight of the 100 cases were felt to represent a potential smoking related interstitial lung disease. Conclusion Smoking related features of interstitial lung disease were identified in a minority of smokers and are not specific for smoking. This study is limited by its retrospective design and the potential for recall bias of smoking history and lack of information on second had smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between smoking and interstitial lung disease. PMID:25063244

  6. Nuclear systems of the future: international forum generation 4 and research and development projects at the Cea; Systemes nucleaires du futur: forum international generation 4 et projets de R et D du CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F

    2003-07-01

    To advance nuclear energy to meet future energy needs, ten countries have agreed to develop a future generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation 4. A technology road map to guide the Generation 4 effort was begun. This document presents the goals for these nuclear systems and the research programs of the Cea on the gas technology, GT-MHR, VHTR and GFR and the other systems as sodium Fast Neutron reactors, supercritical water and space nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  7. Smoke-free policy implementation: theoretical and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Goodin, Amie; Rayens, Mary Kay; Morris, Sarah; Hahn, Ellen J

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is a major public health issue, increasing the risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Although best practices for adopting smoke-free policy are well understood, there is limited research on the effective implementation of smoke-free policy. This article presents theoretical and practical considerations for smoke-free policy implementation in three Kentucky communities guided by the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework. Although both Danville and Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky have comprehensive smoke-free policies, Danville had more effective implementation, as well as better outcomes. Further study is needed to understand the critical elements of smoke-free policy implementation and their association with population outcomes. The IAD is a promising model to guide the study of both policy adoption and implementation. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  9. Reviewing the needs of unemployed youth in smoking intervention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, W R; Gillespie, A M; Lowe, J B

    1995-01-01

    In Australia, the impact of unemployment on adolescent smoking behaviour continues to present a major public health problem. Traditional prevention programmes in both primary and secondary schools appear to be achieving a delay in the onset of smoking. However, smoking rates of young people who are unemployed are unacceptably higher than those of in-school youth. This paper provides a review of the published literature, showing that there has been little effort to address smoking patterns or experiences of quitting for this target group. While the provision of employment opportunities or skill training for this group is important, these strategies will not eliminate the problem of smoking. Steps must be taken to encourage research into the development of tailored programmes for unemployed youth who smoke. These programmes must be carefully considered and evaluated and meet the needs of this diverse group of young people.

  10. What accounts for the association of education and smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, David W; Cofta-Gunn, Ludmila; Irvin, Jennifer E; Fouladi, Rachel T; Wright, Kelli; Daza, Patricia; Mazas, Carlos; Cinciripini, Paul M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2005-04-01

    Education has been identified as a potent sociodemographic predictor of smoking cessation and the Healthy People 2010 goals include the elimination of health disparities attributable to education. The current study prospectively examined the association of education with smoking cessation as well variables that might account for that association among employed adults residing in the southeastern United States. A strong educational gradient in cessation was evident. Only 6% of smokers with less than a high school (HS) degree quit smoking during the 4-year study period, whereas 17% of smokers with a HS degree but no college degree and 28% of smokers with at least a college degree quit smoking. Education appeared to uniquely contribute to the prediction of smoking abstinence over and above the effects of demographic, environmental, tobacco dependence, transtheoretical model, and job-related variables. Obtaining a better understanding of how or why education influences smoking cessation could contribute to reducing the educational gradient in abstinence and warrants further research attention.

  11. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim

    2014-02-26

    counselling (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.51 to 2.54; eight trials, 3516 participants), pharmacotherapies (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.11; five trials, 1092 participants), and multiple intervention programmes aimed mainly or solely at smoking cessation (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.13; six trials, 5018 participants) all increased cessation rates in comparison to no treatment or minimal intervention controls. Self-help materials were less effective (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.82; six trials, 1906 participants), and two relapse prevention programmes (484 participants) did not help to sustain long-term abstinence. Incentives did not appear to improve the odds of quitting, apart from one study which found a sustained positive benefit. There was a lack of evidence that comprehensive programmes targeting multiple risk factors reduced the prevalence of smoking. 1. We found strong evidence that some interventions directed towards individual smokers increase the likelihood of quitting smoking. These include individual and group counselling, pharmacological treatment to overcome nicotine addiction, and multiple interventions targeting smoking cessation as the primary or only outcome. All these interventions show similar effects whether offered in the workplace or elsewhere. Self-help interventions and social support are less effective. Although people taking up these interventions are more likely to stop, the absolute numbers who quit are low.2. We failed to detect an effect of comprehensive programmes targeting multiple risk factors in reducing the prevalence of smoking, although this finding was not based on meta-analysed data. 3. There was limited evidence that participation in programmes can be increased by competitions and incentives organized by the employer, although one trial demonstrated a sustained effect of financial rewards for attending a smoking cessation course and for long-term quitting. Further research is needed to establish which components of this trial contributed to the

  12. Adolescent romantic relationships and change in smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S; Pollard, Michael S; Go, Myong-Hyun; Green, Harold D

    2011-04-01

    Although smoking rates have decreased, smoking among adolescents continues to be a problem. Previous research has shown the importance of peer influences on adolescent smoking behavior but has mostly neglected the impact of adolescent romantic relationships. This study examines the influence of romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers on smoking initiation and cessation over a one-year period using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). For initial non-smokers, we examined whether the total length of time in romantic relationships with smokers and non-smokers at Wave I, as well as amount of exposure to smoking through romantic partners, predicted smoking initiation at Wave II. Among initial regular smokers, we examined whether these same relationship characteristics predicted smoking cessation at Wave II. These analyses were conducted separately for respondents in any type of romantic relationship, as well as just those respondents in close romantic relationships. Results indicated that, for close romantic relationships, cessation was more likely among smokers with more time in relationships with non-smoking partners. Greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly decreased the likelihood of cessation among initial smokers and increased the likelihood of initiation among initial non-smokers. For all relationships, greater exposure to smoking through romantic partners at Wave I significantly reduced the likelihood of cessation. These associations held when controlling for best friend smoking, as well as demographic factors and school-level smoking, suggesting that peer-based smoking programs aimed at adolescents should incorporate a focus on romantic relationships. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860

  14. Smoking at School: Views of Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Erdogan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent interest in cigarette smoking among university students has brought attention to problems concerning opinions, attitudes, prevention, health education, policy formulation and implementation. This survey research tested five hypotheses on the views of college students about smoking in school hallways and cafeteria, compliance with anti smoking laws, considering cigarette smoking as an expression of freedom of choice, teachers’ smoking in classrooms and in their offices, and school administration’s policy on enforcing the law. Hypothesized differences between students’ views on the issues according to gender, smoking status and years at school were investigated. Data were obtained from 3,659 students attending six universities in Ankara, Turkey. The study findings provided support for all the hypothesized differences (except a single issue. Males and females differed significantly on all the issues studied. The majority of nonsmoking students have anti-smoking views in regards of the studied issues as compared to regular and occasional smokers. Smokers and nonsmokers markedly disagree on banning cigarette smoking in the cafeteria and hallways. However, the majority of students are against teachers’ smoking in classrooms and in their offices with the doors open. Although most students want a smoke free environment, there is no active-anti smoking policy on smoking by universities. Findings point out the need for campus-wide effective smoking prevention programs, as well as cessation programs and services for the students.

  15. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Hearing Loss: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Nagahama, Satsue; Akter, Shamima; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kashino, Ikuko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-03-14

    We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss. During follow-up, 3532 individuals developed high-frequency hearing loss, and 1575 developed low-frequency hearing loss. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with current smokers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4) for high- and low-frequency hearing loss, respectively, as compared with never smokers. The risk of high- and low-frequency hearing loss increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (both p for trend hearing loss, respectively. The analysis by quitting years showed a decline in risk of hearing loss after quitting smoking, even among those who quitted less than 5 years before baseline. Smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss, especially at the high frequency, in a dose-response manner. The excess risk of hearing loss associated with smoking disappears in a relatively short period after quitting. The prospective association between smoking and hearing loss has not been well studied. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the largest to date investigating the association between smoking and incident hearing loss. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in a dose-response manner. Quitting smoking virtually eliminates the excess risk of hearing loss, even among quitters with short duration of cessation. These results suggest that smoking may be a causal factor for hearing loss, although further research would

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    175-7. PubMed | Google Scholar. 2. Barretti P, Moraes TM, Camargo CH, Caramori JC, Mondelli AL,. Montelli AC, et al. Peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis due to. Staphylococcus aureus: a single-center experience over 15.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    isoniazide et à la rifampicine au Burkina Faso. Ilboudo Désire1, Bisseye Cyrille1, Djigma Florencia1, Diande Souba2, Yonli Albert1, Bazie Jean Telesphore Valerie1, Compaore. Rebecca1, Gnoula Charlemagne1, Djibril ...

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-13

    article/24/235/full/. © Imane Elbinoune et al. ... Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net) ... different shoulder movements (flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and ...

  19. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  20. Smoking and drinking among college students: "it's a package deal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Carkoglu, Asli; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on qualitative research on smoking in contexts associated with drinking among college students. Although a plethora of survey research has shown a positive association between smoking and alcohol use, little attention has been given to the utility functions of these co-occurring behaviors. Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews with college freshmen at a large Mid-western university in the U.S. (n=35). In addition, eleven focus groups with fraternity and sorority members were conducted (n=70). Interviews and focus groups focused on a range of issues including current smoking behavior, reasons for smoking, and smoking and drinking. A review of qualitative responses reveals that smoking served multiple utility functions for this population including (1) facilitating social interaction across gender, (2) allowing one to structure time and space at a party, (3) enabling "party" smokers to smoke with fewer negative side effects, and (4) helping to calm one down when drunk. Whereas smoking was stigmatized during the context of one's everyday life as a student, at parties while consuming alcohol, smoking was viewed as normative and socially acceptable. Preventive interventions are needed on college campus that target co-substance use and address widespread misperceptions about the harm of tobacco use and addiction. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-02-01

    Increasing numbers of technical and consumer products incorporating radioactive material are becoming available to the Australian public. One consumer device of this type coming into common use is the domestic smoke detector that uses Americium 241 in detecting smoke. This device has obvious life-saving and property-saving advantages and is attractive in that it is attractive in that it is self-contained, battery powered and needs little maintenance. The National Health and Medical Research Council in October 1978 recommended conditions, which are listed, are intended to ensure that radiation safety is preserved. They provide for the testing and approval of all models of domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material. The National Health and Medical Research Council stated that provided these conditions are applied it had no objection to the sale of these detectors by retailers

  2. Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness—A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    4 févr. 2016 ... Résumé. Introduction: Parmi les événements indésirables, ceux liés au circuit des médicaments occupent une place importante et risquent de causer un préjudice grave aux patients. Dans ce contexte, nous avons mené cette étude dans l'optique de décrire et d'évaluer le circuit des médicaments.

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    28 janv. 2014 ... Devenir des tuberculeux infectés par le VIH à. Abidjan (Côte d?Ivoire). Med Mal Infect. 1999; 29 : 697-. 704. PubMed | Google Scholar. 10. Daucourt V et al. Devenir des patients atteints de tuberculose et relation avec l'infection à VIH dans un département français. (Gironde), 1995-1996. Med Mal Infect.

  5. Research

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    abp

    22 janv. 2014 ... et le typage de l'anémie chez ces enfants. Méthodes: C'est une étude transversale réalisée ... Ce travail avait pour objectif d'évaluer la prévalence et le typage de l'anémie chez les enfants séropositifs du VIH/SIDA à ... (Hct), Globules Rouges, Réticulocytes, Volume Globulaire. Moyen(VGM), Concentration ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    29 juin 2012 ... Cependant, très rapidement des difficultés liées à la lourdeur du traitement, aux effets secondaires multiples et donc aux ... mesuré l'observance par la méthode de comptage des restes de médicaments à chaque visite, sur une période de 12 mois sur un échantillon de. 158 adultes infectés par le VIH et ont ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    5 janv. 2017 ... &Corresponding author: El Houcine Haijoubi, Laboratoire de Génomique Humain, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Tanger, Maroc. Mots clés: Qualité ... agroalimentaires du Nord du Maroc utilisent différentes sources d'eaux mais l'eau de réseau public et l'eau de puits sont les principales sources.

  8. Research

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    raoul

    16 févr. 2012 ... Esp Salud Publica. 1996;70:295-302. This article on PubMed. 10. Idrissi Hassaria E. Tabagisme dans les structures sanitaires à Laayoune. Mémoire médecine du travail et d'ergonomie. Rennes; 1999. 11. Jourani S. Tabagisme dans les structures sanitaires à Khouribga. Mémoire médecine du travail et ...

  9. Research

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    abp

    6 nov. 2013 ... largement adopté (75.5%) pour les patientes reçues en antépartum. Le pronostic maternel était marqué par un cas de décès par coagulation intra-vasculaire disséminée et la survenue de complications telles que le syndrome HELLP (8%), l'insuffisance rénale aigue (8%) et l'hématome rétroplacentaire ...

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26 nov. 2012 ... Le but de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de la mortalité néonatale dans une maternité de niveau I. Méthodes .... manquantes et des définitions de variables n'étaient pas uniformes pour ces personnels qui prenaient en charge la mère et le nouveau-né si bien que des biais de mauvais ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    10 oct. 2011 ... ordinateur. Ils ont effectué aussi les premières recherches bibliographiques lors de la préparation de la rédaction. MB, MBN, AK, OB ont participé à la réalisation et à l'interprétation de certains examens réalisés chez les patients, enfin et à la relecture des manuscrits. MD, KA sont les responsables de la ...

  12. Self-Efficacy, Affectivity and Smoking Behavior in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on health-related behaviors confirms the contribution of self-efficacy and affective factors to the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior. The aim was to assess the degree to which affectivity contributes to the association between self-efficacy and smoking behavior in

  13. Implicit motivational processes underlying smoking in american and dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    INTRODUCTION: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the

  14. Implicit motivational processes underlying smoking in American and Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Kong, G.; Becker, D.; Cousijn, J.; Boendermaker, W.; Cavallo, D.; Krishnan-Sarin, S.; Wiers, R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the

  15. Relationships of Teenage Smoking to Educational Aspirations and Parents' Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Ingrid; Lye, Diane

    Past research has shown that teenagers with less educated parents and teenagers with lower academic aspirations are more likely than their peers to smoke. This study was conducted to provide additional descriptive data concerning the relationships of smoking to parents' education and students' educational aspirations and to provide preliminary…

  16. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  17. Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Activity and Smoking Habits in Relation to Weight Status among Lebanese University Students. ... International Journal of Health Research ... University campus, using a self reported questionnaire that included age, field of study, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and smoking habits.

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  19. Youth Smoking Behavior Characteristics and Their Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, William H., Jr.; And Others

    This comprehensive monograph provides a thorough and critical analysis of previous research on youth smoking, the various influential factors, and anti-smoking education, outlining study and evaluation techniques and instruments, and attitude change methods available in this field. Using this informational base and a broad-scale survey of…

  20. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall ...