WorldWideScience

Sample records for smeared quantum stress

  1. Smeared quantum lattices exhibiting PT -symmetry with positive P

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav; Geyer, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, 2-3 (2013), s. 111-123 ISSN 0015-8208 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/1433 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cryptohermiticity * quantum lattices * unphysical and physical inner products Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2013

  2. Pap smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AGUS - Pap; Atypical squamous cells - Pap; HPV - Pap; Human papilloma virus - Pap cervix - Pap; Colposcopy - Pap Images Female reproductive anatomy Pap smear Uterus Pap smear Cervical erosion References ...

  3. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smear URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003665.htm Blood smear To use the sharing features on this ... view of cellular parasites Malaria, photomicrograph of cellular parasites Red blood cells, sickle cells Red blood cells, sickle and ...

  4. A note on the Poisson bracket of 2d smeared fluxes in loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Alberto S.; Perez, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    We show that the non-Abelian nature of geometric fluxes—the corner-stone in the definition of quantum geometry in the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG)—follows directly form the continuum canonical commutations relations of gravity in connection variables and the validity of the Gauss law. The present treatment simplifies previous formulations and thus identifies more clearly the root of the discreteness of geometric operators in LQG. Our statement generalizes to arbitrary gauge theories and relies only on the validity of the Gauss law.

  5. CSF smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003768.htm CSF smear To use the sharing features on this ... around the spinal cord and brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the brain and spinal cord from injury. ...

  6. Thermodynamical inequivalence of quantum stress-energy and spin tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, F.; Tinti, L.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that different couples of stress-energy and spin tensors of quantum-relativistic fields, which would be otherwise equivalent, are in fact inequivalent if the second law of thermodynamics is taken into account. The proof of the inequivalence is based on the analysis of a macroscopic system at full thermodynamical equilibrium with a macroscopic total angular momentum and a specific instance is given for the free Dirac field, for which we show that the canonical and Belinfante stress-energy tensors are not equivalent. For this particular case, we show that the difference between the predicted angular momentum densities for a rotating system at full thermodynamical equilibrium is a quantum effect, persisting in the nonrelativistic limit, corresponding to a polarization of particles of the order of (ℎ/2π)ω/KT (ω being the angular velocity) and could in principle be measured experimentally. This result implies that specific stress-energy and spin tensors are physically meaningful even in the absence of gravitational coupling and raises the issue of finding the thermodynamically right (or the right class of) tensors. We argue that the maximization of the thermodynamic potential theoretically allows us to discriminate between two different couples, yet for the present we are unable to provide a theoretical method to single out the best couple of tensors in a given quantum field theory. The existence of a nonvanishing spin tensor would have major consequences in hydrodynamics, gravity and cosmology.

  7. Gravity waves from quantum stress tensor fluctuations in inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a nonscale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of trans-Planckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation. However, this conclusion is contingent upon including the contribution of modes which were trans-Planckian at the beginning of inflation.

  8. Gravity waves from quantum stress tensor fluctuations in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Hsien; Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Ford, L. H.; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2011-11-01

    We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a nonscale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of trans-Planckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation. However, this conclusion is contingent upon including the contribution of modes which were trans-Planckian at the beginning of inflation.

  9. UV Suppression by Smearing and Screening Correlators

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Sourendu; Karthik, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism of smearing in the APE, Stout, HYP and HEX schemes through their effect on glue and quark Fourier modes. Using this, we non-perturbatively tune the smearing parameters to their optimum values. Smearing causes a super-linear improvement in taste symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase of QCD. We use optimal smearing in the high temperature phase and find close agreement of meson screening masses with weak coupling predictions.

  10. Conformational Smear Characterization and Binning of Single-Molecule Conductance Measurements for Enhanced Molecular Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshoj, Lee E; Afsari, Sepideh; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2017-11-01

    Electronic conduction or charge transport through single molecules depends primarily on molecular structure and anchoring groups and forms the basis for a wide range of studies from molecular electronics to DNA sequencing. Several high-throughput nanoelectronic methods such as mechanical break junctions, nanopores, conductive atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling break junctions, and static nanoscale electrodes are often used for measuring single-molecule conductance. In these measurements, "smearing" due to conformational changes and other entropic factors leads to large variances in the observed molecular conductance, especially in individual measurements. Here, we show a method for characterizing smear in single-molecule conductance measurements and demonstrate how binning measurements according to smear can significantly enhance the use of individual conductance measurements for molecular recognition. Using quantum point contact measurements on single nucleotides within DNA macromolecules, we demonstrate that the distance over which molecular junctions are maintained is a measure of smear, and the resulting variance in unbiased single measurements depends on this smear parameter. Our ability to identify individual DNA nucleotides at 20× coverage increases from 81.3% accuracy without smear analysis to 93.9% with smear characterization and binning (SCRIB). Furthermore, merely 7 conductance measurements (7× coverage) are needed to achieve 97.8% accuracy for DNA nucleotide recognition when only low molecular smear measurements are used, which represents a significant improvement over contemporary sequencing methods. These results have important implications in a broad range of molecular electronics applications from designing robust molecular switches to nanoelectronic DNA sequencing.

  11. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots induce oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in the marine clam Scrobicularia plana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Zalouk-Vergnoux, Aurore; Poirier, Laurence; Lopes, Christelle; Risso-de-Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Gilliland, Douglas; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots have a number of current applications in electronics and solar cells and significant future potential in medicine. The aim of the present study was to examine the toxic effects of CdS quantum dots on the marine clam Scrobicularia plana exposed for 14 d to these nanomaterials (10 µg Cd L(-1) ) in natural seawater and to compare them with soluble Cd. Measurement of labile Cd released from CdS quantum dots showed that 52% of CdS quantum dots remained in the nanoparticulate form. Clams accumulated the same levels of Cd regardless of the form in which it was delivered (soluble Cd vs CdS quantum dots). However, significant changes in biochemical responses were observed in clams exposed to CdS quantum dots compared with soluble Cd. Increased activities of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were significantly higher in clams exposed in seawater to Cd as the nanoparticulate versus the soluble form, suggesting a specific nano effect. The behavior of S. plana in sediment showed impairments of foot movements only in the case of exposure to CdS quantum dots. The results show that oxidative stress and behavior biomarkers are sensitive predictors of CdS quantum dots toxicity in S. plana. Such responses, appearing well before changes might occur at the population level, demonstrate the usefulness of this model species and type of biomarker in the assessment of nanoparticle contamination in estuarine ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Stress-directed compositional patterning of SiGe substrates for lateral quantum barrier manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swapnadip; Kaiser, Daniel; Sinno, Talid; Bonilla, Jose; Han, Sang M.

    2015-01-01

    While vertical stacking of quantum well and dot structures is well established in heteroepitaxial semiconductor materials, manipulation of quantum barriers in the lateral directions poses a significant engineering challenge. Here, we demonstrate lateral quantum barrier manipulation in a crystalline SiGe alloy using structured mechanical fields to drive compositional redistribution. To apply stress, we make use of a nano-indenter array that is pressed against a Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 wafer in a custom-made mechanical press. The entire assembly is then annealed at high temperatures, during which the larger Ge atoms are selectively driven away from areas of compressive stress. Compositional analysis of the SiGe substrates reveals that this approach leads to a transfer of the indenter array pattern to the near-surface elemental composition, resulting in near 100% Si regions underneath each indenter that are separated from each other by the surrounding Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 bulk. The “stress transfer” process is studied in detail using multiscale computer simulations that demonstrate its robustness across a wide range of applied stresses and annealing temperatures. While the “Si nanodot” structures formed here are not intrinsically useful as quantum structures, it is anticipated that the stress transfer process may be modified by judicious control of the SiGe film thickness and indenter array pattern to form more technologically useful structures

  13. On the quantum mechanical theory of stress and force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Martin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The stress theorem presented previously by the present authors is derived in detail and is related to the virial and force theorems. Stress fields are considered in two alternative forms, which both give the same macroscopic stress and forces on nuclei when integrated over appropriate surfaces. A crucial concept is interactions that ''cross'' surfaces. Explicit forms of the stress field within the local-density approximation are given, together with a generalization of the approximate Liberman form for pressure. Reciprocal-space expressions and ab-initio calculations are considered in detail in an accompanying paper. (orig.)

  14. The local quantum-mechanical stress tensor in Thomas-Fermi approximation and gradient expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschner, R.; Graefenstein, J.; Ziesche, P.

    1988-12-01

    From the local momentum balance using density functional theory an expression for the local quantum-mechanical stress tensor (or stress field) σ(r) of non-relativistic Coulomb systems is found out within the Thomas-Fermi approximation and its generalizations including gradient expansion method. As an illustration the stress field σ(r) is calculated for the jellium model of the interface K-Cs, containing especially the adhesive force between the two half-space jellia. (author). 23 refs, 1 fig

  15. Hydrostatic stress dependence of the exciton-phonon coupled states in cylindrical quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Moussaouy, A.; Bria, D.; Nougaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of compressive stress on the binding energy of an exciton in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation. The stress was applied in the z direction and the interaction between the charge carriers (electron and hole) and confined longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes was taken into account. Specific applications of these results are given for GaAs QDs embedded in a Ga 1-x Al x As semiconductor. The result shows that the binding energy and the polaronic correction increases linearly with increasing stress. Moreover, we obtain the binding energy and the polaronic contribution in the limit in which the QD turns into a quantum well

  16. Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low sputum smear positive tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. ... The risk factors among smear positive TB patients were co-illness (32.5%), previous history of TB (7.5%) and history of positive TB contact (4.7%). These findings also show that as CD4+ T Cells ...

  17. Quantum aspects of black objects in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyakutake, Yoshifumi [College of Science, Ibaraki University,Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan)

    2017-01-17

    One of important directions in superstring theory is to reveal the quantum nature of black hole. In this paper we embed Schwarzschild black hole into superstring theory or M-theory, which we call a smeared black hole, and resolve quantum corrections to it. Furthermore we boost the smeared black hole along the 11th direction and construct a smeared quantum black 0-brane in 10 dimensions. Quantum aspects of the thermodynamic for these black objects are investigated in detail. We also discuss radiations of a string and a D0-brane from the smeared quantum black 0-brane.

  18. Perceptions and concerns of women undergoing Pap smear examination in a tertiary care hospital of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Kishore, J; Tiwari, A

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the major causes of deaths due to cancer among women in India. Pap smear is one of the best methods to detect early changes in cervix. However, there is lack of data on awareness level of women about Pap smear and various risk factors for cervical cancer. To study the awareness about various risk factors for cervical cancer, health-seeking behavior and hygienic practices among women and to assess the distress experienced by these women before the Pap smear examination. This cross-sectional study was carried out on women coming for a Pap smear examination in a tertiary teaching hospital in New Delhi. A pretested interview schedule was used to get information after obtaining their informed consent. Fifty-seven percent stated that they did not consult a doctor when they noticed the symptoms the first time. Sixty-one percent did not know what a cervical cancer is and a same percentage of women did not know what a Pap smear examination was. Older age group, Muslim and literate women had higher number of abnormal Pap smear results. Women who reported being stressed in their lives had higher number of abnormal smears as compared to women who claimed to lead a stress free life. Poor hygienic practices among these women from urban areas were also associated with abnormal Pap smear results. The study concluded that factors such as poor awareness, shyness, poor hygiene, and old age could be responsible for abnormal Pap smears and this needs special attention in cancer prevention activities of the government.

  19. Quantum space and quantum completeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurić, Tajron

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.

  20. Quantum stress tensor in Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, K.W.; Candelas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor for the Hartle-Hawking state in Schwartzschild space-time has been calculated for the conformal scalar field. separates naturally into the sum of two terms. The first coincides with an approximate expression suggested by Page. The second term is a ''remainder'' that may be evaluated numerically. The total expression is in good qualitative agreement with Page's approximation. These results are at variance with earlier results given by Fawcett whose error is explained

  1. Analysis of threshold current of uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jialin; Sun, Junqiang; Gao, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2017-10-30

    We propose and design uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers with the stress along direction. The micro-bridge structure is adapted for introducing uniaxial stress in Ge/SiGe quantum well. To enhance the fabrication tolerance, full-etched circular gratings with high reflectivity bandwidths of ~500 nm are deployed in laser cavities. We compare and analyze the density of state, the number of states between Γ- and L-points, the carrier injection efficiency, and the threshold current density for the uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge and Ge/SiGe quantum well lasers. Simulation results show that the threshold current density of the Ge/SiGe quantum well laser is much higher than that of the bulk Ge laser, even combined with high uniaxial tensile stress owing to the larger number of states between Γ- and L- points and extremely low carrier injection efficiency. Electrical transport simulation reveals that the reduced effective mass of the hole and the small conduction band offset cause the low carrier injection efficiency of the Ge/SiGe quantum well laser. Our theoretical results imply that unlike III-V material, uniaxially tensile stressed bulk Ge outperforms a Ge/SiGe quantum well with the same strain level and is a promising approach for Si-compatible light sources.

  2. Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

  3. Modeling of stresses and electric fields in piezoelectric multilayer: Application to multi quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Mishra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Exact closed-form expressions have been derived for the stresses and the electric fields induced in piezoelectric multilayers deposited on a substrate with lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch. The derived formulations can model any number of layers using recursive relations that minimize the computation time. A proper rotation matrix has been utilized to generalize the expressions so that they can be used for various growth orientations with each layer having hexagonal crystal symmetry. As an example, the influence of lattice misfit and thermal expansion coefficient mismatch on the state of electroelastic fields in different layers of GaN multi quantum wells has been examined. A comparison with the finite element analysis results showed very close agreement. The analytical expressions developed herein will be useful in designing optoelectronic devices as well as in predicting defect density in multi quantum wells.

  4. Bandgap tuning with thermal residual stresses induced in a quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eui-Hyun; Joo, Soo-Hyun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Song, Seungwoo; Chang, Yong-June; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2014-09-24

    Lattice distortion induced by residual stresses can alter electronic and mechanical properties of materials significantly. Herein, a novel way of the bandgap tuning in a quantum dot (QD) by lattice distortion is presented using 4-nm-sized CdS QDs grown on a TiO2 particle as an application example. The bandgap tuning (from 2.74 eV to 2.49 eV) of a CdS QD is achieved by suitably adjusting the degree of lattice distortion in a QD via the tensile residual stresses which arise from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between CdS and TiO2. The idea of bandgap tuning is then applied to QD-sensitized solar cells, achieving ≈60% increase in the power conversion efficiency by controlling the degree of thermal residual stress. Since the present methodology is not limited to a specific QD system, it will potentially pave a way to unexplored quantum effects in various QD-based applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  6. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  7. Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Indriyotomo, D.; Aminjoyo, S.

    1996-01-01

    Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

  8. Quantum corrections to the stress-energy tensor in thermodynamic equilibrium with acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, F.; Grossi, E.

    2015-08-01

    We show that the stress-energy tensor has additional terms with respect to the ideal form in states of global thermodynamic equilibrium in flat spacetime with nonvanishing acceleration and vorticity. These corrections are of quantum origin and their leading terms are second order in the gradients of the thermodynamic fields. Their relevant coefficients can be expressed in terms of correlators of the stress-energy tensor operator and the generators of the Lorentz group. With respect to previous assessments, we find that there are more second-order coefficients and that all thermodynamic functions including energy density receive acceleration and vorticity dependent corrections. Notably, also the relation between ρ and p , that is, the equation of state, is affected by acceleration and vorticity. We have calculated the corrections for a free real scalar field—both massive and massless—and we have found that they increase, particularly for a massive field, at very high acceleration and vorticity and very low temperature. Finally, these nonideal terms depend on the explicit form of the stress-energy operator, implying that different stress-energy tensors of the scalar field—canonical or improved—are thermodynamically inequivalent.

  9. Stress evolution during growth of bilayer self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaadt, D.M.; Krauss, S.; Koch, R.; Ploog, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the stress evolution during molecular-beam epitaxy of bilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot (QD) structures in real time and with sub-monolayer precision using an in-situ cantilever beam setup. During growth of the InAs at 470 C a stress of 5.1 GPa develops in the wetting layer, in good agreement with the theoretical misfit stress. At a critical thickness of 1.5 monolayers the strain is relieved by the QD formation. In the case of InAs/GaAs bilayer structures, the second InAs layer grows identical to the first for GaAs spacer thicknesses exceeding ∝13 nm. For thinner spacers the critical thickness for the 2D/3D transition in the second layer decreases. The stress of the second InAs layer does not reach the value of the first, indicating that InAs QDs grow on partially strained areas due to the strain field of the previous InAs layer. (orig.)

  10. Entanglement between smeared field operators in the Klein-Gordon vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Kofler, Johannes; Brukner, Caslav

    2010-01-01

    Quantum field theory is the application of quantum physics to fields. It provides a theoretical framework widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics. One of the most distinct features of quantum physics with respect to classical physics is entanglement or the existence of strong correlations between subsystems that can even be spacelike separated. In quantum fields, observables restricted to a region of space define a subsystem. While there are proofs on the existence of local observables that would allow a violation of Bell's inequalities in the vacuum states of quantum fields as well as some explicit but technically demanding schemes requiring an extreme fine-tuning of the interaction between the fields and detectors, an experimentally accessible entanglement witness for quantum fields is still missing. Here we introduce smeared field operators which allow reducing the vacuum to a system of two effective bosonic modes. The introduction of such collective observables is motivated by the fact that no physical probe has access to fields in single spatial (mathematical) points but rather smeared over finite volumes. We first give explicit collective observables whose correlations reveal vacuum entanglement in the Klein-Gordon field. We then show that the critical distance between the two regions of space above which two effective bosonic modes become separable is of the order of the Compton wavelength of the particle corresponding to the massive Klein-Gordon field.

  11. Sputum smear examination and time to diagnosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, K; Bissell, K; Tabutoa, K; Kienene, T; Linh, N N; Briand, K; Harries, A D

    2012-12-21

    National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands, 2006-2010. To determine the proportion of all tuberculosis (TB) cases that were pulmonary smear-negative, and for these patients to determine how many sputum smears were examined and the time from sputum smear examination to registration. A retrospective cross-sectional study involving a record review of national TB and laboratory registers. Of 2420 TB cases identified, 709 (29%) were registered as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Of the 695 (98%) with information on smear examination, 222 (32%) had no smear recorded, 61 (9%) had one smear, 86 (12%) two smears and 326 (47%) three smears. Among the 473 patients who had at least one smear, 238 (50%) were registered before sputum examination, 131 (28%) within 1 week, 72 (15%) between 1 and 4 weeks, and 34 (7%) >4 weeks after sputum examination. NTPs in Kiribati and the Marshall Islands are diagnosing 29% of all TB patients as smear-negative pulmonary TB. Many patients do not have smears done or are registered before undergoing smear examination. Corrective measures are needed.

  12. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  13. The effects of a stress field and chemical diffusion on electronic behaviour in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Wang Chongyu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a stress field and chemical diffusion on electronic behaviour in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD) are investigated by using first-principle calculations. We find that a potential well appears in a QD without a lattice misfit and chemical diffusion, and both stress field and Ga chemical diffusion can induce the formation of a potential barrier, which strongly affects the electronic behaviour within the QD. The stress field can localize electrons to the base of the QD. And associated with Ga diffusion, the stress field will induce an inverted electronic alignment. The electronic behaviour in the QD without a stress field does not present the confined or localized characteristics caused by a lattice misfit, atomic size and Ga diffusion. This study provides useful information for modulating electronic behaviour by introducing a stress field and chemical diffusion

  14. Quantum horizon fluctuations of an evaporating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roura, Albert

    2007-01-01

    The quantum fluctuations of a black hole spacetime are studied within a low-energy effective field theory approach to quantum gravity. Our approach accounts for both intrinsic metric fluctuations and those induced by matter fields interacting with the gravitational field. Here we will concentrate on spherically symmetric fluctuations of the black hole horizon. Our results suggest that for a sufficiently massive evaporating black hole, fluctuations can accumulate over time and become significant well before reaching Planckian scales. In addition, we provide the sketch of a proof that the symmetrized two-point function of the stress-tensor operator smeared over a null hypersurface is actually divergent and discuss the implications for the analysis of horizon fluctuations. Finally, a natural way to probe quantum metric fluctuations near the horizon is briefly described

  15. Feeding sustains photosynthetic quantum yield of a scleractinian coral during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borell, Esther M; Bischof, Kai

    2008-10-01

    Thermal resistance of the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis has been associated with chronic photoinhibition, increased antioxidant activity and protein repair involving high demands of nitrogen and energy. While the relative importance of heterotrophy as a source of nutrients and energy for cnidarian hosts, and as a means of nitrogen acquisition for their zooxanthellae, is well documented, the effect of feeding on the thermal sensitivity of the symbiotic association has been so far overlooked. Here we examine the effect of zooplankton feeding versus starvation on the bleaching susceptibility and photosynthetic activity of photosystem II (PSII) of zooxanthellae in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata in response to thermal stress (daily temperature rises of 2-3 degrees C) over 10 days, employing pulse-amplitude-modulated chlorophyll fluorometry. Fed and starved corals displayed a decrease in daily maximum potential quantum yield (F (v)/F (m)) of PSII, effective quantum yield (F/F (m)') and relative electron transport rates over the course of 10 days. However after 10 days of exposure to elevated temperature, F (v)/F (m) of fed corals was still 50-70% higher than F (v)/F (m) of starved corals. Starved corals showed strong signs of chronic photoinhibition, which was reflected in a significant decline in nocturnal recovery rates of PSII relative to fed corals. This was paralleled by the progressive inability to dissipate excess excitation energy via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). After 10 days, NPQ of starved corals had decreased by about 80% relative to fed corals. Feeding treatment had no significant effect on chlorophyll a and c (2) concentrations and zooxanthellae densities, but the mitotic indices were significantly lower in starved than in fed corals. Collectively the results indicate that exogenous food may reduce the photophysiological damage of zooxanthellae that typically leads to bleaching and could therefore play an important role in mediating the

  16. Smears for determinations surface unfixed tritium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes a method of obtaining expanded polystyrene with hydrophilized surface smears by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. The grafting was carried out by using a 60 Co γ radiation source. The variation of grafting rates as a function of dose range and absorbed dose was established. Grafting radiochemical rates were determined by radiometric methods using acrylic acid labeled with tritium as a grafting agent. The sampling coefficients and the reproducibility were analyzed as a function of the nature of the contaminated surface. (authors)

  17. A historically correct didactic first step in the quantum world: stressing the interplay of relativity, thermodynamics and quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritondo, G

    2003-01-01

    Quantum physics is the backbone of modern science: therefore, a correct first step is essential for students' success in many different disciplines. Unfortunately, many didactic approaches are still complicated, potentially confusing and often historically wrong. An alternate, simple, stimulating and historically correct approach is outlined here

  18. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, M.K.; Iqbal, R.; Shabbir, I.; Chaudhry, K

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  19. A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of cervical smear adequacy using either the cytobrush or the Ayre spatula: a practice audit. ... The purpose of this study was to compare the adequacy of cervical smears taken with the Ayre spatula as opposed to the cytobrush. Methods: This was a retrospective analytical study. One sampler, an experienced ...

  20. Prevalence of Abnormal Cervical Smears from Sporadic Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of abnormal smears in an unscreened population of sexually active women attending a gynaecological clinic. “Pap” smears were taken sporadically for cytological examination from sexually active women attending gynaecological clinics at the Federal Medical Centre Gombe.

  1. Effects of Different Temperatures for Drying Cervical Mucus Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different room temperatures for drying cervical mucus on crystallisation of fern-tree patterns was determined using cervical mucus smears from 60 women undergoing investigation for infertility at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. Cervical mucus smears were dried in the oven at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35C ...

  2. High prevalence of abnormal Pap smears among young women co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standardised questionnaires were used to collect sociodemographic and clinical presentation data from women attending family planning and other reproductive health services. Pap smears were done using standard methods. Pap smear data were linked to HIV serostatus. Results. Four hundred and sixty-six women were ...

  3. Entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot in CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhou Menglian; Zhang Jianmin; Lin Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    In the video of linear CCD camera being irradiated by 532 nm CW laser, the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot was found. The smear area does not represent the distribution of laser. Since this smear lies merely in one side of laser spot, it can not be induced by light leaking or carriers blooming, and it may be induced by charge transfer loss. However, the feature that the smear area is entirely saturated can not be explained by the current constant model of charge transfer inefficiency. Based on the inner structure and operating principle of buried channel CCD, a new model of charge transfer inefficiency that varies with charge quantity is proposed, which can explain the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot. (authors)

  4. Smear grading and the Mantoux skin test can be used to predict sputum smear conversion in patients suffering from tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffari, Mahmood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Smear scores and induration sizes resulting from the PPD (tuberculin purified protein derivative test can serve as indicators of whether a patient suffering from tuberculosis shows smear conversion or not. Methods: Using microbiological methods smear and sputum tests, patients diagnosed as infected with between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study. All of the assumed factors that may have a role in smear conversion were studied, in addition to the prolongation of tuberculosis. Results: 398 of 512 patients fulfilled all the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of this study. 215 patients (54% were females and 183 (46% were males. The median age for both men and women was 36 years. We found a statistically significant difference between the size of induration resulting from the PPD skin test and the rate of non-conversion (=0.002. Further univariate analysis also showed that smear grading and an induration size of ≥10 mm were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Patients with cavitary lesions showed a higher rate of non-conversion after two months, which was not significant. We could not find any association between some of the variables, such as age, sex, weight, smoking, alcoholism, addictions, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, alternative anti-TB treatment, and smear conversion. Conclusion: Intensified treatment and precautions against transmission should be especially considered for TB patients with high smear grading and an induration size of more than 10 mm.

  5. An audit of a cervical smear screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, P J; Kljakovic, M; McLeod, D K

    1989-07-26

    An audit of a computer based screening and recall programme in a Wellington group general practice is reported (practice population 13,866). The records of all women aged between 20 and 59 years (4133 women) were checked to determine if they had had a cervical smear test in the previous two years. A random sample of women who had a cervical smear result recorded in the notes (107 women called "responders") showed that 71% gave "familiarity with the family doctor" and "acting in response to a recall letter" as reasons for choosing the place of their last smear. Satisfaction with the service was indicated by 95% of these women stating they would have their next smear at the medical centre. In the audit of all the records, a group of 667 women who had been sent a letter inviting them to have a smear done and who had apparently declined the procedure was identified (called "nonresponders"). A random sample of this group (168 women) was taken and an attempt made to interview them. In fact only 38 women could be identified as requiring a smear and even if those who refused to be interviewed (13) and those unable to be contacted (23) are added, then less than half of this sample were "true nonresponders". This suggests that the percentage of women in the practice who have been offered a smear and have refused to have one is less than 8%.

  6. Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasti, Shahnaz; Ahmed, Waleed; Jafri, Abbas; Khan, Behram; Sohail, Rizwan; Hassan, Sheema

    2004-01-01

    Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

  7. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Azadeh; Mohammadifard, Mahyar; Naseh, Godratallah

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  8. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with chitosan and .... this compound has considerably increased its concentration in rivers and .... of the images was done by three investigators who calibrated ...

  9. PAPNET-assisted primary screening of conventional cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, M; Nagar, C; Vecchione, A

    2000-01-01

    The PAPNET System is the only device with a neural-network-based-artificial intelligence to detect and show the images of abnormal cells on the monitor to be evaluated in an interactive way. We effectively used the PAPNET in rescreening of conventional cervical smears and we detected its advantages and its disadvantages. In this paper, we report our results from PAPNET-assisted primary screening performed on 20,154 conventional smears. The smears were classified as Negative or as Review. The Negative cases were rapidly rescreened mainly near the coverslip edges, which are the slide areas not analyzed by automated devices because of focusing problems. The Review cases were fully reanalyzed by the optic microscope. In summary, 140 positive smears were detected: 57 cases showed changes due to HPV, 63 LSIL, 15 HSIL, and 5 carcinomas. Therefore, the PAPNET System was confirmed as useful in primary screening of conventional cervical samples as well as rescreening.

  10. 17 Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted in February 2009 to assess the effect of the level of CD4 lymphocyte ... development of smear positive pulmonary TB (PTB) among HIV patients before ..... (2000) Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on the risk of tuberculosis.

  11. Cervical pap smear- A prospective study in a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pudasaini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity among women worldwide and most common gynaecological cancer in developing countries. Papanicolaou smear is a simple and cost effective screening test for cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate and interpret the cervical pap smear cytology in a tertiary hospital. The interpretation and reporting of the pap smear is based on 2001Bethesda system.Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital, Nepal Medical College over a period of two and a half years (January 2013 to June 2015. All cervical pap smears received in the department of Pathology in the study period were included.Results: A total of 4160 cervical pap smears were reported in the study period. Majority of the cases were Negative for Intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (87.9%. Bacterial vaginosis, atrophy and reactive cellular changes associated with inflammation were seen in 5.3%, 2.4% and 1.5% cases respectively.   Epithelial cell abnormalities (0.5% include Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and High grade intraepithelial lesion. 88% of Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was seen in reproductive age group (20-45 years.Conclusion: Cervical cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in the developing countries. Pap smear is the simple and cost effective screening tool to detect pre invasive cervical epithelial lesions.

  12. Variability Study between Pap Smear, Colposcopy and Cervical Histopathology Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, S.; Bari, A.; Hayat, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement/variability between colposcopic findings, Pap smear cytology and histopathological diagnosis in gynaecology patients. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to September 2011 at the Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, and comprised women who presented to the out-patient department with various gynaecological complaints. Colposcopy was performed in all women with unhealthy cervix during gynaecological examination, abnormal Pap smear report, recurrent vaginal discharge and postcoital bleeding. Pap smear was performed before colposcopy if not done earlier. Colposcopic findings were recorded on a specially-designed proforma. Biopsies from abnormal areas were taken and sent for histopathology. Colposcopic findings were compared with histopathology and Pap smear reports The agreement between the methods was evaluated by using Kappa coefficient and chi square test at a significance level of 5 percent. Results: The mean age of the 143 women was 44 8.5 years (range: 25-72 years). Colposcopic findings were normal in 66(46 percent) women, while 77(54 percent) had abnormal findings and among the latter, 62(80.5 percent) had abnormal histopathology, indicating strong agreement (K=0.65; p<0.001). Pap smear report was abnormal in 48(33.5 percent) cases and among them histopathology was abnormal in 28(58 percent). In the remaining 95(66.4 percent) patients with normal Pap smear, histopathology was abnormal in 44((46 percent), indicating weak agreement between Pap smear and histopathological diagnosis (K=0.10; p=0.08). Conclusion: There was a strong agreement between colposcopic findings and histopathological diagnosis. However, agreement between cytological findings and colposcopic findings and cytology and histopathological diagnosis remained weak. (author)

  13. Effect of mechanical stress on the Raman and infrared bands of hydroxylapatite: A quantum mechanical first principle investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulian, Gianfranco; Valdrè, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The calcium apatite minerals are among the most studied in the biomaterial field because of their similarity with the mineral phase of bone tissues, which is mainly the hexagonal polymorph of hydroxylapatite. Given the growing interest both in the microscopic processes governing the behaviour of these natural biomaterials and in recent experimental methods to investigate the Raman response of hydroxylapatite upon mechanical loading, we report in the present work a detailed quantum mechanical analysis by DFT/B3LYP-D* approach on the Raman and infrared responses of hydroxylapatite upon deformation of its unit cell. From the vibrational results, the piezo-spectroscopic components Δν = Π ij σ ij were calculated. For the first time to the authors' knowledge quantum mechanics (QM) was applied to resolve the piezo-spectroscopic response of hydroxylapatite. The QM results on the uniaxial stress responses of this phase on the piezo-spectroscopic components Π 11 and Π 33 of the symmetric P-O stretching mode were 2.54 ± 0.09cm -1 /GPa and 2.56 ± 0.06cm -1 /GPa, respectively (Raman simulation) and 2.48 ± 0.15cm -1 /GPa and Π 33 = 2.74 ± 0.08cm -1 /GPa, respectively, of the asymmetric P-O stretching (infrared spectroscopy simulation). These results are in excellent agreement with previous experimental data reported in literature. The quantum mechanical analysis of the other vibrational bands (not present in literature) shed more light on this new and very important application of both Raman and IR spectroscopies and extend the knowledge of the behaviour of hydroxylapatite, suggesting and addressing further experimental research and analytic strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Pap smear for mass screening: Results of an African experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somé, O-R; Zongo, N; Ka, S; Wardini, R; Dem, A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of smear test in the fight against cervix uteri cancer in Senegal. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 1836 Pap smears performed in patients over 15 years during several screening campaigns in Senegal conducted between June 2010 and June 2012. We analyzed epidemiological data, pathological smears, and the proposed management. In 69% of cases, the women were less than 45 years old. They were mostly multiparous and did not use contraceptive methods before. The smears were interpreted in 91.4% (n=1661) and were pathological in 5.2% of cases. They revealed mainly atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, squamous intraepithelial low-grade lesions, and squamous intraepithelial high-grade lesions, respectively in 2.5% (n=46), 1.7% (n=30) and 1% (n=19) of cases. Multiparity, early marriages were the main risk factors. Patients with pathological smars had colposcopy with cryotherapy (23 cases), and colposcopy and biopsy (13 cases). A hysterectomy was performed in 4 cases. The pathological smear rate found in this study confirms the interest to continue cervical cancer screening with this practice. Strengthening of its geographical and financial access through a national prevention program will effectively help to lower cases of cervical cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The limits of pap smear in diagnosing preinvasive cervical neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Neacsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cervical-vaginal cytology can be interpreted after many classifications, starting from Babeú- Papanicolaou and ending with the Bethesda system, but no matter what the interpretation manner is it is really important to have a good quality of the smears and an experienced cytologist. If we refer to the total number of cases from the lot presented - 16732 cases, the results are satisfactory; 83% smears having normal limits, 10.14% MCB, 2.71% L-SIL, 0.82% H-SIL, 2.77% ASCUS, 0.10% AGC. In Iaúi there are significantly more patients with benign cell changes and L- SIL, while in Buzău there are significantly more patients with a normal smear, but there is also a higher frequency of theatypical squamous cells with an undetermined significance. Classically specialists say that 50-75% of the false negative results are due to the errors made when harvesting the sample. In conclusion we estimate that considering the present conditions in our country where the lack of interest and financial possibilities do not allow an action of detecting the lesions of the cervix organized nationwide, we can still make a selection of the cases with a high risk by making a free Pap smear for all the patients that come to a specialized service, either state or private, provided they respect the protocol of harvesting the cervical secretions, of preparing and reading/interpreting the smears.

  16. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-06

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  18. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer".

  19. Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Tucker, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%

  20. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  1. The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of sputum smear microscopy diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. G S Mfinanga, E Ngadaya, R Mtandu, B Mutayoba, B Doulla, G Kimaro, T M Chonde, P Ngowi, S Mfaume, A M Kilale, S Egwaga, A Y Kitua ...

  2. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of cervical cancer will take several decades to be apparent. There are more effective ways of screening, such as HPV DNA testing,[2] ... ARTICLE. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! C Gordon, MB ChB, Diploma in HIV ...

  3. The cervical smear pattern in patients with chronic pelvic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is the commonestmalignancy of the genital tract inNigeria. In an atmosphere of opportunistic screening due to lack of a national screening programme, studies are needed to determine patients at risk of premalignant lesions of the cervix. Goal: To determine cervical smear pattern in patients ...

  4. Cervicovaginal Smear Findings of Endometrial Serous Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Barut

    2008-08-01

    Although cervicovaginal smear generally is not a sensitive screening test for endometrial carcinomas, it played an important role in determining serous carcinoma. This may be related with advanced stage and/or aggressive features of the neoplastic process.

  5. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  6. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis in...

  7. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chitosan and MTAD for the smear layer removal from the root canal through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the final irrigants: 0.2% chitosan, MTAD, saline (control group).

  8. A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation of Smear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of chitosan and MTAD for the smear layer removal from the root canal through a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the final irrigants: 0.2% chitosan, MTAD, saline (control group). After the ...

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Smear as a Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease but it remains the most common genital cancer in African women. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as screening procedure for cervical cancer by female health workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Study Design, Setting and ...

  10. A Correlation Of Symptomatology With Nasal Smear Eosinophilia In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is also low correlation of total symptom score with family history of atopy (r = 0.06). There is positive correlation of total symptom score with number of provocative agents identified (r = 0.34). There is low positive correlation of nasal smear eosinophilia with total symptom score (r = 0.030) and itchy nose score (r = 0.038) ...

  11. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  12. On renormalisation of the quantum stress tensor in curved space-time by dimensional regularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Using dimensional regularisation, a prescription is given for obtaining a finite renormalised stress tensor in curved space-time. Renormalisation is carried out by renormalising coupling constants in the n-dimensional Einstein equation generalised to include tensors which are fourth order in derivatives of the metric. Except for the special case of a massless conformal field in a conformally flat space-time, this procedure is not unique. There exists an infinite one-parameter family of renormalisation ansatze differing from each other in the finite renormalisation that takes place. Nevertheless, the renormalised stress tensor for a conformally invariant field theory acquires a nonzero trace which is independent of the renormalisation ansatz used and which has a value in agreement with that obtained by other methods. A comparison is made with some earlier work using dimensional regularisation which is shown to be in error. (author)

  13. Raising Awareness About Cervical Cancer Using Twitter: Content Analysis of the 2015 #SmearForSmear Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Philippe; Moulahi, Bilel; Azé, Jérôme; Bringay, Sandra; Mercier, Gregoire; Carbonnel, François

    2017-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women under 45 years of age. To deal with the decrease of smear test coverage in the United Kingdom, a Twitter campaign called #SmearForSmear has been launched in 2015 for the European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Its aim was to encourage women to take a selfie showing their lipstick going over the edge and post it on Twitter with a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening. The estimated audience was 500 million people. Other public health campaigns have been launched on social media such as Movember to encourage participation and self-engagement. Their result was unsatisfactory as their aim had been diluted to become mainly a social buzz. The objectives of this study were to identify the tweets delivering a raising awareness message promoting cervical cancer screening (sensitizing tweets) and to understand the characteristics of Twitter users posting about this campaign. We conducted a 3-step content analysis of the English tweets tagged #SmearForSmear posted on Twitter for the 2015 European Cervical Cancer Prevention Week. Data were collected using the Twitter application programming interface. Their extraction was based on an analysis grid generated by 2 independent researchers using a thematic analysis, validated by a strong Cohen kappa coefficient. A total of 7 themes were coded for sensitizing tweets and 14 for Twitter users' status. Verbatims were thematically and then statistically analyzed. A total of 3019 tweets were collected and 1881 were analyzed. Moreover, 69.96% of tweets had been posted by people living in the United Kingdom. A total of 57.36% of users were women, and sex was unknown in 35.99% of cases. In addition, 54.44% of the users had posted at least one selfie with smeared lipstick. Furthermore, 32.32% of tweets were sensitizing. Independent factors associated with posting sensitizing tweets were women who experienced an abnormal smear test (OR [odds ratio] 13

  14. Dietary CdSe/ZnS quantum dot exposure in estuarine fish: Bioavailability, oxidative stress responses, reproduction, and maternal transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickley, T. Michelle, E-mail: TMBlickley@dow.com [Marine Science and Conservation, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC (United States); Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Matson, Cole W., E-mail: Cole_Matson@baylor.edu [Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT), Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Vreeland, Wyatt N., E-mail: vreeland@nist.gov [Biochemical Science Div., National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Rittschof, Daniel, E-mail: ritt@duke.edu [Marine Science and Conservation, Duke University Marine Laboratory, Beaufort, NC (United States); Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Di Giulio, Richard T., E-mail: richd@duke.edu [Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT), Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); McClellan-Green, Patricia D., E-mail: pdmcclel@ncsu.edu [Dept. of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Center for Marine Sciences and Technology, North Carolina State University, Morehead City, NC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Fundulus heteroclitus were fed diets containing CdSe/ZnS QDs for 85 days. • QDs or their degradation products accumulated in the intestine and liver. • Cadmium was detected in the eggs from parents fed QDs. • No significant changes in total glutathione or lipid peroxidation were observed. • mRNA expression of genes involved with oxidative stress pathways were measured. - Abstract: Continued development, use, and disposal of quantum dots (QDs) ensure their entrance into aquatic environments where they could pose a risk to biological organisms as whole nanoparticles or as degraded metal constituents. Reproductive Fundulus heteroclitus were fed a control diet with lecithin, diets containing 1 or 10 μg of lecithin-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS QD/day, or a diet containing 5.9 μg CdCl{sub 2}/day for 85 days. Cadmium concentrations in liver, intestine, and eggs were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In fish fed 10 μg QD/day, QDs or their degradation products traversed the intestinal epithelia and accumulated in the liver. Less than 0.01% of the QD's cadmium was retained in the liver or intestinal tissues. This compares to 0.9% and 0.5% of the cadmium in the intestine and liver, respectively of fish fed a CdCl{sub 2} diet. Cadmium was also detected in the eggs from parents fed 10 μg QD/day. No significant changes in hepatic total glutathione, lipid peroxidation, or expression of genes involved in metal metabolism or oxidative stress were observed. While QDs in the diet are minimally bioavailable, unusual levels of vitellogenin transcription in male fish as well as declining fecundity require further investigation to determine if endocrine disruption is of environmental concern.

  15. Dietary CdSe/ZnS quantum dot exposure in estuarine fish: Bioavailability, oxidative stress responses, reproduction, and maternal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickley, T. Michelle; Matson, Cole W.; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; Rittschof, Daniel; Di Giulio, Richard T.; McClellan-Green, Patricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fundulus heteroclitus were fed diets containing CdSe/ZnS QDs for 85 days. • QDs or their degradation products accumulated in the intestine and liver. • Cadmium was detected in the eggs from parents fed QDs. • No significant changes in total glutathione or lipid peroxidation were observed. • mRNA expression of genes involved with oxidative stress pathways were measured. - Abstract: Continued development, use, and disposal of quantum dots (QDs) ensure their entrance into aquatic environments where they could pose a risk to biological organisms as whole nanoparticles or as degraded metal constituents. Reproductive Fundulus heteroclitus were fed a control diet with lecithin, diets containing 1 or 10 μg of lecithin-encapsulated CdSe/ZnS QD/day, or a diet containing 5.9 μg CdCl 2 /day for 85 days. Cadmium concentrations in liver, intestine, and eggs were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In fish fed 10 μg QD/day, QDs or their degradation products traversed the intestinal epithelia and accumulated in the liver. Less than 0.01% of the QD's cadmium was retained in the liver or intestinal tissues. This compares to 0.9% and 0.5% of the cadmium in the intestine and liver, respectively of fish fed a CdCl 2 diet. Cadmium was also detected in the eggs from parents fed 10 μg QD/day. No significant changes in hepatic total glutathione, lipid peroxidation, or expression of genes involved in metal metabolism or oxidative stress were observed. While QDs in the diet are minimally bioavailable, unusual levels of vitellogenin transcription in male fish as well as declining fecundity require further investigation to determine if endocrine disruption is of environmental concern

  16. Management of ASCUS findings in Papanicolaou smears. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C; Boutas, I; Grigoriadis, C; Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) are a cervical cytologic finding category suggestive but not definitive of squamous intraepithelial lesions. ASCUS remains an incompletely described entity and accounts for even 5%-10% of reported Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The management of women with such cytologic findings remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytology laboratory findings with regards to ASCUS diagnosis, using cervical Pap smears, and colposcopic biopsies, as well as their management. This is a retrospective study of patients with ASCUS Pap smears taken during the period January 2010 - December 2010 in the Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital. During the study period, 657 Pap smears were examined at the Aretaieion Hospital; moreover, seven patients, whose Pap smears were cytologically diagnosed with ASCUS, were referred from other clinics, providing a total of 42 cases with a descriptive diagnosis of ASCUS for review. Of the 42 cases, eight were not studied because they were either lost in follow-up or they did not have available data. The remaining 34/42 patients were evaluated by colposcopic examination and directed biopsies where necessary. The ratio of ASCUS to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL), high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was 5/34, 1/34, and 0/34, respectively. In the 34 ASCUS cases evaluated by colposcopy, the age distribution varied from 22 to 54 years. Eight of 34 cases did not have a child, 7/34 were primigravida, 18/34 were secondi-gravida, and 1/34 had four children. Four out of 34 cases were postmenopausal, 3/34 referred no history of abnormal bleeding, 21/34 were smokers, 6/34 used oral contraceptives, 2/34 used intrauterine devices, 1/34 took replacement of hormones, 4/34 had prior abnormal Pap smears human papillomavirus (HPV), or 1/34 had previous cancer (breast cancer). Colposcopy was

  17. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography

  18. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L

    1993-01-01

    . HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases...

  19. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in a consecutive and previously unscreened population in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolnicu, Simona; Musca, Simona; Micu, Dorian; Micu, Luminita; Moldovan, Cosmin; Puscasiu, Lucian

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical smears in a previously unscreened and asymptomatic population in Romania and to compare the data with those from other countries in Europe. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from smears obtained from women in Romania who had been referred to the gynecologist between January 2006 and December 2011. The smears were collected through 3 regional opportunistic programs of cervical screening and were classified according to the Bethesda system. During the study period, 50536 smear tests were carried out. Of these, 100 smears (0.2%) were unsatisfactory and excluded from the study. Among the remaining 50436 smears, 2965 patients (5.9%) had abnormal epithelial changes. Most of the abnormal smears were represented by atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (2.6% of all smears). The data confirmed that there is a high prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial squamous-type lesions (0.9% of all smears) in Romania, and of abnormal smears in women younger than 25years of age (14.0% of all abnormal smears). The data show that there is a high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities among cervical smears in Romania compared with other European countries that run a national screening program. © 2013.

  20. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants : HPV infection and preneoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, BSM; Boon, ME; van Schie, MA; Wijsman-Grootendorst, R; Kok, LP

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan

  1. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  2. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, A.T.; Zahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  3. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ∼1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10 –6 kpc m –20/3 would be expected at z ∼ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with τ host ∝(1 + z) –3 if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or τ host ∝(1 + z) –17/5 if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling τ IGM ∼ z 2 for z ∼ 0.2–0.5 for z ∼> 1

  4. The Effect of Smear Layer Removal on Endodontic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    determined with a 0.02 taper #10 stainless steel FlexoFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Tulsa, OK) on all canals using a Root ZX (J Morita, Irvine,CA) apex...of adhesion based root canal filling materials in which smear plugs are removed to allow for the formation of a resin based hybrid layer have not...in eliminating intracanal enterococcus faecalis Biofilm . J Endod 2010; 36:894-98. 23. Chugal NM, Clive JM, Spangberg LSW. A prognostic model for

  5. Anorectal smear in the diagnosis of anorectal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Demirel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case report is to point out the diagnostic value of cytologic smears in patients presenting with anorectal complaints, such as bleeding, pain or discomfort, which may suggest a neoplastic lesion. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a 3 months′ history of anal bleeding and pain during defecation. He was diagnosed as having hemorrhoids and a hemorrhoidectomy was performed. The patient developed an anal stricture postoperatively that required operative dilation. He continued to complain about anorectal pain for 2 months and a subsequent rectoscopy revealed the presence of tumor 5 to 7 cm above the dentate line. The tumor was resected laparoscopically and was reported as an adenocarcinoma. Rectal bleeding recurred 18 months postoperatively and a smear was procured from the anorectal mucosal surface for cytologic evaluation. A definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was rendered based on cytologic and histologic examination of the material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of anorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by cytologic smear in the English literature.

  6. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India.Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine.Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  7. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eyd, Ghaith J.; Shaik, Rizwana B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total) had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region. PMID:23275844

  8. Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B. Shaik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap smear. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and presented mainly as percentages; to assess associations, the chi-square test was used. Results: The total number of outpatients who attended the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Department from July 2007 to July 2010 was 150,111 patients, of which 602 (0.4% of the total had a Pap smear test. The sample was 50.1% Arabs and 49.9% other nationalities. While 73% of the outpatients had specific complaints, 27% came for a routine screening. Epithelial cell abnormalities were seen in 3.3% of the sample, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS found in 1.8%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs found in 1.2%, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs found in 0.3%. There were no cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Voluntary routine Pap smear screening was remarkably low in the study group. ASCUS was the most common epithelial cell abnormality. Community health education and opportunistic screening for cervical cancer are recommended for both national and expatriate women in the region.

  9. Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs.

  10. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  11. Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: Impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, F.; Auclair, J.; Turcotte, P.; Fournier, M.; Gagnon, C.; Sauve, S.; Blaise, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic effects of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) quantum dots on freshwater mussels. Elliption complanata mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdTe (0, 1.6, 4 and 8 mg/L) and cadmium sulfate (CdSO 4 , 0.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 15 o C. After the exposure period, they were removed for assessments of immunocompetence, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks). Preliminary experiments revealed that CdTe dissolved in aquarium water tended to aggregate in the particulate phase (85%) while 15% of CdTe was found in the dissolved phase. Immunotoxicity was characterized by a significant decrease in the number of hemocytes capable of ingesting fluorescent beads, and hemocyte viability. The cytotoxic capacity of hemocytes to lyse mammalian K-562 cells was significantly increased, but the number of circulating hemocytes remained unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at a threshold concentration of 5.6 mg/L in gills and significantly reduced in digestive glands at a threshold concentration <1.6 mg/L CdTe. The levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly reduced in gills at <1.6 mg/L CdTe. In digestive glands, a transient but marginal increase in DNA strand breaks occurred at the lowest concentration and dropped significantly at the higher concentrations. A multivariate analysis revealed that the various response patterns differed based on the concentration of CdTe, thus permitting the identification of biomarkers associated with the form (colloidal vs. molecular) of cadmium

  12. Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: Impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne, F. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)], E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca; Auclair, J.; Turcotte, P. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Fournier, M. [INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, 245 Hymus, Pointe-Claire, Quebec, H9R 3G6 (Canada); Gagnon, C. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Sauve, S. [Departement de Chimie, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Blaise, C. [Fluvial Ecosystem Research, Environment Canada, 105 McGill Street, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2008-02-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the toxic effects of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) quantum dots on freshwater mussels. Elliption complanata mussels were exposed to increasing concentrations of CdTe (0, 1.6, 4 and 8 mg/L) and cadmium sulfate (CdSO{sub 4}, 0.5 mg/L) for 24 h at 15 {sup o}C. After the exposure period, they were removed for assessments of immunocompetence, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxicity (DNA strand breaks). Preliminary experiments revealed that CdTe dissolved in aquarium water tended to aggregate in the particulate phase (85%) while 15% of CdTe was found in the dissolved phase. Immunotoxicity was characterized by a significant decrease in the number of hemocytes capable of ingesting fluorescent beads, and hemocyte viability. The cytotoxic capacity of hemocytes to lyse mammalian K-562 cells was significantly increased, but the number of circulating hemocytes remained unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased at a threshold concentration of 5.6 mg/L in gills and significantly reduced in digestive glands at a threshold concentration <1.6 mg/L CdTe. The levels of DNA strand breaks were significantly reduced in gills at <1.6 mg/L CdTe. In digestive glands, a transient but marginal increase in DNA strand breaks occurred at the lowest concentration and dropped significantly at the higher concentrations. A multivariate analysis revealed that the various response patterns differed based on the concentration of CdTe, thus permitting the identification of biomarkers associated with the form (colloidal vs. molecular) of cadmium.

  13. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  14. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, T.; Shaikh, Z.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in clinically suspected patients of leprosy using histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Validation study Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Rawalpindi Leprosy Hospital, Dermatology Department Military Hospital (MH) and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from 18th August 2012 to 18 Feb 2013. Methods: Appropriate technical and ethical approval for the study and patient consent were obtained. All suspected patients of leprosy of any age and either gender having typical hypo-aesthetic or anesthetic, erythematous or hypo-pigmented scaly skin lesions on any part of body were included in this study. All patients who have already received treatment for leprosy, patients with pure neural leprosy, patient not giving their consent for skin biopsy and patients with lepra reactions were excluded from this study. Forty eight patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Sample size had been calculated by using WHO sample size calculator taking confidence level 95%, absolute precision required 14% and anticipated population proportion 40%. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used to collect sample. Results: The results of the study revealed that out of 48 clinically suspected patients of leprosy skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 34 patients (70.8%) and the slit skin smear had diagnostic accuracy of 68.75% with sensitivity 55.8% and specificity and positive predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Study suggested that although slit skin smears are rapid and inexpensive method of diagnosis but their diagnostic accuracy is low. (author)

  16. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  17. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pervinder; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2013-07-01

    Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay) spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032) and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2). Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ(2) = 1.5; P = 0.2). Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  18. Effectiveness of a computer-based tutorial for teaching how to make a blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preast, Vanessa; Danielson, Jared; Bender, Holly; Bousson, Maury

    2007-09-01

    Computer-aided instruction (CAI) was developed to teach veterinary students how to make blood smears. This instruction was intended to replace the traditional instructional method in order to promote efficient use of faculty resources while maintaining learning outcomes and student satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a computer-aided blood smear tutorial on 1) instructor's teaching time, 2) students' ability to make blood smears, and 3) students' ability to recognize smear quality. Three laboratory sessions for senior veterinary students were taught using traditional methods (control group) and 4 sessions were taught using the CAI tutorial (experimental group). Students in the control group received a short demonstration and lecture by the instructor at the beginning of the laboratory and then practiced making blood smears. Students in the experimental group received their instruction through the self-paced, multimedia tutorial on a laptop computer and then practiced making blood smears. Data was collected from observation, interview, survey questionnaires, and smear evaluation by students and experts using a scoring rubric. Students using the CAI made better smears and were better able to recognize smear quality. The average time the instructor spent in the room was not significantly different between groups, but the quality of the instructor time was improved with the experimental instruction. The tutorial implementation effectively provided students and instructors with a teaching and learning experience superior to the traditional method of instruction. Using CAI is a viable method of teaching students to make blood smears.

  19. Eruptive furunculosis following the soak and smear regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn; Sukhdeo, Kumar; Meinhardt, Eric

    2015-02-18

    The 'soak and smear' regimen is a highly effective method for localised topical therapy employed by dermatologists for widespread inflammatory skin conditions. The regimen involves application of topical medication under occlusion after soaking in water. Complications from this treatment method are rare. We present a case of multiple, generalised methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-positive furuncles arising in a patient as an unexpected consequence of therapy. The case highlights an unanticipated risk of a commonly employed treatment amid an epidemic of MRSA in the community. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Parton distributions from lattice QCD with momentum smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus). Cyprus Inst.; Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Constantinou, Martha [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-15

    In this work we continue our effort to explore a recent proposal, which allows light-cone distributions to be extracted from purely spatial correlations, being thus accessible to lattice methods. In order to test the feasibility of this method, we present our latest results from a twisted mass lattice calculation of the flavor non-singlet momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of the nucleon. Furthermore, we apply a newly proposed momentum improved smearing, which has the potential to reach higher nucleon momenta as required for a safe matching procedure to the physical distribution functions.

  1. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-01-01

    SETTING: Urban clinic, Nairobi. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. DESIGN: Prospective study among TB suspects. RESULTS: A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly ...

  2. Prevalence of human papilloma virus in cervical smear by DNA PCR testing and its comparison with pap smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Discussion: The study reveals HPV prevalence rate of 28.3% in women attending gynaecology OPD of a tertiary care hospital and also prevalence of HPV was found to be highest in sexually active individuals with parity of 3 or more. These results are in agreement to many published national and international studies [12,13,14]. The study results also indicate lower sensitivity and higher specificity of Pap smear in detecting HPV infection, however it still remains the most important practicably available test in early detection of cervical carcinoma.

  3. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  4. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  5. Computational model for squamous cells characterization during cervical smear cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Eduardo Martínez Abaunza

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the work done by the Biomedical Engineering Research Group (GIIB, and the Structural, Functional and Clinical Pathology Research Group of the Industrial University of Santander (UIS, with Autonomous University of Bucaramanga (UNAB, was to construct a computational model allowing squamous cells characterization of cervical smear cytology to classify them as being either normal or abnormal cells. Slides containing the cell samples were colleted by the pathologist and the images were digitalized by a video-camera coupled to a microscope and connected to a frame acquisition device. Three thresholding algorithms were used, in image segmentation, allowing cell nuclei detection; manual thresholding was used when these algorithms failed to detect cytoplasm. Cell texture was described by the distribution of histogram in each color level, and the borders using Fourier descriptors. The results of the first phase are presented, implementing them in classifying and identifying normal cells. Later stages will involve characterizing each cells stage initially classified as presenting some reactive change or due to infection, to distinguish the reactive cells of intraepithelial lesion cells. Key words: image processing, mathematical morphology, cervical smear cytology, dysplasia, cancer of cervix.

  6. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  7. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutterless operation of frame-transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report, we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  8. [Evaluation of sputum smear examination--from the cases of Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, A

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of sputum smear examination was carried out with smear slides stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen method, which were collected from Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines. The smear slides were checked macroscopically and microscopically according to the following points: 1) smear area size, 2) thickness of smear, 3) evenness of smear, 4) decolorizing condition by Ziehl-Neelsen stain, 5) smear cleanliness, 6) presence of cells in sputum and 7) smear reading accuracy by cross-checking. As the result of smear slide evaluation, it was concluded that proper sputum specimens have been smeared but smears were generally too thin and contaminated with too many dirt . Agreement rate of the slide reading in Nepal, Yemen and the Philippines were 73%, 90% and 88% respectively. Disagreement cases were concentrated in the subtle number of acid-fast bacilli or (+/-) and (+) results. The cause of disagreement might be attributed to contamination with debris, deposit etc., which hindered reading or were misread as acid-fast bacilli. Some improvement should be considered to eliminate the dirt , such as filtration of carbol fuchsin solution, preparation of proper quantity of carbol fuchsin solution to be consumed within three months, mixing the fuchsin stock solution and 5% carbol solution just before use, rinsing the mouth before sputum collection, usage of clean sputum container and slides, and smearing and drying of the slides within clean environment. However, in many developing countries there are many difficulties for facilities, equipments, system and management. Some of these difficulties may be solved by the efforts of laboratory side but some are beyond the limits of their efforts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  10. Auditing smear microscopy results according to time to detection using the BACTEC™ MGIT™ TB system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaghier, A A F

    2015-09-01

    Smear microscopy is a rapid method for the identification of the most infectious patients with mycobacterial infection. Suboptimal smear microscopy may significantly compromise or delay patient isolation and contact tracing. A stringent method for auditing mycobacterial smear results is thus needed. This article proposes an auditing tool based on time to detection (TTD) of culture-positive samples using the automated BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 TB system. In our study, sputum samples subjected to liquefaction and concentration before staining with a TTD of ≤ 13 days using the BACTEC system should be positive on smear microscopy.

  11. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  12. Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, A; Bonnet, M; Gagnidze, L; Githui, W; Varaine, F; Guérin, P J

    2009-05-01

    Urban clinic, Nairobi. To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. Prospective study among TB suspects. A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly more men than women produced a set of three 'good' quality specimens (175/274 vs. 182/339, P = 0.01). Lowering thresholds for definitions to include scanty smears resulted in increases in SPC detection in both sexes; the increase was significantly higher for women. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) case definition was associated with the highest detection rates in women. When analysis was restricted only to patients submitting 'good' quality specimen sets, the difference in detection between sexes was on the threshold for significance (P = 0.05). Higher SPC notification rates in men are commonly reported by TB control programmes. The revised WHO SPC definition may reduce sex disparities in notification. This should be considered when evaluating other interventions aimed at reducing these. Further study is required on the effects of the human immuno-deficiency virus and instructed specimen collection on sex-specific impact of new SPC definition.

  13. Smeared crack modelling approach for corrosion-induced concrete damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Anna Emilie Anusha; Michel, Alexander; Stang, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a smeared crack modelling approach is used to simulate corrosion-induced damage in reinforced concrete. The presented modelling approach utilizes a thermal analogy to mimic the expansive nature of solid corrosion products, while taking into account the penetration of corrosion...... products into the surrounding concrete, non-uniform precipitation of corrosion products, and creep. To demonstrate the applicability of the presented modelling approach, numerical predictions in terms of corrosion-induced deformations as well as formation and propagation of micro- and macrocracks were......-induced damage phenomena in reinforced concrete. Moreover, good agreements were also found between experimental and numerical data for corrosion-induced deformations along the circumference of the reinforcement....

  14. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  15. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  16. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  17. Crack Models for Concrete, Discrete or Smeared? Fixed, Multi-Directional or Rotating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, J.G.; Blaauwendraad, J.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical tools to simulate cracking in concrete and similar materials are developed. Firstly, a treatment is given of smeared and discrete crack concepts, which start from the notion of a continuum and a discontinuum respectively. With the smeared crack concept a distinction is furthermore made

  18. Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age distribution of abnormal pap smear in a secondary hospital in south-west Nigeria. ... Objective: To determine the age distribution pattern of abnormal Paps smear in women in our environment in order to have a basis for the points of entry and exit for cervical cancer screening protocol. Materials and Method: In this ...

  19. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  20. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  1. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert

    2008-01-01

    in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...... = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women...... developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per...

  2. [Effects of Light Near-Infrared Radiation on Rats Assessed by Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity in Lymphocytes on Blood Smears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunderyakova, N V; Zakharchenko, A V; Zakharchenko, M V; Muller, H; Fedotcheva, I; Kondrashova, M N

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of light near infrared radiation (850 nm), with modulation acoustic frequency of 101 Hz, was studied. The study was conducted on rats, the effect was recorded by succinate dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes on the blood smear after administration of the activating dose of adrenaline, which simulates the state of the organism in the early stages of the pathogenic effects (stress). A pronounced regulating effect of infrared radiation on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in animals activated by adrenaline was shown. Infrared radiation has a normalizing effect reducing the degree of inhibition or activation of the enzyme induced by adrenaline and had no effect on the control animals. Thus, by modulating the activity of succinate dehydrogenase infrared radiation regulates energy production in the mitochondria supported by the most powerful oxidation substrate--succinic acid, which is especially pronounced under stress.

  3. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  4. [Abnormalities in cervical smears stored in plastic bags: potential cause of false negatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Patricia; González-Bravo, Margarita S; Jiménez-Muñoz-Ledo, Gustavo; Macías, Alejandro E

    2011-01-01

    Cervical smear is the most economic and efficient diagnostic tool for the screening of cervical cancer. However, since plastic bags have been used in Guanajuato to transport and store smears, we have observed cytological abnormalities which difficult the diagnosis and lead to false negatives. To describe those abnormalities. Out of 340 women registered in a primary care center in Mexico, 68 were selected through systematic random sampling during 2007. A cervical smear was obtained and placed on two slides. The first sample was allowed to dry but the second one was placed into the plastic bag immediately after fixation. After 15 days all the smears were stained with the Papanicolaou technique. A certified pathologist, blinded about the variable of study, interpreted the samples according to the Bethesda system, and evaluated the presence of necrosis, edema, holes, and opportunistic microorganisms. Of the 68 smears exposed to a humid storage, 36 (53%) were inadequate for diagnosis (Fisher's exact probability plastic bags.

  5. Quantum Erasure: Quantum Interference Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Stephen P.; Cunha, Marcelo O. Terra; Pádua, Sebastião; Monken, Carlos H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments in quantum optics have shed light on the foundations of quantum physics. Quantum erasers - modified quantum interference experiments - show that quantum entanglement is responsible for the complementarity principle.

  6. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  7. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions.......Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... irradiance, the maximum Pn and ETR were reached at 24 °C. Increased irradiance decreased the PSII operating efficiency and increased NPQ, while both high irradiance and temperature had a significant effect on the PSII operating efficiency at temperatures >28 °C. Under high irradiance and temperature, changes...

  8. The evidential value of cosmetic foundation smears in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Amanda; Coulson, Sally

    2004-11-01

    Cosmetic foundation products are easily transferred to clothing and other surfaces as a result of contact with such objects. Examination of past cases involving cosmetics in New Zealand has shown cosmetic foundation to be one of the more common cosmetic products encountered. The aim of this research was to determine the most discriminating method for the comparison of transferred foundation with samples obtained from a known source in forensic casework. Fifty-three foundation samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). It was found that a 5 mm2 section of a light smearing was enough to provide detectable results. The discriminating powers for FTIR, SEM-EDX and GC-FID were 98.3, 93.8, and 82.0% respectively. A combination of all three techniques provided a discriminating power of 99.7%, meaning that almost complete discrimination was achieved between the foundation samples.

  9. Use of and attitudes and knowledge about pap smears among women in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hammasi, Khadija; Samir, Ola; Kettaneh, Soania; Al-Fadli, Athari; Thalib, Lukman

    2009-11-01

    To estimate the lifetime prevalence of Pap smear among women in Kuwait and to assess their knowledge about and attitude toward Pap smears. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sampling method. We interviewed 299 women attending polyclinics in Kuwait using a self-administered questionnaire. Factors related to history of having a Pap smear, knowledge level, and willingness to participate in a screening program were evaluated. The lifetime prevalence of Pap smear was found to be 37% (95% CI 33-43). Forty-four percent of women in our study had a Pap smear only once in their lives. History of having at least one Pap smear was significantly related to such factors as age, total family income, marital status, history of cervical infection, and knowledge. The level of knowledge about cervical cancer varied among the participants. Forty-six percent of women were uncertain about the symptoms of cervical cancer. About half the women recognized cervical infection, smoking, and having multiple sexual partners as risk factors for cervical cancer; however, only 10% recognized early sexual intercourse as a risk factor. Willingness to participate in a future screening program varied significantly according to educational level, employment status, and total family income. Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality are relatively low in Kuwait, they may be underreported in the absence of a screening program. Moreover, lifetime prevalence of having a Pap smear was found to be considerably lower in Kuwait compared with developed countries.

  10. The agreement between self-reported cervical smear abnormalities and screening programme records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, Karen; Beral, Valerie; Green, Jane; Cameron, Rebecca; Baker, Krys; Brown, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Million Women Study is a cohort study of women aged 50-64 years in England and Scotland. As a component of the follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked to indicate if they had an abnormal cervical smear in the previous five years. This study compared self-reported cervical abnormalities with screening records obtained from the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme. For 1944 randomly selected Million Women Study participants in Oxfordshire, screening records were assessed over a six-year period prior to the date of self-reporting. The six-year period was chosen to allow for errors in the recall of timing of abnormal smears. A total of 68 women (3.5%) had a record of at least one equivocal or abnormal smear within the last six years, whereas 49 women (2.5%) self-reported an abnormality. There was a strong trend for an increased probability of self-reporting a history of an abnormal smear as the severity of the recorded abnormality increased (P screening programme records show an abnormal smear, the proportion self-reporting an abnormality increases with the severity of the recorded lesion. Almost all women with a record of negative or inadequate smear(s) correctly interpret the result and do not self-report an abnormality.

  11. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  12. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, Alma; Kik, Sandra V.; Kalisvaart, Nico A.; Sebek, Maruschka M.; Verver, Suzanne; Boeree, Martin J.; van Soolingen, Dick

    2008-01-01

    Background. Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  13. Tuberculosis transmission by patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in a large cohort in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tostmann, A.; Kik, S.V.; Kalisvaart, N.A.; Sebek, M.M.; Verver, S.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy is commonly used for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Although patients with sputum smear-negative TB are less infectious than patients with smear-positive TB, they also contribute to TB transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of TB

  14. Smear layer-deproteinizing improves bonding of one-step self-etch adhesives to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanatvarakorn, Ornnicha; Prasansuttiporn, Taweesak; Thittaweerat, Suppason; Foxton, Richard M; Ichinose, Shizuko; Tagami, Junji; Hosaka, Keiichi; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2018-03-01

    Smear layer deproteinizing was proved to reduce the organic phase of smear layer covered on dentin surface. It was shown to eliminate hybridized smear layer and nanoleakage expression in resin-dentin bonding interface of two-step self-etch adhesive. This study aimed to investigate those effects on various one-step self-etch adhesives. Four different one-step self-etch adhesives were used in this study; SE One (SE), Scotchbond™ Universal (SU), BeautiBond Multi (BB), and Bond Force (BF). Flat human dentin surfaces with standardized smear layer were prepared. Smear layer deproteinizing was carried out by the application of 50ppm hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on dentin surface for 15s followed by Accel ® (p-toluenesulfinic acid salt) for 5s prior to adhesive application. No surface pretreatment was used as control. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage under TEM observation were investigated. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and t-test at the significant level of 0.05. Smear layer deproteinizing significantly improved μTBS of SE, SU, and BB (player observed in control groups of SE, BB, and BF, and reticular nanoleakage presented throughout the hybridized complex in control groups of BB and BF were eliminated upon the smear layer deproteinizing. Smear layer deproteinizing by HOCl and Accel ® application could enhance the quality of dentin for bonding to one-step self-etch adhesives, resulting in the improving μTBS, eliminating hybridized smear layer and preventing reticular nanoleakage formation in resin-dentin bonding interface. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation study of HPV DNA detection from stained FNA smears by polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Ahlborn, Lise Barlebo

    2016-01-01

    and corresponding surgical specimens were collected from 71 patients with known HPV-positive OPSCC, 12 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 20 patients with branchial cleft cysts, and 20 patients with Warthin tumors. Thirty-eight patients with OPSCC and 7 patients with OSCC had FNA smears available...... was detected in 68 of the 71 FNA smears from OPSCC metastases. All corresponding surgical specimens from primary tumors (n = 71) and metastases (n = 38) were p16- and HPV DNA-positive. All the surgical specimens and corresponding FNA smears from OSCCs, Warthin tumors, and branchial cleft cysts were HPV DNA...

  16. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical

  17. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  18. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    ..., quantum metrology, spin squeezing, control of decoherence and many other key topics. Readers are guided through the principles of quantum optics and their uses in a wide variety of areas including quantum information science and quantum mechanics...

  19. Modifying and Pilot Testing the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Ackerson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a report on modifications and pilot testing of a measurement tool to predict Pap testing based on the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Women have been found to avoid routine cervical cancer screening (CCS due to personal influencing factors. For this study, the Pap Smear Belief Questionnaire (PSBQ was modified by adding items and evaluated through content validity index (CVI = .89 and cognitive interviews (think-aloud protocol, resulting in a 31-item instrument with four subscales (Benefits, Barriers, Vulnerability, Experiences. Pilot testing the modified PSBQ was conducted at a local agency. Fifty-three women completed and returned the PSBQ, which had good internal consistency, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .81 (Benefits α = .51; Barriers α = .85; Vulnerability α = .78; Experiences α = .87. Test–retest reliability of the 31-item PSBQ was also good (.878. Univariate logistic regression indicated that the only significant predictor of seeking/avoiding routine screening by women’s background characteristics was social influence (p = .04. Subscales found to be significant predictors in Pap testing were Barriers (p = .003 and Gynecological Exam Experiences (p = .04. The refined 31-item PSBQ has good psychometric data supporting its use in predicting CCS. However, this research should be replicated in a larger sample enabling further validity and reliability testing of the PSBQ. Understanding women’s attitudes toward CCS will help health care providers, who deal with gynecological health, develop more effective screening programs and interventions facilitating better experiences for women contributing to an increase in routine screening.

  20. Sputum smear microscopy at two months into continuation-phase: should it be done in all patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Padamchand Gandhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP of India recommends follow-up sputum smear examination at two months into the continuation phase of treatment. The main intent of this (mid-CP follow-up is to detect patients not responding to treatment around two-three months earlier than at the end of the treatment. However, the utility of mid-CP follow-up under programmatic conditions has been questioned. We undertook a multi-district study to determine if mid-CP follow-up is able to detect cases of treatment failures early among all types of patients with sputum smear-positive TB. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed existing records of patients with sputum smear-positive TB registered under the RNTCP in 43 districts across three states of India during a three month period in 2009. We estimated proportions of patients that could be detected as a case of treatment failure early, and assessed the impact of various policy options on laboratory workload and number needed to test to detect one case of treatment failure early. RESULTS: Of 10055 cases, mid-CP follow-up was done in 6944 (69% cases. Mid-CP follow-up could benefit 117/8015 (1.5% new and 206/2040 (10% previously-treated sputum smear-positive cases by detecting their treatment failure early. Under the current policy, 31 patients had to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. All cases of treatment failure would still be detected early if mid-CP follow-up were discontinued for new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after the intensive-phase of treatment. This would reduce the related laboratory workload by 69% and only 10 patients would need to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of mid-CP follow-up among new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after completing the intensive-phase of treatment will reduce the laboratory workload without impacting overall early

  1. Scattering theory using smeared non-Hermitian potentials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2009), 045009/1-045009/12 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA ČR GA202/07/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : symmetric quantum-mechanics * pseudo-hermiticity * real spectrum Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.922, year: 2009

  2. A screening system for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. de O. Souza Filho

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: In settings with a high prevalence of smear-negative PTB, the system can be useful for screening and also to aid clinical practice in expediting complementary tests for higher risk patients.

  3. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Peng

    Full Text Available The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  4. Low cost automated whole smear microscopy screening system for detection of acid fast bacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Nei Law

    Full Text Available In countries with high tuberculosis (TB burden, there is urgent need for rapid, large-scale screening to detect smear-positive patients. We developed a computer-aided whole smear screening system that focuses in real-time, captures images and provides diagnostic grading, for both bright-field and fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB from respiratory specimens.To evaluate the performance of dual-mode screening system in AFB diagnostic algorithms on concentrated smears with auramine O (AO staining, as well as direct smears with AO and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining, using mycobacterial culture results as gold standard.Adult patient sputum samples requesting for M. tuberculosis cultures were divided into three batches for staining: direct AO-stained, direct ZN-stained and concentrated smears AO-stained. All slides were graded by an experienced microscopist, in parallel with the automated whole smear screening system. Sensitivity and specificity of a TB diagnostic algorithm in using the screening system alone, and in combination with a microscopist, were evaluated.Of 488 direct AO-stained smears, 228 were culture positive. These yielded a sensitivity of 81.6% and specificity of 74.2%. Of 334 direct smears with ZN staining, 142 were culture positive, which gave a sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 76.6%. Of 505 concentrated smears with AO staining, 250 were culture positive, giving a sensitivity of 86.4% and specificity of 71.0%. To further improve performance, machine grading was confirmed by manual smear grading when the number of AFBs detected fell within an uncertainty range. These combined results gave significant improvement in specificity (AO-direct:85.4%; ZN-direct:85.4%; AO-concentrated:92.5% and slight improvement in sensitivity while requiring only limited manual workload.Our system achieved high sensitivity without substantially compromising specificity when compared to culture results. Significant improvement

  5. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The

  6. The value of Tzanck smear test in diagnosis of erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2008-12-01

    Tzanck smear is generally used for the diagnosis of the pemphigus group of autoimmune bullous diseases and mucocutaneous herpesvirus infections. There are only a few studies in the literature investigating its diagnostic value. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings and to determine the diagnostic value of this test in moist (erosive, vesicular, bullous, and pustular) skin lesions. We also aimed to develop an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of these types of skin lesions according to the Tzanck smear findings. Samples were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and evaluated by the same dermatologist. In some patients, methylene blue and Gram staining or direct immunofluorescence examinations were additionally performed. In all of the study cases, after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; viral serology; bacterial and fungal cultures; histopathology; direct and indirect immunofluorescence; patch testing), the definite diagnosis was established. We also determined the sensitivity and the specificity of certain Tzanck smear findings. Tzanck smear was performed in a total of 400 patients with moist skin lesions. The sensitivities of multinucleated giant cells and acantholytic cells in herpetic infections, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells and cocci in bullous impetigo, pseudohyphae in candidiasis, acantholytic cells in pemphigus and more than 10 tadpole cells (magnification x100) in spongiotic dermatitis were 84.7%, 92%, 100%, 100%, and 81.5%, respectively. Because Tzanck smears were evaluated by the same dermatologist, no comment could be made regarding the interobserver reliability of this test and how the level of experience with this technique might affect the results. Also, the sensitivity and the specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for certain diseases could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test is an inexpensive, useful

  7. Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.; Rubin, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Based on a closed form expression for the path integral of quantum transition amplitudes, we suggest rigorous definitions of both, quantum instantons and quantum chaos. As an example we compute the quantum instanton of the double well potential.

  8. Quantum metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Guo-Yong; Guo Guang-Can

    2013-01-01

    The statistical error is ineluctable in any measurement. Quantum techniques, especially with the development of quantum information, can help us squeeze the statistical error and enhance the precision of measurement. In a quantum system, there are some quantum parameters, such as the quantum state, quantum operator, and quantum dimension, which have no classical counterparts. So quantum metrology deals with not only the traditional parameters, but also the quantum parameters. Quantum metrology includes two important parts: measuring the physical parameters with a precision beating the classical physics limit and measuring the quantum parameters precisely. In this review, we will introduce how quantum characters (e.g., squeezed state and quantum entanglement) yield a higher precision, what the research areas are scientists most interesting in, and what the development status of quantum metrology and its perspectives are. (topical review - quantum information)

  9. PENYULUHAN METODE PAP SMEAR TERHADAP TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN DAN SIKAP WANITA TUNA SUSILA DALAM PENDETEKSIAN KANKER SERVIKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismi Wulandari AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effectiveness Of Pap smear Test’s Counseling Regarding To The Level Of Knowledge And Behaviour In Prostitution Worker For Detection Of Cervical Cancer In Bintang Mas Kubu Raya 2014. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectivity of counseling toward knowledge and behavior. in prostitution worker about pap smear and cervical cancer. This research was quasi-experimental with one group pretest-postest design. There are 38 respondents. McNemar test showed there are significant. improvement of knowledge (p<0.05, and significance behavior change (p<0.05 in all respondents before and after counseling. Keyword : knowledge, behaviour, cervical cancer, pap smear Abstrak : Penyuluhan Metode Pap smear Terhadap Tingkat Pengetahuan Dan Sikap Wanita Tuna Susila Dalam Pendeteksian Kanker Serviks. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk melihat efektivitas terhadap pengetahuan dan sikap melalui penyuluhan mengenai pap smear kepada para wanita tuna susila. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan one group pretest-postest design. Besar sampel berjumlah 38 orang. Hasil menunjukkan uji McNemar menunjukkan terdapat signifikansi yang bermakna untuk pengetahuan (p < 0,05 dan signifikansi untuk perubahan sikap (p<0.05 pada responden sebelum dan setelah penyuluhan. Kata kunci : pengetahuan, sikap, kanker serviks, pap smear

  10. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  11. Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, U.; Hanif, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

  12. Application of nose smear method to the assessment of internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabe, K.; Ishiguro, H.; Nakata, K.; Fukuda, S.

    1985-01-01

    At PNC Tokai Works, the plutonium fuel fabrication facility has been operating since 1967. Lung counting and bioassay for urine are performed routinely for internal radiation dosimetry in this facility. The nose smear method is used for assessing the significance of intake whenever an incident involving inhalation of radioactive material occurs. It was found empirically on the basis of 22 inhalation cases that nose smear samples were useful for assessing tentatively the intake in an incidental inhalation of plutonium aerosol. In 80% of the cases of plutonium inhalation, the amount in the early faecal excretion (5 days after inhalation) is less than 10 times the plutonium in the nose smear samples over the activity region from 0.074 to 28 Bq of nose smear samples. It is suggested that the amount of plutonium in early excreted faeces be estimated by applying the factor of 10 to the activity in nose smear samples. As an example, when PuO 2 (class Y, AMAD 1 μm) 0.074 Bq corresponding to the minimum detectable amount is measured in the nose smear samples, the early faecal excretion and the total intake can be estimated approximately to be 0.74 Bq and 1.55 Bq, respectively, applying the clearance model of ICRP 30, and the committed dose equivalent of bone surface is estimated as 1.6 mSv. (author)

  13. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayyeb, R.; Khawaja, N.P.; Malik, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  16. Cytotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the involvement of cellular uptake and induction of pro-apoptotic endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ming Yan,1,* Yun Zhang,2,* Haiyan Qin,3 Kezhou Liu,1 Miao Guo,1 Yakun Ge,1 Mingen Xu,1 Yonghong Sun,4 Xiaoxiang Zheng4 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 2Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, 3Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, 4Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Detection Technology and Medicinal Effectiveness Appraisal, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs have been proposed to induce oxidative stress, which plays a crucial role in CdTe QDs-mediated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. However, the direct interactions of CdTe QDs with HUVECs and their potential impairment of other organelles like endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HUVECs are poorly understood. In this study, we reported that the negatively charged CdTe QDs (–21.63±0.91 mV, with good dispersity and fluorescence stability, were rapidly internalized via endocytosis by HUVECs, as the notable internalization could be inhibited up to 95.52% by energy depletion (NaN3/deoxyglucose or low temperature. The endocytosis inhibitors (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, genistein, sucrose, chlorpromazine, and colchicine dramatically decreased the uptake of CdTe QDs by HUVECs, suggesting that both caveolae/raft- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis were involved in the endothelial uptake of CdTe QDs. Using immunocytochemistry, a striking overlap of the internalized CdTe QDs and ER marker was observed, which indicates that QDs may be transported to ER. The CdTe QDs also caused remarkable ER stress responses in HUVECs, confirmed by significant dilatation of ER cisternae, upregulation of ER stress markers GRP78/GRP94, and

  17. The utilization and barriers of Pap smear among women with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Yen, Chia-Feng; Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2016-04-12

    Many evidences illustrate that the Pap smear screening successfully reduces if the cervical cancer could be detected and treated sufficiently early. People with disability were higher comorbidity prevalence, and less likely to use preventive health care and health promotion activities. There were also to demonstrate that people with visual impairment has less access to appropriate healthcare services and is less likely to receive screening examinations. In Taiwan, there was no study to explore utilization of Pap smear, associated factors and use barriers about Pap smear screening test among women with visual impairment. The purpose is to explore the utilization and barriers of using Pap smear for women with visual impairment in Taiwan. To identify the barriers of women with visual from process of receiving Pap smear screening test. The cross-sectional study was conducted and the totally 316 participators were selected by stratified proportional and random sampling from 15 to 64 year old women with visual impairment who lived in Taipei County during December 2009 to January 2010. The data was been collected by phone interview and the interviewers were well trained before interview. The mean age was 47.1 years old and the highest percentage of disabled severity was mile (40.2 %). Totally, 66.5 % of participators were ever using Pap smear and 38.9 % used it during pass 1 year. Their first time to accept Pap smear was 38.8 year old. There was near 50 % of them not to be explained by professionals before accepting the Pap smear. For non-using cases, the top two percentage of barriers were "feel still younger" (22.3 %), the second was "there's no sexual experience" (21.4 %). We found the gynecology experiences was key factor for women with visual impairment to use Pap smear, especially the experiences was during 1 year (OR = 4). Associated factors and barriers to receive Pap smear screening test for women with visual impairment can be addressed through interventions

  18. Making mock-FNA smears from fresh surgical pathology specimens to improve smear preparation technique and to create cytohistological correlation series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Mezei

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a well-established diagnostic method based on the microscopic interpretation of often scant cytological material; therefore, experience, good technique and smear quality are equally important in obtaining satisfactory results.We studied the use of fresh surgical pathology specimens for making so-called mock-FNA smears with the potential of cytohistological correlation. Additionally, we studied how this process aids the improvement of preparation technique and smear quality.Cytological aspirates from 32 fresh biopsy specimens from various sites: lung (20, lymph nodes (6, and breast (6 were obtained, all with a clinical diagnosis of tumor. Aspiration was performed from grossly palpable tumors. 25 G needle and Cameco-type syringe holder was used with minimal or no suction.Unfixed surgical specimens provided sufficient cytological material that resulted in good quality smears. After standard processing of specimens into microscopic sections from paraffin embedded tissues, cytohistological case-series were created. No significant alteration was reported in tissue architecture on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections after the aspiration procedure. A gradual, but steady improvement was observed in smear quality just after a few preparations.Our study proved that surgical specimens may be used as a source of cytological material to create cytohistological correlation studies and also to improve FNA cytology skills. The use of very fine gauge needle (25 G, 0,6 mm diameter during the sampling process does not alter tissue architecture therefore the final histopathological diagnosis is not compromised. We conclude that by using fresh surgical specimens useful cytohistological collections can be created both as a teaching resource and as improving experience.

  19. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Hermosilla

    Full Text Available Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors.Data on incident TB cases' (identified between April 2012 and March 2014 socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity.Of the total sample, 193 (34.3% of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3-3.1, p < 0.01, incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2-11.1, p = 0.03, alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2-5.7, p = 0.02, diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4-10.7, p < 0.01, and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3-5.5p < 0.01 were associated with smear-positivity.Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors.

  20. Psychosocial burden differences between women of reproductive age and menopausal age due to abnormal Pap smear: A pilot study of the East Coast of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmad Sheikh

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Psychosocial burden due to abnormal Pap smear results in terms of mental stress, overwhelming beliefs, and feelings of guilt and worry of HPV infection and possibility of cervical cancer were noted more in reproductive age groups as compared to the menopausal age group. Health-care providers should be aware of these psychosocial effects whereby they can refer such patients to a gynecologic oncologist for proper counseling at the proper time so that the negative impact due to this psychosocial burden can be prevented.

  1. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic stress and an electric field on donors in a GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.L.; Montes, A.; Lopez, S.Y.; Duque, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical calculations on the influence of both an external electric field and hydrostatic stress on the binding energy and impurity polarizability of shallow-donor impurities in an isolated GaAs-(Ga, Al)As quantum well are presented. A variational procedure within the effective-mass approximation is considered. The pressure-related Γ-X crossover is taken into account. As a general feature, we observe that the binding energy increases as the length of the well decreases. For the low-pressure regime we observe a linearly binding energy behaviour. For the high-pressure regime the simultaneous effects of the barrier height and the applied electric field bend the binding energy curves towards smaller values. For low hydrostatic pressures the impurity polarization remains constant in all cases with an increasing value as the field increases. This constant behaviour shows that the small variations in well width, effective mass, and dielectric constant with pressure do not appreciably affect polarizability. For high hydrostatic pressure, we see a non-linear increase in polarizability, mainly due to the decrease of barrier height as a result of the external pressure, which allows further deformation of the impurity. (author)

  2. Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included

  3. Relationship Between Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Non-Human Papillomavirus Pap Smear Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhaji, Kimia; Harvie, Heidi S; Cheston, Emily; Levin, Pamela J; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and non-human papillomavirus (HPV) Papanicolaou (Pap) smear abnormalities. This was a retrospective cohort study of women aged 40 to 70 years who presented for consultation at our institution between 2010 and 2015 and had results of a Pap smear and HPV test available within 5 years of their visit. We extracted demographic information, medical and social history, Pap smear, and HPV results from the electronic medical record. Associations between the presence of POP and non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities were estimated using univariable and multivariable analyses. We reviewed 1590 charts and excluded 980 women, leaving 610 women in the study: 183 with POP and 427 without POP. Women with POP were significantly older (58.2 ± 7.2 vs 55.6 ± 6.6, P 10 year) history of abnormal Pap smear (24.0% vs 14.8%, P women with POP.

  4. Actinomyces-like organisms in the cervical smears of IUCD users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida Jamal; Mohd Salleh Mohd Yasin; Zooraidah Zainal; Hamid Arshat

    1983-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a well-documented complication of IUD use. The presence of tails on the IUDs appears to facilitate ascent of bacteria from the vagina into the uterus. In this study, cervical smears of 128 IUD users were stained by Gram's stain and screened for the presence of Actinomyces-like organisms. 5.5% of the smears were positive for these organisms. Pus was seen in 20.1% of the smears, and yeast cells were seen in 10.2%. The average duration of IUD insertion was 8 months. Smears of 103 controls were negative for Actinomyces-like organisms, pus cells were present in 8.7%, and yeast cells in 4.8%. Of the 7 smears positive for the organisms, only 1 was from the user of a plastic device. All cases included were asymptomatic and were visiting the clinic for routine follow-up. These data suggest that colonization by Actinomyces-like organisms does not appear to be a significant problem in IUD users in Malaysia.

  5. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Tabor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. Thespecimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD.All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer.Results: MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001 the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used.Conclusion: MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested.

  6. The pathogenic microorganisms in papanicolaou vaginal smears and correlation with inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Barouti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was conducted on 528 conventional Papanicolaou cervical smears. The frequency and severity of inflammation and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, and vaginal candidiasis (VC was determined in the samples. Also co-infection of the microorganisms in Pap samples was evaluated. percentage, mean±standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. The comparison between data was performed with the Pearson's chi square or Fisher's exact test.The prevalence of BV, VC, and TV in Pap samples was 17%, 11%, and 0.4% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of these microorganisms in women of reproductive age was higher than menopausal women. There was a significant association between VC and the presence of inflammation in our samples.Based on our results, inflammation in the Pap smears can suggest an infection of VC and the patients should be considered for proper VC treatment.

  7. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, S C; Dhodapkar, Rahul; Elangovan, Subashini; Chaya, D R

    2009-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman's stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman's thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

  8. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parija S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC, plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman′s stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman′s thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

  9. Effects of spectral smearing on performance of the spectral ripple and spectro-temporal ripple tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Sharma, Mridula; Van Dun, Bram; Bansal, Shalini; Prabhu, Latika; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to use spectral smearing to evaluate the efficacy of a spectral ripple test (SRt) using stationary sounds and a recent variant with gliding ripples called the spectro-temporal ripple test (STRt) in measuring reduced spectral resolution. In experiment 1 the highest detectable ripple density was measured using four amounts of spectral smearing (unsmeared, mild, moderate, and severe). The thresholds worsened with increasing smearing and were similar for the SRt and the STRt across the three conditions with smearing. For unsmeared stimuli, thresholds were significantly higher (better) for the STRt than for the SRt. An amplitude fluctuation at the outputs of simulated (gammatone) auditory filters centered above 6400 Hz was identified as providing a potential detection cue for the STRt stimuli. Experiment 2 used notched noise with energy below and above the passband of the SRt and STRt stimuli to reduce confounding cues in the STRt. Thresholds were almost identical for the STRt and SRt for both unsmeared and smeared stimuli, indicating that the confounding cue for the STRt was eliminated by the notched noise. Thresholds obtained with notched noise present could be predicted reasonably accurately using an excitation-pattern model.

  10. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  11. A Review of Automatic Methods Based on Image Processing Techniques for Tuberculosis Detection from Microscopic Sputum Smear Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Rani Oomman; Soman, Biju; Saini, Gagan; Rajan, Jeny

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. TB remains one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, and its recent resurgences in both developed and developing countries warrant global attention. The number of deaths due to TB is very high (as per the WHO report, 1.5 million died in 2013), although most are preventable if diagnosed early and treated. There are many tools for TB detection, but the most widely used one is sputum smear microscopy. It is done manually and is often time consuming; a laboratory technician is expected to spend at least 15 min per slide, limiting the number of slides that can be screened. Many countries, including India, have a dearth of properly trained technicians, and they often fail to detect TB cases due to the stress of a heavy workload. Automatic methods are generally considered as a solution to this problem. Attempts have been made to develop automatic approaches to identify TB bacteria from microscopic sputum smear images. In this paper, we provide a review of automatic methods based on image processing techniques published between 1998 and 2014. The review shows that the accuracy of algorithms for the automatic detection of TB increased significantly over the years and gladly acknowledges that commercial products based on published works also started appearing in the market. This review could be useful to researchers and practitioners working in the field of TB automation, providing a comprehensive and accessible overview of methods of this field of research.

  12. Quantum stochastics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Mou-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    The classical probability theory initiated by Kolmogorov and its quantum counterpart, pioneered by von Neumann, were created at about the same time in the 1930s, but development of the quantum theory has trailed far behind. Although highly appealing, the quantum theory has a steep learning curve, requiring tools from both probability and analysis and a facility for combining the two viewpoints. This book is a systematic, self-contained account of the core of quantum probability and quantum stochastic processes for graduate students and researchers. The only assumed background is knowledge of the basic theory of Hilbert spaces, bounded linear operators, and classical Markov processes. From there, the book introduces additional tools from analysis, and then builds the quantum probability framework needed to support applications to quantum control and quantum information and communication. These include quantum noise, quantum stochastic calculus, stochastic quantum differential equations, quantum Markov semigrou...

  13. Quantum Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Scarani, Valerio

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explain what quantum computing is. The information for the thesis was gathered from books, scientific publications, and news articles. The analysis of the information revealed that quantum computing can be broken down to three areas: theories behind quantum computing explaining the structure of a quantum computer, known quantum algorithms, and the actual physical realizations of a quantum computer. The thesis reveals that moving from classical memor...

  14. Quantum Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...

  15. Evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution and gel for smear layer removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotto, Sidney Ricardo; Travassos, Rosana Maria Coelho; de Oliveira, Elias Pandonor Motcy; Machado, Manoel Eduardo de Lima; Martins, José Luiz

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel and 17% EDTA solution in cleaning dentine walls after root canal instrumentation. Thirty human canine teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. In Group 1, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigating solution; in Group 2, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 17% EDTA solution; and in Group 3, 1% sodium hypochlorite was used with 24% EDTA gel. The presence of a smear layer was analysed after instrumentation using scanning electron microscopy. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed a statistical difference (P 0.05). The results indicate that 1% sodium hypochlorite alone does not remove the smear layer and that there was no statistical difference between EDTA gel and EDTA solution in smear layer removal.

  16. The urethral smear as a tool in diagnosing adenovirus-induced urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønsberg, E; Hartgill, U

    2014-12-01

    Adenovirus is a recognised cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, and is not uncommonly associated with extragenital signs and symptoms. This case report describes a patient with symptoms of conjunctivitis, meatitis and urethritis. The urethral smear revealed almost exclusively monocytes microscopically, raising the suspicion of a viral aetiology. Results confirmed the presence of adenovirus in both the eyes and urethra. Despite waning reliance on the urethral smear in sexual health clinics, it can still be an important diagnostic tool in assessing the aetiology of non-specific urethritis. Finding an obvious monocytic cell response in the urethral smear can indicate a viral cause and allow the clinician to optimise management, counsel appropriately, and potentially reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Development of an automatic smear sampler and evaluation of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, B. J.; Lee, K. W.; Park, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The surface contamination level of a radiation-controlled area is measured periodically according to atomic energy law and connection regulations. The measurement of surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to various kinds of error depending on the sampling person and consumes much time and effort in the sampling of large nuclear facilities. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed to solve these problems. The developed equipment is composed of a rotating sampling part, a sample transferring part, a power supply part a control part, and vacuum part. It improved the efficiency of estimation of the surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation-controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed in this research, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. (authors)

  18. A correlative study of Papanicolaou smear, fluorescent antibody, and culture for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, M R; Barbacci, M; Kappus, E; Quinn, T

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 300 patients undergoing therapeutic termination of pregnancy was conducted. A Papanicolaou smear was obtained and a clinical evaluation of the cervix was made. Specimens from the cervix were examined by both direct fluorescent antibody and culture techniques for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The presence of inflammation on Papanicolaou smear could be correlated with C trachomatis isolation. Papanicolaou smear findings consistent with C trachomatis lacked both sensitivity and specificity when compared with direct fluorescent antibody and/or culture techniques. A correlation was found between the clinical diagnosis of cervicitis and C trachomatis. This interrelationship was absent when the component findings of cervicitis (ectopy, friability, and purulent mucus) were examined independently.

  19. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper.

  20. Quantumness beyond quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Ángel S

    2012-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics allows us to understand quantum systems in the light of other quantum traits than the well-known ones (coherence, diffraction, interference, tunnelling, discreteness, entanglement, etc.). Here the discussion focusses precisely on two of these interesting aspects, which arise when quantum mechanics is thought within this theoretical framework: the non-crossing property, which allows for distinguishability without erasing interference patterns, and the possibility to define quantum probability tubes, along which the probability remains constant all the way. Furthermore, taking into account this hydrodynamic-like description as a link, it is also shown how this knowledge (concepts and ideas) can be straightforwardly transferred to other fields of physics (for example, the transmission of light along waveguides).

  1. Validation of a model for predicting smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with initial acid-fast bacilli smear-negative sputum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Jun-Jun [Department of Chest Medicine, Section of Thoracic Imaging, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi City (China); Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China); Meiho University, Pingtung (China); Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China); Heng Chun Christian Hospital, Pingtung (China)

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for final smear-positive (SP) active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) in patients with initial negative acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smears (iSN-SP-aPTB) based on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Eighty (126, 21) patients of iSN-SP-aPTB and 402 (459, 876) patients of non-initial positive acid fast bacilli (non-iSP) pulmonary disease without iSN-SP-aPTB were included in a derivation (validation, prospective) cohort. HRCT characteristics were analysed, and multivariable regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to develop a score predictive of iSN-SP-aPTB. The derivation cohort showed clusters of nodules/mass of the right upper lobe or left upper lobe were independent predictors of iSN-SP-aPTB, while bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe or left lingual lobe were negatively associated with iSN-SP-aPTB. A predictive score for iSN-SP-aPTB based on these findings was tested in the validation and prospective cohorts. With an ideal cut-off score = 1, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the prediction model were 87.5% (90%, 90.5%), 99% (97.1%, 98.4%), 94.6% (81.3%, 57.5%), and 97.6% (97%, 99.8%) in the derivation (validation, prospective) cohorts, respectively. The model may help identify iSN-SP-aPTB among patients with non-iSP pulmonary diseases. circle Smear-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis that is initial smear-negative (iSN-SP-aPTB) is infectious. (orig.)

  2. Molecular diagnosis of suspected tuberculosis from archived smear slides from the Balimo region, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernier, Vanina; Diefenbach-Elstob, Tanya; Pelowa, Daniel; Pollard, Sandra; Burgess, Graham; McBryde, Emma S; Warner, Jeffrey

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious health problem in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with an estimated 30000 new cases and 3800 deaths each year. In the Balimo region of the Western Province, diagnosis relies on clinical manifestations and on the microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum smears, a technique with limited sensitivity. A molecular diagnosis assay targeting DNA extracted from archived sputum smear slides collected from the Balimo region (2012-2014) was conducted, without the need for a viable culture. The presence of Mycobacterium sp on 1162 slides prepared from 345 sputum samples was assessed using a real-time PCR (qPCR) approach. The qPCR technique identified the presence of mycobacteria in 35.4% of the smear slides and 59.7% of the tested sputum samples. Poor agreement was observed between the two diagnosis methods (smear AFB microscopy versus qPCR), with 100 AFB-positive sputum samples compared to 206 qPCR-positive sputum samples overall. Treatment was initiated in 90.2% of the smear-positive cases. Unnecessary treatment of 'false-positive' TB cases (AFB-negative/qPCR-negative) was very low (8.6%) and was even lower when the nine patients diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB were excluded from the analysis. However, the prevalence of false-negatives (AFB-negative/qPCR-positive) was high (28.5%). Undetected smear-negative TB is occurring in the Balimo region of PNG, as well as some unnecessary empirical treatment. Molecular methods of diagnosis could greatly reduce the frequency of inappropriate clinical assessment, as well as providing point-of-care diagnosis. This may provide substantial patient and programmatic benefits, including lowering the economic burden on patients from rural areas seeking medical diagnosis in Balimo. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamics In Quantum Physics -- Quantum Chaos and Quantum Instantons

    OpenAIRE

    Kröger, H.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the recently proposed quantum action - its interpretation, its motivation, its mathematical properties and its use in physics: quantum mechanical tunneling, quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

  4. Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

  5. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W.

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  6. Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, G.; Hanumantha Rao, A.; Gopalachari, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

  7. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  8. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear testing in a teaching hospital in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Ghaoomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of long period of pre-invasive stage, availability of screening tools, and effective treatments for early invasive cervical lesions. Screening is main measures to prevent the disease and Pap smear is a screening strategy for cervical cancer. Current paper aimed to evaluate levels of awareness and practice regarding Pap smear screening among women aged between 20 to 65 years in Tehran (Iran. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study conducted in Tehran City of Iran in 2015 at Firoozgar Hospital. The research population included all married, widowed and divorced women aged 20-65 years. Data analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation and Student’s t-tests in SPSS, ver. 23 (Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Among 90 individuals who have fill questionnaire completely, 66.6% subjects had Pap smear tests. 40% of the individuals aged between 30 to 39 and the education level is distributed equally between Intermediate, Diploma and graduate and only 3 percent of them, continue their education to higher level. There was a significant relationship between the awareness of Pap smear and educational level (of both wives and husbands. The people who have graduate degree, have the best awareness. Working women revealed higher level of awareness about Pap smear. Shame and fear of taking the cancer were the most common reasons which lead to avoidance in doing the test by the women, while the most encouraging factors for performing the test were the information mostly provided by physicians and after that, the information provided by friends. Conclusion: The awareness of Pap smear test which was measured by weighting different questions in the questionnaire by experts, prove that the women aged above 39, have an average level of awareness of Pap smear test. Due to high prevalence of cervical cancer and prolonged pre invasive course, role of Pap smear for early diagnosis necessitate the use

  9. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The alg......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  12. Knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’s support of Pap smear among multiparous women which have Pap’s smear examination in Aviati clinic Padang Bulan Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyawati, L.; Anggraini, D. R.; Fitrie, A. A.; Anggreini, R. N.

    2018-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a serious health problem and stated as the second cause of death of woman worldwide. Several studies have noted a higher incidence of cervical cancer with increasing parity. Early detection with Pap smear is proven to reduce mortality of patients. Knowledge, attitude and husband’s support contributed to theled womanto follow Pap smear examination. This study explores the knowledge of cervical cancer, attitude and husband’ s support of Pap smearin multiparous women that have Pap smear examination. This research is a quantitative study with cross sectional approach recruited 50 respondents as multiparous women that have Pap smear examination inAviati Clinic, Padang Bulan, Medan. The data were collected by self-reports using structured objectives by questionnaires. The result of this study showed that 66% respondents have high knowledge of cervical cancer and 76% respondents have ahigh attitude of Pap smear, but they almost have low husband’s support of Pap smear including information support (62%), emotional support (46%) and real support (50%). This study has revealed that multiparous women that had Pap smear examination generally had high knowledge about cervical cancer and positive attitude about Pap smear, even most of them had low husband’s support.

  13. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The book is on quantum mechanics. The emphasis is on the basic concepts and the methodology. The chapters include: Breakdown of classical concepts; Quantum mechanical concepts; Basic postulates of quantum mechanics; solution of problems in quantum mechanics; Simple harmonic oscillator; and Angular Momentum

  14. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  15. Quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.

    1997-01-01

    This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)

  16. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  17. Time to sputum conversion in smear positive pulmonary TB patients on category I DOTS and factors delaying it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Raunak; Nataraj, Gita; Kanade, Swapna; Khatri, Vijay; Mehta, Preeti

    2012-08-01

    Sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients expel infectious viable bacilli for a period following commencement of treatment. Patients on Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) receive intermittent therapy with multidrug regimen. To determine the time to sputum smear and culture conversion following initiation of DOTS treatment and study the factors that influence it. A prospective study was undertaken at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai over a one year period on a cohort of 71 sputum smear positive patients on Category I DOTS treatment. Patients were followed up weekly for upto 20 weeks or until they underwent smear and culture conversion whichever was earlier. At each follow up, specimens were collected and processed for microscopy and culture using standard protocol. 60/71 [84.55%] patients completed the study. 56/60 [93.3%] patients underwent sputum smear and culture conversion. The median time to smear and culture conversion was end of 5th week [day 35] and 6 1/2 weeks [day 45] respectively. Univariate and stepwise regression analysis showed that patients who had cavitatory disease, high pretreatment smear grade and a past history of tuberculosis were more likely to undergo delayed or nonconversion [P culture conversion under DOTS is similar to previous antituberculosis regimens. Since viable bacilli continue to be expelled for upto two months, infection control measures should be maintained for such time. Patients with cavitatory disease, high pretreatment smear grade or a past history of tuberculosis need to be monitored more closely.

  18. Comparison of Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women in Chiang Rai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritpetcharat, Onanong; Wutichouy, Wiwat; Sirijaichingkul, Suchat; Kritpetcharat, Panutas

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaires. Abnormal Rap smears were defined according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.

  19. Evaluation of final irrigation regimens with maleic acid for smear layer removal and wettability of root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Maria; Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K Narayan; Arias-Moliz, Teresa; Baca, Pilar

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the smear layer removal and wettability of AH Plus sealer on root canal dentin treated with MA (maleic acid), MA + CTR (cetrimide) and MA + CTR + CHX (chlorhexidine) as final irrigating regimens. For smear layer removal, 40 teeth were instrumented to size F4 and divided into four groups: (1) 7% MA, (2) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR, (3) 7% MA + 0.2% CTR + 2% CHX, (4) distilled water (control). After irrigation, teeth were subjected to SEM analysis. For contact angle analysis, 20 teeth were split longitudinally and divided into four groups similar to smear layer analysis. AH plus sealer was placed on each specimen and contact angle was analysed. In both smear layer (p = .393) and contact angle analysis (p = .961), there was no significant difference between the groups MA and MA + CTR. However, MA + CTR + CHX removed smear layer less effectively (p = .023) and increased the contact angle of the sealer (p = .005). In smear layer analysis, specimens in negative control group were heavily smeared. In case of contact angle analysis, samples in the control group had least contact angle. MA alone or in combination with CTR removed smear layer effectively and increased the wettability of AH plus sealer to root canal dentin.

  20. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  1. Detection of the HTLV-I gene on cytologic smear slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Kenji; Nagahama, Junji; Sato, Keiji; Tanamachi, Hiroyuki; Gamachi, Ayako; Daa, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Iwao; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    To apply the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of the HTLV-I gene from cytologic smear slides. Samples were from seven cases of serum anti-ATL antibody (ATLA)-positive T-cell lymphoma and three from ATLA-negative T-cell lymphoma. Six of the seven ATLA-positive cases were confirmed to be ATLL by Southern blotting. From the seventh case a fresh sample for blotting could not obtained. DNA was extracted from the cytologic smear slides of all 10 cases; they had been stained with Papanicolaou or May-Giemsa stain, digested with proteinase K and precipitated with phenol and ethanol. The target sequence in the pX region of the HTLV-I gene was amplified by PCR. All seven ATLA-positive cases, including one that had not yet been confirmed by Southern blotting, showed a single band, as predicted, while the three ATLA-negative cases showed no band. If cytologic smear slides are available but a fresh sample is not, the PCR method should provide evidence that the virus is present since in our study sufficient DNA templates were successfully extracted from the stained cytologic smear slides for detection of the virus.

  2. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou\\'s Smear and it\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted among 421 undergraduates of the University of Ibadan using self- dministered questionnaires probing into their risk factors for neoplastic cervical lesions, awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou\\'s smear and its utilisation. The percentage of sexually active respondents was 81.5%. Sexual ...

  3. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop! | Gordon | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of keen volunteer ...

  4. Evaluating the Pap Smear Reports of Pathology Laboratories in Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Zargar Shoushtari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pap smear is a screening procedure for cervical cancer. The incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer has decreased up to 90% in the regular screening in women aged 20-65 years. This study aimed to investigate the Pap smear reports of pathology laboratories in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1,006 Pap smear reports were collected from pathology laboratories via cluster sampling method. Data was analyzed by a self-structured questionnaire. In addition, variables such as age, type of infection, grade of inflammation, metaplastic changes, and epithelial cell abnormalities in cervix were studied in this study. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16.0 using descriptive analysis, ANOVA, Fisher’s exact, and Chi-square tests. Results: While no infection was reported in 94.43% (n=950 of cases, the highest incidence rate of infections in the remaining samples (5.56%, n=56 was related to Candida Albicans (4.77%, n=48. Various grades of inflammation were reported in 83.69% (n=842 of the samples. Moreover, the highest grade of inflammation in fungal infections was 2+, whereas the grades in Trichomonas and bacterial infections were 1+ and 3+, respectively. Cervical dysplasia and metaplasia were reported in 0.29% (n=3 and 1.19% (n=12 of the cases, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of cervical-vaginal infections, cervical metaplasia, and dysplasia were relatively low in Pap smear reports of laboratories in Ahvaz.

  5. Clinicopathological importance of Papanicolaou smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saba, Kanwal; Qamar, Samina; Majeed, Muhammad Muddasar; Niazi, Shahida; Naeem, Samina

    2012-01-01

    Premalignant and malignant lesions are not uncommon in Pakistani women, especially in the older age-groups This study was conducted to determine the clinicopathological importance of conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of the cervix. Pap smears of 1000 women were examined from January 2007 to June 2009. Only cases with neoplastic cytology were included. The overall frequency of normal, inadequate, neoplastic, and infective smears was 50%, 1.8%, 10.2%, and 38.3%, respectively. Most of the patients (67%) were in the postmenopausal age-group, with the mean age being 44.7±15.63 years. The commonest clinical signs/symptoms seen among the 102 patients with neoplastic gynecological lesions were vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding (93/102;(91.2% and 62/102;60.7%). Of the 102 cases with neoplastic lesions 46 patients (45%) had low-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 22 (21.5%) had high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 14 (13.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 (5.8%) showed features of adenocarcinoma. Ten (9.8%) cases showed cytology of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and four (3.9%) cases had atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). We conclude that cervical smear examination is well suited for diagnosing neoplastic disease. It is clear that cervical neoplastic lesions are becoming a problem in Pakistan.

  6. Cytological pattern of cervical papanicolaou smear in eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Hassan Balaha

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years.

  7. .\tA Study on Cervical Pap Smear Examination in Patient Living with HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Devanshi Gosai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive screening programme of cervical Pap smear examination can detect the precancerous and cancerous lesions at an early stage and mortality & morbidity due to these lesions can be reduced. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in HIV infected women. Methods: The study was carried out on 369 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counselling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 142 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynaecology OPD with various gynaecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conclusion: Regular gynaecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females. Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population.

  8. Falciparum malaria transmitted by a thick blood smear negative kidney donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, Frederike; de Blok, Koen; de Vries, Peter; Surachno, S.; ten Berge, Ineke

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a case of P. falciparum transmission by a recent-immigrant renal donor. The donor tested negative upon microscopy of a thick blood smear. The diagnosis was made after analysis of a Quantified Buffy Coat(R). In our opinion, a renal donor from a malaria endemic country should be

  9. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

  10. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

  11. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya

    1999-01-01

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1999-05-31

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Quantum ontologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    Quantum ontologies are conceptions of the constitution of the universe that are compatible with quantum theory. The ontological orientation is contrasted to the pragmatic orientation of science, and reasons are given for considering quantum ontologies both within science, and in broader contexts. The principal quantum ontologies are described and evaluated. Invited paper at conference: Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory, and Conceptions of the Universe, George Mason University, October 20-21, 1988. 16 refs

  14. The physics of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2014-01-01

    The Physics of Quantum Mechanics aims to give students a good understanding of how quantum mechanics describes the material world. It shows that the theory follows naturally from the use of probability amplitudes to derive probabilities. It stresses that stationary states are unphysical mathematical abstractions that enable us to solve the theory's governing equation, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Every opportunity is taken to illustrate the emergence of the familiarclassical, dynamical world through the quantum interference of stationary states. The text stresses the continuity be

  15. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and

  16. Significance of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on ThinPrep papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltabbakh, G H; Lipman, J N; Mount, S L; Morgan, A

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors predictive of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with the cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) on Papanicolaou smears obtained by the ThinPrep method. Patients with ASCUS ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears seen at the Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Vermont, between 1997 and 1999 were identified. The cytologic smears were reviewed and subtyped into reactive or suggestive of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). The charts of these patients were reviewed and the following information was abstracted: age, gravidity, parity, menopausal status, use of hormonal replacement therapy, smoking, history of pelvic cancer, history of radiation therapy, history of abnormal Papanicolaou smear and its treatment, history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and follow-up information including results of repeat Papanicolaou smears, colposcopy, and biopsies. The prevalence of dysplasia was calculated. The demographic features of women with ASCUS, reactive, were compared with those with ASCUS, SIL, using a two-sample t test, chi(2), and Fisher's exact test. Risk factors predictive of dysplasia were calculated using the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval. P ASCUS on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smear were identified; 63 patients had ASCUS, reactive, and 63 patients had ASCUS, SIL. The demographic features of both groups were similar. The overall prevalence of dysplasia was 15.9% and was significantly higher among women with ASCUS, SIL, than among women with ASCUS, reactive (25.4% versus 6.4%, P = 0.003). The type of ASCUS cytology (reactive versus SIL), smoking, and history of HPV were significant risk factors for dysplasia (P = 0.003, 0.037, and 0. 042, respectively). The prevalence of dysplasia among women seen in a gynecologic oncology service with ASCUS cytology on ThinPrep Papanicolaou smears is 15.9%. Women with ASCUS favor

  17. Survival among patients with HIV infection and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis - United States, 1993-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sean Cavanaugh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB in resource-constrained settings, smear-negative disease has been associated with higher mortality than smear-positive disease. Higher reported mortality may be due to misdiagnosis, diagnostic delays, or because smear-negative disease indicates more advanced immune suppression. METHODS: We analyzed culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB among patients with TB and HIV in the United States from 1993-2008 to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs for smear-negative disease by demographic and clinical characteristics. Allowing two years for treatment outcome to be reported, we determined hazard ratios (HRs for survival by smear status, adjusted for significant covariates on patients before 2006. RESULTS: Among 16,710 cases with sputum smear results, 6,739 (39% were sputum smear-negative and 9,971 (58% were sputum smear-positive. The prevalence of smear-negative disease was lower in male patients (PR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-0.93 and in those who were homeless (PR: 0.92, CI: 0.87-0.97 or used alcohol excessively (PR: 0.91, CI: 0.87-0.95, and higher in persons diagnosed while incarcerated (PR: 1.20, CI: 1.13-1.27. Patients with smear-negative disease had better survival compared to patients with smear-positive disease, both before (HR: 0.82, CI: 0.75-0.90 and after (HR: 0.81, CI: 0.71-0.92 the introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, smear-negative pulmonary TB in patients with HIV was not associated with higher mortality, in contrast to what has been documented in high TB burden settings. Smear-negative TB can be routinely and definitively diagnosed in the United States, whereas high-burden countries often rely solely on AFB-smear microscopy. This difference could contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays in high-burden countries, possibly resulting in higher mortality.

  18. Quantum Computer Games: Quantum Minesweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-01-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical…

  19. Audit of the practice of sputum smear examination for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Shakti; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Khogali, Mohammed; Raikabula, Maopa; Harries, Anthony D

    2013-07-01

    In Fiji, patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) currently submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, but there is little information about how well this practice is carried out. A cross-sectional retrospective review was carried out in all four TB diagnostic laboratories in Fiji to determine among new patients presenting with suspected PTB in 2011: the quality of submitted sputum; the number of sputum samples submitted; the relationship between quality and number of submitted samples to smear-positivity; and positive yield from first, second and third samples. Of 1940 patients with suspected PTB, 3522 sputum samples were submitted: 997 (51.4%) patients submitted one sample, 304 (15.7%) patients submitted two samples and 639 (32.9%) submitted three samples. Sputum quality was recorded in 2528 (71.8%) of samples, of which 1046 (41.4%) were of poor quality. Poor quality sputum was more frequent in females, inpatients and children (0-14 years). Good quality sputum and a higher number of submitted samples positively correlated with smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli. There were 122 (6.3%) patients with suspected PTB who were sputum smear positive. Of those, 89 had submitted three sputum samples: 79 (89%) were diagnosed based on the first sputum sample, 6 (7%) on the second sample and 4 (4%) on the third sample. This study shows that there are deficiencies in the practice of sputum smear examination in Fiji with respect to sputum quality and recommended number of submitted samples, although the results support the continued use of three sputum samples for TB diagnosis. Ways to improve sputum quality and adherence to recommended guidelines are needed.

  20. Pap Smear Abnormalities in Women Admitted to a Tertiary Health Center in Southeast Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Ozer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the cervical cytological abnormalities which are detected in women undergoing Pap screening in a tertiary health care center within Siirt, a southeastern province of Turkey. Material and Method: A total of 3000 women who underwent Pap screening at the study center between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 were recruited for the study. The women who were diagnosed with benign epithelial changes, infectious alterations, as well as atypical squamous cells with undetermined significance (ASC-US, atypical squamous cells of high significance (ASC-H, and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL were included. Results: Benign epithelial alterations, infectious changes, ASCUS, ASC-H, and LSIL were detected in 83.7%, 15.3%, 0.8%, 0.1% and 0.1% of the Pap smears respectively. A significant correlation was found between the patient age and the histopathological alterations in the Pap smears (r=0.072, p=0.001. Although no correlation could be detected between gravidity and Pap smear results (r=0.033, p=0.067, a significant correlation existed between parity and the histopathological findings within the Pap smears (r=0.051, p=0.005. Interestingly, the Pap smear results were found to be unrelated to socioeconomic status (r=0.088, p=0.168, education level (r=0.048, p=0.257, and smoking habit (r=0.086, p=0.077. Discussion: The present study has reported a value of 1.0% for the overall prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities, which is much lower than in western countries. Thus, rather than being dependent on the data reported by clinical studies that have been conducted in western countries, Turkish health care policy should be based on the data obtained from national studies.

  1. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  2. Effectiveness of EDTA as the irrigation solution to remove smear layer in root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasri Amas Achiar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the objectives of successful endodontic treatment is the hermetic obturation of the root canal system. To achieve this, the root canal filling must seal the canal space both apically and coronally to prevent the ingress of microorganisms or tissue fluids into the canal space. Apical leakage is reported a common reason for the clinical failure of endodontic therapy. Leakage through an obturated root canal is expected to take place at interfaces between sealer and dentin or sealer and gutta-percha, or through voids within the sealer. Hence, the sealing quality of root canal filling depends much on the sealing ability of the sealer. Therefore, anything that may influence the adaptation of the root filling to the canal wall is can determine the degree and the extent of leakage, and ultimately the prognosis of the endodontic therapy. In endodontic therapy, the smear layer formation results from root canal preparation and may influence the effective seal of the root canal system. The smear layer formation is mainly composed of inorganic components (dentin debris and organic materials, such as pulp tissue remnant, bacteria, and blood cells. Removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls before the obturation can reduce the leakage of root canal sealer. To remove the smear layer use 10 ml 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as irrigating solution. This paper discribe about how the effectivity of EDTA as irigating solution to remove the smear layer especially in the apical root canal with many lateral canal to reduce the apical leakage.

  3. Tuberculosis risk factors in children with smear-positive tuberculosis adult as household contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hajarsjah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Children in household contact of adults with smear-positive tuberculosis (TB are at higher risk of TB infection. Screening of these children is a main strategy for eliminating childhood TB. Objective To determine risk factors of TB among children in household contact with smear-positive adult TB patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted in 5 public health centers at Batu Bara District, North Sumatera. We studied children from birth to 18 year-old living in the same house as adults with smear-positive TB. A tuberculosis scoring system was used to diagnosis TB in the children. Associations between risk factors and the incidence of TB were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, and logistic regression tests. Results We enrolled 145 children who had household contact with smear-positive adult TB patients. Subjects were allocated to either the case group [TB score >6; 61 subjects (42.0%] or the control group [TB score <6; 84 subjects (58.0%]. Bivariate analysis revealed that nutritional status, immunization status, number of people in the house, sleeping in the same bed, and duration of household contact had significant associations with the incidence of TB. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, nutritional status and duration of household contact were significant risk factors for TB, with OR 5.89 and 8.91, respectively. Conclusion Malnutrition and duration of household contact with smear-positive adult TB patients of more than 6 hours per day were risk factors for TB among children.

  4. Diagnostic value of an abnormal smear in non-pregnant women. Evaluation of positive smear from the surface of the portio obtained by the cottonswab method or by the dry wooden Ayre spatula and the relevance of positive smear from the endocervix and/or from the surface of the portio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, L; Højgaard, L L; Højgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    During a 3-4 year period, 324 women with a positive smear were registered consecutively and prospectively and divided into two groups according to the design of the investigation. In one group the smear was taken with an Ayre spatula and in the other group with a cotton swab. The purpose of this ...

  5. AFSC/RACE/SAP/Shavey: DNA extraction from archived Giemsa-stained blood smears using polymerase chain reaction to detect host and parasitic DNA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are the data from a laboratory experiment in which DNA content was removed from blood smears and extracted. The blood smears were either stained with...

  6. Quantum oscillations of conductivity in bismuth wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the resistance of bismuth nanowires with several diameters and different quality reveal oscillations on the dependence of resistance under uniaxial strain at T = 4.2 K. Amplitude of oscillations is significant (38 %) at helium temperature and becomes smearing at T = 77 K. Observed oscillations originate from quantum size effect. A simple evaluation of period of oscillations allows us to identify the groups of carriers involved in transport. Calculated periods of 42.2 and 25.9 nm satisfy approximately the ratio 2:1 for two experimentally observed sets of oscillations from light and heavy electrons.

  7. Quantum optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, P D [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (Australia).Physics Department

    1999-07-01

    Full text: Quantum optics in Australia has been an active research field for some years. I shall focus on recent developments in quantum and atom optics. Generally, the field as a whole is becoming more and more diverse, as technological developments drive experiments into new areas, and theorists either attempt to explain the new features, or else develop models for even more exotic ideas. The recent developments include quantum solitons, quantum computing, Bose-Einstein condensation, atom lasers, quantum cryptography, and novel tests of quantum mechanics. The talk will briefly cover current progress and outstanding problems in each of these areas. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society.

  8. Quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most surprising consequences of quantum mechanics is the entanglement of two or more distance particles. The ''ghost'' interference and the ''ghost'' image experiments demonstrated the astonishing nonlocal behavior of an entangled photon pair. Even though we still have questions in regard to fundamental issues of the entangled quantum systems, quantum entanglement has started to play important roles in quantum information and quantum computation. Quantum teleportation is one of the hot topics. We have demonstrated a quantum teleportation experiment recently. The experimental results proved the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary quantum state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that the complete set of Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a quantum state can thus occur with certainty in principle. (orig.)

  9. More experiences with the Tzanck smear test: cytologic findings in cutaneous granulomatous disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz

    2009-09-01

    Granulomatous dermatitis is a distinctive histopathologic cutaneous reaction pattern against various infectious and noninfectious agents. Cytologically, granulomatous dermatitis shows granulomas and multinucleated giant cells. Various etiologic agents of granulomatous diseases can also be identified. We aimed to investigate Tzanck smear findings in granulomatous skin diseases. Patients who had granulomas and/or multinucleated giant cells of Langhans, foreign body- and/or Touton type in Tzanck smear tests were included in the study. In these patients, Tzanck preparations were then further evaluated for additional cytologic findings. Samples stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain were evaluated by the same dermatologist throughout the study. In some patients, methylene blue, Gram and/or Erlich-Ziehl-Nielsen stains were also performed. In all of the study cases, the final diagnosis was established after the evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings (including, when appropriate, potassium hydroxide examination; bacterial, leishmanial, and fungal cultures; histopathology; tuberculosis and leishmania polymerase chain reaction). We also calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the Leishman-Donovan body for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Over a 2-year period, 94 of 950 patients (9.9%) in whom Tzanck smear tests were performed had cytologic findings consistent with a granulomatous reaction. In 74 (78.7%) and 20 (21.3%) patients, the granulomatous reaction was due to infectious and noninfectious causes, respectively. Infectious causes included cutaneous leishmaniasis in 65 patients (87.8%), candidal granuloma in two patients, botyromycosis in two patients, and aspergillosis, blastomycosis, mucormycosis, leprosy, and cutaneous tuberculosis in one patient each. In 58 of 74 patients (78.4%) with infectious granulomatous dermatitis, the causes of the granulomas were identified. Noninfectious granulomatous reactions were due to granuloma annulare in 7 patients, sarcoidosis

  10. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  11. Symptomatic candidiasis: Using self sampled vaginal smears to establish the presence of Candida, lactobacilli, and Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberts, M K; Boon, M E; van Haaften, M; Heintz, A P M

    2007-10-01

    In a prospective cohort study, 10 symptomatic women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were taught how to prepare vaginal smears of their own vaginal fluids on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The 40 smears were stained with the PAS-method and examined by three different cytopathologists for presence of Candida. Thereafter, the smears were restained with Giemsa-stain to determine presence of lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis ("clue cells") and neutrophils. All three cytopathologists unequivocally established Candida blastospores and (pseudo)hyphae in 27 out of the 40 PAS-stained vaginal smears, whereas in the remaining 13 smears Candida was not found. All 10 patients had Candida in their smears during the second half of their menstrual cycle.Self sampled smears prove to be reliable for establishing the presence of Candida in symptomatic patients with candidiasis. Candida is associated with a lactobacillus-predominated vaginal flora, but with the absence of Gardnerella vaginalis. Further studies may be directed towards the interaction between the various members of the vaginal flora. This study should open molecular methodology for determining the possible interactions of lactobacilli and Candida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Quantum robots and quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-01

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  13. Quantum computers and quantum computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, Kamil' A

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines the principles of operation of quantum computers and their elements. The theory of ideal computers that do not interact with the environment and are immune to quantum decohering processes is presented. Decohering processes in quantum computers are investigated. The review considers methods for correcting quantum computing errors arising from the decoherence of the state of the quantum computer, as well as possible methods for the suppression of the decohering processes. A brief enumeration of proposed quantum computer realizations concludes the review. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Quantum mystery

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Rajat

    1997-01-01

    The book discusses the laws of quantum mechanics, several amazing quantum phenomena and some recent progress in understanding the connection between the quantum and the classical worlds. We show how paradoxes arise and how to resolve them. The significance of Bell's theorem and the remarkable experimental results on particle correlations are described in some detail. Finally, the current status of our understanding of quantum theory is summerised.

  15. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The alg......In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier....... The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization...

  16. Chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Yidian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Mei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-03-15

    By using the boundary derivative expansion formalism of fluid/gravity correspondence, we study the chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge. This background corresponds to a strongly coupled, nonconformal relativistic fluid with a conserved vector current. The presence of the chiral vortical effect is induced by the addition of a Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. Except that the non-dissipative anomalous viscous coefficient and the sound speed rely only on the chemical potential, most of the other thermal and hydrodynamical quantities of the first order depend both on the temperature and the chemical potential. According to our result, the way that the chiral vortical effect coefficient depends on the chemical potential seems irrelevant with whether the relativistic fluid is conformal or not. Stability analysis shows that this anomalous relativistic fluid is stable and the doping of the smeared D0-brane charge will slow down the sound speed.

  17. Simple and rapid measurement of α-rays on smear samples using air luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiue, M.

    1980-01-01

    The α-activity collected on smear samples has been measured indirectly using an air luminescence counting method and a liquid scintillation spectrometer. In this method, air luminescence, attributed to the fluorescence emitted by nitrogen molecules excited by α-rays in air, serves to detect α-rays. Thus, sample preparation and α-ray measurement are simple and rapid, and moreover, no radioactive waste solution is produced. Taking into account a low background and a counting efficiency between 10 and 20%, it is estimated that the detectable limit for α-ray measurement is about 1 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 2 for loose contamination. This method is convenient to use in the routine analysis of α-ray-emitting nuclides on smear paper. (author)

  18. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    /100,000 (95% confidence interval 33 to 51) in the younger group and 36/100,000 (24 to 52) in the older group (P=0.48). The cumulative incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I+ was twice as high in the younger than in the older group (Pcervical cancer......OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...

  19. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chapon

    Full Text Available Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples’ characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters. Keywords: Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC, PerkinElmer, Tri-Carb, Smear, Swipe

  20. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  1. Quantum criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Piers; Schofield, Andrew J

    2005-01-20

    As we mark the centenary of Albert Einstein's seminal contribution to both quantum mechanics and special relativity, we approach another anniversary--that of Einstein's foundation of the quantum theory of solids. But 100 years on, the same experimental measurement that puzzled Einstein and his contemporaries is forcing us to question our understanding of how quantum matter transforms at ultra-low temperatures.

  2. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we had looked at how quantum physics can be harnessed to make the building blocks of a quantum computer. In this concluding part, we look at algorithms which can exploit the power of this computational device, and some practical difficulties in building such a device. Quantum Algorithms.

  3. I, Quantum Robot: Quantum Mind control on a Quantum Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Zizzi, Paola

    2008-01-01

    The logic which describes quantum robots is not orthodox quantum logic, but a deductive calculus which reproduces the quantum tasks (computational processes, and actions) taking into account quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. A way toward the realization of intelligent quantum robots is to adopt a quantum metalanguage to control quantum robots. A physical implementation of a quantum metalanguage might be the use of coherent states in brain signals.

  4. On understanding crosstalk in the face of small, quantized, signals highly smeared by Poisson statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, D.; Hsieh, F.; Li, H.

    1995-01-01

    As detectors become smaller and more densely packed, signals become smaller and crosstalk between adjacent channels generally increases. Since it is often appropriate to use the distribution of signals in adjacent channels to make a useful measurement, it is imperative that inter-channel crosstalk be well understood. In this paper we shall describe the manner in which Poissonian fluctuations can give counter-intuitive results and offer some methods for extracting the desired information from the highly smeared, observed distributions. (orig.)

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Sudanese Women Regarding the Pap Smear Test and Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almobarak, Ahmed O; Elbadawi, Ayman A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Elhoweris, Mohammed H; Ahmed, Mohammed H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the established role of the Pap smear test (PST) in prevention and early detection of cervical cancer, it is still rarely practiced in Sudan. Many challenges hinder the establishment of an effective cervical cancer screening program, including socio-cultural factors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Sudanese women with regard to the Pap smear test and cervical cancer. A total of 500 married women aged 14 to 58 years were recruited from obstetric clinics, hospitals and universities in Khartoum in 2014. Data were collected using a standardized, pretested questionnaire that inquired socio-demographic characteristics and their KAP about cervical cancer and the PST. More than 52% of participating women were above 30 years of age, and the majority (78.8%) were university degree holders. A total of 486 (97.2 %) of participants were resident in urban areas of Khartoum State. However about 48% of the respondents had never heard about PST, and only 15.8% of the participants had undergone a Pap smear test previously; 46.6% (233/500) knew that the human papilloma virus (HPV) was the causative agent, but only 39.2% (196/500) had heard about HPV vaccination, and only 11.4% (57/500) had received the vaccine. However 68% of the respondents agreed to do Pap smear if properly informed about the test and 75.4% of the respondents agreed to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. Despite a high educational level, less than half of our participants had accurate knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and cervical cancer screening. Health education about cervical cancer, HPV and sexually transmitted infections and the role of PST in cervical cancer prevention are crucial when designing interventions aimed at improving cervical cancer screening for Sudanese women.

  6. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  7. Economic analysis of CDC's culture- and smear-based tuberculosis instructions for Filipino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskery, B; Posey, D L; Coleman, M S; Asis, R; Zhou, W; Painter, J A; Wingate, L T; Roque, M; Cetron, M S

    2018-04-01

    In 2007, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised its tuberculosis (TB) technical instructions for panel physicians who administer mandatory medical examinations among US-bound immigrants. Many US-bound immigrants come from the Philippines, a high TB prevalence country. To quantify economic and health impacts of smear- vs. culture-based TB screening. Decision tree modeling was used to compare three Filipino screening programs: 1) no screening, 2) smear-based screening, and 3) culture-based screening. The model incorporated pre-departure TB screening results from Filipino panel physicians and CDC databases with post-arrival follow-up outcomes. Costs (2013 $US) were examined from societal, immigrant, US Public Health Department and hospitalization perspectives. With no screening, an annual cohort of 35 722 Filipino immigrants would include an estimated 450 TB patients with 264 hospitalizations, at a societal cost of US$9.90 million. Culture-based vs. smear-based screening would result in fewer imported cases (80.9 vs. 310.5), hospitalizations (19.7 vs. 68.1), and treatment costs (US$1.57 million vs. US$4.28 million). Societal screening costs, including US follow-up, were greater for culture-based screening (US$5.98 million) than for smear-based screening (US$3.38 million). Culture-based screening requirements increased immigrant costs by 61% (US$1.7 million), but reduced costs for the US Public Health Department (22%, US$750 000) and of hospitalization (70%, US$1 020 000). Culture-based screening reduced imported TB and US costs among Filipino immigrants.

  8. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe; Eunice Leonora Chaplin; Maria das Graças de Souza Paiva; Nilton Rogério Santos Silva; Flávio A. Pacheco Araújo; Elinor Fortes

    1992-01-01

    The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  9. Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stairs, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.

  10. Quantum dynamics of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha

    2011-01-01

    The theory of coherent oscillations of the matrix elements of the density matrix of the two-state system as a quantum bit is presented. Different calculation methods are elaborated in the case of a free quantum bit. Then the most appropriate methods are applied to the study of the density matrices of the quantum bits interacting with a classical pumping radiation field as well as with the quantum electromagnetic field in a single-mode microcavity. The theory of decoherence of a quantum bit in Markovian approximation is presented. The decoherence of a quantum bit interacting with monoenergetic photons in a microcavity is also discussed. The content of the present work can be considered as an introduction to the study of the quantum dynamics of quantum bits. (review)

  11. Development of automatic smear testing sampler for radioactive contamination of floor in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Katsuro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yohtaro; Iwaki, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    The floor contamination with radioactive substances in the controlled area of nuclear power stations is strictly controlled, and it is tested by the smear method, wiping the contaminants on floors with filter papers or cloths and measuring the radioactive intensity to obtain contamination density. The works are very laborious, therefore the automatic smear sampler was developed. Simple operation, shortening of time required for wiping, constant and high efficiency of wiping, and easy numbering of samples were the aims in the development. The method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the surface pressure at the time of wiping, the number of times of wiping and required motor torque were studied. The outline of the developed sampler is explained. The performance of the sampler was compared with manual wiping. The efficiency of wiping with the sampler was 92%, assuming manual wiping as 100. Difference was not observed between careful manual wiping and the wiping with the sampler, therefore it was confirmed that this automatic floor smear sampler can be put in practical use. By conventional manual sampling, the maximum limit was about 400 samples/man-day, but when this sampler is used, about 1000 samples/sampler-day is possible. At present, this sampler is operated in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. (Kako, I.)

  12. Intraoperative squash smear cytology in CNS lesions: A study of 150 pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Jindal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumors of the central nervous system in the pediatric age group occur relatively frequently during the early years of life. Brain tumors are the most common solid malignancies of childhood and only second to acute childhood leukemia. Squash cytology is an indispensable diagnostic aid to central nervous system (CNS lesions. The definitive diagnosis of brain lesions is confirmed by histological examination. Aim: To study the cytology of CNS lesions in pediatric population and correlate it with histopathology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty cases of CNS lesions in pediatric patients were studied over a period of 2 years. Intraoperative squash smears were prepared, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined. Remaining sample was subjected to histopathological examination. Results: Medulloblastoma (24.0% was the most frequently encountered tumor followed by pilocyctic astrocytoma (21.33% and ependymoma (13.33%. Diagnostic accuracy of squash smear technique was 94.67% when compared with histological diagnosis. Conclusion: Smear cytology is a fairly accurate tool for intraoperative CNS consultations.

  13. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  14. A scanning electron microscopic study of smear layer remaining following use of Greater Taper rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the smear layer in the root canal following the use of Ni-Ti hand ProTaper, HERO shaper and Twisted rotary instruments. Fifteen freshly extracted single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Crowns of all teeth were cut off at the cemento-enamel junction with a carborundum disc. The roots were then randomly divided into three groups of 5 samples each. The working length of all teeth was established by the insertion of an endodontic instrument into the canal until its tip is visible at the apical foramen and then subtracted by 0.5 mm. A sequential crown down technique was carried out in all the three groups as follows: Group-I- Specimens in this group were instrumented with ProTaper Ni-Ti hand instruments. Group-II- Specimens were instrumented with HERO shapers. Group-III - The specimens in this group were instrumented with Twisted rotary instruments. Irrigation was done with 3% NaOCl and 15% EDTA in all the three groups. Teeth were carefully split with hammer and chisel and stored in small labeled bottles containing normal saline until SEM evaluation. Results showed that when comparing ProTaper files, Twisted rotary instruments and HERO shaper instruments, HERO shaper series of rotary instruments showed maximum amount of smear layer followed by the Twisted rotary instruments. Hand instruments produced least amount of smear layer.

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis in Negative Samples Examined by Direct Smear and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI world­wide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may de­pend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Dia­mond's media. The aim of this study was checking the samples, which were negative by direct smear and culture, with PCR technique.Methods: The urine samples and vaginal discharge of patients attending Gynecology Clinics of Ma­zandaran Province, Iran with different symptoms rechecked for Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR technique using primers targeting a conserved region of the beta-tubulin genes of the para­site. Data were analyzed by Epi Info software programResults: Out of 161 negative samples by direct smear and culture, seven samples (4.3% were posi­tive by PCR technique.Conclusion: Diagnosis of trichomoniasis by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could play important role to help the physicians for properly treatment and control of infection.

  16. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF--13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample

  17. How group education impacts female factory workers' behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Bahar, Mine; Akyüz, Aygül; Erdoğan, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    The workplace has been deemed a suitable location for educating many women at once about cancer screening. To determine how group education about early diagnostic methods for breast and cervical cancer effects women's behavior and readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. This semi-interventional study was conducted at a textile factory in Istanbul, Turkey. Female workers (n= 125) were included in the study. A participant identification form and knowledge evaluation form developed for this study, along with the transtheoretical model, were used to collect data. A 45-min interactive group education was given to the participants. Upon contacting participants 3 months after group education, 15.4% (n = 11) stated that they had since received a mammogram and 9.8% (n = 7) a Pap smear. As suggested by the transtheoretical model, group education increased participants' readiness to receive cancer screening, along with their knowledge of breast and cervical cancer. Group education positively impacted women's knowledge of cancer and their readiness to receive mammography and Pap smear. Group education can potentially create awareness of cancer screening tests among women and improve their readiness to receive such tests.

  18. Quantum frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J.

    2014-02-01

    The framework of quantum frames can help unravel some of the interpretive difficulties i the foundation of quantum mechanics. In this paper, I begin by tracing the origins of this concept in Bohr's discussion of quantum theory and his theory of complementarity. Engaging with various interpreters and followers of Bohr, I argue that the correct account of quantum frames must be extended beyond literal space-time reference frames to frames defined by relations between a quantum system and the exosystem or external physical frame, of which measurement contexts are a particularly important example. This approach provides superior solutions to key EPR-type measurement and locality paradoxes.

  19. Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2009-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.

  20. Quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)

  1. A Study on Cervical Cancer Screening Using Pap Smear Test and Clinical Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Lata Sachan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the use of the Pap smear screening method for detection of precancerous lesions. Methods: All women who visited the outpatient gynecology clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India, over 1 year for different clinical problems were recruited for the study. A total of 1650 women who were sexually active and over 21 years of age were enrolled in the study. A clinical examination, an examination per speculum, and a vaginal examination were performed and a history taken for all women. A Pap smear was used for all women to screen for cervical cancer. The smear was obtained using an Ayre spatula and spread over a marked glass slide, which was placed in 95% ethyl alcohol and sent to the Department of Pathology for cytopathological examination. All data were recorded using a predetermined pro forma. Women who had visible malignant cervical lesions were excluded from the study. Results: Most women were in the age range of 30–50 years and multiparous. Vaginal discharge was the most common complaint, occurring in 36.96% of the women. An irregular menstrual cycle was the complaint of 12.78% and abdominal pain of 25.63% of women, while 15.15% were asymptomatic. The Pap smear test of 93.57% of the women was adequately taken, while 6.42% of the individuals had an inadequate sample. The test was negative for malignancy in 48.84%, and 42.66% had infection or inflammation. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL were detected in 2.90%, 5.09%, and 0.48%, respectively. Women with Pap tests positive for ASCUS, LSIL, and HSIL underwent a colposcopy and guided biopsy. Conclusions: Women with an abnormal Pap test should undergo a colposcopy, and those with abnormal colposcopy findings should be advised to undergo a biopsy. A Pap

  2. Quantum information. Teleporation - cryptography - quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test house, quantum teleportation, 100 years of quantum theory, the reality of quanta, interactionless quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view into the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  3. Quantum symmetry in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, V.

    1993-02-01

    Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry

  4. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p SPOT.TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  5. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...... 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from...

  6. Fecal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25thed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ...

  7. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  8. Knowledge and acceptability of pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F Rositch

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess adult women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV and cervical cancer, and characterize their attitudes towards potential screening and prevention strategies.Women were participants of an HIV-discordant couples cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographic status, and sexual and medical history at baseline and on knowledge and attitudes towards Pap smears, self-sampling, and HPV vaccination at study exit.Only 14% of the 409 women (67% HIV-positive; median age 29 years had ever had a Pap smear prior to study enrollment and very few women had ever heard of HPV (18%. Although most women knew that Pap smears detect cervical cancer (69%, very few knew that routine Pap screening is the main way to prevent ICC (18%. Most women reported a high level of cultural acceptability for Pap smear screening and a low level of physical discomfort during Pap smear collection. In addition, over 80% of women reported that they would feel comfortable using a self-sampling device (82% and would prefer at-home sample collection (84%. Nearly all women (94% reported willingness to be vaccinated to prevent cervical cancer if offered at no or low cost.These findings highlight the need to educate women on routine use of Pap smears in the prevention of cervical cancer and demonstrate that vaccination and self-sampling would be acceptable modalities for cervical cancer prevention and screening.

  9. Quantum games as quantum types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  10. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  11. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, D F

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Optics gives a comprehensive coverage of developments in quantum optics over the past years. In the early chapters the formalism of quantum optics is elucidated and the main techniques are introduced. These are applied in the later chapters to problems such as squeezed states of light, resonance fluorescence, laser theory, quantum theory of four-wave mixing, quantum non-demolition measurements, Bell's inequalities, and atom optics. Experimental results are used to illustrate the theory throughout. This yields the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of experiment and theory in quantum optics in any textbook. More than 40 exercises helps readers test their understanding and provide practice in quantitative problem solving.

  12. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  13. Quantum Locality?

    OpenAIRE

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-01-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a 'consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. O...

  14. Quantum ratchets

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoni, Milena

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, ratchet systems operating in the quantum regime are investigated. Ratchet systems, also known as Brownian motors, are periodic systems presenting an intrinsic asymmetry which can be exploited to extract work out of unbiased forces. As a model for ratchet systems, we consider the motion of a particle in a one-dimensional periodic and asymmetric potential, interacting with a thermal environment, and subject to an unbiased driving force. In quantum ratchets, intrinsic quantum flu...

  15. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibard, J.; Joffre, M.

    2008-01-01

    All physics is quantum from elementary particles to stars and to the big-bang via semi-conductors and chemistry. This theory is very subtle and we are not able to explain it without the help of mathematic tools. This book presents the principles of quantum mechanics and describes its mathematical formalism (wave function, Schroedinger equation, quantum operators, spin, Hamiltonians, collisions,..). We find numerous applications in the fields of new technologies (maser, quantum computer, cryptography,..) and in astrophysics. A series of about 90 exercises with their answers is included. This book is based on a physics course at a graduate level. (A.C.)

  16. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.

    1998-01-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  17. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  18. Quantum Integers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Klein, Moshe; Mor, Tal

    2010-01-01

    In number theory, a partition of a positive integer n is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. The number of partitions of n is given by the partition function p(n). Inspired by quantum information processing, we extend the concept of partitions in number theory as follows: for an integer n, we treat each partition as a basis state of a quantum system representing that number n, so that the Hilbert-space that corresponds to that integer n is of dimension p(n); the 'classical integer' n can thus be generalized into a (pure) quantum state ||ψ(n) > which is a superposition of the partitions of n, in the same way that a quantum bit (qubit) is a generalization of a classical bit. More generally, ρ(n) is a density matrix in that same Hilbert-space (a probability distribution over pure states). Inspired by the notion of quantum numbers in quantum theory (such as in Bohr's model of the atom), we then try to go beyond the partitions, by defining (via recursion) the notion of 'sub-partitions' in number theory. Combining the two notions mentioned above, sub-partitions and quantum integers, we finally provide an alternative definition of the quantum integers [the pure-state |ψ'(n)> and the mixed-state ρ'(n),] this time using the sub-partitions as the basis states instead of the partitions, for describing the quantum number that corresponds to the integer n.

  19. Quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, D.

    1992-01-01

    As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)

  20. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  1. Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  2. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, B.-K.; Lee, K.-W.; Woo, Z.-H.; Jeong, K.-S.; Oh, W.-Z.; Han, M.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3 H and 14 C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared

  3. Studies on immunoglobulin containing cell in the vaginal smear during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Toshioki

    1979-01-01

    In order to observe the immunological responce of the irradiated cervical cancer, vaginal smears were taken from 27 patients during radiotherapy and stained with fluorescent anti-IgG, anti-IgA, and anti-IgM sera by the direct method. The IgG-, IgA-, and IgM-containing cells increase significantly in the cervicitis and cervical cancer as compared with controls. There is no difference between cervicitis and cervical cancer in IgG and IgA, but IgM-containing cells increase significantly in cervical cancer. There is a highly significant correlation between IgM-containing cells in vaginal smear of cervical cancer and lymphoid cell infiltration of primary cancerous tissue. During radiotherapy, there are no changes of the mean percentage of IgM-containing cells in vaginal smears at 1,000 rad and 2,000 rad irradiation, but at 3,000 rad irradiation IgM-containing cells decrease significantly. On the changes of IgM-containing cells during radiotherapy, the patients are classified into three groups. Group A: IgM-containing cells increase in their population temporarity during radiotherapy (11 cases). Group B: IgM-containing cells decrease gradually in their population during radiotherapy (12 cases). Group C: The changes of IgM-Containing cells are irregular and/or show little deviation (4 cases). The three year survivals of group A is 9/12 (82.8%), group B is 6/12 (50.0%), and group C is 4/4. There is significant difference between group A and group B in survival rates, and group A is considered to be an immunoreactive group. (author)

  4. The Prevalence of Abnormal Pap Smears in females Referred to Health Centers Affiliated to Medical Sciences During the Years 2012 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Massomi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most important female reproductive system diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears of pregnant females in public health centers and hospitals of Hamadan. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 36046 Pap smears of females was extracted from the records referred to government health centers affiliated to Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Fatemiyeh Hospital Hamadan, between 2012 and 2016. After checking the results of Pap smear, abnormal information (605 cases were collected and investigated. Data were then analyzed using the SPSS21-software and descriptive statistics and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results: The majority of females with abnormal Pap smear results (%30.4 were aged 45 to 36 years, and %48.6 of females with abnormal Pap smear had parity (1-3. From a total of 36046 cases, 605 cases of abnormal Pap smear were observed. The highest and lowest frequencies of abnormal Pap smear were related to ASCUS and LSIL, at a prevalence of %78 and %1, respectively. There was a positive relationship between abnormal Pap smear results and age (P = 0.037. Conclusions: The prevalence of abnormal Pap smear in Hamadan was %1.67. Malignant cervical cancer and invasive cancer risk increased with age, hence, screening and Pap smear, especially from age 35 and above, is recommended.

  5. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence...... sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which...

  6. Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

    2009-01-15

    We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory. (orig.)

  7. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  8. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection.

  9. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  10. Spatio-temporal analysis of smear-positive tuberculosis in the Sidama Zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesay Hailu Dangisso

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a disease of public health concern, with a varying distribution across settings depending on socio-economic status, HIV burden, availability and performance of the health system. Ethiopia is a country with a high burden of TB, with regional variations in TB case notification rates (CNRs. However, TB program reports are often compiled and reported at higher administrative units that do not show the burden at lower units, so there is limited information about the spatial distribution of the disease. We therefore aim to assess the spatial distribution and presence of the spatio-temporal clustering of the disease in different geographic settings over 10 years in the Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia.A retrospective space-time and spatial analysis were carried out at the kebele level (the lowest administrative unit within a district to identify spatial and space-time clusters of smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB. Scan statistics, Global Moran's I, and Getis and Ordi (Gi* statistics were all used to help analyze the spatial distribution and clusters of the disease across settings.A total of 22,545 smear-positive PTB cases notified over 10 years were used for spatial analysis. In a purely spatial analysis, we identified the most likely cluster of smear-positive PTB in 192 kebeles in eight districts (RR= 2, p<0.001, with 12,155 observed and 8,668 expected cases. The Gi* statistic also identified the clusters in the same areas, and the spatial clusters showed stability in most areas in each year during the study period. The space-time analysis also detected the most likely cluster in 193 kebeles in the same eight districts (RR= 1.92, p<0.001, with 7,584 observed and 4,738 expected cases in 2003-2012.The study found variations in CNRs and significant spatio-temporal clusters of smear-positive PTB in the Sidama Zone. The findings can be used to guide TB control programs to devise effective TB control strategies for the geographic areas

  11. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, R.; Amjad, F.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and

  12. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  13. The effect of the KTP laser on smear layer and temperature change: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Dilara; Kuştarcı, Alper

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser irradiation on smear layer removal and temperature changes of the root surfaces. Two hundred four extracted single-root human premolars were included. The canals were instrumented and divided into two main groups: group A (smear layer examination n:119) and group B (temperature change examination n:85). Each group was divided into subgroups (n:17) according to the different five laser power settings: A1, B1: 1 W-5.33 J/cm 2 ; A2, B2: 1.5 W-7.52 J/cm 2 ; A3, B3: 2 W-10.3 J/cm 2 ; A4, B4: 3 W-15.5 J/cm 2 , A5, B5: 4 W-20.1 J/cm2, A6: positive control no laser irradiation-irrigated 2 mL for 2 min 2.5% NaOCl + 2 mL distilled water and A7: negative control groups no laser irradiation irrigated 2 mL for 2 min 17% EDTA + 2 mL for 2 min 2.5% NaOCl + 2 mL distilled water. The temperature elevations were measured with an infrared thermographic camera and smear layer examined by scanning electron microscope. According to Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests, in all groups the highest smear scores were in the apical third. In all areas, there were statistically significant differences between negative control group (17% EDTA) and all other groups (p laser and positive control (2.5% NaOCl) groups. Statistically, in all thirds, the differences the 3 W and 4 W KTP laser groups between each other and all other groups were significant (p laser, increase in temperature values in all groups were found to be below 10 °C in 20 s.

  14. Quantum group and quantum symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhe.

    1994-05-01

    This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs

  15. Quantum information. Teleportation - cryptography - quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenneker, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)

  16. Exploring the boundaries of quantum mechanics: advances in satellite quantum communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Costantino; Vedovato, Francesco; Schiavon, Matteo; Dequal, Daniele; Calderaro, Luca; Tomasin, Marco; Marangon, Davide G; Stanco, Andrea; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2018-07-13

    Recent interest in quantum communications has stimulated great technological progress in satellite quantum technologies. These advances have rendered the aforesaid technologies mature enough to support the realization of experiments that test the foundations of quantum theory at unprecedented scales and in the unexplored space environment. Such experiments, in fact, could explore the boundaries of quantum theory and may provide new insights to investigate phenomena where gravity affects quantum objects. Here, we review recent results in satellite quantum communications and discuss possible phenomena that could be observable with current technologies. Furthermore, stressing the fact that space represents an incredible resource to realize new experiments aimed at highlighting some physical effects, we challenge the community to propose new experiments that unveil the interplay between quantum mechanics and gravity that could be realizable in the near future.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco

    2018-02-09

    Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.

  18. Quantum computer games: quantum minesweeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2010-07-01

    The computer game of quantum minesweeper is introduced as a quantum extension of the well-known classical minesweeper. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. Quantum minesweeper demonstrates the effects of superposition, entanglement and their non-local characteristics. While in the classical minesweeper the goal of the game is to discover all the mines laid out on a board without triggering them, in the quantum version there are several classical boards in superposition. The goal is to know the exact quantum state, i.e. the precise layout of all the mines in all the superposed classical boards. The player can perform three types of measurement: a classical measurement that probabilistically collapses the superposition; a quantum interaction-free measurement that can detect a mine without triggering it; and an entanglement measurement that provides non-local information. The application of the concepts taught by quantum minesweeper to one-way quantum computing are also presented.

  19. Quantum Physics Without Quantum Philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, Detlef; Zanghì, Nino

    2013-01-01

    It has often been claimed that without drastic conceptual innovations a genuine explanation of quantum interference effects and quantum randomness is impossible. This book concerns Bohmian mechanics, a simple particle theory that is a counterexample to such claims. The gentle introduction and other contributions collected here show how the phenomena of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle to non-commuting observables, emerge from the Bohmian motion of particles, the natural particle motion associated with Schrödinger's equation. This book will be of value to all students and researchers in physics with an interest in the meaning of quantum theory as well as to philosophers of science.

  20. Quantum measurement in quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimble, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the generation and application of manifestly quantum or nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field is reviewed with emphasis on the research of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. In particular, the possibilities for spectroscopy with non-classical light are discussed both in terms of improved quantitative measurement capabilities and for the fundamental alteration of atomic radiative processes. Quantum correlations for spatially extended systems are investigated in a variety of experiments which utilize nondegenerate parametric down conversion. Finally, the prospects for measurement of the position of a free mass with precision beyond the standard quantum limit are briefly considered. (author). 38 refs., 1 fig

  1. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. Quantum Computing - Building Blocks of a Quantum Computer. C S Vijay Vishal Gupta. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 69-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Quantum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doplicher, S.

    1996-01-01

    We review some recent result and work in progress on the quantum structure of spacetime at scales comparable with the Planck length; the models discussed here are operationally motivated by the limitations in the accuracy of localization of events in spacetime imposed by the interplay between quantum mechanics and classical general relativity. (orig.)

  3. Quantum photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of non­locality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...

  4. Quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is quantum effects in cosmology. The author deals first with situations in which the gravitational field can be treated as a classical, unquantized background on which the quantum matter fields propagate. This is the case with inflation at the GUT era. Nevertheless the curvature of spacetime can have important effects on the behaviour of the quantum fields and on the development of long-range correlations. He then turns to the question of the quantization of the gravitational field itself. The plan of these lectures is as follows: Euclidean approach to quantum field theory in flat space; the extension of techniques to quantum fields on a curved background with the four-sphere, the Euclidean version of De Sitter space as a particular example; the GUT era; quantization of the gravitational field by Euclidean path integrals; mini superspace model. (Auth.)

  5. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2016-01-01

    A Thorough Update of One of the Most Highly Regarded Textbooks on Quantum Mechanics Continuing to offer an exceptionally clear, up-to-date treatment of the subject, Quantum Mechanics, Sixth Edition explains the concepts of quantum mechanics for undergraduate students in physics and related disciplines and provides the foundation necessary for other specialized courses. This sixth edition builds on its highly praised predecessors to make the text even more accessible to a wider audience. It is now divided into five parts that separately cover broad topics suitable for any general course on quantum mechanics. New to the Sixth Edition * Three chapters that review prerequisite physics and mathematics, laying out the notation, formalism, and physical basis necessary for the rest of the book * Short descriptions of numerous applications relevant to the physics discussed, giving students a brief look at what quantum mechanics has made possible industrially and scientifically * Additional end-of-chapter problems with...

  6. Quantum magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Johannes; Farnell, Damian; Bishop, Raymod

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role has become a very active branch of solid-state-physics research in its own right. The first three chapters of the "Quantum Magnetism" survey conceptual problems and provide insights into the classes of systems considered, namely one-dimensional, two-dimensional and molecular magnets. The following chapters introduce the methods used in the field of quantum magnetism, including spin wave analysis, exact diagonalization, quantum field theory, coupled cluster methods and the Bethe ansatz. The book closes with a chapter on quantum phase transitions and a contribution that puts the wealth of phenomena into the context of experimental solid-state physics. Closing a gap in the literature, this volume is intended both as an introductory text at postgraduate level and as a modern, comprehensive reference for researchers in the field.

  7. Quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steane, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from

  8. Quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steane, Andrew [Department of Atomic and Laser Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    The subject of quantum computing brings together ideas from classical information theory, computer science, and quantum physics. This review aims to summarize not just quantum computing, but the whole subject of quantum information theory. Information can be identified as the most general thing which must propagate from a cause to an effect. It therefore has a fundamentally important role in the science of physics. However, the mathematical treatment of information, especially information processing, is quite recent, dating from the mid-20th century. This has meant that the full significance of information as a basic concept in physics is only now being discovered. This is especially true in quantum mechanics. The theory of quantum information and computing puts this significance on a firm footing, and has led to some profound and exciting new insights into the natural world. Among these are the use of quantum states to permit the secure transmission of classical information (quantum cryptography), the use of quantum entanglement to permit reliable transmission of quantum states (teleportation), the possibility of preserving quantum coherence in the presence of irreversible noise processes (quantum error correction), and the use of controlled quantum evolution for efficient computation (quantum computation). The common theme of all these insights is the use of quantum entanglement as a computational resource. It turns out that information theory and quantum mechanics fit together very well. In order to explain their relationship, this review begins with an introduction to classical information theory and computer science, including Shannon's theorem, error correcting codes, Turing machines and computational complexity. The principles of quantum mechanics are then outlined, and the Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) experiment described. The EPR-Bell correlations, and quantum entanglement in general, form the essential new ingredient which distinguishes quantum from

  9. Development of floor smear sampler (floor radioactive contamination measuring instrument) for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Minoru; Ito, Haruo; Nozawa, Katsuro; Shinohara, Yotaro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    The control of the floor contamination with radioactive substances in nuclear facilities is strictly carried out by smear method, in which the contaminants on floor surfaces are wiped off with filter papers or cloths, and the contamination density on the floor surfaces is measured through their intensity of radioactivity. This wiping work is laborious since it is carried out in leaning-over posture when many samples must be taken in wide floor area. Therefore, to achieve labor saving in this work, an automatic sampler was developed. In the floor smear sampler developed, samples are taken on long band type wiping cloths only by handle operation, and the sample numbers are printed. When many samples are taken in wide floor area, this is especially effective, and the labor saving by 1/3 to 1/2 can be achieved. At present, this sampler is put in practical use in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. At the time of trial manufacture, the method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the contact pressure and the number of times of wiping affecting wiping efficiency and the required torque of a motor were examined. The developed sampler is that of constant contact pressure, vibration wiping type, and the rate of sampling is 10 sec per one sample. 100 samples can be taken on one roll of wiping cloth. The results of performance test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Automated image processing method for the diagnosis and classification of malaria on thin blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicholas E; Pritchard, Charles J; Rubin, David M; Dusé, Adriano G

    2006-05-01

    Malaria is a serious global health problem, and rapid, accurate diagnosis is required to control the disease. An image processing algorithm to automate the diagnosis of malaria on thin blood smears is developed. The image classification system is designed to positively identify malaria parasites present in thin blood smears, and differentiate the species of malaria. Images are acquired using a charge-coupled device camera connected to a light microscope. Morphological and novel threshold selection techniques are used to identify erythrocytes (red blood cells) and possible parasites present on microscopic slides. Image features based on colour, texture and the geometry of the cells and parasites are generated, as well as features that make use of a priori knowledge of the classification problem and mimic features used by human technicians. A two-stage tree classifier using backpropogation feedforward neural networks distinguishes between true and false positives, and then diagnoses the species (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae) of the infection. Malaria samples obtained from the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of the Witwatersrand Medical School are used for training and testing of the system. Infected erythrocytes are positively identified with a sensitivity of 85% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81%, which makes the method highly sensitive at diagnosing a complete sample provided many views are analysed. Species were correctly determined for 11 out of 15 samples.

  11. Predictors of delayed sputum smear and culture conversion among a Portuguese population with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Caetano Mota

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure of sputum smear and/or culture conversion after 2 months of tuberculosis (TB treatment has been considered a predictor of patient infectivity and treatment failure. We aimed to identify the factors associated with delayed sputum smear and culture conversion in patients with pulmonary TB who were given anti-TB treatment. Material and methods: Retrospective cohort of 136 adult patients with sputum culture-proven pulmonary TB referred to an urban Chest Disease Centre. Socio-demographic, clinical, radiological, microbiological, and therapeutic data were evaluated. Results: The median age was 41.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 18.0 years and 75.0% of patients were male. Delayed sputum smear and culture conversion occurred in 25.4% (30/118 and 27.2% (37/136 of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that age ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–13.3, male gender (OR 10.8, 95% CI 1.3–91.1, and smear grade > 1–9 acid fast bacilli (AFB/field (3+ (OR 11.7, 95% CI 1.4–100.6 were significantly associated with persistent smear positivity after 2 months of treatment. Bilateral radiological involvement (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.5–9.0 and colony count > 100 (3+ (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2–27.4 were significantly associated with persistent culture positivity. Conclusions: Delayed sputum smear and culture conversion occurred in about one third of patients. Older age, male gender, and higher bacillary load were independently associated with delayed smear conversion. Bilateral radiological involvement and higher colony count were independently associated with delayed culture conversion. Resumo: Introdução: A ausência de conversão dos exames micobacteriológicos direto e/ou cultural de expetoração após 2 meses de tratamento para a tuberculose (TB tem sido considerado um preditor do grau de infeciosidade do doente e de falência terap

  12. Vaginal flora changes on Pap smears after insertion of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Berger, Judith; Heuninckx, Hélène; Bellen, Gert; Cornelis, Ann

    2011-04-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) combines a uterine foreign body and the continuous release of low-dose levonorgestrel for contraception. Its influence on the rate of vulvovaginal infections and flora disturbance is insufficiently known, but important for contraceptive advice in women, especially those who develop recurrent vaginosis or Candida vulvovaginitis. Slides of 286 women who had a Pap smear taken before and 1 to 2 years after placement of a LNG-IUS were blindly reviewed for the presence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF), bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV) and Candida vaginitis (CV). Prior to insertion, there were no differences in vaginal flora abnormalities between women using different kinds of contraception. LNG-IUS users did not have different rates of AVF, BV, AV or CV, but the general risk to develop any infection was increased. Uterine bleeding after insertion did not seem to predict a different flora type. We found that Pap smears suggested more vaginal infections after 1 year of LNG-IUS use than prior to insertion of the device. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, Br

    2012-01-01

    The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the 'z test' was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ(2)test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method.

  14. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udasimath Shivakumarswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol-formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ′z test′ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer′s χ2 test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method.

  15. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  16. Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomelli, Márcia; Silva, Priscila Regina Alves Araújo; Rodrigues, Ascedio Jose; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Seicento, Márcia; Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to bronchoscopy-BAL and transbronchial biopsy (TBB). The BAL specimens were submitted to direct testing and culture for AFB and fungi, whereas the TBB specimens were submitted to histopathological examination. Of the 286 patients studied, 225 (79%) were diagnosed on the basis of bronchoscopic findings, as follows: pulmonary tuberculosis, in 127 (44%); nonspecific chronic inflammation, in 51 (18%); pneumocystis, fungal infections, or nocardiosis, in 20 (7%); bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, alveolites, or pneumoconiosis, in 14 (5%); lung or metastatic neoplasms, in 7 (2%); and nontuberculous mycobacterium infections, in 6 (2%). For the diagnosis of tuberculosis, BAL showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 60% and 100%, respectively. Adding the TBB findings significantly increased this sensitivity (to 84%), as did adding the post-bronchoscopy sputum smear microscopy results (total sensitivity, 94%). Minor post-procedure complications occurred in 5.6% of the cases. Bronchoscopy is a reliable method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with low complication rates. The combination of TBB and BAL increases the sensitivity of the method and facilitates the differential diagnosis with other diseases.

  17. Performance evaluation of tuberculosis smear microscopists working at rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Asrat

    2017-04-01

    Objective: This study assessed the performance of tuberculosis smear microscopists at external quality assessment rechecking laboratories in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 81 laboratories from April to July 2015. Panel slides were prepared and validated at the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. The validated panel slides were used to evaluate the performance of microscopists at these laboratories compared with readers from the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 389 external quality assessment rechecking laboratory microscopists participated in the study, of which 268 (68.9% worked at hospitals, 241 (62% had more than five years of work experience, 201 (51.7% held Bachelors degrees, and 319 (82% reported tuberculosis smear microscopy training. Overall, 324 (83.3% participants scored ≥ 80%. Sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis bacilli was 84.5% and specificity was 93.1%. The overall percent agreement between participants and reference readers was 87.1 (kappa=0.72. All 10 slides were correctly read (i.e., scored 100% by 80 (20.6% participants, 156 (40.1% scored 90% – 95%, 88 (22.6% scored 80% – 85% and 65 (16.7% scored below 80%. There were 806 (20.7% total errors, with 143 (3.7% major and 663 (17% minor errors. Conclusion: The overall performance of participants in reading the slides showed good agreement with the reference readers. Most errors were minor, and the ability to detect tuberculosis bacilli can be improved through building the capacity of professionals.

  18. The Correlation of Initial Sputum Smear Positivity on Treatment Failure of Category 1 Therapy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Dyah Ayu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an infectious disease and is an important public health problem. Based on data from East Java Province Health Department reported that number of tuberculosis patient in Surabaya is the highest in East Java on year 2014. Early identification and good treatment based on the result of sputum identification are the strategy use to control tuberculosis widespread. So that why, microscopic observation to identify acid fast bacilli (AFB is the fundamental stage to determine recovery treatment. Initial sputum smear positivity is necessary to determine infectious graded. The objectives of the study were to identify of initial sputum smear positivity on treatment failure of category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011-2014. This study used case control method with quantitative approach. Forty two samples were taken from secondary data. Case group is 21 samples who have treatment failure and control group is 21 successful treatment. Samples were selected by simple random sampling. The chi square correlation showed that highly positive initial smear (p = 0,045; OR = 5,4 have correlated and risk factor to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. The conclusion is patient’s high positive sputum smear initially correlated to treatment failure on category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in RS Paru Surabaya year 2011–2014. Keywords: initial sputum smear positivity, treatment failure,, category 1 therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis

  19. I = 2 ππ scattering phase shift from the HAL QCD method with the LapH smearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Daisuke; Aoki, Sinya; Doi, Takumi; Ikeda, Yoichi; Inoue, Takashi; Iritani, Takumi; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Miyamoto, Takaya; Nemura, Hidekatsu; Sasaki, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Physical observables, such as the scattering phase shifts and binding energy, calculated from the non-local HAL QCD potential do not depend on the sink operators used to define the potential. In practical applications, the derivative expansion of the non-local potential is employed, so that physical observables may receive some scheme dependence at a given order of the expansion. In this paper, we compare the I=2ππ scattering phase shifts obtained in the point-sink scheme (the standard scheme in the HAL QCD method) and the smeared-sink scheme (the LapH smearing newly introduced in the HAL QCD method). Although potentials in different schemes have different forms as expected, we find that, for reasonably small smearing size, the resultant scattering phase shifts agree with each other if the next-to-leading-order (NLO) term is taken into account. We also find that the HAL QCD potential in the point-sink scheme has a negligible NLO term for a wide range of energies, which implies good convergence of the derivative expansion, while the potential in the smeared-sink scheme has a non-negligible NLO contribution. The implications of this observation for future studies of resonance channels (such as the I=0 and 1ππ scatterings) with smeared all-to-all propagators are briefly discussed.

  20. Diagnostic performance of automated liquid culture and molecular line probe assay in smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Aarti; Biswas, Debasis; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra; Sindhwani, Girish; Kakati, Barnali; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is particularly challenging, and automated liquid culture and molecular line probe assays (LPA) may prove particularly useful. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of automated liquid culture (ALC) technology and commercial LPA in sputum smear-negative PTB suspects. Spot sputum samples were collected from 145 chest-symptomatic smear-negative patients and subjected to ALC, direct drug susceptibility test (DST) testing and LPA, as per manufacturers' instructions. A diagnostic yield of 26.2% was observed among sputum smear-negative TB suspects with 47.4% of the culture isolates being either INH- and/or rifampicin-resistant. Complete agreement was observed between the results of ALC assay and LPA except for two isolates which demonstrated sensitivity to INH and rifampicin at direct DST but were rifampicin-resistant in LPA. Two novel mutations were also detected among the multidrug isolates by LPA. In view of the diagnostic challenges associated with the diagnosis of TB in sputum smear-negative patients, our study demonstrates the applicability of ALC and LPA in establishing diagnostic evidence of TB.

  1. The effect of root surface conditioning on smear layer removal in periodontal regeneration (a scanning electron microscopic study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidyawati, D.; Soeroso, Y.; Masulili, S. L. C.

    2017-08-01

    The role of root surface conditioning treatment on smear layer removal of human teeth is affected by periodontitis in periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study is to analyze the smear layer on root surface conditioned with 2.1% minocycline HCl ointment (Periocline), and 24% EDTA gel (Prefgel). A total of 10 human teeth indicated for extraction due to chronic periodontitis were collected and root planed. The teeth were sectioned in thirds of the cervical area, providing 30 samples that were divided into three groups - minocycline ointment treatment, 24% EDTA gel treatment, and saline as a control. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscope. No significant differences in levels of smear layer were observed between the minocycline group and the EDTA group (p=0.759). However, there were significant differences in the level of smear layer after root surface treatment in the minocycline and EDTA groups, compared with the control group (p=0.00). There was a relationship between root surface conditioning treatment and smear layer levels following root planing.

  2. Cervical cancer screening attitudes and beliefs of Malaysian women who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P; Wong, Y L; Low, W Y; Khoo, E M; Shuib, R

    2008-01-01

    Attitudes toward cervical cancer and participation in early detection and screening services are well known to be profoundly affected by cultural beliefs and norms. This study explored the attitudes and sociocultural beliefs on cervical cancer screening among Malaysian women. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Malaysian women, ages 21 to 56 years, who have never had a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Respondents generally showed a lack of knowledge about cervical cancer screening using Pap smear, and the need for early detection for cervical cancer. Many believed the Pap smear was a diagnostic test for cervical cancer, and since they had no symptoms, they did not go for Pap screening. Other main reasons for not doing the screening included lack of awareness of Pap smear indications and benefits, perceived low susceptibility to cervical cancer, and embarrassment. Other reasons for not being screened were related to fear of pain, misconceptions about cervical cancer, fatalistic attitude, and undervaluation of own health needs versus those of the family. Women need to be educated about the benefits of cervical cancer screening. Health education, counseling, outreach programs, and community-based interventions are needed to improve the uptake of Pap smear in Malaysia.

  3. Quantum mechanics with quantum time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuscik, E.

    1984-01-01

    Using a non-canonical Lie structure of classical mechanics a new algebra of quantum mechanical observables is constructed. The new algebra, in addition to the notion of classical time, makes it possible to introduce the notion of quantum time. A new type of uncertainty relation is derived. (author)

  4. Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups

  5. Quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdevant, J.L.; Dalibart, J.

    1997-01-01

    This pedagogical book gives an initiation to the principles and practice of quantum mechanics. A large part is devoted to experimental facts and to their analysis: concrete facts, phenomena and applications related to fundamental physics, elementary particles, astrophysics, high-technology, semi-conductors, micro-electronics and lasers. The book is divided in 22 chapters dealing with: quantum phenomena, wave function and Schroedinger equation, physical units and measurements, energy quantification of some simple systems, Hilbert space, Dirac formalism and quantum mechanics postulates, two-state systems and ammonia Maser principle, bands theory and crystals conductibility, commutation of observables, Stern and Gerlach experiment, approximation methods, kinetic momentum in quantum mechanics, first description of atoms, 1/2 spin formalism and magnetic resonance, Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Lorentz force in quantum mechanics, addition of kinetic momenta and fine and hyper-fine structure of atomic lines, identical particle systems and Pauli principle, qualitative physics and scale of size of some microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, systems evolution, collisions and cross sections, invariance and conservation laws, quantum mechanics and astrophysics, and historical aspects of quantum mechanics. (J.S.)

  6. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  7. Quantum Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, P. D.; Chaturvedi, S.; Dechoum, K.; Comey, J.

    2001-02-01

    We investigate the theory of quantum fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems having large crit­ical fluctuations. This allows us to treat the limits imposed by nonlinearities to quantum squeezing and noise reduction, and also to envisage future tests of quantum theory in regions of macroscopic quantum fluctuations. A long-term objective of this research is to identify suitable physical sys­tems in which macroscopic 'Schrödinger cat'-like behaviour may be observed. We investigate two systems in particular of much current experimental interest, namely the degenerate parametric oscillator near threshold, and the evaporatively cooled (BEC). We compare the results obtained in the positive-P representation, as a fully quantum mechanical calculation, with the truncated Wigner phase space equation, also known as semi-classical theory. We show when these results agree and differ in calculations taken beyond the linearized approximation. In the region where the largest quantum fluctuations and Schrödinger cat-like behaviour might be expected, we find that the quantum predictions correspond very closely to the semi-classical theory. Nature abhors observing a Schrödinger cat. -Pacs: 03.65.Bz

  8. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C Language

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  9. Quantum Computers and Quantum Computer Languages: Quantum Assembly Language and Quantum C

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    We show a representation of Quantum Computers defines Quantum Turing Machines with associated Quantum Grammars. We then create examples of Quantum Grammars. Lastly we develop an algebraic approach to high level Quantum Languages using Quantum Assembly language and Quantum C language as examples.

  10. Cascade quantum teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Nan-run; GONG Li-hua; LIU Ye

    2006-01-01

    In this letter a cascade quantum teleportation scheme is proposed. The proposed scheme needs less local quantum operations than those of quantum multi-teleportation. A quantum teleportation scheme based on entanglement swapping is presented and compared with the cascade quantum teleportation scheme. Those two schemes can effectively teleport quantum information and extend the distance of quantum communication.

  11. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P.; Koller, K.; Weinberg, V.; Freie Univ. Berlin

    2008-01-01

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff λ cut . The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV cut <600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  12. Using poisson regression to compare rates of unsatisfactory pap smears among gynecologists and to evaluate a performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Hatley, Warren G; de Riese, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate impact of a performance improvement (PI) plan implemented after initial analysis, comparing 7 gynecologists working in 2 clinics. From January to October 2005, unsatisfactory rates for gynecologists and clinics were calculated. A PI plan was instituted at the end of the first quarter of 2006. Unsatisfactory rates for each quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007 were calculated. Poisson regression analyzed results. A total of 100 ThinPrep Pap smears initially deemed unsatisfactory underwent reprocessing and revaluation. The study's first part evaluated 2890 smears. Clinic unsatisfactory rates, 2.7% and 2.6%, were similar (p > 0.05). Gynecologists' unsatisfactory rates were 4.8-0.6%; differences between each of the highest 2 and lowest rates were significant (p improvement. Reprocessing ThinPrep smears is an important means of reducing unsatisfactory rates but should not be a substitute for attention to quality in sampling.

  13. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing (China); CERN, PH-TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Xu, Zhen-Ming [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-15

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and we obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the six- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law holds for the noncommutative black hole whose Hawking temperature is within a specific range, but fails for one whose the Hawking temperature is beyond this range. (orig.)

  14. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  15. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  16. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  17. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John L

    2015-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates, this thorough text focuses on the role of symmetry operations and the essentially algebraic structure of quantum-mechanical theory. Based on courses in quantum mechanics taught by the authors, the treatment provides numerous problems that require applications of theory and serve to supplement the textual material.Starting with a historical introduction to the origins of quantum theory, the book advances to discussions of the foundations of wave mechanics, wave packets and the uncertainty principle, and an examination of the Schrödinger equation that includ

  18. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, A.I.M.

    1981-01-01

    This book, based on a thirty lecture course given to students at the beginning of their second year, covers the quantum mechanics required by physics undergraduates. Early chapters deal with wave mechanics, including a discussion of the energy states of the hydrogen atom. These are followed by a more formal development of the theory, leading to a discussion of some advanced applications and an introduction to the conceptual problems associated with quantum measurement theory. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. Problems are included at the end of each chapter. (U.K.)

  19. Quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, F.

    1994-01-01

    A short historical overview is given on the development of our knowledge of complex dynamical systems with special emphasis on ergodicity and chaos, and on the semiclassical quantization of integrable and chaotic systems. The general trace formular is discussed as a sound mathematical basis for the semiclassical quantization of chaos. Two conjectures are presented on the basis of which it is argued that there are unique fluctuation properties in quantum mechanics which are universal and, in a well defined sense, maximally random if the corresponding classical system is strongly chaotic. These properties constitute the quantum mechanical analogue of the phenomenon of chaos in classical mechanics. Thus quantum chaos has been found. (orig.)

  20. Quantum thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, G.P.; Gyftopoulos, E.P.; Park, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A novel nonlinear equation of motion is proposed for a general quantum system consisting of more than one distinguishable elementary constituent of matter. In the domain of idempotent quantum-mechanical state operators, it is satisfied by all unitary evolutions generated by the Schroedinger equation. But in the broader domain of nonidempotent state operators not contemplated by conventional quantum mechanics, it generates a generally nonunitary evolution, it keeps the energy invariant and causes the entropy to increase with time until the system reaches a state of equilibrium or a limit cycle

  1. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  2. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  3. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabir, I.; Iqbal, R.; Khan, S.U.; Munir, K.; Nazir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  4. Quantum theory needs no 'Interpretation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Christopher A.; Peres, Asher

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this article is to stress the fact that Quantum Theory does not need an interpretation other than being an algorithm for computing probabilities associated with macroscopic phenomena and measurements. It does not ''describ'' reality, and the wave function is not objective entity, it only gives the evolution of our probabilities for the outcomes potential experiments. (AIP) (c)

  5. What have we learned from quantum field theory in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulling, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper reviews the quantum field theory in curved space-time. Field quantization in gravitational backgrounds; particle creation by black holes; Hawking radiation; quantum field theory in curved space-time; covariant renormalization of the stress-energy-momentum tensor; quantum field theory and quantum gravity; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  6. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar; Campos, Flávia Pavan; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution(control), II-EDTA; III-EDTAT. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was ...

  7. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio,José Eduardo Cezar; Campos,Flávia Pavan; Pilatti,Gibson Luiz; Theodoro,Letícia Helena; Leite,Fábio Renato Manzolli

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution (control), II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score wa...

  8. KLASIFIKASI INTI SEL PAP SMEAR BERDASARKAN ANALISIS TEKSTUR MENGGUNAKAN CORRELATION-BASED FEATURE SELECTION BERBASIS ALGORITMA C4.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Arifin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Pap Smear is an early examination to diagnose whether there’s indication cervical cancer or not, the process of observations were done by observing pap smear cell under the microscope. There’s so many research has been done to differentiate between normal and abnormal cell. In this research presents a classification of pap smear cell based on texture analysis. This research is using the Harlev image which amounts to 280 images, 140 images are used as training data and 140 images other are used as testing. On the texture analysis used Gray level Co-occurance Matrix (GLCM method with 5 parameters that is correlation, energy, homogeneity and entropy added by counting the value of brightness. For choose which the best attribute used correlation-based feature selection method and than used C45 algorithm for produce classification rule. The result accuracy of the classification normal and abnormal used decision tree C45 is 96,43% and errors in predicting is 3,57%. Keywords : Classification, Pap Smear cell image, texture analysis, Correlation-based feature selection, C45 algorithm. Abstrak - Pap Smear merupakan pemeriksaan dini untuk mendiagnosa apakah ada indikasi kanker serviks atau tidak, proses pengamatan dilakukan dengan mengamati sel pap smear dibawah mikroskop. Banyak penelitian yang telah dilakukan untuk membedakan antara sel normal dan abnormal. Dalam penelitian ini menyajikan klasifikasi inti sel pap smear berdasarkan analisis tektur. Citra yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah citra Harlev yang berjumlah 280 citra, 140 citra digunakan sebagai data training dan 140 citra lain digunakan sebagai testing. Pada analisis tekstur mengunakan metode Gray level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM menggunakan 5 parameter yaitu korelasi, energi, homogenitas dan entropi ditambah dengan menghitung nilai brightness. Untuk memilih mana atribut terbaik digunakan metode correlation-based feature selection lalu digunakan algoritma C45 untuk

  9. A pilot study of same day sputum smear examination, its feasibility and usefulness in diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneedu, V P; Verma, A K; Sharma, P P; Behera, D

    2011-10-01

    A large number of tuberculosis cases are continuously being reported from India and other developing countries leading to high morbidity and mortality. In spite of many newer tests available for diagnosing a case of tuberculosis, smear microscopy of sputum is still the preferred test under programmatic conditions. The current national and international guidelines recommend two sputum smear examinations in two days for diagnosing cases of tuberculosis, which is time-consuming, tedious, needs multiple visits, leading to high dropout of infectious cases. In the background of existing limitations of smear microscopy, we attempted to complete the diagnosis of tuberculosis on same day by serial collection of the spot sputum specimen and analyze its advantages, feasibility and viability. The study was undertaken by the Department of Microbiology, Lala Ram Sarup Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases during May 2010 to April 2011. Sputum specimens were collected from 330 randomly selected tuberculosis suspects who attended OPD of hospital, patients submitted spot and home collected morning sputum sample in a standard method and spot and additional spot sputum (X- spot) collected one hour after the first spot sample as per the proposed front loading method. All the samples received were stained by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain and examined on the same day. The sputum sample was pooled and cultured in Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media in duplicate set of bottles. The results of two different microscopic methods were compared with the gold standard culture test. Out of the total 330 TB suspects, 70.60% were males and 29.39% females. The most common complaint was of cough with sputum (88.18%), chest pain (70.21%), fever (55.15%) and loss of appetite (43.03%). Upon examining the total sputum slides, 18.48 % were positive for acid fast bacilli. The smear positivity was 61/330 (18.48%) by standard methods and in proposed new method 43/330 (13.03%). Sensitivity of the

  10. Quantum Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, C W J

    2005-01-01

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  11. Quantum exam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ba An

    2006-01-01

    Absolutely and asymptotically secure protocols for organizing an exam in a quantum way are proposed basing judiciously on multipartite entanglement. The protocols are shown to stand against common types of eavesdropping attack

  12. Quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittel, W.; Brendel, J.; Gissin, N.; Ribordy, G.; Zbinden, H.

    1999-01-01

    The principles of quantum cryptography based on non-local correlations of entanglement photons are outlined. The method of coding and decoding of information and experiments is also described. The prospects of the technique are briefly discussed. (Z.J.)

  13. Quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cejnar, P.

    2007-01-01

    Chaos is a name given in physics to a branch which, within classical mechanics, studies the consequences of sensitive dependences of the behavior of physical systems on the starting conditions, i.e., the 'butterfly wing effect'. However, how to describe chaotic behavior in the world of quantum particles? It appears that quantum mechanics does not admit the sensitive dependence on the starting conditions, and moreover, predicts a substantial suppression of chaos also at the macroscopic level. Still, the quantum properties of systems that are chaotic in terms of classical mechanics differ basically from the properties of classically arranged systems. This topic is studied by a field of physics referred to as quantum chaos. (author)

  14. Quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.; Matone, M.

    1998-01-01

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ∂ q replaced by ∂ q with dq = dq/√1-β 2 (q), where β 2 (q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures κ W and κ Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (∂ q 2 + κ W )ψ = 0

  15. Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meng; Huang Yun-Feng; Guo Guang-Can

    2017-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. (paper)

  16. Duality Quantum Information and Duality Quantum Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C. Y.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, C.; Song, S. Y.; Long, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum mechanical systems exhibit particle wave duality property. This duality property has been exploited for information processing. A duality quantum computer is a quantum computer on the move and passing through a multi-slits. It offers quantum wave divider and quantum wave combiner operations in addition to those allowed in an ordinary quantum computer. It has been shown that all linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and a duality quantum computer with n qubits and d-slits can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit in the so-called duality quantum computing mode. The quantum particle-wave duality can be used in providing secure communication. In this paper, we will review duality quantum computing and duality quantum key distribution.

  17. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  18. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature

  19. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a `consistent quantum theory' that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues that the putative proofs of this property that involve hidden variables include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are not entailed by the precepts of quantum mechanics. Thus whatever is proved is not a feature of quantum mechanics, but is a property of a theory that tries to combine quantum theory with quasi-classical features that go beyond what is entailed by quantum theory itself. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by establishing, instead, properties of a system modified by adding properties alien to the original system. Hence Griffiths' rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his `consistent quantum theory' shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive version of quantum theory. An added section responds to Griffiths' reply, which cites general possibilities of ambiguities that might make what is to be proved ill-defined, and hence render the pertinent `consistent framework' ill defined. But the vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question, which, both by its physical formulation and by explicit identification, specify the framework to be used. Griffiths confirms the validity of the proof insofar as that pertinent framework is used. The section also shows

  20. Quantum lottery

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On April Fools' Day, CERN Quantum Diaries blogger Pauline Gagnon held a giveaway of microscopic proportion. Up for grabs? Ten Higgs bosons, courtesy of CERN. Pauline announced the winners last week; let's see what they'll really be getting in the mail...   Custom-made Particle Zoo Higgs bosons were sent out to the winners. Read more about the prize in the Quantum Diaries post "Higgs boson lottery: when CERN plays April Fools' jokes".

  1. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  2. Quantum torsors

    OpenAIRE

    Grunspan, C.

    2003-01-01

    This text gives some results about quantum torsors. Our starting point is an old reformulation of torsors recalled recently by Kontsevich. We propose an unification of the definitions of torsors in algebraic geometry and in Poisson geometry. Any quantum torsor is equipped with two comodule-algebra structures over Hopf algebras and these structures commute with each other. In the finite dimensional case, these two Hopf algebras share the same finite dimension. We show that any Galois extension...

  3. Quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Todorov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Expository paper providing a historical survey of the gradual transformation of the 'philosophical discussions' between Bohr, Einstein and Schrödinger on foundational issues in quantum mechanics into a quantitative prediction of a new quantum effect, its experimental verification and its proposed (and loudly advertised) applications. The basic idea of the 1935 paper of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) was reformulated by David Bohm for a finite dimensional spin system. This allowed John Bell to derive his inequalities that separate the prediction of quantum entanglement from its possible classical interpretation. We reproduce here their later (1971) version, reviewing on the way the generalization (and mathematical derivation) of Heisenberg's uncertainty relations (due to Weyl and Schrödinger) needed for the passage from EPR to Bell. We also provide an improved derivation of the quantum theoretic violation of Bell's inequalities. Soon after the experimental confirmation of the quantum entanglement (culminating with the work of Alain Aspect) it was Feynman who made public the idea of a quantum computer based on the observed effect

  4. Quantum Computation and Quantum Spin Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Michielsen, Kristel; Hams, Anthony; Miyashita, Seiji; Saito, Keiji

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the stability of quantum computations on physically realizable quantum computers by simulating quantum spin models representing quantum computer hardware. Examples of logically identical implementations of the controlled-NOT operation are used to demonstrate that the results of a quantum

  5. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  6. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59...... of a face-value review of participant experiences (naive reading), structural analysis and, critical interpretation of what it means to be potentially ill. The women were unprepared to find that their screening results showed abnormal cells, indicative of incipient genital cancer. They were frustrated...... by the results as they had not experienced any symptoms and felt well, despite being diagnosed with a potential disease. Being diagnosed with abnormal cells caused the participants to feel anxious. Their anxiety had subsided 6 months after the cells had been removed. For those who did not require treatment...

  7. Shock Initiation of Wedge-shaped Explosive Measured with Smear Camera and Photon Doppler Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) is an important insensitive high explosive in conventional weapons due to its safety and high energy. In order to have an insight into the shock initiation performance of a TATB-based insensitive high explosive (IHE), experimental measurements of the particle velocity histories of the TATB-based Explosive using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and shock wave profile of the TATB-based explosive using High Speed Rotating Mirror Smear Camera had been performed. In this paper, we would describe the shock initiation performance of the TATB-based explosive by run-to-detonation distance and the particle velocity history at an initialization shock of about 7.9 GPa. The parameters of hugoniot of unreacted the TATB-based explosive and Pop relationship could be derived with the particle velocity history obtained in this paper.

  8. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  9. Deconvolving out indicator smearing in the right ventricle facilities left-to-right shunt quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eterovic, D.; Popovic, S.; Dujic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A simple algorithm is developed to enhance the resolution of components of multimodal pulmonary radiohistogram. Based on the assessed right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), it deconvolves out the effect of indicator smearing in the right ventricle on the heart rate samples of the pulmonary radiohistogram, c k . The output is the ideal curve, c k =c k /RVEF-(1-EF)xC k-1 /RVEF, that would be obtained if RVEF equalled unity. Since the formula is not a recursive one it does not suffer from error propagation pertinent to numerical deconvolution. Once RVEF is known, implementation of the algorithm is trivial. If RVEF is not known accurately it may be replaced with its upper estimate, RVEF upp > RVEF, yielding a partial deconvolution of the curve. When applied to patients with left-to-right shunt the method improves the accuracy and lessens the interobserver variation of the Maltz-Treves method. (author)

  10. Microscopy of Stained Urethral Smear in Male Urethritis; Which Cutoff Should be Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Hartgill, Usha; Skullerud, Kristin Helene; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-03-01

    The microscopical diagnosis of male urethritis was recently questioned by Rietmeijer and Mettenbrink, lowering the diagnostic criteria of the diagnosis to ≥2 polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) per high power field (HPF), and adopted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in their 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines. The European Non-Gonococcal Urethritis Guideline advocates a limit of ≥5 PMNL/HPF. To determine if syndromic treatment of urethritis should be considered with a cutoff value of ≥2 PMNL/HPF in urethral smear. The design was a cross-sectional study investigating the presence and degree of urethritis relative to specific infections in men attending an STI clinic as drop-in patients. The material included 2 cohorts: a retrospective study of 13,295 men and a prospective controlled study including 356 men. We observed a mean chlamydia prevalence of 2.3% in the 0-9 stratum, and a 12-fold higher prevalence (27.3%) in the strata above 9. Of the chlamydia cases, 89.8% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For Mycoplasma genitalium, the prevalence was 1.4% in the 0-9 stratum and 11.2% in the stratum ≥10, and 83.6% were diagnosed in strata above 9. For gonorrhea, a significant increase in the prevalence occurred between the 0-30 strata and >30 strata from 0.2% to 20.7%. The results of the prospective study were similar. Our data do not support lowering the cutoff to ≥2 PMNL/HPF. However, a standardization of urethral smear microscopy seems to be impossible. The cutoff value should discriminate between low and high prevalence of chlamydia, mycoplasma, and gonorrhea to include as many as possible with a specific infection in syndromic treatment, without overtreating those with few PMNL/HPF and high possibility of having nonspecific or no urethritis.

  11. A New Nano-Chitosan Irrigant with Superior Smear Layer Removal and Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kassaee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our primary objective was to measure root canal penetrations of aqueous antibacterial nano-chitosan (Nano-CS, for the first time. The second objective was to compare and contrast such penetrations to those of chitosan (CS itself, as well as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, chlorhexidine (CHX and ethylenediamintetraacetic acid (EDTA, at the routinely used concentrations. Molar roots were split longitudinally by a rotary diamond saw. Nano-CS was made by dissolving CS in acetic acid and adding tripolyphosphate (TPP, followed by a freeze-drying process. Dentin penetrations are estimated through measurements of sessile contact angles. Penetrations of the probed irrigants were assessed as inverse functions of their sessile contact angles. Accordingly, all Nano-CS solutions showed smaller sessile angles compared to those of NaOCl, CS, and EDTA samples. Hence, Nano-CS appeared to be a superior irrigant for demonstrating a higher penetration than the latter three. It fell only behind CHX, yet, the superb chelating ability of Nano-CS enabled it to remove smear layer to a larger extend than all of our other irrigants including CHX. Nano-CS could be considered as a new irrigant. Higher penetration was its main advantage over CS, and commercial NaOCl, and EDTA. This was verified by  the smaller sessile contact angle of Nano-CS. Anticipated chelating effect of Nano-CS could anchor more efficient removal of smear layer. This was another advantage of Nano-CS over other irrigants including CHX. Other advantages of Nano-CS included its reported biocompatibility, biodegradability and antibacterial effects. Commercialization of Nano-CS was deemed in the near horizon.

  12. The acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Serrano Doratioto Faria Braz

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in adult women. However, many women do not undergo cervical cancer screening for the following reasons: fear, shame, physical limitations, cultural or religious considerations and lack of access to health care services. Self-collected vaginal smears maybe an alternative means of including more women in cervical cancer screening programs. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for cervical cancer screening. We selected articles from PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Embase that were published between January 1995 and April 2016. Studies written in English, French, Italian, Portuguese or Spanish that involved women between 18 and 69 years of age who had engaged in sexual intercourse were included in this review. The review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Nineteen studies were ultimately evaluated in this review. Most of the included studies (n=17 demonstrated that the self-collection method exhibited outstanding acceptability among women with respect to cervical cancer screening, and only two studies indicated that self-collection exhibited low acceptability among women in this context. The acceptability of self-collection was determined subjectively (without standardized questionnaires in 10 studies (53% and via structured and validated questionnaires in the remaining studies. The results of our review suggest that the self-collection method is well-accepted and may therefore encourage greater participation in cervical cancer screening programs. However, additional studies are required to verify these results.

  13. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  14. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  15. Pap smear receipt among Vietnamese immigrants: the importance of health care factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Victoria M; Yasui, Yutaka; Nguyen, Tung T; Woodall, Erica; Do, H Hoai; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Choe, John; Jackson, J Carey

    2009-12-01

    Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women. We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington, DC. A total of 1532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined. Eighty-one percentage of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor. Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing.

  16. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Susanne; Loessner, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 10(1)-10(3) cfu/cm(2)L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 10(3)/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 10(8) or 1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2). With Scott A (10(3) cfu/cm(2)) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 10(8) pfu/cm(2)) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2)) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (10(1)-10(2) cfu/cm(2)), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese.

  17. Quantum computing: Quantum advantage deferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andrew M.

    2017-12-01

    A type of optics experiment called a boson sampler could be among the easiest routes to demonstrating the power of quantum computers. But recent work shows that super-classical boson sampling may be a long way off.

  18. Quantum Physics for Beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests a new approach for teaching secondary school quantum physics. Reviews traditional approaches and presents some characteristics of the three-part "Quantum Physics for Beginners" project, including: quantum physics, quantum mechanics, and a short historical survey. (SK)

  19. Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * A Quantum Model of Free Will * Quantum Acquisition of Knowledge * Thinking as a Quantum Algorithm * Counterfactual Measurement as a Model of Intuition * Quantum Modification of Freud's Model of Consciousness * Conclusion * Acknowledgements * References

  20. Quantum correlations in multipartite quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Heshmati, A.; Karimi, N.; Yahyavi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum entanglement is the most famous type of quantum correlation between elements of a quantum system that has a basic role in quantum communication protocols like quantum cryptography, teleportation and Bell inequality detection. However, it has already been shown that various applications in quantum information theory do not require entanglement. Quantum discord as a new kind of quantum correlations beyond entanglement, is the most popular candidate for general quantum correlations. In this paper, first we find the entanglement witness in a particular multipartite quantum system which consists of a N-partite system in 2 n -dimensional space. Then we give an exact analytical formula for the quantum discord of this system. At the end of the paper, we investigate the additivity relation of the quantum correlation and show that this relation is satisfied for a N-partite system with 2 n -dimensional space.

  1. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  2. Effects of liquid- and paste-type EDTA on smear-layer removal during rotary root-canal instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The use of paste/gel-type chelators during rotary nickel–titanium instrumentation resulted in improved cleanliness in the coronal and middle parts of the root canal. We recommend using liquid EDTA as a final flushing solution during root-canal preparation because it provides a better smear layer-free condition before 3-dimensional root-canal obturation.

  3. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  4. Efficacy of Two Irrigants Used with Self-Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç Şen, Özgür; Kaya, Sadullah; Er, Özgür; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical instrumentation of root canals produces a smear layer that adversely affects the root canal seal. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of MTAD and citric acid solutions used with self-adjusting file (SAF) system on smear layer. Twenty-three single-rooted human teeth were used for the study. Canals were instrumented manually up to a number 20 K file size. SAF was used to prepare the root canals. The following groups were studied: Group 1: MTAD + 5.25% NaOCl, Group 2: 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and Group 3: Control (5.25% NaOCl). All roots were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds was evaluated using a five-score evaluation system. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. In the coronal third, Group 2 exhibited the best results and was statistically different froms the other groups (P 0.05). The solutions used in Group 1 and 2 could effectively remove smear layer in most of the specimens. However, citric acid was more effective than MTAD in the three thirds of the canal.

  5. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S M; Bagde, M N; Bagde, N D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  6. Less medical intervention after sharp demarcation of grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia smears by neural network screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, MR; Boon, ME; Schreiner-Kok, PG; Hermans, J; Grobbee, DE; Kok, LP

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Neural network technology has been used for the daily screening of cervical smears in The Netherlands since 1992. The authors believe this method might have the potential to demarcate diagnoses of Grade 1-2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1-2). METHODS. Of 133,196 women who were

  7. On the uncertainties in the shell correction by Strutinsky smearing procedure for certain shapes relevant in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.; Prakash, M.; Kapoor, S.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that for level schemes obtained from a folded Yukawa potential, the Strutinsky smearing procedure for the evaluation of the shell correction to the total potential energy of nuclei does not lead to a unique value for nuclear shapes near and beyond the outer fission barrier deformations and consequently introduces uncertainties in the relative fission barrier heights. (author)

  8. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F

    1999-01-01

    phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown...

  9. [The frequency of sex chromatine occurring in cell nuclei of internal organs determined by the smear method (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailow, R

    1975-09-05

    The frequency of sex chromatine occurring in cell nuclei of twelve organs from 25 male and female corpses was determined using the smear method. It was found to be about 60% in the case of female, and about 6% in the case of male corpses.

  10. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  11. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A

    2011-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB), the production of nitric oxide (NO) is confirmed but its importance in host defense is debated. Our aim was to investigate whether a food supplement rich in arginine could enhance clinical improvement in TB patients by increased NO production. Smear positive TB patients from...

  12. Adherence to tuberculosis treatment, sputum smear conversion and mortality: a retrospective cohort study in 48 rwandan clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Mugisha, Veronicah; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Gasana, Michel; Cobelens, Frank; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to treatment and sputum smear conversion after 2 months of treatment are thought to be important for successful outcome of tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Retrospective cohort study of new adult TB patients diagnosed in the first quarter of 2007 at 48 clinics in Rwanda. Data were abstracted

  13. Quantum non-objectivity from performativity of quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Schumann, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the logical foundations of quantum mechanics (QM) by stressing non-objectivity of quantum observables, which is a consequence of the absence of logical atoms in QM. We argue that the matter of quantum non-objectivity is that, on the one hand, the formalism of QM constructed as a mathematical theory is self-consistent, but, on the other hand, quantum phenomena as results of experimenters’ performances are not self-consistent. This self-inconsistency is an effect of the language of QM differing greatly from the language of human performances. The former is the language of a mathematical theory that uses some Aristotelian and Russellian assumptions (e.g., the assumption that there are logical atoms). The latter language consists of performative propositions that are self-inconsistent only from the viewpoint of conventional mathematical theory, but they satisfy another logic that is non-Aristotelian. Hence, the representation of quantum reality in linguistic terms may be different: the difference between a mathematical theory and a logic of performative propositions. To solve quantum self-inconsistency, we apply the formalism of non-classical self-referent logics. (paper)

  14. Electron quantum optics as quantum signal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Roussel, B.; Cabart, C.; Fève, G.; Thibierge, E.; Degiovanni, P.

    2016-01-01

    The recent developments of electron quantum optics in quantum Hall edge channels have given us new ways to probe the behavior of electrons in quantum conductors. It has brought new quantities called electronic coherences under the spotlight. In this paper, we explore the relations between electron quantum optics and signal processing through a global review of the various methods for accessing single- and two-electron coherences in electron quantum optics. We interpret electron quantum optics...

  15. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post

  16. Quantum solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abram, I [Centre National d' Etudes des Telecommunications (CNET), 196 Avenue Henri Ravera, F-92220 Bagneux (France)

    1999-02-01

    Two of the most remarkable properties of light - squeezing and solitons - are being combined in a new generation of experiments that could revolutionize optics and communications. One area of application concerns the transmission and processing of classical (binary) information, in which the presence or absence of a soliton in a time-window corresponds to a ''1'' or ''0'', as in traditional optical-fibre communications. However, since solitons occur at fixed power levels, we do not have the luxury of being able to crank up the input power to improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving end. Nevertheless, the exploitation of quantum effects such as squeezing could help to reduce noise and improve fidelity. In long-distance communications, where the signal is amplified every 50-100 kilometres or so, the soliton pulse is strongest just after the amplifier. Luckily this is where the bulk of the nonlinear interaction needed to maintain the soliton shape occurs. However, the pulse gets weaker as it propagates along the fibre, so the nonlinear interaction also becomes weakerand weaker. This means that dispersive effects become dominant until the next stage of amplification, where the nonlinearity takes over again. One problem is that quantum fluctuations in the amplifiers lead to random jumps in the central wavelength of the individual solitons, and this results in a random variation of the speed of individual solitons in the fibre. Several schemes have been devised to remove this excess noise and bring the train of solitons back to the orderly behaviour characteristic of a stable coherent state (e.g. the solitons could be passed through a spectral filter). Photon-number squeezing could also play a key role in solving this problem. For example, if the solitons are number-squeezed immediately after amplification, there will be a smaller uncertainty in the nonlinearity that keeps the soliton in shape and, therefore, there will also be less noise in the soliton. This

  17. Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bellac, Michel

    2006-03-01

    Quantum physics allows us to understand the nature of the physical phenomena which govern the behavior of solids, semi-conductors, lasers, atoms, nuclei, subnuclear particles and light. In Quantum Physics, Le Bellac provides a thoroughly modern approach to this fundamental theory. Throughout the book, Le Bellac teaches the fundamentals of quantum physics using an original approach which relies primarily on an algebraic treatment and on the systematic use of symmetry principles. In addition to the standard topics such as one-dimensional potentials, angular momentum and scattering theory, the reader is introduced to more recent developments at an early stage. These include a detailed account of entangled states and their applications, the optical Bloch equations, the theory of laser cooling and of magneto-optical traps, vacuum Rabi oscillations, and an introduction to open quantum systems. This is a textbook for a modern course on quantum physics, written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Completely original and contemporary approach, using algebra and symmetry principles Introduces recent developments at an early stage, including many topics that cannot be found in standard textbooks. Contains 130 physically relevant exercises

  18. Quantum minigolf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhard, Friedemann [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Institut

    2010-07-01

    Quantum minigolf is a virtual-reality computer game visualizing quantum mechanics. The rules are the same as for the classical game minigolf, the goal being to kick a ball such that it crosses an obstacle course and runs into a hole. The ball, however, follows the laws of quantum mechanics: It can be at several places at once or tunnel through obstacles. To know whether the ball has reached the goal, the player has to perform a position measurement, which converts the ball into a classical object and fixes its position. But quantum mechanics is indeterministic: There is always a chance to lose, even for Tiger Woods. Technically, the obstacle course and the ball are projected onto the floor by a video projector. The position of the club is tracked by an infrared marker, similar as in Nintendo's Wii console. The whole setup is portable and the software has been published under the GPL license on www.quantum-minigolf.org.

  19. Quantum walk computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer

  20. Stress: Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Martin, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The stress theorem determines the stress from the electronic ground state of any quantum system with arbitrary strains and atomic displacements. We derive this theorem in reciprocal space, within the local-density-functional approximation. The evaluation of stress, force and total energy permits, among other things, the determination of complete stress-strain relations including all microscopic internal strains. We describe results of ab-initio calculations for Si, Ge, and GaAs, giving the equilibrium lattice constant, all linear elastic constants c ij and the internal strain parameter ζ. (orig.)

  1. Quantum group gauge theory on quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.

    1993-01-01

    We construct quantum group-valued canonical connections on quantum homogeneous spaces, including a q-deformed Dirac monopole on the quantum sphere of Podles quantum differential coming from the 3-D calculus of Woronowicz on SU q (2). The construction is presented within the setting of a general theory of quantum principal bundles with quantum group (Hopf algebra) fiber, associated quantum vector bundles and connection one-forms. Both the base space (spacetime) and the total space are non-commutative algebras (quantum spaces). (orig.)

  2. Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.

  3. Renormalisation in Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Instantons and Quantum Chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Jirari, H.; Kröger, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Moriarty, K. J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We suggest how to construct non-perturbatively a renormalized action in quantum mechanics. We discuss similarties and differences with the standard effective action. We propose that the new quantum action is suitable to define and compute quantum instantons and quantum chaos.

  4. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Masanori; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Yukio; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Itoh, Harumi; Ishizaki, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  5. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melahat Görduysus

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA] and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl2 on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA; G3, Ca(OCl2 + Poly(AA-co-MA; G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05. In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05. EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions Poly(AA-co-MA is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl2.

  7. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  8. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics was developed during the first few decades of the twentieth century via a series of inspired guesses made by various physicists, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Dirac. All these scientists were trying to construct a self-consistent theory of microscopic dynamics that was compatible with experimental observations. The purpose of this book is to present quantum mechanics in a clear, concise, and systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical manner as possible. Topics covered in the book include the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, time-dependent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering theory, identical particles, and relativistic electron theory.

  9. Quantum Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Barrett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p45 Because of the conceptual difficulties it faces, quantum mechanics provides a salient example of how alternative metaphysical commitments may clarify our understanding of a physical theory and the explanations it provides. Here we will consider how postulating alternative quantum worlds in the context of Hugh Everett III’s pure wave mechanics may serve to explain determinate measurement records and the standard quantum statistics. We will focus on the properties of such worlds, then briefly consider other metaphysical options available for interpreting pure wave mechanics. These reflections will serve to illustrate both the nature and the limits of naturalized metaphysics.

  10. Quantum weirdness

    CERN Document Server

    Mullin, William J

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics allows a remarkably accurate description of nature and powerful predictive capabilities. The analyses of quantum systems and their interpretation lead to many surprises, for example, the ability to detect the characteristics of an object without ever touching it in any way, via "interaction-free measurement," or the teleportation of an atomic state over large distances. The results can become downright bizarre. Quantum mechanics is a subtle subject that usually involves complicated mathematics -- calculus, partial differential equations, etc., for complete understanding. Most texts for general audiences avoid all mathematics. The result is that the reader misses almost all deep understanding of the subject, much of which can be probed with just high-school level algebra and trigonometry. Thus, readers with that level of mathematics can learn so much more about this fundamental science. The book starts with a discussion of the basic physics of waves (an appendix reviews some necessary class...

  11. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, P K

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, mathematics and chemistry, provides a concise yet self-contained introduction to the formal framework of quantum mechanics, its application to physical problems and the interpretation of the theory. Starting with a review of some of the necessary mathematics, the basic concepts are carefully developed in the text. After building a general formalism, detailed treatment of the standard material - the harmonic oscillator, the hydrogen atom, angular momentum theory, symmetry transformations, approximation methods, identical particle and many-particle systems, and scattering theory - is presented. The concluding chapter discusses the interpretation of quantum mechanics. Some of the important topics discussed in the book are the rigged Hilbert space, deformation quantization, path integrals, coherent states, geometric phases, decoherene, etc. This book is characterized by clarity and coherence of presentation.

  13. Quantum waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This monograph explains the theory of quantum waveguides, that is, dynamics of quantum particles confined to regions in the form of tubes, layers, networks, etc. The focus is on relations between the confinement geometry on the one hand and the spectral and scattering properties of the corresponding quantum Hamiltonians on the other. Perturbations of such operators, in particular, by external fields are also considered. The volume provides a unique summary of twenty five years of research activity in this area and indicates ways in which the theory can develop further. The book is fairly self-contained. While it requires some broader mathematical physics background, all the basic concepts are properly explained and proofs of most theorems are given in detail, so there is no need for additional sources. Without a parallel in the literature, the monograph by Exner and Kovarik guides the reader through this new and exciting field.

  14. Introduction to quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Shau-Jin

    1990-01-01

    This book presents in a short volume the basics of quantum field theory and many body physics. The first part introduces the perturbative techniques without sophisticated apparatus and applies them to numerous problems including quantum electrodynamics (renormalization), Fermi and Bose gases, the Brueckner theory of nuclear system, liquid Helium and classical systems with noise. The material is clear, illustrative and the important points are stressed to help the reader get the understanding of what is crucial without overwhelming him with unnecessary detours or comments. The material in the s

  15. Quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Alastair I M

    2007-01-01

    PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC

  16. Quantum Chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Orsay (France)

    2005-04-18

    Are there quantum signatures, for instance in the spectral properties, of the underlying regular or chaotic nature of the corresponding classical motion? Are there universality classes? Within this framework the merging of two at first sight seemingly disconnected fields, namely random matrix theories (RMT) and quantum chaos (QC), is briefly described. Periodic orbit theory (POT) plays a prominent role. Emphasis is given to compound nucleus resonances and binding energies, whose shell effects are examined from this perspective. Several aspects are illustrated with Riemann's {zeta}-function, which has become a testing ground for RMT, QC, POT, and their relationship.

  17. Quantum Chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, Oriol

    2005-01-01

    Are there quantum signatures, for instance in the spectral properties, of the underlying regular or chaotic nature of the corresponding classical motion? Are there universality classes? Within this framework the merging of two at first sight seemingly disconnected fields, namely random matrix theories (RMT) and quantum chaos (QC), is briefly described. Periodic orbit theory (POT) plays a prominent role. Emphasis is given to compound nucleus resonances and binding energies, whose shell effects are examined from this perspective. Several aspects are illustrated with Riemann's ζ-function, which has become a testing ground for RMT, QC, POT, and their relationship

  18. Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Don N.

    2006-01-01

    A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...

  19. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  20. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  1. Quantum control limited by quantum decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Fei; Sun, C. P.; Yu, S. X.

    2006-01-01

    We describe quantum controllability under the influences of the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum control itself. It is shown that, when the controller is considered as a quantum system, it will entangle with its controlled system and then cause quantum decoherence in the controlled system. In competition with this induced decoherence, the controllability will be limited by some uncertainty relation in a well-armed quantum control process. In association with the phase uncertainty and the standard quantum limit, a general model is studied to demonstrate the possibility of realizing a decoherence-free quantum control with a finite energy within a finite time. It is also shown that if the operations of quantum control are to be determined by the initial state of the controller, then due to the decoherence which results from the quantum control itself, there exists a low bound for quantum controllability

  2. Quantum memory for images: A quantum hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2008-01-01

    Matter-light quantum interface and quantum memory for light are important ingredients of quantum information protocols, such as quantum networks, distributed quantum computation, etc. [P. Zoller et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 36, 203 (2005)]. In this paper we present a spatially multimode scheme for quantum memory for light, which we call a quantum hologram. Our approach uses a multiatom ensemble which has been shown to be efficient for a single spatial mode quantum memory. Due to the multiatom nature of the ensemble and to the optical parallelism it is capable of storing many spatial modes, a feature critical for the present proposal. A quantum hologram with the fidelity exceeding that of classical hologram will be able to store quantum features of an image, such as multimode superposition and entangled quantum states, something that a standard hologram is unable to achieve

  3. Quantum machine learning for quantum anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Rebentrost, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from "normal" data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas such as finance, fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning, and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine-learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely used algorithms are the kernel principal component analysis and the one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources that are logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine-learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.

  4. Does boundary quantum mechanics imply quantum mechanics in the bulk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad

    2018-03-01

    Perturbative bulk reconstruction in AdS/CFT starts by representing a free bulk field ϕ (0) as a smeared operator in the CFT. A series of 1 /N corrections must be added to ϕ (0) to represent an interacting bulk field ϕ. These corrections have been determined in the literature from several points of view. Here we develop a new perspective. We show that correlation functions involving ϕ (0) suffer from ambiguities due to analytic continuation. As a result ϕ (0) fails to be a well-defined linear operator in the CFT. This means bulk reconstruction can be understood as a procedure for building up well-defined operators in the CFT which thereby singles out the interacting field ϕ. We further propose that the difficulty with defining ϕ (0) as a linear operator can be re-interpreted as a breakdown of associativity. Presumably ϕ (0) can only be corrected to become an associative operator in perturbation theory. This suggests that quantum mechanics in the bulk is only valid in perturbation theory around a semiclassical bulk geometry.

  5. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  6. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Sophia; Kumar, Prahlad; Chauhan, Lakbir Singh; Vollepore, Balasangameshwara Hanumanthappa; Kizhakkethil, Unnikrishnan Pallikkara; Rao, Sumathi Govinda

    2010-04-06

    Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance. Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44)], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92)], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09)], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63)], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44)], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64)], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57)], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47)] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1.14-2.6)]. Majority of

  7. Myoepithelial Cells: Any role in aspiration cytology smears of breast tumors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattari Sanjib

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims and Objective To study the role of myoepithelial (ME cells in distinguishing benign, proliferative breast diseases (PBD and frank malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods In this study, histology proven 71 cases of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of palpable breast lesions were selected. There were 30 invasive carcinomas (24 infiltrating duct carcinoma and 6 infiltrating lobular carcinoma, 25 cases of benign lesion (21 fibroadenomas and 4 fibrocystic lesions and 11 proliferative breast diseases (other than carcinoma in situ and five cases of carcinoma in situ. The number of ME cells were estimated in respect to 1000 ductal cells. In every case at least 20 high power fields (× 40 were studied. Quantitative estimation of ME cell was correlated with the final diagnosis. Corresponding histopathology cases were also evaluated for diagnostic confirmation along with the pattern of distribution of ME cells. The ME cells were also quantitated on histopathology sections on smooth muscle actin (SMA immunostained sections. Results The mean number of ME cells per 1000 ductal cells on cytology smears was 5.1 ± 5.5, 30.8 ± 25, 28.3 ± 20.2, and 38.4 ± 38.8 in malignant, carcinoma in situ, PBD and benign breast lesions respectively. The non parametric Mann Whitney test showed significant difference in number of the ME cells between benign and malignant groups (p .01. In SMA stained histopathology sections, ME cell in benign, PBD, carcinoma in situ and malignant cases were 741.12 ± 248, 238 ± 172, 121.6 ± 115 and 15.6 ± 25.1 respectively. Statistical analysis showed significantly different number of ME cell between benign versus PBD group, carcinoma in situ and malignant group. It was also significant between PBD versus malignant, and carcinoma in situ versus malignant (p Conclusion The number of ME cell in breast lesions may be helpful in distinguishing PBD versus invasive malignant tumors on FNAC smears. However it is not

  8. Myoepithelial Cells : Any role in aspiration cytology smears of breast tumors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattari Sanjib

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: To study the role of myoepithelial (ME cells in distinguishing benign, proliferative breast diseases (PBD and frank malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: In this study, histology proven 71 cases of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of palpable breast lesions were selected. There were 30 invasive carcinomas (24 infiltrating duct carcinoma and 6 infiltrating lobular carcinoma, 25 cases of benign lesion (21 fibroadenomas and 4 fibrocystic lesions and 11 proliferative breast diseases (other than carcinoma in situ and five cases of carcinoma in situ. The number of ME cells were estimated in respect to 1000 ductal cells. In every case at least 20 high power fields (x 40 were studied. Quantitative estimation of ME cell was correlated with the final diagnosis. Corresponding histopathology cases were also evaluated for diagnostic confirmation along with the pattern of distribution of ME cells. The ME cells were also quantitated on histopathology sections on smooth muscle actin (SMA immunostained sections. Results: The mean number of ME cells per 1000 ductal cells on cytology smears was 5.1 ± 5.5, 30.8 ± 25, 28.3 ± 20.2, and 38.4 ± 38.8 in malignant, carcinoma in situ, PBD and benign breast lesions respectively. The non parametric Mann Whitney test showed significant difference in number of the ME cells between benign and malignant groups (p < .000, PBD and malignant groups (p < .000 and carcinoma in situ and malignant group (p < .001. However, it was insignificant between benign and PBD group, and PBD and carcinoma in situ (p > .01. In SMA stained histopathology sections, ME cell in benign, PBD, carcinoma in situ and malignant cases were 741.12 ± 248, 238 ± 172, 121.6 ± 115 and 15.6 ± 25.1 respectively. Statistical analysis showed significantly different number of ME cell between benign versus PBD group, carcinoma in situ and malignant group. It was also significant between PBD versus malignant, and carcinoma in

  9. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  10. Risk factors associated with default among new smear positive TB patients treated under DOTS in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Vijay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Poor treatment adherence leading to risk of drug resistance, treatment failure, relapse, death and persistent infectiousness remains an impediment to the tuberculosis control programmes. The objective of the study was to identify predictors of default among new smear positive TB patients registered for treatment to suggest possible interventions to set right the problems to sustain and enhance the programme performance.Twenty districts selected from six states were assigned to six strata formed, considering the geographic, socio-cultural and demographic setup of the area. New smear positive patients registered for treatment in two consecutive quarters during III quarter 2004 to III quarter 2005 formed the retrospective study cohort. Case control analysis was done including defaulted patients as "cases" and equal number of age and sex matched patients completing treatment as "controls". The presence and degree of association between default and determinant factors was computed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Data collection was through patient interviews using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire and review of treatment related records. Information on a wide range of socio demographic and patient related factors was obtained. Among the 687 defaulted and equal numbers of patients in completed group, 389 and 540 patients respectively were satisfactorily interviewed. In the logistic regression analysis, factors independently associated with default were alcoholism [AOR-1.72 (1.23-2.44], illiteracy [AOR-1.40 (1.03-1.92], having other commitments during treatment [AOR-3.22 (1.1-9.09], inadequate knowledge of TB [AOR-1.88(1.35-2.63], poor patient provider interaction [AOR-1.72(1.23-2.44], lack of support from health staff [AOR-1.93(1.41-2.64], having instances of missed doses [AOR-2.56(1.82-3.57], side effects to anti TB drugs [AOR-2.55 (1.87-3.47] and dissatisfaction with services provided [AOR-1.73 (1

  11. Compliance with Papanicolaou smear screening following tubal ligation in women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H A; Anderson, P S; Fields, A L; Runowicz, C D; DeVictoria, C; Goldberg, G L

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate patient compliance with Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening after tubal ligation compared with other methods of birth control in patients who develop cervical cancer, a retrospective review of 262 women with cervical cancer diagnosed at age Albert Einstein College of Medicine from January 1987 to December 1995. Demographic data, stage of the disease, histologic type, history of smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), and birth control use were recorded. The Pap screening history was obtained from all the patients. Women who had a bilateral tubal ligation (BTL) were compared with those who did not have this form of birth control. The date and result of their last Pap test prior to their diagnosis of cervical cancer was noted. Two hundred fourteen women with cervical cancer were evaluable. The clinical stage, mean age, history of smoking, and history of STD were similar for both groups. Gravidity among the BTL group was higher than in the non-BTL group (p < 0.01). Forty-eight (22.4%) women had a previous BTL. Twenty-seven of these 48 patients (56.3%) did not have a Pap smear within 3 years prior to the diagnosis of cervical cancer. Of the 166 patients, 61 (36.7%) did not have a Pap test within 3 years (p < 0.05). Fourteen women (29.2%) in the tubal ligation group never returned for a Pap test following the BTL. An average of 6.2+/-5.9 years elapsed since the last Pap test in the BTL group, with 4.0+/-5.1 years in the nontubal ligation group (p < 0.05). There was a correlation between the number of years since BTL (14.2+/-7.7) to the number of years since the last Pap test (6.2+/-5.9) (p < 0.05). Women who have had a BTL should be considered high risk because of poor screening compliance. A Pap test every 3 years is not adequate in this high-risk population group. We advocate improved counseling regarding the importance of continued annual Pap screening for women who are considering tubal ligation.

  12. Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe.   While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.   ...

  13. Path integrals for electronic densities, reactivity indices, and localization functions in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V

    2009-11-10

    The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr's quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions - all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems.

  14. Path Integrals for Electronic Densities, Reactivity Indices, and Localization Functions in Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving many-electronic systems.

  15. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  16. Quantum Computation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 821-835. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    performance driven optimization ofVLSI ... start-up company at lIT. Mumbai. ... 1 The best known algorithms for factorization ... make a measurement the quantum state continues to be ... cally in this way: if there is a source producing identical.

  18. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  19. Quantum logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelstaedt, P.

    1979-01-01

    The subspaces of Hilbert space constitute an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice Lsub(q) for which neither a two-valued function nor generalized truth function exist. A generalisation of the dialogic method can be used as an interpretation of a lattice Lsub(qi), which may be considered as the intuitionistic part of Lsub(q). Some obvious modifications of the dialogic method are introduced which come from the possible incommensurability of propositions about quantum mechanical systems. With the aid of this generalized dialogic method a propositional calculus Qsub(eff) is derived which is similar to the calculus of effective (intuitionistic) logic, but contains a few restrictions which are based on the incommensurability of quantum mechanical propositions. It can be shown within the framework of the calculus Qsub(eff) that the value-definiteness of the elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical propositions is inherited by all finite compund propositions. In this way one arrives at the calculus Q of full quantum logic which incorporates the principle of excluded middle for all propositions and which is a model for the lattice Lsub(q). (Auth.)

  20. Quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Burba, M.; Lapitskaya, T.

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an elementary introduction to quantum computing. It is a draft for a book chapter of the "Handbook of Nature-Inspired and Innovative Computing", Eds. A. Zomaya, G.J. Milburn, J. Dongarra, D. Bader, R. Brent, M. Eshaghian-Wilner, F. Seredynski (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006).

  1. Quantum Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Binder, K; Ciccotti, G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this set of lectures is to introduce the general concepts that are at the basis of the computer simulation algorithms that are used to study the behavior of condensed matter quantum systems. The emphasis is on the underlying concepts rather than on specific applications. Topics

  2. Quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, A.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium included lectures covering both the elements and the experimental tests of the theory of quantum chromdynamics. A three day topical conference was included which included the first results from PETRA as well as the latest reports from CERN, Fermilab, and SPEAR experiments. Twenty-one items from the symposium were prepared separately for the data base

  3. Quantum Statistical Mechanics on a Quantum Computer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De; Hams, A.H.; Michielsen, K.; Miyashita, S.; Saito, K.; Saito, E.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a simulation method for a quantum spin model of a generic, general purpose quantum computer. The use of this quantum computer simulator is illustrated through several implementations of Grover’s database search algorithm. Some preliminary results on the stability of quantum algorithms

  4. Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.

  5. Quantum Chaos via the Quantum Action

    OpenAIRE

    Kröger, H.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the concept of the quantum action with the purpose to characterize and quantitatively compute quantum chaos. As an example we consider in quantum mechanics a 2-D Hamiltonian system - harmonic oscillators with anharmonic coupling - which is classically a chaotic system. We compare Poincar\\'e sections obtained from the quantum action with those from the classical action.

  6. Quantum optics and fundamentals of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, M.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum optics has opened up new opportunities for experimental verification of the basic principles of quantum mechanics, particularly in the field of quantum interference and so-called non-local phenomena. The results of the experiments described provide unambiguous support to quantum mechanics. (Z.J.)

  7. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  8. Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenghan

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.

  9. Quantum net dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, D.

    1989-01-01

    The quantum net unifies the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity in a quantum spacetime having no ultraviolet infinities, supporting the Dirac equation, and having the usual vacuum as a quantum condensation. A correspondence principle connects nets to Schwinger sources and further unifies the vertical structure of the theory, so that the functions of the many hierarchic levels of quantum field theory (predicate algebra, set theory, topology,hor-ellipsis, quantum dynamics) are served by one in quantum net dynamics

  10. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  11. Assessment of sputum smear-positive but culture-negative results among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyambwa NP

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicholaus Peter Mnyambwa,1,2 Esther S Ngadaya,2 Godfather Kimaro,2 Dong-Jin Kim,1 Rudovick Kazwala,3 Pammla Petrucka,1,4 Sayoki G Mfinanga2 1School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania; 2National Institute for Medical Research, Muhimbili Medical Research Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada Abstract: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in technology-limited countries is widely achieved by smear microscopy, which has limited sensitivity and specificity. The frequency and clinical implication of smear-positive but culture-negative among presumptive TB patients remains unclear. A cross-sectional substudy was conducted which aimed to identify the proportion of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infections among 94 “smear-positive culture-negative” patients diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in selected health facilities in Tanzania. Out of 94 sputa, 25 (26.60% were GeneXpert® mycobacteria TB positive and 11/94 (11.70% repeat-culture positive; 5 were Capilia TB-Neo positive and confirmed by GenoType MTBC to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis/Mycobacterium canettii. The remaining 6 Capilia TB-Neo negative samples were genotyped by GenoType® CM/AS, identifying 3 (3.19% NTM, 2 Gram positive bacteria, and 1 isolate testing negative, together, making a total of 6/94 (6.38% confirmed false smear-positives. Twenty-eight (29.79% were confirmed TB cases, while 60 (63.83% remained unconfirmed cases. Out of 6 (6.38% patients who were HIV positive, 2 patients were possibly coinfected with mycobacteria. The isolation of NTM and other bacteria among smear-positive culture-negative samples and the presence of over two third of unconfirmed TB cases emphasize the need of both advanced differential TB diagnostic techniques and

  12. Quantum optics with single quantum dot devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiller, Valery; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    A single radiative transition in a single-quantum emitter results in the emission of a single photon. Single quantum dots are single-quantum emitters with all the requirements to generate single photons at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It is also possible to generate more than single photons with single quantum dots. In this paper we show that single quantum dots can be used to generate non-classical states of light, from single photons to photon triplets. Advanced solid state structures can be fabricated with single quantum dots as their active region. We also show results obtained on devices based on single quantum dots

  13. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Wang, Jingbo B.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor. PMID:27146471

  14. Quantum Secure Dialogue with Quantum Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Tian-Yu

    2014-01-01

    How to solve the information leakage problem has become the research focus of quantum dialogue. In this paper, in order to overcome the information leakage problem in quantum dialogue, a novel approach for sharing the initial quantum state privately between communicators, i.e., quantum encryption sharing, is proposed by utilizing the idea of quantum encryption. The proposed protocol uses EPR pairs as the private quantum key to encrypt and decrypt the traveling photons, which can be repeatedly used after rotation. Due to quantum encryption sharing, the public announcement on the state of the initial quantum state is omitted, thus the information leakage problem is overcome. The information-theoretical efficiency of the proposed protocol is nearly 100%, much higher than previous information leakage resistant quantum dialogue protocols. Moreover, the proposed protocol only needs single-photon measurements and nearly uses single photons as quantum resource so that it is convenient to implement in practice. (general)

  15. Comparison of predicted far-field temperatures for discrete and smeared heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental concern in the design of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Nevada is the response of the host rock to the emplacement of heat-generating waste. The thermal perturbation of the rock mass has implications regarding the structural, hydrologic. and geochemical performance of the potential repository. The phenomenological coupling of many of these performance aspects makes repository thermal modeling a difficult task. For many of the more complex, coupled models, it is often necessary to reduce the geometry of the potential repository to a smeared heat-source approximation. Such simplifications have impacts on induced thermal profiles that in turn may influence other predicted responses through one- or two-way thermal couplings. The effect of waste employment layout on host-rock thermal was chosen as the primary emphasis of this study. Using a consistent set of modeling and input assumptions, far-field thermal response predictions made for discrete-source as well as plate source approximations of the repository geometry. Input values used in the simulations are consistent with a design-basis a real power density (APD) of 80 kW/acre as would be achieved assuming a 2010 emplacement start date, a levelized receipt schedule, and a limitation on available area as published in previous design studies. It was found that edge effects resulting from general repository layout have a significant influence on the shapes and extents of isothermal profiles, and should be accounted for in far-field modeling efforts

  16. A study of megakaryocyte morphology in bone marrow aspiration smears of cases of thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala Vinayakamurthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia may be encountered in various hematological and nonhematological conditions and may be associated with dysplastic megakaryocytes which is a feature of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, even though they can be observed in non-MDS hematological conditions. Objective: To study the morphological variations of megakaryocytes on bone marrow aspiration smears in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia in a Medical College in Bengaluru, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective study of 86 cases of non-MDS thrombocytopenia whose bone marrow aspirates were studied morphologically. Results: The most common cause of thrombocytopenia was acute leukemia followed by other systemic malignancies, megaloblastic anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Both dysplastic and nondysplastic features were observed in the above-mentioned conditions. The most common dysplastic feature was nuclear segmentation followed by micromegakaryocytes and hypogranular forms. Among nondysplastic features, the most common were immature forms, bare nuclei, and hypolobation. Emperipolesis and cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in a case of pyrexia of unknown origin. Conclusion: Dysplastic megakaryocytes are common in non-MDS-related thrombocytopenia and their mere presence should not lead to the diagnosis of MDS. Hence, proper diagnosis should be made on megakaryocyte morphology, patient's clinical findings, and other hematological parameters. This understanding can improve the diagnostic accuracy for wide range of hematological disorders.

  17. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  18. Detection of thalassemia genes using smeared blood film or leukocytes adhering to polysthylene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, N; Yokota, M; Shindoh, K; Funahara, Y; Nathalang, O; Sukpanichnant, S; Bunyaratvej, A; Fucharoen, S

    1997-01-01

    Presently genetic analyses for thalassemia types require relatively large amounts of heparinized blood (5 to 10 ml), and transport as well as degeneration of these sample is a problem in the developing world. We have developed a new method to simplify this procedure and obtain DNAs from small specimens. As experimental materials, thinly smeared blood on a glass slide or blood filtered with and adhered on polysthylene telephtalate (PST) fibers were used. These materials could be safely stored without interfering with DNA extraction for up to 3 months. The slide materials were digested with proteinase K, and DNA was extracted with Tris-EDTA-phenol:chloroform and precipitated with absolute ethanol. The PST specimens were washed with physiologic saline and treated in the same manner as described above. Products were easily amplified by PCR and digested with restriction endonucleases for beta thalassemia typing as well as for HLA-DQA1 gene typing. Results obtained by this method correlated well with previously reported incidences for thalassemia and HLA-DQA1 types in Thailand. This method can be used in the routine laboratory because it allows for stable and biosafe genetic analyses.

  19. Rapid monitoring of soil, smears, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental conditions to permit rapid monitoring of soils, smears, and air dusts for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides under field conditions are described. The monitoring technique involves direct measurement of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry using a large-area detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present. The direct alpha spectrometry employs a circular gridded ionization chamber 35 cm in diameter which accommodates either a circular sample holder 25 cm in diameter or a rectangular one 20 by 25 cm (8 by 10 in.). Soils or settled dusts are finely ground, suspended in 30% ethanol, and sprayed onto a 25-cm stainless steel dish. Air dusts are collected with a high-volume sampler onto 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. Removable contamination is collected from surfaces onto a 20- by 25-cm filter using an 18-cm (7-in.) paint roller to hold the large filter in contact with the surface during sample collection. All three types of samples are then counted directly in the alpha spectrometer and no other sample preparation is necessary. Some results obtained are described

  20. Region-based multifocus image fusion for the precise acquisition of Pap smear images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Mijares, Santiago; Bescós, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    A multifocus image fusion method to obtain a single focused image from a sequence of microscopic high-magnification Papanicolau source (Pap smear) images is presented. These images, captured each in a different position of the microscope lens, frequently show partially focused cells or parts of cells, which makes them unpractical for the direct application of image analysis techniques. The proposed method obtains a focused image with a high preservation of original pixels information while achieving a negligible visibility of the fusion artifacts. The method starts by identifying the best-focused image of the sequence; then, it performs a mean-shift segmentation over this image; the focus level of the segmented regions is evaluated in all the images of the sequence, and best-focused regions are merged in a single combined image; finally, this image is processed with an adaptive artifact removal process. The combination of a region-oriented approach, instead of block-based approaches, and a minimum modification of the value of focused pixels in the original images achieve a highly contrasted image with no visible artifacts, which makes this method especially convenient for the medical imaging domain. The proposed method is compared with several state-of-the-art alternatives over a representative dataset. The experimental results show that our proposal obtains the best and more stable quality indicators. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  1. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H.; Bulava, J.; Foley, J.; Juge, K.J.; Peardon, M.

    2011-08-01

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z N noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24 3 x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a s ∝0.12 fm and temporal spacing a t ∝0.034 fm for pion masses m π ∼ 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  2. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  3. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bulava, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Foley, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Juge, K.J. [University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Peardon, M. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics

    2011-08-15

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z{sub N} noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24{sup 3} x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a{sub s} {proportional_to}0.12 fm and temporal spacing a{sub t} {proportional_to}0.034 fm for pion masses m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  4. Quantum key distribution via quantum encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Yong Sheng Zhang; Guang Can Guo

    2001-01-01

    A quantum key distribution protocol based on quantum encryption is presented in this Brief Report. In this protocol, the previously shared Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs act as the quantum key to encode and decode the classical cryptography key. The quantum key is reusable and the eavesdropper cannot elicit any information from the particle Alice sends to Bob. The concept of quantum encryption is also discussed. (21 refs).

  5. Quantum random walks using quantum accelerator modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.-Y.; Burnett, K.; D'Arcy, M. B.; Gardiner, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the use of high-order quantum accelerator modes to achieve an atom optical realization of a biased quantum random walk. We first discuss how one can create coexistent quantum accelerator modes, and hence how momentum transfer that depends on the atoms' internal state can be achieved. When combined with microwave driving of the transition between the states, a different type of atomic beam splitter results. This permits the realization of a biased quantum random walk through quantum accelerator modes

  6. Quantum chemistry on a superconducting quantum processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaicher, Michael P.; Wilhelm, Frank K. [Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Love, Peter J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Quantum chemistry is the most promising civilian application for quantum processors to date. We study its adaptation to superconducting (sc) quantum systems, computing the ground state energy of LiH through a variational hybrid quantum classical algorithm. We demonstrate how interactions native to sc qubits further reduce the amount of quantum resources needed, pushing sc architectures as a near-term candidate for simulations of more complex atoms/molecules.

  7. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  8. On the geometry of inhomogeneous quantum groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschieri, Paolo [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)

    1998-01-01

    The author gives a pedagogical introduction to the differential calculus on quantum groups by stressing at all stages the connection with the classical case. He further analyzes the relation between differential calculus and quantum Lie algebra of left (right) invariant vectorfields. Equivalent definitions of bicovariant differential calculus are studied and their geometrical interpretation is explained. From these data he constructs and analyzes the space of vectorfields, and naturally introduces a contraction operator and a Lie derivative. Their properties are discussed.

  9. Nonlinear Michelson interferometer for improved quantum metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    We examine quantum detection via a Michelson interferometer embedded in a gas with Kerr nonlinearity. This nonlinear interferometer is illuminated by pulses of classical light. This strategy combines the robustness against practical imperfections of classical light with the improvement provided by nonlinear processes. Regarding ultimate quantum limits, we stress that, as a difference with linear schemes, the nonlinearity introduces pulse duration as a new variable into play along with the ene...

  10. Smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB examination practices according to the standard checklist of WHO's tuberculosis laboratory assessment tool in three governmental hospitals, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Abiyu

    2014-05-13

    Using the Directly Observed Treatment-Short course (DOTS) program the World Health Organization's global target was to detect 70% of new sputum-smear positive PTB cases. Smear positive PTB cases are more infectious than the smear negative cases. The TB case detection rate remains very low in Ethiopia, but there are increases in smear-negative PTB diagnosis which could be attributed to several factors including poor quality of sputum smear-microscopy. A five years retrospective record review of data between September, 2007 and August, 2012 and an in-depth assessment of AFB staining practices of sputum smear using a standard checklist were made. The proportion of smear positive cases relative to overall Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) screened was determined over a five year period to indicate the overall prevalence and the trend. Odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval was calculated for categorical variables using multivariate Logistic Regression model to assess the strength of association. A total of 1266 individuals' data were reviewed. The majority of the study participants were male, 704 (55.6%), and rural residents, 690 (54.5%). The overall prevalence rate of smear positive PTB was 21.6%. Age categories between 15-24 and 25-34 years were independent predictors of smear positive PTB with adjusted odds ratio of 2.246 [95% CI (1.098-4.597)] and 2.267 [95% CI (1.107-4.642)], respectively. More males were affected by PTB than females with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.426 [95% CI (1.083-1.879)]. An in-depth interview with the respective laboratory chiefs showed that quality control measures for sputum smear microscopy were used at different levels of the testing activities; however, equipment function verification as a quality control measure was not accomplished regularly in all of the study hospital laboratories. The smear positive PTB case detection rate indicated in this study is significantly lower than the countries which met the 70% target of the World Health

  11. Microscopic evaluation of methods of fixation and preservation of vaginal smears taken from normal women submitted to radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, O.L.N.; Baruffi, I.; Valeri, V.; Parente, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were evaluated for fixation and conservation of vaginal smears of normal and irradiated women for periods as long as four months. An initial fixation was used with 95% alcohol for 24 hours followed by either air storage or 0,5% alcohol - ether celoidina solution coating. It is concluded that through microscopic evaluation, the smears of non-irradiated women treated by both methods in long run observation are only worthwhile for oncotic studies. On the other hand, the smears of irradiated women are not valid either for hormonal or oncotic analysis. (Author) [pt

  12. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in Alexandria, Egypt. A cytological and molecular study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhy Elkharashy

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of HPV 16/18 in cytologically abnormal cervical smears in women seeking routine gynecologic care at the outpatient clinics of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department at El Shatby University. High-risk HPV DNA testing by PCR of cervical samples diagnosed according to the Bethesda 2001 guidelines may benefit the management of patients with abnormal cervical smears, especially among women aged 46 years and older, in menopausal women and in women complaining of PMB. Therefore, HPV DNA testing should be made use of as an adjunct to cervical smears.

  13. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S; Devi, S; Shriyan, A; Rajaram, M; Jagdishchandra, K

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%), and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0%) was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5%) women by smear alone and 88 (17.42%) women by semiquantitative culture.

  14. Comparative study of Gram stain, potassium hydroxide smear, culture and nested PCR in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Nejabat, Mahmood; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Keshavarz, Fatemeh; Shakiba, Elaheh

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy and practicality of the molecular method, compared to the standard microbiological techniques for diagnosing fungal keratitis (FK). Patients with eye findings suspected of FK were enrolled for cornea sampling. Scrapings from the affected areas of the infected corneas were obtained and were divided into two parts: one for smears and cultures, and the other for nested PCR analysis. Of the 38 eyes, 28 were judged to have fungal infections based on clinical and positive findings in the culture, smear and responses to antifungal treatment. Potassium hydroxide, Gram staining, culture and nested PCR results (either positive or negative) matched in 76.3, 42.1, 68.4 and 81.6%, respectively. PCR is a sensitive method but due to the lack of sophisticated facilities in routine laboratory procedures, it can serve only complementarily and cannot replace conventional methods. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C; Skouby, S O

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade...... I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment...... in their cervical smears at 12 months' follow-up was identical in the two groups, supporting the hypothesis that HPV is a persistent infection during which the virus is widespread in the vaginal epithelium....

  16. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  17. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  18. Physics of quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Khrustalev, O.A.; Sadovnichij, V.A.; Timofeevskaya, O.D.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper, the modern status of the theory of quantum computation is considered. The fundamental principles of quantum computers and their basic notions such as quantum processors and computational basis states of the quantum Turing machine as well as the quantum Fourier transform are discussed. Some possible experimental realizations on the basis of NMR methods are given

  19. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rao P; Devi S; Shriyan A; Rajaram M; Jagdishchandra K

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalenc...

  20. The value of colposcopy, high risk HPV-DNA and histopathologic examination in the management of abnormal Pap smear results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vugar Bayramov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pap smear test is a major screening test for early diagnosis and treatment of cervix cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the value of HPV-DNA, colposcopy and histopathologic examination in the management of patients with abnormal cervical cytology. Materials and methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Ankara University Cebeci Hospital gynecology outpatient clinic. The study compremised 86 patients with smear results of ASCUS, AGC, L-SIL and H-SIL. Age, gravity, parity, age at first coitus, smoking status, number of partners, high risk HPV-DNA status and pathologic colposcopy findings were investigated. Results: Mean age of the patients was 35 years and the most common abnormal smear result was ASCUS, with 55 patients (63%. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding demographic characteristics except age at first coitus and pathologic colposcopy findings. Among patients diagnosed as ASCUS 34.5% had been up-graded with histopathologic examination. Among patients diagnosed as L-SIL 73.6% had been down-graded with histopathologic examination. However, after the histopathologic exam of 9 H-SIL patients two (22.2% were diagnosed as CIN II, two (22.2% were diagnosed as CIN III and one (11.1% was diagnosed as cervical cancer. In the groups of ASCUS, L-SIL and H-SIL the presence of high risk HPV-DNA were 11%, 5% and 33%, respectively. Conclusion: If we are sure that the patient will attend the follow-up visits, then fort he ones with ASCUS and L-SIL a repeat smear test would be the appropriate. However, in the management of patients with H-SIL colposcopic biopsy would be the best approach.

  1. Smear layer removal capacity of disinfectant solutions used with and without EDTA for the irrigation of canals: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes Ana Carolina Silveira Cardoso de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to carry out a scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the cleaning qualities and smear layer removal from root canal walls, instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, 2.0% chlorhexidine and saline solutions. Fifty extracted teeth were used in this study. All teeth were radiographed to determine the existence of a single canal. The crowns were cut at the cervical limit and the root canals were instrumented with K-type files up to size 45. During root canal preparation, irrigations were made with the different solutions being evaluated: Group 1: 2.5% NaOCl (10 roots; Group 2: 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA for 2 minute (10 roots; Group 3: 2.0% chlorhexidine (10 roots; Group 4: 2.0% chlorhexidine and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (10 roots; Group 5: saline solution (5 roots; Group 6: saline solution and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes (5 roots. After instrumentation, the canals were irrigated with each one of the solutions and the roots were cut in the buccolingual direction for SEM analysis, at the cervical, middle and apical thirds, to ascertain the presence or absence of smear layer and debris. SEM analysis was performed by three calibrated examiners and scores were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis test at the significance level of p = 5%. Results showed that the use of 17% EDTA decreased the smear layer significantly (p < 0.05 for all evaluated solutions in all thirds. When EDTA was not used, a significantly higher quantity of smear layer on the apical third was observed only in the NaOCl groups. The use of 17% EDTA was significant for debris removal except for the chlorhexidine groups. The following conclusion could be drawn: the use of 17% EDTA was necessary to enhance cleanness of the root canals.

  2. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Basic ideas of quantum electrodynamics history of its origination and its importance are outlined. It is shown low the notion of the field for each kind of particles and the notion of vacuum for such field had originated and been affirmed how a new language of the Feynman diagrams had appeared without which it is quite impossible to described complex processes of particle scattering and mutual transformation. The main problem of the quantum electrodynamics is to find a scattering matrix, which solution comes to the determination of the Green electrodynamic functions. A review is given of papers on clarifying the asymptotic behaviour of the Green electrodynamic functions in the range of high pulses, on studying the Compton effect, bremsstrahlung irradiation Raman light scattering elastic scattering during channeling of charged particles in a crystal

  3. Quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    2009-01-01

    This textbook on Quantum Electrodynamics is a thorough introductory text providing all necessary mathematical tools together with many examples and worked problems. In their presentation of the subject the authors adopt a heuristic approach based on the propagator formalism. The latter is introduced in the first two chapters in both its nonrelativistic and relativistic versions. Subsequently, a large number of scattering and radiation processes involving electrons, positrons, and photons are introduced and their theoretical treatment is presented in great detail. Higher order processes and renormalization are also included. The book concludes with a discussion of two-particle states and the interaction of spinless bosons. This completely revised and corrected new edition provides several additions to enable deeper insight in formalism and application of quantum electrodynamics.

  4. Quantum psyche

    CERN Document Server

    Baaquie, Belal E; Demongeot, J; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana; Martin, F; Teodorani, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century Sigmund Freud discovered that our acts and choices are not only decisions of our consciousness, but that they are also deeply determined by our unconscious (the so-called "Freudian unconscious"). During a long correspondence between them (1932-1958) Wolfgang Pauli and Carl Gustav Jung speculated that the unconscious could be a quantum system. This book is addressed both to all those interested in the new developments of the age-old enquiry in the relations between mind and matter, and also to the experts in quantum physics that are interested in a formalisation of this new approach. The description of the "Bilbao experiment" adds a very interesting experimental inquiry into the synchronicity effect in a group situation, linking theory to a quantifiable verification of these subtle effects. Cover design: "Entangled Minds". Riccardo Carminati Galli, 2014.

  5. Quantum Squeezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubairy, Suhail

    2005-01-01

    Quantum squeezed states are a consequence of uncertainty relations; a state is squeezed when the noise in one variable is reduced below the symmetric limit at the expense of the increased noise in the conjugate variable such that the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is not violated. Such states have been known since the earliest days of quantum mechanics. The realization in the early 80's that quantum squeezed states of the radiation field can have important applications in high precision Michelson interferometry for detecting gravitational waves led to a tremendous amount of activity, both in theoretical and experimental quantum optics. The present volume, edited by two eminent scientists, is a collection of papers by leading experts in the field of squeezed states on different aspects of the field as it stands today. The book is divided into three parts. In the first part, there are three articles that review the fundamentals. The first paper by Knight and Buzek presents an introductory account of squeezed states and their properties. The chapter, which opens with the quantization of the radiation field, goes on to discuss the quantum optical properties of single mode and multimode squeezed states. The second article by Hillery provides a detailed description of field quantization in the presence of a nonlinear dielectric medium, thus providing a rigorous treatment of squeezing in nonlinear media. The third article by Yurke presents a comprehensive discussion of the input-output theory of the squeezed radiation at the dielectric boundaries. The second part of the book, comprising of three articles, deals with the generation of squeezed states. In the first article, Drummond reviews the squeezing properties of light in nonlinear systems such as parametric oscillators. He also discusses squeezed light propagation through waveguides and optical fibers. In the second article, Ralph concentrates on active laser sources of squeezing and presents an analysis based on the

  6. Quantum hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serot, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    It is therefore essential to develop reliable nuclear models that go beyond the traditional non-relativistic many-body framework. The arguments for renormalizable models based on hadronic degrees of freedom (quantum hadrodynamics) are presented, and the assumptions underlying this framework are discussed. The Walecka model, which contains neutrons, protons, and neutral scalar and vector mesons, is considered first as a simple example. The development is based on the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations, and their application to infinite matter and atomic nuclei. Some successes of this model are discussed, such as the nuclear equation of state, the derivation of the shell model, the prediction of nuclear properties throughout the periodic table, and the inclusion of zero-point vacuum corrections. The important concepts of Lorentz covariance and self-consistency are emphasized and the new dynamical features that arise in a relativistic many-body framework are highlighted. The computation of isoscalar magnetic moments is presented as an illustrative example. Calculations beyond the relativistic mean-field and Hartree approximations (for example, Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner) are considered next, as well as recent efforts to incorporate the full role of the quantum vacuum in a consistent fashion. An extended model containing isovector pi and rho mesons is then developed; the dynamics is based on the chirally invariant linear sigma model. The difficulties in constructing realistic chiral descriptions of nuclear matter and nuclei are analysed, and the connection between the sigma model and the Walecka model is established. Finally, the relationship between quantum hadrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics is briefly addressed. (Author)

  7. Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Haroche, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From the infinitely small to the infinitely big, covering over 60 spatial orders of magnitude, quantum theory is used as much to describe the still largely mysterious vibrations of the microscopic strings that could be the basic constituents of the Universe, as to explain the fluctuations of the microwave radiation reaching us from the depths of outer space. Serge Haroche tells us about the scientific theory that revolutionised our understanding of nature and made an extraordinary contributio...

  8. Quantum Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schaden

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is used to model secondary financial markets. Contrary to stochastic descriptions, the formalism emphasizes the importance of trading in determining the value of a security. All possible realizations of investors holding securities and cash is taken as the basis of the Hilbert space of market states. The temporal evolution of an isolated market is unitary in this space. Linear operators representing basic financial transactions such as cash transfer and the buying or selling of...

  9. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau′s smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ehsanul Hoque

    2013-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to find association and the significant predictor for doing Pap smear test. Results: Over half (53.3% of the participants had heard about cervical cancer and its detection method. More than half (60% and over a third (37.8% of the participants knew about human papilloma virus (HPV and multiple sexual partner respectively as risk factors for cervical cancer. More than half (55.3% indicated that they were not aware if cervical cancer can be prevented. Majority (76.7% knew that Papanicolau′s (Pap smear test is used for detection or prevention of cervical cancer. Among those who were sexually active and knew about Pap smear test 79.3% did not do the test mainly because of personal factors such as fear of the procedure, or were not ill. Conclusions: Level of awareness regarding cervical cancer and its detection method was low among these female students. The university management should focus on developing policies on health education and promotion to prevent transmission of the HPV.

  10. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Coelho, Cássia Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Sawada, Namie Okino

    2014-01-01

    Objective to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test. Method a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011. Results the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years), had low levels of education (≤7 years of study), and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years), with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001); early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047); and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029). Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer. PMID:25029050

  11. Effect of aquatine endodontic cleanser on smear layer removal in the root canals of ex vivo human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five human teeth were randomly allocated to five treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to an ISO size #40. The teeth were then processed for scanning electron microscopy, and the root canal cleanliness and removal of smear layer were examined. RESULTS: The most effective removal of smear layer occurred with Aquatine EC and NaOCl, both with a rinse of EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: Aquatine EC appears to be the first hypochlorous acid approved by the FDA to be a possible alternative to the use of NaOCl as an intracanal irrigant. Further research is needed to identify safer and more effective alternatives to the use of NaOCl irrigation in endodontics.

  12. Educational intervention on knowledge of cervical cancer and uptake of Pap smear test among market women in Niger State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Godwin Jiya; Oche, Mansur O; Ango, Jessica Timane; Kaoje, Aminu Umar; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Raji, Ismail A

    2017-12-31

    Cervical cancer is the most common female genital tract carcinoma worldwide. It is increasingly becoming the leading carcinoma seen among women in the developing world. The aim of our study was to showcase the effect of educational intervention on the knowledge of cervical cancer and subsequently the uptake of Pap smear test amongst market women in Niger state, Nigeria. The state has a rich network of markets in all the local government areas because of the fishing activities, bountiful agricultural produce yearly and its situation to the North of the national capital, Abuja. This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two groups with pre and post intervention data collection. Sample size was determined based on a previous similar study done in Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used for recruiting the study participants. SPSS statistical software was used for data entry, editing and analysis. Respondents' knowledge of cervical cancer were comparable at pre-intervention but were statistically significantly better (P<0.0001) at post-intervention in the intervention group compared to the control group for every variable measured. However, there was only a (Fisher's exact, P=0.621) compared to the control group. This study showed an increase in knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear test however the uptake of Pap smear test remained low even after intervention. This underscores the need for sustained intervention programs to eventually translate knowledge acquired to habitual practice.

  13. Factors related to failure to attend the consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Teixeira Moreira Vasconcelos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the factors related to the failure of women to attend the follow-up consultation to receive the results of the Pap smear test.METHOD: a cross-sectional study, carried out with 775 patients who underwent the Pap smear test in the Centro de Saúde da Família of Fortaleza, between September 2010 and February 2011.RESULTS: the majority of the women studied were young (≤35 years, had low levels of education (≤7 years of study, and commenced sexual activity early (≤20 years, with 17.0% of them failing to return to receive the test results. Statistically significant results for the failure to return were related to: young women (p=0.001; early onset of sexual activity (p=0.047; and inadequate knowledge about the Pap smear test (p=0.029. Conclusion the fact that the women failed to return for the result is a problem for the control of cervical cancer and must be addressed through educational strategies that reinforce the importance of the return for the early detection of this cancer.

  14. Comparison of a radiometric method (BACTEC) and conventional culture media for recovery of mycobacteria from smear-negative specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Horstmeier, C.D.; DeYoung, D.R.; Roberts, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The BACTEC system and three conventional media (Middlebrook 7H10, selective Middlebrook 7H11 [S7H11], and Lowenstein-Jensen [LJ] were compared for their mean recovery times and recovery rates of mycobacteria from acid-fast, smear-negative clinical specimens. Of the 71 smear-negative, culture-positive specimens recovered from 2,165 submitted smear-negative cultures, the BACTEC system detected 71.8%, compared with 88.7% for the conventional three-medium system. When media were individually compared, BACTEC medium (Middlebrook 7H12) was more successful in recovering mycobacteria (71.8%) than was LJ (62%), Middlebrook medium 7H10 (55.9%), or Middlebrook S7H11 medium (52.1%). Middlebrook 7H11 medium containing sodium selenate was also evaluated and did not increase the recovery rate or decrease the recovery time of mycobacterial species when compared with LJ, Middlebrook 7H10, S7H11, and 7H12 media. The mean detection time for the BACTEC system was less than that by conventional methods for the seven species of mycobacteria recovered. Detection times for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the BACTEC system and conventional cultural systems were 13.7 and 26.3 days, respectively

  15. Pre-trained convolutional neural networks as feature extractors toward improved malaria parasite detection in thin blood smear images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaramakrishnan Rajaraman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a blood disease caused by the Plasmodium parasites transmitted through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito. Microscopists commonly examine thick and thin blood smears to diagnose disease and compute parasitemia. However, their accuracy depends on smear quality and expertise in classifying and counting parasitized and uninfected cells. Such an examination could be arduous for large-scale diagnoses resulting in poor quality. State-of-the-art image-analysis based computer-aided diagnosis (CADx methods using machine learning (ML techniques, applied to microscopic images of the smears using hand-engineered features demand expertise in analyzing morphological, textural, and positional variations of the region of interest (ROI. In contrast, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN, a class of deep learning (DL models promise highly scalable and superior results with end-to-end feature extraction and classification. Automated malaria screening using DL techniques could, therefore, serve as an effective diagnostic aid. In this study, we evaluate the performance of pre-trained CNN based DL models as feature extractors toward classifying parasitized and uninfected cells to aid in improved disease screening. We experimentally determine the optimal model layers for feature extraction from the underlying data. Statistical validation of the results demonstrates the use of pre-trained CNNs as a promising tool for feature extraction for this purpose.

  16. Role of Papanicolaou Smear in the Diagnosis of Pathologic Flora in Asymptomatic Patients in Rural Health Care Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siona Sabu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The infections of female genital tract, especially the cervix are asymptomatic in presentation and pose a diagnostic challenge. Vaginal infections can lead to cytoplasmic and nuclear abnormalities in the epithelial cells. Additionally, these infections could augur an inflammatory response of varying nature. The most common flora include Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, Human Herpes Virus (HHV and Actinomyces sp. Aim: This study seeks to measure the role of Papanicolaou smear in detection of pathologic flora: Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, HPV, HHV and Actinomyces; in a rural health care set up amongst women in the reproductive and menopausal age group. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of cervical smears by Papanicolaou method, over a 14 month period was carried out in a tertiary care centre including a total number of 150 patients. Results: Of the total of 150 samples examined, Candida species was the most frequently detected (8.7% followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (5.3% and Gardnerella vaginalis species (4.7%. HPV-induced changes were noted in a mere 2% of cases. Actinomyces species was noted in less than 1% of cases. Conclusion: The Papanicolaou test for examining cervical smear has definite uses in detecting vaginal microorganisms. Apart from detection of the usual pathogenic flora, the test has utility in defining the degree of inflammation and additional reparative changes.

  17. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-02

    Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-06-14

    to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr

  20. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    Robert Griffiths has recently addressed, within the framework of a ‘consistent quantum theory’ (CQT) that he has developed, the issue of whether, as is often claimed, quantum mechanics entails a need for faster-than-light transfers of information over long distances. He argues, on the basis of his examination of certain arguments that claim to demonstrate the existence of such nonlocal influences, that such influences do not exist. However, his examination was restricted mainly to hidden-variable-based arguments that include in their premises some essentially classical-physics-type assumptions that are fundamentally incompatible with the precepts of quantum physics. One cannot logically prove properties of a system by attributing to the system properties alien to that system. Hence Griffiths’ rejection of hidden-variable-based proofs is logically warranted. Griffiths mentions the existence of a certain alternative proof that does not involve hidden variables, and that uses only macroscopically described observable properties. He notes that he had examined in his book proofs of this general kind, and concluded that they provide no evidence for nonlocal influences. But he did not examine the particular proof that he cites. An examination of that particular proof by the method specified by his ‘consistent quantum theory’ shows that the cited proof is valid within that restrictive framework. This necessary existence, within the ‘consistent’ framework, of long range essentially instantaneous influences refutes the claim made by Griffiths that his ‘consistent’ framework is superior to the orthodox quantum theory of von Neumann because it does not entail instantaneous influences. An added section responds to Griffiths’ reply, which cites a litany of ambiguities that seem to restrict, devastatingly, the scope of his CQT formalism, apparently to buttress his claim that my use of that formalism to validate the nonlocality theorem is flawed. But the